Past IBDP History Paper 2 Questions and Responses


History Exam Questions
Click HERE for Paper III Past Paper Questions and Responses
 
1998
Topic 1: Causes, practices and effects of war
  1. To what extent should Germany be held responsible for causing both the First and Second World Wars?
  2. Why was there so much civil strife and civil war in China during the first half of the twentieth century?
  3. Compare and contrast the outcome and effects of two revolutionary wars, each chosen from a different region.
  4. Explain the impact of war on two of the following: women, the arts, the media.
Topic 3: The Rise and rule of single party states
  1. To what extent is it true to say that a successful economic policy is the most important factor for a single party ruler to remain in power? Examples should be given from two countries each chosen from a different region.
  2. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of two rulers of single party states, each chosen from a different region.
  3. To what extent was Hitler a) responsible for, and b) driven by ideological beliefs of Nazism?
  4. How far would you agree that single party states have been more interested in controlling the minds of young people than in providing genuine education?
Topic 5: The Cold War
  1. Examine the conflicting aims and policies of rival powers which caused the Cold War.
  2. Assess the importance of two of the following in influencing the development of the Cold War: Marshall Aid, Warsaw Pact, arms control, détente.
  3. Examine the impact of the Cold War on two countries (excluding the superpowers), each chosen from a different region.
  4. “The build up of missiles in Cuba in 1962 was a deliberate, provocative and unjustified action.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
  5. What were the main social and cultural consequences of the Cold War?
  1. “Single party states use education as propaganda to obtain support rather than to instil (increase) knowledge.” How far do you agree with this judgement?
  2. In what ways and for what reasons did China develop its own brand of Marxism/Communism under Mao Zedong?
  3. To what extent was Spain under Franco (1939 to 1975) a Fascist state?
  4. How far is it true to say that a successful foreign policy is the most important factor for a single party ruler to remain in power? Examples should be given from two countries each chosen from a different region.
  5. “In the twentieth century right-wing single party states have often been the result of a conservative reaction to change whilst the left-wing single party states have achieved power as the outcome of a revolutionary process against tradition.” Using examples from at least two regions explain how far you agree with this quotation.
Topic 5: The Cold War
  1. “Ideological differences played only a minor role in the origin and development of the Cold War.” How far do you agree with this statement?
  2. In what ways and for what reasons did the Cold War affect the Middle East?
  3. Analyze the importance of spheres of interest for one of the superpowers in the Cold War.
  4. Assess the importance in the development of the Cold War of two of the following: the Yalta Conference; Berlin; the arms race; non-alignment; South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO).
  5. Examine the impact of the Cold War on the social life and culture of two countries each chosen from a different region.
2000
Topic 1: Causes, practices and effects of war
  1. Assess the importance of nationalism and selfish ambition as causes of twentieth century wars. Reference must be made to at least two wars.
  2. Examine critically two treaties and evaluate their success in resolving the armed conflicts which necessitated the treaties.
  3. Compare and contrast the effects for the country concerned of two of the following: the Chinese Civil War, the Nigerian Civil War, the Spanish Civil War.
  4. Assess the significance of either the Mexican Revolution (1910-1940) or the Vietnam War (1964-1975).
Topic 3: The rise and rule of single party states
  1. In what ways and for what reasons did rulers of single party states play an important role in world affairs between 1917 and 1945?
  2. Identify the main principles of Communism and assess how far these principles were put into practice by one Communist rule between 1900 and 1990.
  3. Assess the contributions of organizational and leadership qualities in maintaining power two single party rulers, each chosen from a different region.
  4. Analyze the role and status of women in two of the following: Maoist China, Nazi Germany, Peronist Argentina.
Topic 5: The Cold War
  1. “Ideological differences played little part in the origin of the Cold War.” How far do you agree with this judgement?
  2. To what extent was Germany the cause of East/West disagreements between 1943 and 1963?
  3. Define “superpower rivalry” and assess its importance in international politics since 1945.
  4. Analyze the role of either Cuba or Vietnam in the development of the Cold War.
  5. Compare and contrast the economic and social impact of the Cold War on two countries, each chosen from a different region.

2001
Topic 1: Causes, Practices and Effects of War
  1. Analyze the reasons for the outbreak of war either in Algeria in 1954, or in Korea in 1950.
  2. In what ways and for what reasons did foreign intervention play an important role in two civil war, each chosen from a different region?
  3. Evaluate the successes and failures of one twentieth century treaty in addressing the causes of conflict, and restoring peace and normality.
Topic 3: The rise and rule of single party states
  1. “Promises of improved social and economic conditions win more support for would-be single party rulers than ideological pronouncements.” How far do you agree with this claim?
  2. Compare and contrast the organization of one Communist state with one Fascist state.
  3. Analyze the methods by which either Castro or Stalin maintained his position as ruler of a single party state.
  4. Evaluate the attempts of two rulers of single party states, each chosen from a different region, to control and use the media.
Topic 5: The Cold War
  1. “The Cold War was caused by fear, not aggression.” To what extent does this view explain how the Cold War developed between 1945 and 1949?
  2. Examine the impact of the Cold War on educational developments in two countries, each chosen from a different region.
  3. Compare and contrast the aims and policies of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Warsaw Pact up to 1970.
  4. For what reasons, and with what results, up to 1963, did the United States adopt the policy known as “containment”?
2002
Topic I: Causes, Practices and Effects of War
  1. To what extent has any twentieth century war changed the role of women?
  2. How far do you agree with the view of some recent historians that Chamberlain’s appeasement of Hitler at Munich was NOT a mistake?
  3. “The First and Second World Wars were European civil wars that required outside intervention to settle.” How far do you agree with this quotation?
  4. In what ways did Truman’s policy of “limited warfare” in Korea set the pattern of military conflict up to 1990?
Topic 3: The Rise and the rule of Single Party States
  1. Analyse the conditions which led to the establishment of two single party states each chosen from a different region.
  2. How and why have religious groups a) opposed, and b) supported single party regimes?
  3. Assess the success and failure of two rulers of single party regimes, each chosen from a different region, in solving the social and economic problems of their countries.
  4. To what extent was the success of Stalin in retaining power in the USSR between 1929 and 1953 due to the appeal of Communism?
  5. Examine the impact outside their own countries of two of the following: Fidel Castro, Gamel Abdel Nasser, Julius Nyerere, Mao Zedong.
Topic 5: The Cold War
  1. Assess the significance for the development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1950 of three of the following:
    1. The Yalta Conference, 1945
    2. The Iron Curtain speech, 1946
    3. The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, 1947
    4. The expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Soviet block, 1948
    5. The Berlin Blockade and Airlift, 1948-1949
    6. The formation of NATO, 1949.
  1. “A different kind of Cold War.” To what extent is this a valid statement about the Cold War after 1953?
  2. Explain how East/West relations a) affected and b) how the were affected by one of the following areas: the Middle East, Latin America, Asia, Africa.
  3. Using specific examples, evaluate the successes and/or failures of “Détente”.
2003 Test: Paper II
Topic 1: Causes, practices and effects of war
  1. What were the most frequent causes of twentieth century wars? Specific evidence from at least three wars should be used.
  2. In what ways, and to what extent, was the Second World War “total war”?
  3. How and why did technological developments play an important part in twentieth century wars?
  4. Analyze the causes and the results of one of the following: Chinese Civil War (1945-1949); Mexican Revolution (1910-1940); Spanish Civil War (1936-1939).
Topic 3: The rise and rule of single party states
  1. “In order to achieve and retain power a leader of a single-party state needed to be ruthless, blind to human suffering, and yet charismatic.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
  2. Account for the rise to power of one of the following: Castro; Mussolini; Nasser.
  3. Compare and contrast the economic and social policies of Mao and Stalin.
  4. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the aims and policies of two or more right wing rulers of single party states differ?
  5. Examine the role of education and/or the arts in two single party states, each chosen from a different region.
Topic 5: The Cold War
  1. How, and to what extent, did the conferences at Yalta and Potsdam (1945) contributed to the origin of the Cold War?
  2. “Although it began in Europe the spread of the Cold War to other regions was a much more dangerous development.” To what extent do you agree with this judgment?
  3. How and why did the policies of either the USA or the USSR affect superpower rivalry between 1950 and 1970?
  4. In what ways were gender and social issues affected by the Cold War?
  5. Assess the importance of détente and internal opposition to Communist rule in Communist countries, in ending the Cold War.
2004 Test: Paper II
Topic 1: Causes, practices and effects of war
  1. In what ways did the causes of the Second World War differ from the causes of the First World War?
  2. Evaluate the importance of naval warfare in twentieth century wars. Specific examples must be given from at least two wars.
  3. Why were there so many Arab-Israeli wars between 1948 and 1978?
  4. Analyze the results of two wars, each chosen from a different region.
  5. Assess the social and economic effects of one war on two of the countries involved, in the ten years following the end of the war.
Topic 3: The rise and rule of single party states
  1. Analyze the methods used by one single party state ruler in his successful bid for power.
  2. Evaluate the importance of ideology in the policies of two of the following rulers of single party states: Castro; Hitler; Lenin; Nyerere.
  3. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of two rulers of single party states, each chosen from a different region.
  4. In what ways, and to what extent, did either Nasser or Peron improve social and economic conditions?
  5. Examine the global impact of one ruler of a single party state.
Topic 5: The Cold War
  1. To what extent did events in the final year of the Second World War turn wartime allies into Cold War enemies?
  2. Compare and contrast the policies of the USA and the USSR towards Korea between 1945 and 1955.
  3. Assess the impact of the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan on the development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1961.
  4. In what ways, and to what extent, did the Cold War become less confrontational after 1970?
  5. Assess the importance of social and economic issues in causing opposition to communist regimes.
May 2005 Test: Paper II

Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of war1. Analyse the results of either the First World War or the Second World War.
2. Examine the impact of foreign intervention on either the Chinese Civil War or the Spanish Civil War.
3. Assess the social and economic causes of one twentieth century war.
4. Compare and contrast the use of naval warfare in two wars, each chosen from a different region.
5. For what reasons, and with what results, was 'limited' warfare a feature of the second half of the twentieth century?
Topic 2 Nationalist and independence movements, decolonization and challenges facing new states
6. To what extent was the colonial legacy the main problem in two non-European new states, each chosen from a different region?
7. Assess the causes of the rise of nationalism in one non-European new state.
8. Compare and contrast the independence movements in two developing states, one in Africa and the other in Asia.
9. For what reasons, and with what results, was either India or Kenya successful in obtaining independence?
10. Examine gender issues before and after independence in either Algeria or Pakistan.
Topic 3 The rise and rule of single-party states 

11. Analyse the methods used and the conditions which helped in the rise to power of one ruler of a single-party state.
12. Evaluate the successes and failures of one ruler of a single-party state.

13. Assess the methods used by either Lenin or Peron to maintain his regime.
14. Compare and contrast the influence outside their own countries of Hitler and Mao.
15. Examine the status of women in two single-party states, each chosen from a different region.
Topic 4 Peace and cooperation: international organizations and multiparty states
16. Why, in spite of early successes, did the League of Nations fail to prevent the outbreak of the Second World War?
17. In what ways, and with what success, did one twentieth century international organisation try to improve social and economic conditions?
18. To what extent did Nehru's government in India (1947-64) fulfil its expectations?
19. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of two multiparty states.
20. "The ideal form of government for the twentieth century was a multiparty state." To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
Topic 5 The Cold War

21. Assess the part played by differing ideologies in the origin of the Cold War.

22. In what ways, and with what results, was Germany the key focus of the early stages of the Cold War? 
23. Analyse the part played by Cuba in the development of the Cold War.
24. Evaluate the role of one superpower in the Cold War after 1970.
25. To what extent did economic problems in the Communist bloc bring about the end of the Cold War?
Topic 6 The state and its relationship with religion and with minorities
26. Compare and contrast the difficulties faced by two minorities (ethnic, racial or religious), each chosen from a different region.
27. Evaluate the impact of the state religion on law and morality in two countries.
28. Assess the relationship between an ethnic or racial minority with the ethnic or racial majority in that state.
29. For what reasons, and with what results, did religious majorities fear religious minorities in the twentieth century?
30. How did education both help and hinder the integration of minorities?


May 2006 PAPER 2
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of war
1. Compare and contrast the results of the First World War and the Second World War.
2. To what extent did technological developments ensure victory in twentieth century wars?
3. “No twentieth century war could be called a limited war.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
5. Assess the social results of two wars, each chosen from a different region.
Topic 2 Nationalist and independence movements, decolonisation and challenges facing new states
6. Analyse the factors favouring the growth of independence movements in one non-European colonial state.
7. For what reasons, and with what results, was either Ghana or India successful in obtaining independence?
8. Assess the economic problems facing one new non-European state in the ten years after independence.
9. Compare and contrast tribal influence in two African states after they had achieved independence. 10. Analyse the form of government after independence in either Algeria or Indonesia.
Topic 3 The rise and rule of single-party states
11. To what extent was the rise to power of either Hitler or Mao due to personal appeal and ability?
12. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of two rulers of single-party states, each chosen from a different region.
13. Assess the methods used by either Nasser or Perón to remain in power.
14. In what ways, and with what results, was propaganda used by one ruler of a single-party state?
15. Assess the importance of ideology for rulers of twentieth century single-party states.
Topic 4 Peace and cooperation: international organisations and multiparty states
16. “Peace and cooperation was an ideal that proved impossible to achieve through international
organisations in the twentieth century.” To what extent do you agree with this judgement?
17. Compare and contrast the peace keeping aims and methods of the League of Nations and the United Nations.
18. Evaluate the success of one multiparty state in improving the status of women.
19. Analyse the foreign policy of two multiparty states, each chosen from a different region.
20. Assess the successes and failures of governments in either Japan (1945-52) or the USA (1933-45). Topic 5 The Cold War
24. Analyse the importance of détente in ending the Cold War.
25. Examine the part played by economic issues in the development of the Cold War.
Topic 6 The state and its relationship with religion and with minorities
26. Assess the impact on politics of relations between church and state in two countries, each chosen
from a different region.
27. Compare and contrast the efforts of two ethnic/racial minorities, each chosen from a different region, to obtain equality and self determination.
28. Assess the effects of the persecution of religious minorities during the twentieth century.
29. For what reasons, and in what ways, did integration affect the role and status of women belonging to ethnic/racial minorities?
30. “The treatment of minorities improved in the second half of the twentieth century.” To what extent do you agree with this judgement?

May 2008: Paper II TZ1
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of war
1. Compare and contrast the causes of the First World War and the Second World War.
2. To what extent did changes in military tactics and strategies determine the outcome of twentieth century wars?
3. “Even in the twentieth century the term ‘total war’ could not be applied to any war.” To what extent do you agree with this judgement?
4. Analyse the results of either the Mexican Revolution or the Russian Civil War.
5. In what ways and with what results did two wars, each chosen from a different region, affect the role and status of women?

Topic 3 The rise and rule of single-party states
11. Compare and contrast the rise to power of two rulers of single-party states, each chosen from a different region.
12. To what extent was either Mussolini, between 1922 and 1945, or Nasser, between 1954 and 1970, successful in achieving his aims?
13. In what ways did one ruler of a single-party state try to use education to support his regime?
15. Assess the importance of foreign policy for rulers of single-party states. 
Topic 4 Peace and cooperation: international organizations and multiparty states
17. Compare and contrast the foundation and structure of the League of Nations and the United Nations.
18. “A twentieth century multiparty state was government by the people for the people.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
19. Analyse the social and economic policies of two multiparty states, each chosen from a different region.
20. Assess the successes and failures of either F D Roosevelt’s government of the USA (1933–45) or South Africa’s transition from apartheid to a non-racial democracy under Nelson Mandela (1985–95).
Topic 5 The Cold War
24. Explain the meaning of two of the following and show how each affected the development of the Cold War: containment; brinkmanship; non-alignment; détente.
25. When and why did the Cold War end?

May 2008: Paper II TZ2
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of war
1. Compare and contrast the causes of the Korean War and the Vietnam War.
2. Examine the role of warfare either at sea or in the air in two wars each chosen from a different region.
3. Why, and with what results, was the First World War not confined to Europe?
4. Analyse the results of one twentieth century treaty or peace settlement.
5. For what reasons, and in what ways, did one twentieth century war affect the social and economic conditions of two countries fighting in it?
Topic 3 The rise and rule of single-party states
13. With reference to at least two rulers, assess the importance of social and economic policies for rulers of single-party states.
14. In what ways, and with what results, did either Castro or Mussolini use foreign policy to support his regime?
15. To what extent was the ruler of one single-party state successful in achieving his aims? 
Topic 4 Peace and cooperation: international organizations and multiparty states
16. How successful were international organizations in achieving peace in the second half of the twentieth century?
17. Compare and contrast the social and economic policies of the League of Nations and the United Nations.
18. “Democratic government can only be achieved in a multiparty state.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
19. Discuss the domestic and foreign policies of the government of either the USA (1933 to 1945), or Spain (1975 to 1990).
20. Assess the successes and failures of the foreign policies of two multiparty states each chosen from a different region.

May 2009: Paper II
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of war
1. Compare and contrast the causes of two twentieth century civil wars.
2. Define guerilla warfare, and discuss its significance in two wars, each chosen from a different region.
3. Analyse (a) the short-term results, and (b) the long-term results up to 1935, of the First World War.
4. In what ways, and with what results, did either the Korean War or the Vietnam War bring about social and cultural changes in the countries involved?
5. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the nature of war in the air change between 1939 and 1990?
Topic 3 The rise and rule of single-party states
11. Analyse the methods used by either Castro or Peron to obtain power.
12. “The aims and policies of single-party state rulers rarely followed their declared ideology.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
13. Evaluate the domestic policies of either Hitler or Nasser.
14. For what reasons, and with what success, did rulers of single-party states use foreign policy to maintain their power? At least two rulers should be considered.
15. In what ways did two rulers of single-party states, each chosen from a different region, (a) use, and (b) misuse, the arts and education?
Topic 4 Peace and cooperation: international organizations and multiparty states
16. (a) Explain the aims of one international organization.
(b) To what extent were these aims implemented [carried out] in the ten years after the organization’s foundation?
17. Analyse the successes and failures of the United Nation’s peacekeeping activities up to 1973. 
18. “In spite of occasional failures, the democratic multiparty state was the most successful form of government in the twentieth century.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
19. Compare and contrast the role and status of women in two multiparty states in the second half of the twentieth century.
20. Account for the foundation of a multiparty state in either Spain in 1975, or South Africa in 1994, and evaluate the success of your chosen state.
Topic 5 The Cold War
(d) détente.
23. Examine the role and importance of fear and suspicion in the development of the Cold War between 1953 and 1975.
24. In what ways were social and gender issues affected by the Cold War in two countries, each chosen from a different region?
25. Why did the Cold War spread from Europe to other parts of the world after 1950?

May 2009 TZ2/XX
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of war
1. Analyse (a) the long-term causes and (b) the short-term causes, of the Second World War.
2. Define limited war and explain to what extent one twentieth century war was a limited war.
3. Compare and contrast the social and economic issues caused by two wars, each chosen from a different region.
5. For what reasons, and with what results, did the nature of war at sea change between 1939
and 1990?
Topic 3 The rise and rule of single-party states
12. Evaluate the methods used by either Lenin between 1918 and 1924 or Mussolini between 1922 and 1939 to consolidate his rule.
13. To what extent was foreign policy (a) the key to success, or (b) the reason for failure, for the rulers of two single-party states, each chosen from a different region?
14. Analyse the successes and failures in solving the problems faced by either Castro or Nasser. 
15. For what reasons, and with what results, did rulers of single-party states both support and censor the arts?
Topic 4 Peace and cooperation: international organizations and multiparty states
16. Analyse the successes and failures of the League of Nations between 1920 and 1930.
17. (a) Explain why one international organization was founded. (b) To what extent was its structure and organization appropriate for implementing [carrying out] its aims?
18. Compare and contrast the social and economic policies of two multiparty states in the second half of the twentieth century.
19. To what extent did either Argentina between 1983 and 1995, or Japan between 1945 and 1952, benefit from being a multiparty state?
20. “The concept of democracy was the ideal basis for a twentieth century multiparty state.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
Topic 5 The Cold War
21. What were the reasons for, and results of, the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan?
22. Define, and analyse the importance of, two of the following: (a) containment (b) COMECON
(c) détente (d) east European satellite states.
23. Assess the social and economic impact of the Cold War on two countries, each chosen from a different region.
24. Analyse the role of mutual distrust in the development of the Cold War between 1953 and 1975.
25. Why did the Cold War begin and end in Europe?

HISTORY ROUTE 2 PAPER 2 ZONE 2
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars
1. Analyse the principal causes of either the Algerian War (1954–1962) or the Spanish Civil War
(1936–1939).
2. Assess the importance of air power in determining the outcome of one twentieth century war.
3. “Guerilla warfare was an important factor in achieving success in twentieth century wars.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
4. Examine the reasons for, and the results of, the Indo-Pakistan wars (1947–1971).
5. Analyse the reasons for the defeat of Germany in either the First World War or the Second World War.
6. In what ways, and with what results, did twentieth century wars increase the role and status of women?

Topic 2 Democratic states – challenges and responses
7. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for democratic states of (a) coalition governments, and
(b) proportional representation.
8. In 1963 de Gaulle said: “For all of us Frenchmen, the guiding rule of our time is to be faithful to France”. To what extent did his policies follow this rule?
9. Compare and contrast the policies of two of the following: Kennedy; Nehru; Mandela.
10. Why was the Weimar state set up as a democratic state in Germany, and why did it fail to fulfil its promise and purpose?
11. Analyse the successes and failures of one democratic state in the second half of the twentieth century.
12. In what ways, and to what extent, were social issues such as health care, education and religion important for democratic governments?

Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
13. Analyse the circumstances that helped one right-wing leader to become the ruler of a single-party state.
14. Discuss (a) the support for, and (b) the ideology of, one left-wing ruler of a single-party state.
15. Examine the role of the media in one single-party or authoritarian state.
16. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of two of the following: Nyerere; Perón; Stalin.
17. In 1924 Hitler wrote: “The masses of the population are more affected by rhetoric than by any other force. All great movements are popular movements”. To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
18. Examine the methods used by either Nasser or Castro to maintain power.

Topic 4 Nationalist and independence movements in Africa and Asia and post-1945 Central and
Eastern European states
19. What were the main areas of criticism of colonial rule in either French or Portuguese colonies?
20. “Non-violent movements to achieve independence rarely succeeded.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
21. Analyse the successes and failures of either Jinnah or Walesa.
22. To what extent did social and economic issues play an important part in one independence movement in either one colonial state or one Soviet satellite state?
23. Compare and contrast the independence movements in two of the following: Algeria; Ghana; India/Pakistan.
24. For what reasons, and with what results, was either Czechoslovakia or Hungary able to achieve independence?

Topic 5 The Cold War
25. To what extent were the policies of the United States responsible for the outbreak and development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1949?
26. Compare and contrast the significance of leaders in two Cold War conflicts, each chosen from a different region, between 1950 and 1963.
27. Analyse the impact of the Cold War on the Middle East between 1956 and 1973.
28. Assess the achievements and limitations of détente between 1969 and 1979.
29. “The Cold War came to an end due to the hard-line approach of Ronald Reagan’s policies in the early 1980s.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
30. Discuss the economic impact of the Cold War in two countries, each chosen from a different region.


May 2010 
 Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars
1. Discuss the part played in the outbreak of the First World War by two states (excluding Germany).
2. Analyse the reasons for, and the results of, either the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) or the Chinese Civil War (1946–1949).
3. Assess the significance of naval warfare in determining the outcome of one twentieth century war.
4. “Many twentieth century wars had the characteristics of both a limited and a total war.” With reference to two wars explain to what extent you agree with this statement.
5. For what reasons, and with what results, did Iran and Iraq fight a war from 1980 to 1988?
6. For what reasons, and with what results, did twentieth century wars influence the status of women?

Topic 2 Democratic states – challenges and responses
7. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for democratic states of (a) a written constitution, and (b) an unwritten constitution.
8. In 1963 John Kennedy said: “We are concerned with a moral issue, whether all Americans are to be given equal rights and equal opportunities”. To what extent did John Kennedy solve this moral issue?
9. Compare and contrast the social and economic policies of two of the following: Nehru; Trudeau; Johnson.
10. In what ways, and to what extent, was Argentina a democratic state between 1983 and 1995?
11. Analyse two of the following in one democratic state in the second half of the twentieth century:
civil rights; gender issues; political extremism.
12. What were the main features of the Weimar constitution, and to what extent was it democratic?

Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
13. Analyse the conditions that enabled one left-wing leader to become the ruler of a single-party state.
14. Discuss (a) the ideology of, and (b) the support for, one right-wing ruler of a single-party state.
15. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of two of the following: Castro; Kenyatta; Stalin.
16. Evaluate the methods used by either Perón or Nasser to maintain power.
17. Examine the role of education in one single-party or authoritarian state.
18. In what ways, and to what extent, was propaganda important in the rise and rule of Hitler?

Topic 5 The Cold War
25. Evaluate the role of the policies of the United States in the origins of the Cold War between 1945 and 1949.
26. Compare and contrast the role of two leaders, each chosen from a different region, in the development of the Cold War between 1953 and 1964.
27. Why did détente develop between 1969 and 1979?
28. Analyse the impact of Afghanistan (1979–1988) on the development of the Cold War.
29. “The Cold War came to an end primarily because of Gorbachev’s changes in Soviet policies.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
30. Evaluate the impact of the Cold War on the culture of two countries, each chosen from a different region.

May 2010
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars
 

1. Analyse the principal causes of either the Algerian War (1954–1962) or the Spanish Civil War
(1936–1939).
2. Assess the importance of air power in determining the outcome of one twentieth century war.
3. “Guerilla warfare was an important factor in achieving success in twentieth century wars.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
4. Examine the reasons for, and the results of, the Indo-Pakistan wars (1947–1971).
5. Analyse the reasons for the defeat of Germany in either the First World War or the Second World War.
6. In what ways, and with what results, did twentieth century wars increase the role and status of women?
Topic 2 Democratic states – challenges and responses

 7. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for democratic states of (a) coalition governments, and (b) proportional representation.
8. In 1963 de Gaulle said: “For all of us Frenchmen, the guiding rule of our time is to be faithful to France”. To what extent did his policies follow this rule?
9. Compare and contrast the policies of two of the following: Kennedy; Nehru; Mandela.
10. Why was the Weimar state set up as a democratic state in Germany, and why did it fail to fulfil its promise and purpose?
11. Analyse the successes and failures of one democratic state in the second half of the twentieth century.
12. In what ways, and to what extent, were social issues such as health care, education and religion important for democratic governments?
Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
13. Analyse the circumstances that helped one right-wing leader to become the ruler of a single-party state.
14. Discuss (a) the support for, and (b) the ideology of, one left-wing ruler of a single-party state.
15. Examine the role of the media in one single-party or authoritarian state.
16. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of two of the following: Nyerere; Perón; Stalin.
17. In 1924 Hitler wrote: “The masses of the population are more affected by rhetoric than by any other force. All great movements are popular movements”. To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
18. Examine the methods used by either Nasser or Castro to maintain power.
Topic 5 The Cold War

 25. To what extent were the policies of the United States responsible for the outbreak and development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1949?
26. Compare and contrast the significance of leaders in two Cold War conflicts, each chosen from a different region, between 1950 and 1963.
27. Analyse the impact of the Cold War on the Middle East between 1956 and 1973.
28. Assess the achievements and limitations of détente between 1969 and 1979.
29. “The Cold War came to an end due to the hard-line approach of Ronald Reagan’s policies in the early 1980s.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?


May 2011 PAPER 2


Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars
6. Why do economic problems occur in post-war periods?

Topic 2 Democratic states – challenges and responses
7. Assess the advantages and disadvantages of political parties in a democratic state.
8. Analyse the successes and failures in social and economic policies of either Eisenhower or Johnson as president of the United States.
9. Explain why economic problems may pose the greatest challenge to democratic states. 10. Analyse the extent to which Nehru was successful in overcoming the challenges he faced in governing India from 1947 to 1964.
11. Why did the attempt to establish democracy in Nigeria (1961–1966) fail?
12. “A written constitution is an essential element in a democratic state.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?

Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states

Topic 4 Nationalist and independence movements in Africa and Asia and post-1945 Central and Eastern European states
19. Analyse the impact of the Second World War (1939–1945) on independence movements in Africa and Asia.
20. Discuss the effects of the dissolution of Yugoslavia on its successor states.
21. Analyse the importance of either Ho Chi Minh (Vietnam) or Ben Bella (Algeria) in the struggle for independence in their respective countries.
22. Compare and contrast the challenges faced by two post-colonial governments in Asia and/or Africa.
23. Why was the independence process peaceful in Ghana but violent in Zimbabwe?
24. Assess the importance of the role of Walesa (Poland) or Havel (Czechoslovakia) in the movement to resist Soviet control.

Topic 5 The Cold War
26. Compare and contrast the reactions to peaceful coexistence during the 1950s and 1960s in any two countries.
27. “Brinkmanship was an effective deterrent to escalation.” With reference to two examples, assess the validity of this statement
29. How did events in Eastern Europe contribute to the end of the Cold War?
30. With reference to one country, assess the social impact of the Cold War.


November 2011 PAPER 2

Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars

  1. With reference to one war before 1945 and one war after 1945, assess the significance of either air power or naval power in deciding its outcome.
  2. “The contribution of outside intervention to victory in twentieth century civil wars was greatlyexaggerated.” With reference to two civil wars, each chosen from a different region, to what extentdo you agree with this statement?
  3. Analyse (a) the causes and (b) the short-term results of either the Algerian War (1954–1962) or the Gulf War (1991).
  4. Compare and contrast the social and economic results of two wars fought in the second half of the twentieth century.
  5. To what extent did the peace settlements after the First World War (a) deal with the issues which caused the war and (b) produce new problems, hindering future peace?
  6. Assess the importance of religious and economic factors in the origins of either the Spanish CivilWar (1936–1939) or the Indo-Pakistan wars (1947–1949, 1965, 1971).
Topic 2 Democratic states – challenges and responses
  1. “Weaknesses in the constitution and the failure of political parties to support democracy caused the failure of the multiparty state in Weimar Germany (1919–1933).” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
  2. In what ways, and with what success, did one democratic (multiparty) state deal with issues of either gender inequality or the inequitable distribution of wealth?
  3. To what extent were the problems faced by Nigeria between 1961 and 1966 successfully resolved?
  4. Analyse the methods used to attain civil rights in two democratic (multiparty) states, each chosen from a different region.
  5. Evaluate the domestic, social and economic policies of two of the following leaders of the United States between 1953 and 1969: Eisenhower; Kennedy; Johnson.
  6. Compare and contrast either social welfare systems or education systems in two democratic (multiparty) states.
Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
  1. In what ways, and with what success, did either Sukarno or Nasser deal with domestic challenges after gaining power?
  2. In what ways, and with what success, did one authoritarian or single-party ruler deal with internal opposition?
  3. To what extent was the maintenance of power by either Mao or Castro a result of successful economic policies?
  4. “The rise to power of authoritarian or single-party leaders depended upon the use of force rather than popular support.” With reference to two leaders, each chosen from a different region, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
  5. Compare and contrast the status and treatment of women or minorities in two authoritarian or single-party states, each
  6. Assess the role of each of the following in the rise to power of Stalin and Hitler: ideological appeal;underestimation by opponents; propaganda chosen from a different region.
Topic 4 Nationalist and independence movements in Africa and Asia and post-1945 Central and Eastern European states
  1. For what reasons, and with what results, was Soviet influence challenged in two countries in Central or Eastern Europe between 1945 and 1970?
  2. “Walesa’s leadership was the most important factor in the achievement of Poland’s independence from Soviet control.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
  3. In what ways, and with what success, did one Central or Eastern European state deal with social and economic problems after independence from Soviet control or the removal of centralized control?
  4. “Charismatic leadership was essential to the growth of independence movements in African and Asian colonial states.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
  5. Compare and contrast the methods used to achieve independence in the Gold Coast (Ghana) and the Belgian Congo (Zaire).
  6. To what extent were economic issues the most important challenge facing two post-colonial governments in Africa or Asia?
Topic 5 The Cold War
  1. “The Potsdam Conference marked the end of the wartime alliance and laid the foundations for post-war hostility.” With reference to the period up to 1949, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
  2. With reference to two countries, each chosen from a different region (excluding the US or the USSR), assess the social and economic impact of the Cold War.
  3. In what ways, and with what success, did the US and the USSR attempt to reduce Cold War tensions between 1956 and 1979?
  4. For what reasons, and with what results, did the Cold War affect the Middle East between 1956 and 1979?
  5. Compare and contrast the impact of two of the following leaders on the Cold War: Mao; Castro; Kennedy.
  6. To what extent did (a) ideological and (b) economic factors contribute to the ending of the Cold War?

 May 2012 PAPER 2TZ1
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars
  1.   “The success of guerrilla movements depends on the leader’s ability to maintain discipline and the support of their followers.” With reference to two guerrilla wars, assess the validity of this statement.
  1. Analyse the social and economic effects of one war that occurred in the first half of the twentieth century. 
  2. Assess the reasons for either the Indo-Pakistan War (1947–1949) or the Gulf War (1991).
  3. For what reasons, and with what results, did foreign intervention occur in either the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) or the Nigerian Civil War (1967–1970)?
  4. “Technology is a key factor in winning wars.” With reference to two wars that took place in the second half of the twentieth century, explain to what extent you agree with this statement.
  5. Assess the importance of each of the following as causes of either the First World War or the Second World War: treaties; economic factors; ideology.
Topic 2 Democratic states – challenges and responses
  1. With reference to one democratic state (excluding Weimar Germany), analyse (a) the challenges itfaced and (b) how successfully these challenges were overcome.
  2. “Full democracy undermined the state.” To what extent do you agree with this statement with reference to Germany (1919–1933)?
  3. Analyse to what extent pressure (lobby/interest) groups may both strengthen and weaken a democratic state.
  4. Assess how effectively the governments of either Canada (1968–1984) or Argentina (1983–1995) dealt with political and economic challenges.
  5. With reference to two democratic states, analyse the causes of political extremism and how successful the states were in dealing with it.
  6. Analyse how democracy was established in either South Africa after 1991 or Japan after 1945.
Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
  1. With reference to the leaders of two single-party states, each chosen from a different region, analyse to what extent internal conflict and weak governments contributed to their rise to power.
  2. Analyse the ways in which either Stalin or Nasser came to power.
  3. Assess the importance of the use of force for the establishment of totalitarian control.
  4. Assess the importance of the cult of personality in the maintenance of power of one of the following: Mao; Castro; Perón.
  5. Compare and contrast the treatment of religious groups in two single-party states, each chosen from a different region.
  6. Assess the success of either Hitler or Nyerere in implementing their social and economic policies.
Topic 4 Nationalist and independence movements in Africa and Asia and post-1945 Central and
Eastern European states
  1. Analyse the reasons for the growth of independence movements in one European colonial empire.
  2. “Pakistan owes its independence to the work of Jinnah.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
  3. Assess the factors which enabled one Eastern European state to gain independence from Soviet control.
  4. Analyse the importance of either Ho Chi Minh (Vietnam) or Nkrumah (Ghana) to the success of the independence movements in their respective countries.
  5. Why did post-colonial governments in Asia and Africa experience instability after gaining their independence?
  6. For what reasons, and with what results, did Yugoslavia dissolve?
Topic 5 The Cold War
  1. “Conflicting views about the treatment of Germany were a major cause of the Cold War.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
  2. By what methods, and with what results, did the USSR impose control on Eastern Europe between 1945 and 1956?
  3. Analyse the reasons for, and the impact of, changes in US–Chinese relations in the 1970s.
  4. Assess the impact of the Cold War on the economies of two countries, each chosen from a different region.
  5. Analyse the impact of either Gorbachev or Reagan on the course of the Cold War in the 1980s.
  6. Assess the impact of the Cold War on two non-aligned states, each chosen from a different region.
 May 2013 PAPER 2 TZ1

Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars
1. Assess the role of each of the following in causing the First World War (1914–1918): the desire for revenge; economic motives; Balkan nationalism.
2. “The length and outcome of the civil war was dependent upon outside involvement.” With reference to two twentieth century civil wars, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
3. With reference to the period 1919–1939, analyse the factors which hindered the maintenance of international peace.
4. Analyse the reasons for, and results of, either the Indo-Pakistan wars (1947–1971) or the Iran–Iraq war (1980–1988).
5. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the role and status of women change as a result of twentieth century total war?
6. Account for the use of guerrilla warfare in the Chinese Civil War (1927–1949) and estimate its contribution to Communist victory.

Topic 2 Democratic states – challenges and responses
7. To what extent did one democratic state, in the first half of the twentieth century, cope with the economic challenges it faced?
8. In what ways, and with what success, did de Gaulle deal with the challenges faced by France (1958–1969)?
9. Analyse the reasons for, and results of, the failure of democratic government in Nigeria (1961–1966).
10. With reference to one democratic state in the twentieth century, examine the reasons for, and success of, movements for the attainment of civil rights.
11. “Internal political extremism was the main challenge to democracy in the twentieth century.” With reference to one democratic state, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
12. Identify the social and economic problems facing South Africa (1991–2000) and evaluate the policies adopted to deal with them.


Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
13. To what extent did two single-party rulers, each chosen from a different region, fulfil the promises made during their rise to power?
14. By what methods, and with what success, did one single-party leader try to eliminate domestic opposition?
15. Compare and contrast the social and economic policies of Perón and Castro.
16. Assess the importance of each of the following in the rise to power of Stalin: errors made by rivals; the use of propaganda; popular support.
17. With reference to either Hitler or Mao, examine the reasons for, and results of, educational policies in the single-party state.
18. Analyse the impact of single-party rule upon minorities in two single-party states, each chosen from a different region.

Topic 4 Nationalist and independence movements in Africa and Asia and post-1945 Central and Eastern European states
19. “Political and economic instability in the decade after independence was the colonial legacy.” With reference to two post-colonial states, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
20. Compare and contrast the methods used to attain independence in Ghana and Algeria.
21. For what reasons, and with what results, were there challenges to Soviet control in Eastern Europe up to 1968?
22. With reference to one post-colonial state which gained independence after 1945 in either Africa or
Asia, examine how the Cold War helped and hindered its development.
23. To what extent was the dissolution of Yugoslavia the result of the rise of long suppressed ethnic and separatist movements?
24. With reference to one ex-colonial African or Asian state or one Central and Eastern European state before independence, assess the contribution of social and economic issues to the growth of nationalism.

Topic 5 The Cold War
25. “Post-war enmity was the product of longer term ideological differences.” To what extent do you agree with this statement on the origins of the Cold War up to 1949?
26. For what reasons, and with what success, did the United States adopt a policy of containment between 1947 and 1962?
27. Account for the change in Sino–Soviet relations after the death of Stalin in 1953.
28. Assess the contribution of one of the following to the development of Cold War tensions: Truman;
Mao; Castro.
29. Analyse the reasons for, and results of, Soviet involvement in the war in Afghanistan (1979–1988).
30. With reference to two states, each chosen from a different region, examine the cultural impact of the Cold War.


May 2013 PAPER 2 TZ2

Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars
1. Assess the role of each of the following in causing the Second World War (1939–1945): the Peace Settlement after the First World War; the economic crisis of 1929 onwards; ideological extremism.
2. With reference to two twentieth century civil wars, to what extent do you agree with the claim that victory was decided by the nature and extent of foreign intervention?
3. Compare and contrast the factors that helped and hindered attempts at collective security in the ten years after each world war.
4. Analyse the reasons for, and results of, either the Algerian War (1954–1962) or the Gulf War (1991).
5. Examine the extent to which the role and status of women was affected by their involvement in total war in the twentieth century.
6. “The contribution of guerrilla warfare to victory in the Chinese Civil War (1927–1937 and 1946–1949) was greatly exaggerated.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
Topic 2 Democratic states – challenges and responses
 

7. “The greatest threat to democratic government came from internal rather than external sources.” With reference to one democratic state in the first half of the twentieth century, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
8. In what ways, and with what success, did Alfonsin and Menem deal with the challenges faced by Argentina (1983–1995)?
9. Identify the social and economic problems faced by Nehru (1947–1964) and evaluate the policies adopted to deal with them.
10. Analyse the methods used by, and the success of, movements for the attainment of civil rights in one twentieth century democratic state.
11. How successfully did one twentieth century democratic state attempt to deal with the issues of inequitable distribution of wealth and gender inequality?
12. With reference to Canada, analyse the successes and failures of the democratic leadership in dealing with problems that faced the state between 1968 and 1984.
Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
13. “Ideological appeal was less important than social and economic distress in the rise to power of single-party leaders.” With reference to two single-party leaders, each chosen from a different region, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
14. With reference to one totalitarian state, analyse the nature and extent of domestic opposition and the methods used to deal with such opposition.
15. Compare and contrast the economic and social policies of two of the following: Nasser; Castro; Nyerere.
16. Assess the importance of each of the following in the rise to power of Stalin: errors made by rivals; the use of propaganda; popular support.
17. In what ways, and with what results, was the status of women affected by the policies of either Hitler or Mao?
18. Analyse the impact of single-party rule upon the arts in two single-party states, each chosen from a different region.
Topic 4 Nationalist and independence movements in Africa and Asia and post-1945 Central and Eastern European states 

19. “The haste with which decolonization took place was the result of the weakness of the colonizing power rather than the strength of colonial nationalism.” With reference to two ex-colonial states, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
20. Compare and contrast the methods used to attain independence in India (including Pakistan) in 1947 and Indochina in 1954.
21. For what reasons, and with what results, did challenges to Soviet control in Eastern Europe occur from 1968 to 1989?
22. With reference to one post-colonial state, assess the economic and political challenges it faced in the decade after independence.
23. Analyse the reasons for, and results of, the dissolution of Yugoslavia.
24. With reference to one ex-colonial African or Asian state or one Central and Eastern European state before independence, assess the contribution of social and economic issues to the growth of nationalism.
Topic 5 The Cold War 

25. “Mutual fears and the search for security were the reasons for the breakdown of East–West relations between 1945 and 1949.” With specific reference to developments in this period, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
26. Analyse the reasons for, and results of, the adoption and expansion of the doctrine of containment up to 1962.
27. For what reasons, and with what results, did Sino–Soviet relations deteriorate after 1953?
28. Assess the contribution of one of the following to the development of Cold War tensions: Mao; Kennedy; Reagan.
29. Analyse the role of the war in Afghanistan (1979–1988) in hastening the decline of the Soviet Union.
30. With reference to two states, each chosen from a different region (excluding the United States and the USSR), examine the economic impact of the Cold War.



November 2013 PAPER 2  
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars
1. Analyse the economic and political causes of two civil wars, each chosen from a different region.
2. “The role of alliances in the origin and expansion of the war in 1914 was greatly exaggerated.” With reference to the First World War, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
3. Why, and with what consequences, was there so little opposition to aggressive expansionism in the period 1931–1939?
4. Assess the contribution of guerrilla warfare to the outcome of either the Chinese Civil War (1927–1937 and 1946–1949) or the Algerian War (1954–1962).
5. With reference to the period 1945–1965, analyse the factors that helped and hindered attempts to promote collective security.
6. To what extent was the outcome of either the Falklands War (1982) or the Gulf War (1991) determined by technological developments?


Topic 2 Democratic states – challenges and responses
7. With reference to one democratic state in the period up to 1939, examine how successfully it was able to deal with the economic and political challenges it faced.
8. By what methods, and with what success, did Nehru deal with the internal and external problems facing India (1947–1964)?
9. Evaluate the measures undertaken by the governments of Eisenhower and Kennedy to promote the attainment of civil rights in the United States (1953–1963).
10. Analyse the reasons for, and the results of, the breakdown of democracy in Nigeria (1961–1966).
11. With reference to the period after 1950, assess the effectiveness of movements to promote either
gender equality or civil rights in one democratic state.
12. In what ways, and with what success, have two democratic states dealt with the challenge of internal political extremism in the second half of the twentieth century?


Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
13. “Their rise to power was made possible because of the failure of existing governments to deal with economic and political problems.” With reference to two single-party leaders, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
14. In what ways, and with what success, did either Perón or Castro deal with the economic and social problems they faced in power?
15. With reference to one single-party state, examine the nature and extent of internal opposition and the success of the single-party state in dealing with this opposition.
16. By what methods, and with what success, did either Hitler or Stalin attempt to establish a totalitarian state after coming to power?
17. To what extent was a successful domestic policy the reason for the maintenance of power of one of the following: Sukarno; Nasser; Nyerere?
18. With reference to one single-party or authoritarian leader, assess the extent to which the promises made during the rise to power were kept after they came to power.


Topic 4 Nationalist and independence movements in Africa and Asia and post-1945 Central and Eastern European states
19. Compare and contrast the contributions of the following to the independence movements in their countries: Havel (Czechoslovakia) and Walesa (Poland) or Ho Chi Minh (Vietnam) and Ben Bella (Algeria).
20. In what ways, and with what success, did two post-independence states deal with either ethnic tensions or separatist movements? Support your answer using examples from any Asian, African or Central and Eastern European states.
21. “Both religion and economics were equally important to the success of the independence movements.” With reference to one Central and Eastern European state, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
22. Examine the impact of the Second World War on the growth of the independence movement in two colonial states in Africa or Asia. Support your answer using examples from any Asian or African states.
23. Examine the social and economic consequences of independence for two successor states of the former Republic of Yugoslavia up to 2000.
24. To what extent was the independence of India (1947) the result of Gandhi’s leadership of the nationalist movement?


Topic 5 The Cold War
25. “The claim that the breakdown of superpower relations between 1945 and 1950 was the result of mutual fear and suspicion has been greatly exaggerated.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
26. In what ways, and to what extent, did the Soviet policy of peaceful coexistence affect superpower relations from 1956 to 1964?
27. Analyse the reasons for the adoption and abandonment of the policy of détente (1969–1979).
28. Compare and contrast two of the following as Cold War conflicts: Korea (1950–1953);
Congo (1960–1964); Vietnam (1965–1973); Afghanistan (1979–1989).
29. Account for the changing nature of Sino–Soviet relations from 1949 to 1976.
30. Examine the role played by economic factors and the arms race in the collapse of the USSR and the end of the Cold War by 1991.



May 2014  
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars
  1. With reference to either the Central Powers in the First World War (1914–1918) or the Axis Powers in the Second World War (1939–1945), to what extent was their defeat the result of poor tactics and strategies?
  2. Assess the importance of economic causes in the origins of either the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939)or the Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988).
  3. “Victory was the result of superior technological development.” With reference to either the Falklands War (1982) or the Gulf War (1991), to what extent do you agree with this statement?
  4. Examine the factors that hindered the successful establishment of collective security in either the period 1920–1930 or the period 1945–1955.
  5. Evaluate the contribution of external involvement to the outcome of two civil wars, each chosen froma different region.
  6. “The poor military strategy of governments is the principal reason for the success of guerrilla movements.” With reference to two guerrilla wars of the 20th century, how valid is this statement?
Topic 2 Democratic states — challenges and responses

  1. Examine the obstacles to the success of democracy in Weimar Germany (1919–1933).
  2. For what reasons, and by what methods, did political and economic change occur in Japan between 1945 and 1952?
  3. With reference to one democratic state in the first half of the 20th century, examine how it coped with threats from either internal or external sources.
  4. Examine the methods used, and level of success achieved, in the struggle to gain gender equality in one 20th century democratic state.
  5. To what extent was Canada successful in dealing with the political and economic challenges it faced in the period 1968–1984?
  6. “Coalition government proved unworkable and unable to promote stability.” With reference to two 20th century democratic states, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
  1. “Widespread support for the ideology of authoritarian or single-party leaders was the most important factor in their rise to power.” With reference to two leaders, each chosen from a different region, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
  2. Assess the importance of the use of force and economic policies in the maintenance of power of one authoritarian or single-party ruler.
  3. “The domestic policies of Stalin were beneficial to the Soviet Union up to 1939.” How valid is this statement?
  4. With reference to one of the following leaders: Castro; Perón; Nyerere, assess the extent to which his economic policies were successful.
  5. Analyse the successes and failures of either Mao or Nasser as leader of a single-party state.
  6. Examine the status of women or the role of education in two single-party or authoritarian states, each chosen from a different region.
Topic 4 Nationalist and independence movements in Africa and Asia and post-1945 Central and Eastern European states

  1. With reference to one African or Asian nationalist movement, assess the reasons for its success in achieving independence from colonial rule.
  2. “Challenges to Soviet control of Central and Eastern European and Balkan states (1945–1968) were both rare and unsuccessful.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
  3. Compare and contrast the methods used in the struggle for independence and the reasons why independence was finally granted to Algeria and the Belgian Congo.
  4. In what ways, and with what success, did Mugabe deal with the challenges faced by the newly independent state of Zimbabwe?
  5. How successful were the methods used to deal with the political challenges faced by one Central and Eastern European or Balkan state after it achieved independence?
  6. Assess the importance of the leadership of either Ho Chi Minh in the organization of resistance tocolonial control or Havel in the organization of resistance to Soviet control.

Topic 5 The Cold War
  1. Evaluate the reasons for the change in East–West relations from the Yalta conference to the end of the Potsdam conference.
  2. To what extent did the US policy of containment prove effective in limiting Soviet expansion between 1947 and 1962?
  3. Examine the social and cultural impact of the Cold War on two states (excluding the US and the USSR), each chosen from a different region.
  4. Assess the significance of events in either Germany (1945–1961) or the Congo (1960–1964) to the development of the Cold War.
  5. Evaluate the causes of the change in US-Chinese relations after 1969.
  6. “The break-up of the Soviet Union was the unintended result of policies introduced by Gorbachev.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?

November 2014 PAPER 2

Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of war

  1. With reference to one Allied power and one Central Power, examine the reasons for their involvement in the First World War in 1914.
  2. Examine the reasons for, and significance of, foreign intervention in two 20th century civil wars,each chosen from a different region.
  3. Compare and contrast the impact of naval and air power in two 20th century wars before 1945 or two 20th century wars after 1945.
  4. Examine the successes and failures of collective security in the 10 years after either the First World War or the Second World War.
  5. Evaluate the importance of religion and economic factors as causes of either the Indo–Pakistan wars (1947–1949; 1965; 1971) or the Nigerian Civil War (1967–1970).
  6. Examine the reasons for, and the consequences of, the war between Iran and Iraq (1980–1988).
Topic 2 Democratic states — challenges and responses
  1. Examine the reasons for the establishment of democracy in Germany in 1919, and evaluate how effectively it dealt with the economic and political challenges it faced up to 1929.
  2. “The problems that arose from economic crises were the greatest challenge to democratic government in the first half of the 20th century.” With reference to two states, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
  3. Evaluate the reasons for, and methods used in, the post-war reconstruction of Japan between 1945 and 1952.
  4. Examine the extent to which South Africa was successful in addressing the political, social and economic challenges it faced between 1991 and 2000.
  5. Examine the methods used, and the level of success achieved, by two 20th century democratic states in their efforts to address gender inequality.
  6. Examine the methods used, and the level of success achieved, by one civil rights movement in a 20th century democratic state.
Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
  1. Examine the importance of each of the following in the rise to power of either Stalin or Hitler: popular support for their aims; underestimation by opponents; economic conditions.
  2. Compare and contrast the economic and social policies of two of the following: Mao; Nasser; Castro.
  3. With reference to two authoritarian or single-party states, each chosen from a different region, evaluate the effectiveness of the methods used to deal with opposition.
  4. With reference to two authoritarian or single-party states, each chosen from a different region, evaluate the impact of domestic policies on the status of women.
  5. To what extent was Nyerere successful in achieving his domestic policy aims in Tanzania?
  6. “The use of force was the most important factor in the maintenance of power of the authoritarian or single-party leader.” With reference to two authoritarian or single-party leaders, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
Topic 4 Nationalist and independence movements in Africa and Asia and post-1945 Central and Eastern European states

  1. Compare and contrast the importance of leadership in the achievement of independence in either: two colonial states in Asia or Africa; or two Soviet-controlled states in Central/Eastern Europe.
  2. Evaluate the role of mass movements and economic factors in the growth of independence movements in either one colony in Africa or Asia or one sovietized state in Central/Eastern Europe or the Balkans.
  3. With reference to one independence movement in either Asia or Africa, examine the impact of armed struggle on the overall success of that movement.
  4. Evaluate the social and economic challenges faced by either one former Soviet satellite state in Central/Eastern Europe or one successor state of the former Yugoslavia.
  5. Examine the impact of the Cold War on post-independence conflicts in either Angola or the Belgian Congo/Zaire.
  6. “Separatist movements were the main reason for the dissolution of Yugoslavia (1991–1992).” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
Topic 5 The Cold War
  1. To what extent did decisions about post-war Germany contribute to the breakdown of East–West relations between 1945 and 1949?
  2. Evaluate the reasons for the adoption by the Soviet Union of peaceful coexistence and examine the impact of this policy on Cold War relations between 1956 and 1964.
  3. Evaluate the successes and failures of the policy of containment up to 1973 in either the Middle East or Asia.
  4. To what extent did the arms race influence the development of the Cold War after 1970?
  5. Compare and contrast the economic impact of the Cold War on two countries (excluding the USSR and the US), each chosen from a different region.
  6. To what extent were Reagan’s policies responsible for ending the Cold War?
May 2015
(Time Zone 1)
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars
1. To what extent did total war become the norm during the 20th century?
2. Evaluate the role of technology in prolonging the First World War.
3. Examine the role of revolutionary movements in causing any two con icts.
4. Compare and contrast the causes of the Nigerian Civil War (1967–1970) and the Nicaraguan Revolution (1976–1979).
5. To what extent was the peace settlement following the Algerian War (1954–1962) successful?
6. Examine the view that economic problems were the longest lasting results of 20th century wars.

Topic 2 Democratic states — challenges and responses
7. To what extent were the actions of political parties more important than economic factors in the collapse of Weimar Germany?
8. To what extent were social and economic challenges effectively confronted in either Japan
(1945–1952) or the United States (1953–1973)?
9. Examine the success of policies promoting either health or gender equality in two democratic states, each chosen from a different region.
10. Evaluate how effectively the rights of ethnic and religious minorities have been protected in two democratic states.
11. To what extent was the successful establishment of democracy in South Africa matched by social and economic change?
12. “Stable democratic states rely on a strong party system and an effective opposition.” With reference to two states, to what extent do you agree with this statement?

Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
13. Examine the importance of economic conditions in the rise to power of two
authoritarian/single-party leaders.
14. “Popular support, rather than the use of force, was vital to the establishment of single-party states.” With reference to two states, each chosen from a different region, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
15. Examine the view that internal opposition to Hitler had little impact.
16. To what extent did the economic policies of either Mao or Castro contribute to the maintenance of his power?
17. To what extent did authoritarian and single-party leaders have a negative effect on the arts?
18. With reference to either Peron or Nasser, to what extent do you agree that his economic policies failed?

Topic 5 The Cold War
25. Evaluate the successes and failures of the Marshall Plan.
26. Evaluate the in uence of Cold War tensions on two military con icts, each chosen from a different region.
27. “Truman caused the Cold War and, in 1962, Kennedy resolved its greatest crisis.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
28. Evaluate the reasons why two nations, each chosen from a different region, joined the Non-Aligned Movement.
29. Examine the internal and external factors that led to the establishment of the Warsaw Pact.
30. Examine the social and cultural impact of the breakdown of Soviet control in any state you have studied in Central/Eastern Europe.

(Time Zone 2)
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars
1. To what extent is the term “limited war” applicable to 20th century con icts?
2. Evaluate the role of technology in prolonging the First World War.
3. Examine the impact of resistance movements on the outcome of any one war.
4. Compare and contrast the role of foreign intervention in the Nigerian Civil War (1967–1970) and the Nicaraguan Revolution (1976–1979).
5. With reference to either the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) or one of the Chinese Civil Wars (1927–1937 or 1946–1949), to what extent was ideology the major cause of con ict?
6. Examine the social impact of the Second World War in any one country.

Topic 2 Democratic states — challenges and responses
7. To what extent did the constitution of Weimar Germany have more strengths than weaknesses?
8. To what extent were social and economic challenges met in either India (1947–1964) or Canada (1968–1984)?
9. Compare and contrast policies promoting either employment or social welfare in two democratic states.
10. Evaluate the success of education policies in two democratic states, each chosen from a different region.
11. To what extent was the successful establishment of democracy in South Africa matched by social and economic change?
12. Examine the impact of powerful pressure groups on democratic states.

Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
13. Examine the political conditions that led to the rise of two authoritarian/single-party leaders.
14. With reference to two authoritarian/single-party leaders, each chosen from a different region, to what extent was complete totalitarian rule dif cult to achieve?
15. “The nature and extent of opposition to Peron between 1946 and 1955 did not justify the measures he took against it.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
16. With reference to either Mao or Stalin, evaluate the reasons for, and impact of, his hostility to religion.
17. With reference to one authoritarian or single-party state, to what extent do you agree that the media was dominated by propaganda?
18. Evaluate the extent to which the economic policies of either Castro or Hitler achieved their aims.

Topic 5 The Cold War
25. Examine the reasons for, and the impact in Europe of, the formation of NATO.
26. Evaluate the in uence of Cold War tensions on two military con icts, each chosen from a different region.
27. “Stalin and Truman were equally responsible for the emergence of the Cold War.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
28. With reference to two Cold War crises, to what extent did brinkmanship risk direct superpower con ict after 1956?
29. Evaluate the contribution of the local Communist Party to the Sovietization of one state in Central/Eastern Europe in the years 1944 to 1949.
30. With reference to one Central/Eastern European state, examine the economic impact of the break-up of the Soviet Union.

November 2015

Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars
1. Discuss the impact of foreign involvement on the outbreak and the course of two civil wars, each chosen from a different region.
2. To what extent was the failure to maintain collective security after 1930 the most signi cant cause of the Second World War?
3. With reference to one war, compare and contrast its social and economic impact on two countries.
4. Examine the role played by political and economic factors in the origins of either the Algerian War (1954–1962) or the Nicaraguan Revolution (1976–1979).
5. To what extent did religion contribute to the outbreak of the Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988)?
6. With reference to two wars, each chosen from a different region, examine the importance of air warfare on the outcome of those wars.

Topic 2 Democratic states — challenges and responses
7. To what extent were the rights of ethnic and religious minorities protected in two 20th-century democratic states?
8. “Failure to deal with political extremism after 1919 led to the collapse of democracy in Germany.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
9. Discuss the success of one democratic state in implementing its health and education policies.
10. Evaluate the extent to which either the United States (between 1953 and 1973) or Great Britain and Northern Ireland (between 1967 and 1990) addressed inequitable [unequal] distribution of wealth.
11. Discuss the reasons why the implementation of democracy was successful in Japan (1945–1952).
12. With reference to two democratic states, each chosen from a different region, evaluate the impact of pressure groups on social policy-making.

Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
13. Evaluate the importance of ideology, popular support and the weakness of the existing government in aiding the rise to power of either Mao or Peron.
14. To what extent were existing social and economic problems the most significant factor in the rise to power of two authoritarian/single-party leaders?
15. To what extent was Hitler’s Germany a totalitarian state?
16. Compare and contrast the impact on the arts of two authoritarian/single-party states.
17. With reference to Castro or Nasser or Stalin, to what extent did his domestic policies contribute to his maintenance of power?
18. Discuss the methods used to maintain political control by two authoritarian/single-party leaders, each chosen from a different region.

Topic 5 The Cold War
25. To what extent were Soviet policies responsible for worsening relations among the wartime allies in the period up to 1950?
26. With reference to two of the following: Korea (1950–1953); Congo (1960–1964); Cuba (1959–1963), evaluate their impact on the development of the Cold War.
27. Discuss the social and cultural impact of the global spread of the Cold War on two countries (excluding the US and the USSR), each chosen from a different region.
28. Examine the signi cance of the Cold War on events in the Middle East from 1956 to 1973.
29. Compare and contrast US relations with China and the USSR during detente.
30. To what extent was the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991 due to external pressures?


May 2016
(Time Zone 1)

Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars
1. To what extent did ideology contribute to the outbreak and expansion of the Second World War up to 1941?
2. Evaluate the causes and immediate results of the Nicaraguan Revolution (1976–1979).
3. “20th century wars had a signi cant impact on the role and status of women.” Discuss with reference to two wars.
4. To what extent did economic issues contribute to the outbreak of two 20th century civil wars?
5. Evaluate the importance of tactics and strategies to the outcome of the Falklands War (1982).
6. With reference to two examples, each from a different region, examine the contribution of resistance movements to the outcome of war.

Topic 2 Democratic states — challenges and responses
7. Evaluate the role of political parties in establishing full democracy in South Africa between 1991 and 2000.
8. Examine the view that constitutions played a minor role in the maintenance of stability in democratic states during the 20th century.
9. “By 1973, the civil rights movement in the US had made signi cant political and social progress but little economic progress.” Discuss.
10. Evaluate attempts to address unemployment in two democratic states, each from a different region.
11. To what extent did political extremism threaten democracy in Great Britain and Northern Ireland between 1967 and 1990?
12. Examine the aims and achievements of health policies in two democratic states.

Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
13. To what extent did the weakness of his opponents contribute to the rise to power of either Mao or Stalin?
14. Examine the importance of ideology in the rise to power of two authoritarian/single-party leaders, each from a different region.
15. With reference to two authoritarian/single-party states, to what extent did successful domestic policies help to combat internal opposition?
16. To what extent did the use of legal methods contribute to the establishment of Hitler’s rule from January 1933?
17. Evaluate the social and economic policies of Nyerere.
18. “Authoritarian/single-party leaders usually failed to achieve total control over religious groups.” Discuss with reference to two authoritarian/single-party leaders.

Topic 5 The Cold War
25. “The struggle to establish spheres of influence destroyed the wartime alliance.” Discuss with reference to US–Soviet relations up to 1950.
26. Evaluate the successes and failures of the US policies of containment and brinkmanship up to 1962.
27. Examine the reasons for the policy of détente, and its impact on superpower relations, between 1969 and 1979.
28. Examine the impact of either Afghanistan or Vietnam on the Cold War.
29. Evaluate the economic impact of the Cold War on two states, each from a different region.
30. Evaluate the role of Gorbachev in ending the Cold War.

 (Time Zone 2)
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars
1. To what extent did ideology contribute to the outbreak and expansion of the Second World War up to 1941?
2. To what extent were territorial changes a significant consequence of 20th century wars?
3. Discuss the significance of air and sea power in determining the outcome of one 20th century war.
4. To what extent did the Nationalists’ failure to resolve economic crises contribute to their defeat in the Chinese Civil War (1946–1949)?
5. “The causes of the Gulf War (1991) were mainly economic.” Discuss.
6. With reference to two countries, each from a different region, examine the social impact of war during the second half of the 20th century.

Topic 2 Democratic states — challenges and responses
7. Evaluate the role of political parties in establishing full democracy in South Africa between 1991 and 2000.
8. With reference to two 20th century democratic states, each from a different region, evaluate how effectively coalition governments addressed domestic issues.
9. With reference to either France under de Gaulle (1959–1969) or Argentina under Alfonsin and Menem (1983–1995), to what extent did the country experience economic success but political failure?
10. Evaluate the impact of Johnson’s (1963–1969) social welfare legislation in the United States.
11. Evaluate the challenges presented by ethnicity and religion in one democratic state in the
20th century.
12. Compare and contrast the impact of pressure (interest/lobby) groups in two 20th century democratic states.

Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
13. Examine the reasons for, and the extent of, support for Hitler up to the end of January 1933.
14. With reference to two single-party/authoritarian leaders, each from a different region, evaluate how successfully they established totalitarian control.
15. With reference to two authoritarian/single-party states, to what extent did successful domestic policies help to combat internal opposition?
16. Evaluate the methods used by either Mao or Castro to establish his regime.
17. Examine the impact of Stalin on education in the Soviet Union.
18. “Authoritarian regimes encouraged women to work but did not give them equal status with men.” Discuss with reference to two authoritarian regimes.

Topic 5 The Cold War
25. To what extent did mutual fear and suspicion contribute to the development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1949?
26. With reference to the period from 1953 to 1991, evaluate the impact of Germany on the Cold War.
27. Examine the reasons for changes in Sino-Soviet relations between 1956 and 1976.
28. To what extent did arms limitation treaties between the United States and the Soviet Union improve relations during the period from 1969 to 1991?
29. Examine the economic and cultural impact of the Cold War on one state.
30. “Reagan and Gorbachev made an equal contribution to the end of the Cold War.” Discuss.


Click HERE for Paper III Past Paper Questions and Responses
Check out Historians and Quotes for Essays 
 and the separate Historiography for the Russian Revolution
as well as the Guide to IBDP History Paper 1

Essays on Causes and Practice of the Great War