Past IBDP History Paper 2 Questions and Responses


History Exam Questions
Click HERE for Paper III Past Paper Questions and Responses
 
1998
Topic 1: Causes, practices and effects of war
  1. To what extent should Germany be held responsible for causing both the First and Second World Wars?
  2. Why was there so much civil strife and civil war in China during the first half of the twentieth century?
  3. Compare and contrast the outcome and effects of two revolutionary wars, each chosen from a different region.
  4. Explain the impact of war on two of the following: women, the arts, the media.
Topic 3: The Rise and rule of single party states
  1. To what extent is it true to say that a successful economic policy is the most important factor for a single party ruler to remain in power? Examples should be given from two countries each chosen from a different region.
  2. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of two rulers of single party states, each chosen from a different region.
  3. To what extent was Hitler a) responsible for, and b) driven by ideological beliefs of Nazism?
  4. How far would you agree that single party states have been more interested in controlling the minds of young people than in providing genuine education?
Topic 5: The Cold War
  1. Examine the conflicting aims and policies of rival powers which caused the Cold War.
  2. Assess the importance of two of the following in influencing the development of the Cold War: Marshall Aid, Warsaw Pact, arms control, détente.
  3. Examine the impact of the Cold War on two countries (excluding the superpowers), each chosen from a different region.
  4. “The build up of missiles in Cuba in 1962 was a deliberate, provocative and unjustified action.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
  5. What were the main social and cultural consequences of the Cold War?
  1. “Single party states use education as propaganda to obtain support rather than to instil (increase) knowledge.” How far do you agree with this judgement?
  2. In what ways and for what reasons did China develop its own brand of Marxism/Communism under Mao Zedong?
  3. To what extent was Spain under Franco (1939 to 1975) a Fascist state?
  4. How far is it true to say that a successful foreign policy is the most important factor for a single party ruler to remain in power? Examples should be given from two countries each chosen from a different region.
  5. “In the twentieth century right-wing single party states have often been the result of a conservative reaction to change whilst the left-wing single party states have achieved power as the outcome of a revolutionary process against tradition.” Using examples from at least two regions explain how far you agree with this quotation.
Topic 5: The Cold War
  1. “Ideological differences played only a minor role in the origin and development of the Cold War.” How far do you agree with this statement?
  2. In what ways and for what reasons did the Cold War affect the Middle East?
  3. Analyze the importance of spheres of interest for one of the superpowers in the Cold War.
  4. Assess the importance in the development of the Cold War of two of the following: the Yalta Conference; Berlin; the arms race; non-alignment; South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO).
  5. Examine the impact of the Cold War on the social life and culture of two countries each chosen from a different region.
2000
Topic 1: Causes, practices and effects of war
  1. Assess the importance of nationalism and selfish ambition as causes of twentieth century wars. Reference must be made to at least two wars.
  2. Examine critically two treaties and evaluate their success in resolving the armed conflicts which necessitated the treaties.
  3. Compare and contrast the effects for the country concerned of two of the following: the Chinese Civil War, the Nigerian Civil War, the Spanish Civil War.
  4. Assess the significance of either the Mexican Revolution (1910-1940) or the Vietnam War (1964-1975).
Topic 3: The rise and rule of single party states
  1. In what ways and for what reasons did rulers of single party states play an important role in world affairs between 1917 and 1945?
  2. Identify the main principles of Communism and assess how far these principles were put into practice by one Communist rule between 1900 and 1990.
  3. Assess the contributions of organizational and leadership qualities in maintaining power two single party rulers, each chosen from a different region.
  4. Analyze the role and status of women in two of the following: Maoist China, Nazi Germany, Peronist Argentina.
Topic 5: The Cold War
  1. “Ideological differences played little part in the origin of the Cold War.” How far do you agree with this judgement?
  2. To what extent was Germany the cause of East/West disagreements between 1943 and 1963?
  3. Define “superpower rivalry” and assess its importance in international politics since 1945.
  4. Analyze the role of either Cuba or Vietnam in the development of the Cold War.
  5. Compare and contrast the economic and social impact of the Cold War on two countries, each chosen from a different region.

2001
Topic 1: Causes, Practices and Effects of War
  1. Analyze the reasons for the outbreak of war either in Algeria in 1954, or in Korea in 1950.
  2. In what ways and for what reasons did foreign intervention play an important role in two civil war, each chosen from a different region?
  3. Evaluate the successes and failures of one twentieth century treaty in addressing the causes of conflict, and restoring peace and normality.
Topic 3: The rise and rule of single party states
  1. “Promises of improved social and economic conditions win more support for would-be single party rulers than ideological pronouncements.” How far do you agree with this claim?
  2. Compare and contrast the organization of one Communist state with one Fascist state.
  3. Analyze the methods by which either Castro or Stalin maintained his position as ruler of a single party state.
  4. Evaluate the attempts of two rulers of single party states, each chosen from a different region, to control and use the media.
Topic 5: The Cold War
  1. “The Cold War was caused by fear, not aggression.” To what extent does this view explain how the Cold War developed between 1945 and 1949?
  2. Examine the impact of the Cold War on educational developments in two countries, each chosen from a different region.
  3. Compare and contrast the aims and policies of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Warsaw Pact up to 1970.
  4. For what reasons, and with what results, up to 1963, did the United States adopt the policy known as “containment”?
2002
Topic I: Causes, Practices and Effects of War
  1. To what extent has any twentieth century war changed the role of women?
  2. How far do you agree with the view of some recent historians that Chamberlain’s appeasement of Hitler at Munich was NOT a mistake?
  3. “The First and Second World Wars were European civil wars that required outside intervention to settle.” How far do you agree with this quotation?
  4. In what ways did Truman’s policy of “limited warfare” in Korea set the pattern of military conflict up to 1990?
Topic 3: The Rise and the rule of Single Party States
  1. Analyse the conditions which led to the establishment of two single party states each chosen from a different region.
  2. How and why have religious groups a) opposed, and b) supported single party regimes?
  3. Assess the success and failure of two rulers of single party regimes, each chosen from a different region, in solving the social and economic problems of their countries.
  4. To what extent was the success of Stalin in retaining power in the USSR between 1929 and 1953 due to the appeal of Communism?
  5. Examine the impact outside their own countries of two of the following: Fidel Castro, Gamel Abdel Nasser, Julius Nyerere, Mao Zedong.
Topic 5: The Cold War
  1. Assess the significance for the development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1950 of three of the following:
    1. The Yalta Conference, 1945
    2. The Iron Curtain speech, 1946
    3. The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, 1947
    4. The expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Soviet block, 1948
    5. The Berlin Blockade and Airlift, 1948-1949
    6. The formation of NATO, 1949.
  1. “A different kind of Cold War.” To what extent is this a valid statement about the Cold War after 1953?
  2. Explain how East/West relations a) affected and b) how the were affected by one of the following areas: the Middle East, Latin America, Asia, Africa.
  3. Using specific examples, evaluate the successes and/or failures of “Détente”.
2003 Test: Paper II
Topic 1: Causes, practices and effects of war
  1. What were the most frequent causes of twentieth century wars? Specific evidence from at least three wars should be used.
  2. In what ways, and to what extent, was the Second World War “total war”?
  3. How and why did technological developments play an important part in twentieth century wars?
  4. Analyze the causes and the results of one of the following: Chinese Civil War (1945-1949); Mexican Revolution (1910-1940); Spanish Civil War (1936-1939).
Topic 3: The rise and rule of single party states
  1. “In order to achieve and retain power a leader of a single-party state needed to be ruthless, blind to human suffering, and yet charismatic.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
  2. Account for the rise to power of one of the following: Castro; Mussolini; Nasser.
  3. Compare and contrast the economic and social policies of Mao and Stalin.
  4. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the aims and policies of two or more right wing rulers of single party states differ?
  5. Examine the role of education and/or the arts in two single party states, each chosen from a different region.
Topic 5: The Cold War
  1. How, and to what extent, did the conferences at Yalta and Potsdam (1945) contributed to the origin of the Cold War?
  2. “Although it began in Europe the spread of the Cold War to other regions was a much more dangerous development.” To what extent do you agree with this judgment?
  3. How and why did the policies of either the USA or the USSR affect superpower rivalry between 1950 and 1970?
  4. In what ways were gender and social issues affected by the Cold War?
  5. Assess the importance of détente and internal opposition to Communist rule in Communist countries, in ending the Cold War.
2004 Test: Paper II
Topic 1: Causes, practices and effects of war
  1. In what ways did the causes of the Second World War differ from the causes of the First World War?
  2. Evaluate the importance of naval warfare in twentieth century wars. Specific examples must be given from at least two wars.
  3. Why were there so many Arab-Israeli wars between 1948 and 1978?
  4. Analyze the results of two wars, each chosen from a different region.
  5. Assess the social and economic effects of one war on two of the countries involved, in the ten years following the end of the war.
Topic 3: The rise and rule of single party states
  1. Analyze the methods used by one single party state ruler in his successful bid for power.
  2. Evaluate the importance of ideology in the policies of two of the following rulers of single party states: Castro; Hitler; Lenin; Nyerere.
  3. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of two rulers of single party states, each chosen from a different region.
  4. In what ways, and to what extent, did either Nasser or Peron improve social and economic conditions?
  5. Examine the global impact of one ruler of a single party state.
Topic 5: The Cold War
  1. To what extent did events in the final year of the Second World War turn wartime allies into Cold War enemies?
  2. Compare and contrast the policies of the USA and the USSR towards Korea between 1945 and 1955.
  3. Assess the impact of the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan on the development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1961.
  4. In what ways, and to what extent, did the Cold War become less confrontational after 1970?
  5. Assess the importance of social and economic issues in causing opposition to communist regimes.
May 2005 Test: Paper II

Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of war1. Analyse the results of either the First World War or the Second World War.
2. Examine the impact of foreign intervention on either the Chinese Civil War or the Spanish Civil War.
3. Assess the social and economic causes of one twentieth century war.
4. Compare and contrast the use of naval warfare in two wars, each chosen from a different region.
5. For what reasons, and with what results, was 'limited' warfare a feature of the second half of the twentieth century?
Topic 2 Nationalist and independence movements, decolonization and challenges facing new states
6. To what extent was the colonial legacy the main problem in two non-European new states, each chosen from a different region?
7. Assess the causes of the rise of nationalism in one non-European new state.
8. Compare and contrast the independence movements in two developing states, one in Africa and the other in Asia.
9. For what reasons, and with what results, was either India or Kenya successful in obtaining independence?
10. Examine gender issues before and after independence in either Algeria or Pakistan.
Topic 3 The rise and rule of single-party states 

11. Analyse the methods used and the conditions which helped in the rise to power of one ruler of a single-party state.
12. Evaluate the successes and failures of one ruler of a single-party state.

13. Assess the methods used by either Lenin or Peron to maintain his regime.
14. Compare and contrast the influence outside their own countries of Hitler and Mao.
15. Examine the status of women in two single-party states, each chosen from a different region.
Topic 4 Peace and cooperation: international organizations and multiparty states
16. Why, in spite of early successes, did the League of Nations fail to prevent the outbreak of the Second World War?
17. In what ways, and with what success, did one twentieth century international organisation try to improve social and economic conditions?
18. To what extent did Nehru's government in India (1947-64) fulfil its expectations?
19. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of two multiparty states.
20. "The ideal form of government for the twentieth century was a multiparty state." To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
Topic 5 The Cold War

21. Assess the part played by differing ideologies in the origin of the Cold War.

22. In what ways, and with what results, was Germany the key focus of the early stages of the Cold War? 
23. Analyse the part played by Cuba in the development of the Cold War.
24. Evaluate the role of one superpower in the Cold War after 1970.
25. To what extent did economic problems in the Communist bloc bring about the end of the Cold War?
Topic 6 The state and its relationship with religion and with minorities
26. Compare and contrast the difficulties faced by two minorities (ethnic, racial or religious), each chosen from a different region.
27. Evaluate the impact of the state religion on law and morality in two countries.
28. Assess the relationship between an ethnic or racial minority with the ethnic or racial majority in that state.
29. For what reasons, and with what results, did religious majorities fear religious minorities in the twentieth century?
30. How did education both help and hinder the integration of minorities?


May 2006 PAPER 2
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of war
1. Compare and contrast the results of the First World War and the Second World War.
2. To what extent did technological developments ensure victory in twentieth century wars?
3. “No twentieth century war could be called a limited war.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
5. Assess the social results of two wars, each chosen from a different region.
Topic 2 Nationalist and independence movements, decolonisation and challenges facing new states
6. Analyse the factors favouring the growth of independence movements in one non-European colonial state.
7. For what reasons, and with what results, was either Ghana or India successful in obtaining independence?
8. Assess the economic problems facing one new non-European state in the ten years after independence.
9. Compare and contrast tribal influence in two African states after they had achieved independence. 10. Analyse the form of government after independence in either Algeria or Indonesia.
Topic 3 The rise and rule of single-party states
11. To what extent was the rise to power of either Hitler or Mao due to personal appeal and ability?
12. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of two rulers of single-party states, each chosen from a different region.
13. Assess the methods used by either Nasser or Perón to remain in power.
14. In what ways, and with what results, was propaganda used by one ruler of a single-party state?
15. Assess the importance of ideology for rulers of twentieth century single-party states.
Topic 4 Peace and cooperation: international organisations and multiparty states
16. “Peace and cooperation was an ideal that proved impossible to achieve through international
organisations in the twentieth century.” To what extent do you agree with this judgement?
17. Compare and contrast the peace keeping aims and methods of the League of Nations and the United Nations.
18. Evaluate the success of one multiparty state in improving the status of women.
19. Analyse the foreign policy of two multiparty states, each chosen from a different region.
20. Assess the successes and failures of governments in either Japan (1945-52) or the USA (1933-45). Topic 5 The Cold War
24. Analyse the importance of détente in ending the Cold War.
25. Examine the part played by economic issues in the development of the Cold War.
Topic 6 The state and its relationship with religion and with minorities
26. Assess the impact on politics of relations between church and state in two countries, each chosen
from a different region.
27. Compare and contrast the efforts of two ethnic/racial minorities, each chosen from a different region, to obtain equality and self determination.
28. Assess the effects of the persecution of religious minorities during the twentieth century.
29. For what reasons, and in what ways, did integration affect the role and status of women belonging to ethnic/racial minorities?
30. “The treatment of minorities improved in the second half of the twentieth century.” To what extent do you agree with this judgement?

May 2008: Paper II TZ1
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of war
1. Compare and contrast the causes of the First World War and the Second World War.
2. To what extent did changes in military tactics and strategies determine the outcome of twentieth century wars?
3. “Even in the twentieth century the term ‘total war’ could not be applied to any war.” To what extent do you agree with this judgement?
4. Analyse the results of either the Mexican Revolution or the Russian Civil War.
5. In what ways and with what results did two wars, each chosen from a different region, affect the role and status of women?

Topic 3 The rise and rule of single-party states
11. Compare and contrast the rise to power of two rulers of single-party states, each chosen from a different region.
12. To what extent was either Mussolini, between 1922 and 1945, or Nasser, between 1954 and 1970, successful in achieving his aims?
13. In what ways did one ruler of a single-party state try to use education to support his regime?
15. Assess the importance of foreign policy for rulers of single-party states. Topic 4 Peace and cooperation: international organizations and multiparty states
17. Compare and contrast the foundation and structure of the League of Nations and the United Nations.
18. “A twentieth century multiparty state was government by the people for the people.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
19. Analyse the social and economic policies of two multiparty states, each chosen from a different region.
20. Assess the successes and failures of either F D Roosevelt’s government of the USA (1933–45) or South Africa’s transition from apartheid to a non-racial democracy under Nelson Mandela (1985–95).
Topic 5 The Cold War
24. Explain the meaning of two of the following and show how each affected the development of the Cold War: containment; brinkmanship; non-alignment; détente.
25. When and why did the Cold War end?

May 2008: Paper II TZ2
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of war
1. Compare and contrast the causes of the Korean War and the Vietnam War.
2. Examine the role of warfare either at sea or in the air in two wars each chosen from a different region.
3. Why, and with what results, was the First World War not confined to Europe?
4. Analyse the results of one twentieth century treaty or peace settlement.
5. For what reasons, and in what ways, did one twentieth century war affect the social and economic conditions of two countries fighting in it?
Topic 3 The rise and rule of single-party states
13. With reference to at least two rulers, assess the importance of social and economic policies for rulers of single-party states.
14. In what ways, and with what results, did either Castro or Mussolini use foreign policy to support his regime?
15. To what extent was the ruler of one single-party state successful in achieving his aims?
Topic 4 Peace and cooperation: international organizations and multiparty states
16. How successful were international organizations in achieving peace in the second half of the twentieth century?
17. Compare and contrast the social and economic policies of the League of Nations and the United Nations.
18. “Democratic government can only be achieved in a multiparty state.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
19. Discuss the domestic and foreign policies of the government of either the USA (1933 to 1945), or Spain (1975 to 1990).
20. Assess the successes and failures of the foreign policies of two multiparty states each chosen from a different region.

May 2009: Paper II
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of war
1. Compare and contrast the causes of two twentieth century civil wars.
2. Define guerilla warfare, and discuss its significance in two wars, each chosen from a different region.
3. Analyse (a) the short-term results, and (b) the long-term results up to 1935, of the First World War.
4. In what ways, and with what results, did either the Korean War or the Vietnam War bring about social and cultural changes in the countries involved?
5. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the nature of war in the air change between 1939 and 1990?
Topic 3 The rise and rule of single-party states
11. Analyse the methods used by either Castro or Peron to obtain power.
12. “The aims and policies of single-party state rulers rarely followed their declared ideology.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
13. Evaluate the domestic policies of either Hitler or Nasser.
14. For what reasons, and with what success, did rulers of single-party states use foreign policy to maintain their power? At least two rulers should be considered.
15. In what ways did two rulers of single-party states, each chosen from a different region, (a) use, and (b) misuse, the arts and education?
Topic 4 Peace and cooperation: international organizations and multiparty states
16. (a) Explain the aims of one international organization.
(b) To what extent were these aims implemented [carried out] in the ten years after the organization’s foundation?
17. Analyse the successes and failures of the United Nation’s peacekeeping activities up to 1973. 
18. “In spite of occasional failures, the democratic multiparty state was the most successful form of government in the twentieth century.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
19. Compare and contrast the role and status of women in two multiparty states in the second half of the twentieth century.
20. Account for the foundation of a multiparty state in either Spain in 1975, or South Africa in 1994, and evaluate the success of your chosen state.
Topic 5 The Cold War
(d) détente.
23. Examine the role and importance of fear and suspicion in the development of the Cold War between 1953 and 1975.
24. In what ways were social and gender issues affected by the Cold War in two countries, each chosen from a different region?
25. Why did the Cold War spread from Europe to other parts of the world after 1950?

May 2009 TZ2/XX
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of war
1. Analyse (a) the long-term causes and (b) the short-term causes, of the Second World War.
2. Define limited war and explain to what extent one twentieth century war was a limited war.
3. Compare and contrast the social and economic issues caused by two wars, each chosen from a different region.
5. For what reasons, and with what results, did the nature of war at sea change between 1939
and 1990?
Topic 3 The rise and rule of single-party states
12. Evaluate the methods used by either Lenin between 1918 and 1924 or Mussolini between 1922 and 1939 to consolidate his rule.
13. To what extent was foreign policy (a) the key to success, or (b) the reason for failure, for the rulers of two single-party states, each chosen from a different region?
14. Analyse the successes and failures in solving the problems faced by either Castro or Nasser. 
15. For what reasons, and with what results, did rulers of single-party states both support and censor the arts?
Topic 4 Peace and cooperation: international organizations and multiparty states
16. Analyse the successes and failures of the League of Nations between 1920 and 1930.
17. (a) Explain why one international organization was founded. (b) To what extent was its structure and organization appropriate for implementing [carrying out] its aims?
18. Compare and contrast the social and economic policies of two multiparty states in the second half of the twentieth century.
19. To what extent did either Argentina between 1983 and 1995, or Japan between 1945 and 1952, benefit from being a multiparty state?
20. “The concept of democracy was the ideal basis for a twentieth century multiparty state.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
Topic 5 The Cold War
21. What were the reasons for, and results of, the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan?
22. Define, and analyse the importance of, two of the following: (a) containment (b) COMECON
(c) détente (d) east European satellite states.
23. Assess the social and economic impact of the Cold War on two countries, each chosen from a different region.
24. Analyse the role of mutual distrust in the development of the Cold War between 1953 and 1975.
25. Why did the Cold War begin and end in Europe?

HISTORY ROUTE 2 PAPER 2 ZONE 2
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars
1. Analyse the principal causes of either the Algerian War (1954–1962) or the Spanish Civil War
(1936–1939).
2. Assess the importance of air power in determining the outcome of one twentieth century war.
3. “Guerilla warfare was an important factor in achieving success in twentieth century wars.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
4. Examine the reasons for, and the results of, the Indo-Pakistan wars (1947–1971).
5. Analyse the reasons for the defeat of Germany in either the First World War or the Second World War.
6. In what ways, and with what results, did twentieth century wars increase the role and status of women?

Topic 2 Democratic states – challenges and responses
7. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for democratic states of (a) coalition governments, and
(b) proportional representation.
8. In 1963 de Gaulle said: “For all of us Frenchmen, the guiding rule of our time is to be faithful to France”. To what extent did his policies follow this rule?
9. Compare and contrast the policies of two of the following: Kennedy; Nehru; Mandela.
10. Why was the Weimar state set up as a democratic state in Germany, and why did it fail to fulfil its promise and purpose?
11. Analyse the successes and failures of one democratic state in the second half of the twentieth century.
12. In what ways, and to what extent, were social issues such as health care, education and religion important for democratic governments?

Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
13. Analyse the circumstances that helped one right-wing leader to become the ruler of a single-party state.
14. Discuss (a) the support for, and (b) the ideology of, one left-wing ruler of a single-party state.
15. Examine the role of the media in one single-party or authoritarian state.
16. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of two of the following: Nyerere; Perón; Stalin.
17. In 1924 Hitler wrote: “The masses of the population are more affected by rhetoric than by any other force. All great movements are popular movements”. To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
18. Examine the methods used by either Nasser or Castro to maintain power.

Topic 4 Nationalist and independence movements in Africa and Asia and post-1945 Central and
Eastern European states
19. What were the main areas of criticism of colonial rule in either French or Portuguese colonies?
20. “Non-violent movements to achieve independence rarely succeeded.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
21. Analyse the successes and failures of either Jinnah or Walesa.
22. To what extent did social and economic issues play an important part in one independence movement in either one colonial state or one Soviet satellite state?
23. Compare and contrast the independence movements in two of the following: Algeria; Ghana; India/Pakistan.
24. For what reasons, and with what results, was either Czechoslovakia or Hungary able to achieve independence?

Topic 5 The Cold War
25. To what extent were the policies of the United States responsible for the outbreak and development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1949?
26. Compare and contrast the significance of leaders in two Cold War conflicts, each chosen from a different region, between 1950 and 1963.
27. Analyse the impact of the Cold War on the Middle East between 1956 and 1973.
28. Assess the achievements and limitations of détente between 1969 and 1979.
29. “The Cold War came to an end due to the hard-line approach of Ronald Reagan’s policies in the early 1980s.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
30. Discuss the economic impact of the Cold War in two countries, each chosen from a different region.


May 2010 
 Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars
1. Discuss the part played in the outbreak of the First World War by two states (excluding Germany).
2. Analyse the reasons for, and the results of, either the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) or the Chinese Civil War (1946–1949).
3. Assess the significance of naval warfare in determining the outcome of one twentieth century war.
4. “Many twentieth century wars had the characteristics of both a limited and a total war.” With reference to two wars explain to what extent you agree with this statement.
5. For what reasons, and with what results, did Iran and Iraq fight a war from 1980 to 1988?
6. For what reasons, and with what results, did twentieth century wars influence the status of women?

Topic 2 Democratic states – challenges and responses
7. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for democratic states of (a) a written constitution, and (b) an unwritten constitution.
8. In 1963 John Kennedy said: “We are concerned with a moral issue, whether all Americans are to be given equal rights and equal opportunities”. To what extent did John Kennedy solve this moral issue?
9. Compare and contrast the social and economic policies of two of the following: Nehru; Trudeau; Johnson.
10. In what ways, and to what extent, was Argentina a democratic state between 1983 and 1995?
11. Analyse two of the following in one democratic state in the second half of the twentieth century:
civil rights; gender issues; political extremism.
12. What were the main features of the Weimar constitution, and to what extent was it democratic?

Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
13. Analyse the conditions that enabled one left-wing leader to become the ruler of a single-party state.
14. Discuss (a) the ideology of, and (b) the support for, one right-wing ruler of a single-party state.
15. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of two of the following: Castro; Kenyatta; Stalin.
16. Evaluate the methods used by either Perón or Nasser to maintain power.
17. Examine the role of education in one single-party or authoritarian state.
18. In what ways, and to what extent, was propaganda important in the rise and rule of Hitler?

Topic 5 The Cold War
25. Evaluate the role of the policies of the United States in the origins of the Cold War between 1945 and 1949.
26. Compare and contrast the role of two leaders, each chosen from a different region, in the development of the Cold War between 1953 and 1964.
27. Why did détente develop between 1969 and 1979?
28. Analyse the impact of Afghanistan (1979–1988) on the development of the Cold War.
29. “The Cold War came to an end primarily because of Gorbachev’s changes in Soviet policies.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
30. Evaluate the impact of the Cold War on the culture of two countries, each chosen from a different region.

May 2010
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars
 

1. Analyse the principal causes of either the Algerian War (1954–1962) or the Spanish Civil War
(1936–1939).
2. Assess the importance of air power in determining the outcome of one twentieth century war.
3. “Guerilla warfare was an important factor in achieving success in twentieth century wars.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
4. Examine the reasons for, and the results of, the Indo-Pakistan wars (1947–1971).
5. Analyse the reasons for the defeat of Germany in either the First World War or the Second World War.
6. In what ways, and with what results, did twentieth century wars increase the role and status of women?
Topic 2 Democratic states – challenges and responses

 7. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for democratic states of (a) coalition governments, and (b) proportional representation.
8. In 1963 de Gaulle said: “For all of us Frenchmen, the guiding rule of our time is to be faithful to France”. To what extent did his policies follow this rule?
9. Compare and contrast the policies of two of the following: Kennedy; Nehru; Mandela.
10. Why was the Weimar state set up as a democratic state in Germany, and why did it fail to fulfil its promise and purpose?
11. Analyse the successes and failures of one democratic state in the second half of the twentieth century.
12. In what ways, and to what extent, were social issues such as health care, education and religion important for democratic governments?
Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
13. Analyse the circumstances that helped one right-wing leader to become the ruler of a single-party state.
14. Discuss (a) the support for, and (b) the ideology of, one left-wing ruler of a single-party state.
15. Examine the role of the media in one single-party or authoritarian state.
16. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of two of the following: Nyerere; Perón; Stalin.
17. In 1924 Hitler wrote: “The masses of the population are more affected by rhetoric than by any other force. All great movements are popular movements”. To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
18. Examine the methods used by either Nasser or Castro to maintain power.
Topic 5 The Cold War

 25. To what extent were the policies of the United States responsible for the outbreak and development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1949?
26. Compare and contrast the significance of leaders in two Cold War conflicts, each chosen from a different region, between 1950 and 1963.
27. Analyse the impact of the Cold War on the Middle East between 1956 and 1973.
28. Assess the achievements and limitations of détente between 1969 and 1979.
29. “The Cold War came to an end due to the hard-line approach of Ronald Reagan’s policies in the early 1980s.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?


May 2011 PAPER 2


Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars
6. Why do economic problems occur in post-war periods?

Topic 2 Democratic states – challenges and responses
7. Assess the advantages and disadvantages of political parties in a democratic state.
8. Analyse the successes and failures in social and economic policies of either Eisenhower or Johnson as president of the United States.
9. Explain why economic problems may pose the greatest challenge to democratic states. 10. Analyse the extent to which Nehru was successful in overcoming the challenges he faced in governing India from 1947 to 1964.
11. Why did the attempt to establish democracy in Nigeria (1961–1966) fail?
12. “A written constitution is an essential element in a democratic state.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?

Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states

Topic 4 Nationalist and independence movements in Africa and Asia and post-1945 Central and Eastern European states
19. Analyse the impact of the Second World War (1939–1945) on independence movements in Africa and Asia.
20. Discuss the effects of the dissolution of Yugoslavia on its successor states.
21. Analyse the importance of either Ho Chi Minh (Vietnam) or Ben Bella (Algeria) in the struggle for independence in their respective countries.
22. Compare and contrast the challenges faced by two post-colonial governments in Asia and/or Africa.
23. Why was the independence process peaceful in Ghana but violent in Zimbabwe?
24. Assess the importance of the role of Walesa (Poland) or Havel (Czechoslovakia) in the movement to resist Soviet control.

Topic 5 The Cold War
26. Compare and contrast the reactions to peaceful coexistence during the 1950s and 1960s in any two countries.
27. “Brinkmanship was an effective deterrent to escalation.” With reference to two examples, assess the validity of this statement
29. How did events in Eastern Europe contribute to the end of the Cold War?
30. With reference to one country, assess the social impact of the Cold War.


November 2011 PAPER 2

Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars

  1. With reference to one war before 1945 and one war after 1945, assess the significance of either air power or naval power in deciding its outcome.
  2. “The contribution of outside intervention to victory in twentieth century civil wars was greatlyexaggerated.” With reference to two civil wars, each chosen from a different region, to what extentdo you agree with this statement?
  3. Analyse (a) the causes and (b) the short-term results of either the Algerian War (1954–1962) or the Gulf War (1991).
  4. Compare and contrast the social and economic results of two wars fought in the second half of the twentieth century.
  5. To what extent did the peace settlements after the First World War (a) deal with the issues which caused the war and (b) produce new problems, hindering future peace?
  6. Assess the importance of religious and economic factors in the origins of either the Spanish CivilWar (1936–1939) or the Indo-Pakistan wars (1947–1949, 1965, 1971).
Topic 2 Democratic states – challenges and responses
  1. “Weaknesses in the constitution and the failure of political parties to support democracy caused the failure of the multiparty state in Weimar Germany (1919–1933).” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
  2. In what ways, and with what success, did one democratic (multiparty) state deal with issues of either gender inequality or the inequitable distribution of wealth?
  3. To what extent were the problems faced by Nigeria between 1961 and 1966 successfully resolved?
  4. Analyse the methods used to attain civil rights in two democratic (multiparty) states, each chosen from a different region.
  5. Evaluate the domestic, social and economic policies of two of the following leaders of the United States between 1953 and 1969: Eisenhower; Kennedy; Johnson.
  6. Compare and contrast either social welfare systems or education systems in two democratic (multiparty) states.
Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
  1. In what ways, and with what success, did either Sukarno or Nasser deal with domestic challenges after gaining power?
  2. In what ways, and with what success, did one authoritarian or single-party ruler deal with internal opposition?
  3. To what extent was the maintenance of power by either Mao or Castro a result of successful economic policies?
  4. “The rise to power of authoritarian or single-party leaders depended upon the use of force rather than popular support.” With reference to two leaders, each chosen from a different region, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
  5. Compare and contrast the status and treatment of women or minorities in two authoritarian or single-party states, each
  6. Assess the role of each of the following in the rise to power of Stalin and Hitler: ideological appeal;underestimation by opponents; propaganda chosen from a different region.
Topic 4 Nationalist and independence movements in Africa and Asia and post-1945 Central and Eastern European states
  1. For what reasons, and with what results, was Soviet influence challenged in two countries in Central or Eastern Europe between 1945 and 1970?
  2. “Walesa’s leadership was the most important factor in the achievement of Poland’s independence from Soviet control.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
  3. In what ways, and with what success, did one Central or Eastern European state deal with social and economic problems after independence from Soviet control or the removal of centralized control?
  4. “Charismatic leadership was essential to the growth of independence movements in African and Asian colonial states.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
  5. Compare and contrast the methods used to achieve independence in the Gold Coast (Ghana) and the Belgian Congo (Zaire).
  6. To what extent were economic issues the most important challenge facing two post-colonial governments in Africa or Asia?
Topic 5 The Cold War
  1. “The Potsdam Conference marked the end of the wartime alliance and laid the foundations for post-war hostility.” With reference to the period up to 1949, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
  2. With reference to two countries, each chosen from a different region (excluding the US or the USSR), assess the social and economic impact of the Cold War.
  3. In what ways, and with what success, did the US and the USSR attempt to reduce Cold War tensions between 1956 and 1979?
  4. For what reasons, and with what results, did the Cold War affect the Middle East between 1956 and 1979?
  5. Compare and contrast the impact of two of the following leaders on the Cold War: Mao; Castro; Kennedy.
  6. To what extent did (a) ideological and (b) economic factors contribute to the ending of the Cold War?

 May 2012 PAPER 2TZ1
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars
  1.   “The success of guerrilla movements depends on the leader’s ability to maintain discipline and the support of their followers.” With reference to two guerrilla wars, assess the validity of this statement.
  1. Analyse the social and economic effects of one war that occurred in the first half of the twentieth century. 
  2. Assess the reasons for either the Indo-Pakistan War (1947–1949) or the Gulf War (1991).
  3. For what reasons, and with what results, did foreign intervention occur in either the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) or the Nigerian Civil War (1967–1970)?
  4. “Technology is a key factor in winning wars.” With reference to two wars that took place in the second half of the twentieth century, explain to what extent you agree with this statement.
  5. Assess the importance of each of the following as causes of either the First World War or the Second World War: treaties; economic factors; ideology.
Topic 2 Democratic states – challenges and responses
  1. With reference to one democratic state (excluding Weimar Germany), analyse (a) the challenges itfaced and (b) how successfully these challenges were overcome.
  2. “Full democracy undermined the state.” To what extent do you agree with this statement with reference to Germany (1919–1933)?
  3. Analyse to what extent pressure (lobby/interest) groups may both strengthen and weaken a democratic state.
  4. Assess how effectively the governments of either Canada (1968–1984) or Argentina (1983–1995) dealt with political and economic challenges.
  5. With reference to two democratic states, analyse the causes of political extremism and how successful the states were in dealing with it.
  6. Analyse how democracy was established in either South Africa after 1991 or Japan after 1945.
Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
  1. With reference to the leaders of two single-party states, each chosen from a different region, analyse to what extent internal conflict and weak governments contributed to their rise to power.
  2. Analyse the ways in which either Stalin or Nasser came to power.
  3. Assess the importance of the use of force for the establishment of totalitarian control.
  4. Assess the importance of the cult of personality in the maintenance of power of one of the following: Mao; Castro; Perón.
  5. Compare and contrast the treatment of religious groups in two single-party states, each chosen from a different region.
  6. Assess the success of either Hitler or Nyerere in implementing their social and economic policies.
Topic 4 Nationalist and independence movements in Africa and Asia and post-1945 Central and
Eastern European states
  1. Analyse the reasons for the growth of independence movements in one European colonial empire.
  2. “Pakistan owes its independence to the work of Jinnah.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
  3. Assess the factors which enabled one Eastern European state to gain independence from Soviet control.
  4. Analyse the importance of either Ho Chi Minh (Vietnam) or Nkrumah (Ghana) to the success of the independence movements in their respective countries.
  5. Why did post-colonial governments in Asia and Africa experience instability after gaining their independence?
  6. For what reasons, and with what results, did Yugoslavia dissolve?
Topic 5 The Cold War
  1. “Conflicting views about the treatment of Germany were a major cause of the Cold War.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
  2. By what methods, and with what results, did the USSR impose control on Eastern Europe between1945 and 1956?
  3. Analyse the reasons for, and the impact of, changes in US–Chinese relations in the 1970s.
  4. Assess the impact of the Cold War on the economies of two countries, each chosen from a different region.
  5. Analyse the impact of either Gorbachev or Reagan on the course of the Cold War in the 1980s.
  6. Assess the impact of the Cold War on two non-aligned states, each chosen from a different region.
 May 2013 PAPER 2 TZ1

Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars
1. Assess the role of each of the following in causing the First World War (1914–1918): the desire for revenge; economic motives; Balkan nationalism.
2. “The length and outcome of the civil war was dependent upon outside involvement.” With reference to two twentieth century civil wars, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
3. With reference to the period 1919–1939, analyse the factors which hindered the maintenance of international peace.
4. Analyse the reasons for, and results of, either the Indo-Pakistan wars (1947–1971) or the Iran–Iraq war (1980–1988).
5. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the role and status of women change as a result of twentieth century total war?
6. Account for the use of guerrilla warfare in the Chinese Civil War (1927–1949) and estimate its contribution to Communist victory.

Topic 2 Democratic states – challenges and responses
7. To what extent did one democratic state, in the first half of the twentieth century, cope with the economic challenges it faced?
8. In what ways, and with what success, did de Gaulle deal with the challenges faced by France (1958–1969)?
9. Analyse the reasons for, and results of, the failure of democratic government in Nigeria (1961–1966).
10. With reference to one democratic state in the twentieth century, examine the reasons for, and success of, movements for the attainment of civil rights.
11. “Internal political extremism was the main challenge to democracy in the twentieth century.” With reference to one democratic state, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
12. Identify the social and economic problems facing South Africa (1991–2000) and evaluate the policies adopted to deal with them.


Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
13. To what extent did two single-party rulers, each chosen from a different region, fulfil the promises made during their rise to power?
14. By what methods, and with what success, did one single-party leader try to eliminate domestic opposition?
15. Compare and contrast the social and economic policies of Perón and Castro.
16. Assess the importance of each of the following in the rise to power of Stalin: errors made by rivals; the use of propaganda; popular support.
17. With reference to either Hitler or Mao, examine the reasons for, and results of, educational policies in the single-party state.
18. Analyse the impact of single-party rule upon minorities in two single-party states, each chosen from a different region.

Topic 4 Nationalist and independence movements in Africa and Asia and post-1945 Central and Eastern European states
19. “Political and economic instability in the decade after independence was the colonial legacy.” With reference to two post-colonial states, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
20. Compare and contrast the methods used to attain independence in Ghana and Algeria.
21. For what reasons, and with what results, were there challenges to Soviet control in Eastern Europe up to 1968?
22. With reference to one post-colonial state which gained independence after 1945 in either Africa or
Asia, examine how the Cold War helped and hindered its development.
23. To what extent was the dissolution of Yugoslavia the result of the rise of long suppressed ethnic and separatist movements?
24. With reference to one ex-colonial African or Asian state or one Central and Eastern European state before independence, assess the contribution of social and economic issues to the growth of nationalism.

Topic 5 The Cold War
25. “Post-war enmity was the product of longer term ideological differences.” To what extent do you agree with this statement on the origins of the Cold War up to 1949?
26. For what reasons, and with what success, did the United States adopt a policy of containment between 1947 and 1962?
27. Account for the change in Sino–Soviet relations after the death of Stalin in 1953.
28. Assess the contribution of one of the following to the development of Cold War tensions: Truman;
Mao; Castro.
29. Analyse the reasons for, and results of, Soviet involvement in the war in Afghanistan (1979–1988).
30. With reference to two states, each chosen from a different region, examine the cultural impact of the Cold War.


May 2013 PAPER 2 TZ2
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars
1. Assess the role of each of the following in causing the Second World War (1939–1945): the Peace Settlement after the First World War; the economic crisis of 1929 onwards; ideological extremism.
2. With reference to two twentieth century civil wars, to what extent do you agree with the claim that victory was decided by the nature and extent of foreign intervention?
3. Compare and contrast the factors that helped and hindered attempts at collective security in the ten years after each world war.
4. Analyse the reasons for, and results of, either the Algerian War (1954–1962) or the Gulf War (1991).
5. Examine the extent to which the role and status of women was affected by their involvement in total war in the twentieth century.
6. “The contribution of guerrilla warfare to victory in the Chinese Civil War (1927–1937 and 1946–1949) was greatly exaggerated.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
Topic 2 Democratic states – challenges and responses
 

7. “The greatest threat to democratic government came from internal rather than external sources.” With reference to one democratic state in the first half of the twentieth century, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
8. In what ways, and with what success, did Alfonsin and Menem deal with the challenges faced by Argentina (1983–1995)?
9. Identify the social and economic problems faced by Nehru (1947–1964) and evaluate the policies adopted to deal with them.
10. Analyse the methods used by, and the success of, movements for the attainment of civil rights in one twentieth century democratic state.
11. How successfully did one twentieth century democratic state attempt to deal with the issues of inequitable distribution of wealth and gender inequality?
12. With reference to Canada, analyse the successes and failures of the democratic leadership in dealing with problems that faced the state between 1968 and 1984.
Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
13. “Ideological appeal was less important than social and economic distress in the rise to power of single-party leaders.” With reference to two single-party leaders, each chosen from a different region, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
14. With reference to one totalitarian state, analyse the nature and extent of domestic opposition and the methods used to deal with such opposition.
15. Compare and contrast the economic and social policies of two of the following: Nasser; Castro; Nyerere.
16. Assess the importance of each of the following in the rise to power of Stalin: errors made by rivals; the use of propaganda; popular support.
17. In what ways, and with what results, was the status of women affected by the policies of either Hitler or Mao?
18. Analyse the impact of single-party rule upon the arts in two single-party states, each chosen from a different region.
Topic 4 Nationalist and independence movements in Africa and Asia and post-1945 Central and Eastern European states 

19. “The haste with which decolonization took place was the result of the weakness of the colonizing power rather than the strength of colonial nationalism.” With reference to two ex-colonial states, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
20. Compare and contrast the methods used to attain independence in India (including Pakistan) in 1947 and Indochina in 1954.
21. For what reasons, and with what results, did challenges to Soviet control in Eastern Europe occur from 1968 to 1989?
22. With reference to one post-colonial state, assess the economic and political challenges it faced in the decade after independence.
23. Analyse the reasons for, and results of, the dissolution of Yugoslavia.
24. With reference to one ex-colonial African or Asian state or one Central and Eastern European state before independence, assess the contribution of social and economic issues to the growth of nationalism.
Topic 5 The Cold War 

25. “Mutual fears and the search for security were the reasons for the breakdown of East–West relations between 1945 and 1949.” With specific reference to developments in this period, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
26. Analyse the reasons for, and results of, the adoption and expansion of the doctrine of containment up to 1962.
27. For what reasons, and with what results, did Sino–Soviet relations deteriorate after 1953?
28. Assess the contribution of one of the following to the development of Cold War tensions: Mao; Kennedy; Reagan.
29. Analyse the role of the war in Afghanistan (1979–1988) in hastening the decline of the Soviet Union.
30. With reference to two states, each chosen from a different region (excluding the United States and the USSR), examine the economic impact of the Cold War.



November 2013 PAPER 2  
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars
1. Analyse the economic and political causes of two civil wars, each chosen from a different region.
2. “The role of alliances in the origin and expansion of the war in 1914 was greatly exaggerated.” With reference to the First World War, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
3. Why, and with what consequences, was there so little opposition to aggressive expansionism in the period 1931–1939?
4. Assess the contribution of guerrilla warfare to the outcome of either the Chinese Civil War (1927–1937 and 1946–1949) or the Algerian War (1954–1962).
5. With reference to the period 1945–1965, analyse the factors that helped and hindered attempts to promote collective security.
6. To what extent was the outcome of either the Falklands War (1982) or the Gulf War (1991) determined by technological developments?


Topic 2 Democratic states – challenges and responses
7. With reference to one democratic state in the period up to 1939, examine how successfully it was able to deal with the economic and political challenges it faced.
8. By what methods, and with what success, did Nehru deal with the internal and external problems facing India (1947–1964)?
9. Evaluate the measures undertaken by the governments of Eisenhower and Kennedy to promote the attainment of civil rights in the United States (1953–1963).
10. Analyse the reasons for, and the results of, the breakdown of democracy in Nigeria (1961–1966).
11. With reference to the period after 1950, assess the effectiveness of movements to promote either
gender equality or civil rights in one democratic state.
12. In what ways, and with what success, have two democratic states dealt with the challenge of internal political extremism in the second half of the twentieth century?


Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
13. “Their rise to power was made possible because of the failure of existing governments to deal with economic and political problems.” With reference to two single-party leaders, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
14. In what ways, and with what success, did either Perón or Castro deal with the economic and social problems they faced in power?
15. With reference to one single-party state, examine the nature and extent of internal opposition and the success of the single-party state in dealing with this opposition.
16. By what methods, and with what success, did either Hitler or Stalin attempt to establish a totalitarian state after coming to power?
17. To what extent was a successful domestic policy the reason for the maintenance of power of one of the following: Sukarno; Nasser; Nyerere?
18. With reference to one single-party or authoritarian leader, assess the extent to which the promises made during the rise to power were kept after they came to power.


Topic 4 Nationalist and independence movements in Africa and Asia and post-1945 Central and Eastern European states
19. Compare and contrast the contributions of the following to the independence movements in their countries: Havel (Czechoslovakia) and Walesa (Poland) or Ho Chi Minh (Vietnam) and Ben Bella (Algeria).
20. In what ways, and with what success, did two post-independence states deal with either ethnic tensions or separatist movements? Support your answer using examples from any Asian, African or Central and Eastern European states.
21. “Both religion and economics were equally important to the success of the independence movements.” With reference to one Central and Eastern European state, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
22. Examine the impact of the Second World War on the growth of the independence movement in two colonial states in Africa or Asia. Support your answer using examples from any Asian or African states.
23. Examine the social and economic consequences of independence for two successor states of the former Republic of Yugoslavia up to 2000.
24. To what extent was the independence of India (1947) the result of Gandhi’s leadership of the nationalist movement?


Topic 5 The Cold War
25. “The claim that the breakdown of superpower relations between 1945 and 1950 was the result of mutual fear and suspicion has been greatly exaggerated.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
26. In what ways, and to what extent, did the Soviet policy of peaceful coexistence affect superpower relations from 1956 to 1964?
27. Analyse the reasons for the adoption and abandonment of the policy of détente (1969–1979).
28. Compare and contrast two of the following as Cold War conflicts: Korea (1950–1953);
Congo (1960–1964); Vietnam (1965–1973); Afghanistan (1979–1989).
29. Account for the changing nature of Sino–Soviet relations from 1949 to 1976.
30. Examine the role played by economic factors and the arms race in the collapse of the USSR and the end of the Cold War by 1991.



May 2014  
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars
  1. With reference to either the Central Powers in the First World War (1914–1918) or the Axis Powers in the Second World War (1939–1945), to what extent was their defeat the result of poor tactics and strategies?
  2. Assess the importance of economic causes in the origins of either the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939)or the Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988).
  3. “Victory was the result of superior technological development.” With reference to either the Falklands War (1982) or the Gulf War (1991), to what extent do you agree with this statement?
  4. Examine the factors that hindered the successful establishment of collective security in either the period 1920–1930 or the period 1945–1955.
  5. Evaluate the contribution of external involvement to the outcome of two civil wars, each chosen froma different region.
  6. “The poor military strategy of governments is the principal reason for the success of guerrilla movements.” With reference to two guerrilla wars of the 20th century, how valid is this statement?
Topic 2 Democratic states — challenges and responses

  1. Examine the obstacles to the success of democracy in Weimar Germany (1919–1933).
  2. For what reasons, and by what methods, did political and economic change occur in Japan between 1945 and 1952?
  3. With reference to one democratic state in the first half of the 20th century, examine how it coped with threats from either internal or external sources.
  4. Examine the methods used, and level of success achieved, in the struggle to gain gender equality in one 20th century democratic state.
  5. To what extent was Canada successful in dealing with the political and economic challenges it faced in the period 1968–1984?
  6. “Coalition government proved unworkable and unable to promote stability.” With reference to two 20th century democratic states, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
  1. “Widespread support for the ideology of authoritarian or single-party leaders was the most important factor in their rise to power.” With reference to two leaders, each chosen from a different region, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
  2. Assess the importance of the use of force and economic policies in the maintenance of power of one authoritarian or single-party ruler.
  3. “The domestic policies of Stalin were beneficial to the Soviet Union up to 1939.” How valid is this statement?
  4. With reference to one of the following leaders: Castro; Perón; Nyerere, assess the extent to which his economic policies were successful.
  5. Analyse the successes and failures of either Mao or Nasser as leader of a single-party state.
  6. Examine the status of women or the role of education in two single-party or authoritarian states, each chosen from a different region.
Topic 4 Nationalist and independence movements in Africa and Asia and post-1945 Central and Eastern European states

  1. With reference to one African or Asian nationalist movement, assess the reasons for its success in achieving independence from colonial rule.
  2. “Challenges to Soviet control of Central and Eastern European and Balkan states (1945–1968) were both rare and unsuccessful.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
  3. Compare and contrast the methods used in the struggle for independence and the reasons why independence was finally granted to Algeria and the Belgian Congo.
  4. In what ways, and with what success, did Mugabe deal with the challenges faced by the newly independent state of Zimbabwe?
  5. How successful were the methods used to deal with the political challenges faced by one Central and Eastern European or Balkan state after it achieved independence?
  6. Assess the importance of the leadership of either Ho Chi Minh in the organization of resistance tocolonial control or Havel in the organization of resistance to Soviet control.

Topic 5 The Cold War
  1. Evaluate the reasons for the change in East–West relations from the Yalta conference to the end of the Potsdam conference.
  2. To what extent did the US policy of containment prove effective in limiting Soviet expansion between 1947 and 1962?
  3. Examine the social and cultural impact of the Cold War on two states (excluding the US and the USSR), each chosen from a different region.
  4. Assess the significance of events in either Germany (1945–1961) or the Congo (1960–1964) to the development of the Cold War.
  5. Evaluate the causes of the change in US-Chinese relations after 1969.
  6. “The break-up of the Soviet Union was the unintended result of policies introduced by Gorbachev.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?

November 2014 PAPER 2

Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of war

  1. With reference to one Allied power and one Central Power, examine the reasons for their involvement in the First World War in 1914.
  2. Examine the reasons for, and significance of, foreign intervention in two 20th century civil wars,each chosen from a different region.
  3. Compare and contrast the impact of naval and air power in two 20th century wars before 1945 or two 20th century wars after 1945.
  4. Examine the successes and failures of collective security in the 10 years after either the First World War or the Second World War.
  5. Evaluate the importance of religion and economic factors as causes of either the Indo–Pakistan wars (1947–1949; 1965; 1971) or the Nigerian Civil War (1967–1970).
  6. Examine the reasons for, and the consequences of, the war between Iran and Iraq (1980–1988).
Topic 2 Democratic states — challenges and responses
  1. Examine the reasons for the establishment of democracy in Germany in 1919, and evaluate how effectively it dealt with the economic and political challenges it faced up to 1929.
  2. “The problems that arose from economic crises were the greatest challenge to democratic government in the first half of the 20th century.” With reference to two states, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
  3. Evaluate the reasons for, and methods used in, the post-war reconstruction of Japan between 1945 and 1952.
  4. Examine the extent to which South Africa was successful in addressing the political, social and economic challenges it faced between 1991 and 2000.
  5. Examine the methods used, and the level of success achieved, by two 20th century democratic states in their efforts to address gender inequality.
  6. Examine the methods used, and the level of success achieved, by one civil rights movement in a 20th century democratic state.
Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
  1. Examine the importance of each of the following in the rise to power of either Stalin or Hitler: popular support for their aims; underestimation by opponents; economic conditions.
  2. Compare and contrast the economic and social policies of two of the following: Mao; Nasser; Castro.
  3. With reference to two authoritarian or single-party states, each chosen from a different region, evaluate the effectiveness of the methods used to deal with opposition.
  4. With reference to two authoritarian or single-party states, each chosen from a different region, evaluate the impact of domestic policies on the status of women.
  5. To what extent was Nyerere successful in achieving his domestic policy aims in Tanzania?
  6. “The use of force was the most important factor in the maintenance of power of the authoritarian or single-party leader.” With reference to two authoritarian or single-party leaders, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
Topic 4 Nationalist and independence movements in Africa and Asia and post-1945 Central and Eastern European states

  1. Compare and contrast the importance of leadership in the achievement of independence in either: two colonial states in Asia or Africa; or two Soviet-controlled states in Central/Eastern Europe.
  2. Evaluate the role of mass movements and economic factors in the growth of independence movements in either one colony in Africa or Asia or one sovietized state in Central/Eastern Europe or the Balkans.
  3. With reference to one independence movement in either Asia or Africa, examine the impact of armed struggle on the overall success of that movement.
  4. Evaluate the social and economic challenges faced by either one former Soviet satellite state in Central/Eastern Europe or one successor state of the former Yugoslavia.
  5. Examine the impact of the Cold War on post-independence conflicts in either Angola or the Belgian Congo/Zaire.
  6. “Separatist movements were the main reason for the dissolution of Yugoslavia (1991–1992).” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
Topic 5 The Cold War
  1. To what extent did decisions about post-war Germany contribute to the breakdown of East–West relations between 1945 and 1949?
  2. Evaluate the reasons for the adoption by the Soviet Union of peaceful coexistence and examine the impact of this policy on Cold War relations between 1956 and 1964.
  3. Evaluate the successes and failures of the policy of containment up to 1973 in either the Middle East or Asia.
  4. To what extent did the arms race influence the development of the Cold War after 1970?
  5. Compare and contrast the economic impact of the Cold War on two countries (excluding the USSR and the US), each chosen from a different region.
  6. To what extent were Reagan’s policies responsible for ending the Cold War?
Check out Historians and Quotes for Essays 
 and the separate Historiography for the Russian Revolution
as well as the Guide to IBDP History Paper 1

Essays on Causes and Practice of the Great War

SL Japanese ab initio SL Spanish A1 SL History HL Biology HL Physics HL Mathematics HL English A1 HL French B HL Social and cultural anthropology HL Chemistry SL Mathematics SL Theatre, gcse, igcse, ap, markscheme markschemes past papers past exams question bank questionbankHL English A1 SL Norwegian A1 HL History (Europe) SL Biology SL Mathematical studies HL Visual arts SL Gujarati A1 HL English B HL Geography HL Business and management SL Physics SL Mathematics SL English A1 SL French B HL Economics HL Chemistry SL Physics HL Mathematics SL Spanish ab initio HL Norwegian A1 HL German B HL Geography SL Biology SL Mathematics May 2013 November 2013 May 2014 November 2014  History Route 2 Higher level and Standard level Specimen papers 1, 2 and 3 For first examinations in 2010 CONTENTS History higher and standard level specimen Source Booklet History higher level paper 1 specimen paper History higher level paper 1 specimen markscheme History standard level paper 1 specimen paper History standard level paper 1 specimen markscheme History higher and standard level paper 2 specimen paper History higher and standard level paper 2 specimen markscheme History higher level paper 3 — Aspects of the history of Africa specimen paper History higher level paper 3 — Aspects of the history of Africa specimen markscheme History higher level paper 3 — Aspects of the history of the Americas specimen paper History higher level paper 3 — Aspects of the history of the Americas specimen markscheme History higher level paper 3 — Aspects of the history of Asia and Oceania specimen paper History higher level paper 3 — Aspects of the history of Asia and Oceania specimen markscheme History higher level paper 3 — Aspects of the history of Europe and the Middle East specimen paper History higher level paper 3 — Aspects of the history of Europe and the Middle East specimen markscheme HIGHER LEVEL AND STANDARD LEVEL PAPER 1 SPECImEN Specimen Paper III Why were there two revolutions in Russia in 1917? How and why did the First World War bring about social and economic changes in any one European country? What were the main criticisms of the League of Nations and to what extent were they justified? How far is it true to say that the Weimar Republic was a complete failure? Compare and contrast the domestic policies of Hitler and Mussolini up to 1939. What were the main causes and results of the Spanish Civil War? What do you understand by the term appeasement? How far was appeasement responsible for the outbreak of war in 1939? Evaluate the domestic and foreign policies of Khrushchev. Examine the impact of the Cold War on Western Europe between 1945 and 1965. Compare and contrast the policies and importance to their countries of Adenauer and De Gaulle. Analyze the main developments in education in any one European country in the twentieth century. What were the main economic problems faced by the Soviet bloc (excluding the USSR) between 1950 and 1990? 1998 Evaluate the relative importance of imperialism, the arms race and the failure of diplomacy in causing the First World War. Compare and contrast the roles of Lenin and Trotsky in establishing the USSR up to 1924. How far is it true to say that the Weimar Republic was doomed from its foundation? “Its frown will soon be more dreaded than a nation’s arms.” Why did this comment on the League of Nations, made in 1929 prove to be incorrect? Compare and contrast the foreign policies up to the outbreak of the Second World War of Mussolini and Hitler. Analyse the causes and results of the Spanish Civil War. Assess the impact of Hitler, and the Second World War on one Scandinavian country. How and why did the Second World War bring about the social and economic changes in one European country excluding Scandinavia? Why and with what results for Europe did the USSR become involved in the Cold War up to the death of Stalin? Explain whom you consider was more successful in his own country, Adenauer or de Gaulle? Analyze the internal history of one East European country, excluding the USSR, from 1953 to 1990. How has twentieth century Europe been affected by two of the following: increased leisure opportunities; pressure groups; peace movements? 1999 Analyze the part played by the failure of Tsardom in causing the February/March Revolution in Russia in 1917. “In 1914 Europe arrived at a point when every country was afraid of the present and Germany was afraid of the future.” What do you understand by this comment and how far do you agree with it? Compare and contrast the economic aims and policies of Lenin (1917 to 1924) and Stalin (1928 to 1941). How and why was Hitler able to become dictator of Germany? Why was the League of Nations ignored in the pre-war crises of 1938 to 1939? With what justification can the term “total war” be applied to the Second World War? Compare and contrast political and economic developments under Adenauer in Germany and de Gaulle in France. How, why, and with what success, did Tito follow independent policies in Yugoslavia between 1945 and 1980? “Politically Khrushchev brought new hope to the USSR and to Europe, economically he was a disaster.” How justified is this comment of Khrushchev as leader of the Soviet Union 1953 to 1964? Explain in what ways and to what extent either Spain or Portugal moved away from dictatorship in the 1970s. Assess the importance of the changes in either the media or working conditions and patterns, in twentieth century Europe. May 2000 1. To what extent were weaknesses of the French Monarchy responsible for the outbreak of revolution in France in 1789?2. What part did Napoleon I’s policies play in his fall from power in 1814?3. Evaluate the extent to which Metternich achieved his aims for Austria and for Europe.4. How far is it true to say that, ‘Louis XVIII’s policies proved that the Bourbon restoration in France could work, but that the policies of Charles X ensured it would fail’?5. Account for the outbreak of any two revolutions in 1848 and assess their results.6. Analyse the aims, motives and policies of Cavour between 1852 and 1861.7. Compare and contrast Bismarck’s policies towards Austria and France between 1862 and 1871.8. In what ways did the domestic and foreign policies of Disraeli benefit Britain?9. How far is it true to say that Russia was transformed into a modern country between 1855and 1900?10. How important was the search for raw materials and new markets as a reason for European imperialism?11. To what extent, and with what results, did Napoleon III liberalise the Second Empire in France?12. Discuss the changing relations between either Sweden and Norway or Finland and Russia in the nineteenth century.13. Account for the popularity of the novel in nineteenth century Europe.14. In what ways did the crises and political scandals in France both weaken and strengthen the Third Republic between 1880 and 1905?15. Compare and contrast the causes of the 1905 and February/March 1917 revolutions in Russia.16. ‘The Versailles Treaty was criticised by both winners and losers’. How justified was thiscriticism?17. What were the political and economic successes and failures of the Weimar Republic?18. Why did the history of Italy from 1900 to 1922 lead to the rise of Mussolini and the establishment of a Fascist Regime?19. What was the impact of the Wall Street crash upon any one European country (excluding Germany) up to 1939?20. Explain why Franco’s forces won the Spanish Civil War, and why the Republican forces lost.21. Why, and with what results, was the policy of appeasement adopted by Britain and France inthe 1930s?22. Compare the Cold War policies of Stalin and Khrushchev from 1945 to 1964.23. Explain how any one western European state recovered from the devastation of the Second World War.24. What factors led to the collapse of Communist domination in Eastern Europe by 1990?25. ‘A revolution.’ How accurately does this describe changes in transport in twentieth centuryEurope? November 2000 1. Assess the importance of the Third Estate on the outbreak and development of the French Revolution between 1789 and 1795.2. Evaluate the foreign and domestic achievements of Napoleon I as Emperor of France (1804-1815).3. How far do you agree with the statement that ‘security not revenge’ was the main objective of the statesmen at the Congress of Vienna in 1815?4. How far can it be argued that “Gladstone pursued a more successful foreign policy than Disraeli”?5. How serious an obstacle to Italian unification was the Papacy between 1815 and 1870?6. Why was it that Prussia, rather than Austria, had achieved the dominant position in Germanyby 1866?7. “The establishment of the Dual Monarchy in 1867 delayed, but could not prevent, the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.” How justified is this view?8. What factors led to the increase of opposition to the ruling Romanov dynasty in Russia between 1855 and 1905?9. Explain the impact of developments in transportation in the nineteenth century on industrial expansion in Europe. You may choose to limit your answer to one country.10. What factors contributed to the demand for the reform and extension of education in the nineteenth century?11. How stable was the Third French Republic in the years before and after the First World War?12. By referring to any one Scandinavian country explain the processes which led to thedevelopment of constitutional government in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.13. “The fact that Stalin became the dominant leader of Russia by 1929 indicates that he was a more skilful politician than Trotsky.” How far do you agree with this statement?14. “Of all the factors that led to the outbreak of World War One in 1914, imperialism was by far the most important.” How far do you agree with this statement?15. What was the significance of the Locarno Agreement (1925) for European affairs between 1919 and 1939?16. Critically evaluate the successes and failures of Mussolini’s domestic policies in Italy between 1922 and 1939.17. Why did the Constitutional Monarchy in Spain collapse in 1931?18. “In reality Hitler and the Nazi Party were far less totalitarian than is commonly believed.” By referring to events in Germany between 1933 and 1945 comment on the truth of this statement.19. Analyse the factors which enabled the USSR to survive the German invasion of 1941.20. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of Khrushchev and Brezhnev.21. How far did the Marshall Plan succeed in fulfilling its objectives for Western Europe by 1955?22. To what extent did the establishment of the communist bloc between 1945 and 1950 represent the failure of democracy in Eastern Europe?23. Examine how and why the position of women in European society has changed since 1945.24. By referring to any one European country after 1945 analyse how developments in domesticpolitics were affected by the Second World War.25. Why did so many countries in Eastern Europe turn away from communism in the 1980s? May 2001 1. In what ways and for what reasons was the French Revolution, between 1789 and 1795, a period of constitutional and legal changes? 2. In 1810 Napoleon I wrote “My principle is France before everything.”To what extent did the career of Napoleon I from 1799 to 1815 follow this principle? 3. “The success of the Congress of Vienna has been much exaggerated.”How valid is this assessment of the short-term and long-term results of the Congress? 4. Compare and contrast the aims and policies of Louis XVIII and Charles X. 5. Why has it been claimed that Italian unification needed both a Cavour and a Garibaldi? 6. Analyse the successes and failures of one British Prime Minister between 1837 and 1901. 7. How far is it true to say that Austria lost control of Germany rather than Prussia gained it? 8. Evaluate the aims and results of Russian foreign policy between 1850 and 1900. 9. “Bismarck’s policies both at home and abroad, between the years 1871 and 1890, merely stored up problems for the future, both for Germany and Europe.”To what extent do you agree with this verdict? 10. In what ways did developments in transport and industry increase the prosperity of one European country in the nineteenth century? 11. What were the important trends of intellectual and cultural developments in Europe in the nineteenth century? 12. Analyse the successes and failures of Napoleon III’s domestic policies. 13. Examine the impact during the nineteenth century of (a) one Scandinavian country on Europe, and (b) Europe on one Scandinavian country. 14. Account for the weakness and decline of Austria-Hungary between 1867 and 1914. 15. "Much of Lenin’s success was no doubt explained by his towering domination over his [Bolshevik] party.” To what extent does this explanation account for his rise to power and rule, 1917 to 1924? 16. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the Treaty of Versailles cause political problems in the 1920s in Europe, for both the victorious and the defeated nations? 17. What is meant by a search for collective security, why was it necessary and how successful were European countries in their search between 1919 and 1939? 18. Evaluate Mussolini’s rule in Italy between 1922 and 1940. 19. Assess the impact of political and constitutional developments in either Spain between 1930 and 1939, or Portugal between 1968 and 1976. 20. Examine the effects of Nazi Germany on either one Scandinavian or on one east or central European country (excluding USSR and Germany). 21. Account for the defeat of Germany and her allies in the Second World War. 22. For what reasons, and with what results, was Western Europe affected by the Cold War after 1945? 23. Compare and contrast the policies of Khrushchev and Gorbachev. 24. Analyse political and economic changes since 1953 in either one central or east European country (excluding USSR). 25. Examine the impact on one European country of, either educational reforms or artistic movements. November 2001 1. Explain why the assembling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the overthrow of Louis XVI.2. To what extent were Napoleon’s domestic policies based upon the principles of the French Revolution?3. How far did the Congress System succeed in achieving the aims of its members between 1815 and 1822?4. How far is it true to say that Peel’s foreign policies were more effective than his domestic policies?5. Assess the relative importance of the roles played by Mazzini and Cavour in the unification of Italy.6. “While the Crimean War was essentially an unimportant conflict in an insignificant place its results were irreversible.” How far do you agree with this statement?7. How successful was Bismarck as Chancellor in his foreign policies between 1862 and 1890?8. “The key change in industrial development was the replacement of competitive industrial capitalism by monopoly capitalism.” Discuss the truth of this statement by referring to two specific examples from Europe in the last quarter of the nineteenth century.9. By referring to two specific examples, discuss the effects of the increase in democratic representation in Europe (excluding Scandinavia) between 1850 and 1900.10. Why did the French Republic, which appeared so unstable, survive between 1875 and 1914?11. Assess the effect of the development of constitutional government on the inhabitants of any one Scandinavian country in the nineteenth or twentieth centuries.12. How far did the achievements of Alexander II, between 1855 and 1881, justify his claim to be the “Tsar Liberator”?13. “Economically advanced, but politically backward.” How far do you agree with this assessment of Germany under Wilhelm II between 1890 and 1914?14. Why did World War One start in 1914 and not earlier?15. Why did the Reds win the Russian Civil War (1918 to 1921)?16. Why did the League of Nations fail to achieve its aim of disarmament between 1920 and 1939?17. “The key factor was their control of the media.” How far does this statement explain the success of Mussolini and Hitler in retaining power in Italy and Germany respectively?18. What consequences did Franco’s victory in the Spanish Civil War have for Spain up to his death in 1975?19. How significant was the year 1941 for the course of the Second World War?20. How successful was Soviet foreign policy under Khrushchev?21. Why, after dominating the political life of France after 1958, did Charles de Gaulle resign in 1969?22. How important for Europe and for Y ugoslavia was Tito’ s refusal to allow Y ugoslavia to be part of the Soviet bloc after 1945?23. To what extent do you agree with the view that “terrorism is a justifiable weapon in the arsenal of European politics if it is the only means through which success may be achieved”?24. What were the most important effects of Salazar’s domestic policies in Portugal between 1932 and 1968?25. What factors led to the reunification of Germany in 1990? May 2002 1. To what extent were both poverty and prosperity causes of the 1789 French Revolution?2. Why did Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I) become ruler of France and what were the results of his period in power?3. Evaluate the successes and failures of the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) in the period that followed, until 1850.4. Why, and to what extent, had Prussia replaced Austria as the leading power in the German Confederation by 1862?5. "A popular patriot." How far do you agree with this judgment of Garibaldi's contribution to Italian unification?6. Compare and contrast the foreign and imperial policies (excluding Ireland) of Disraeli and Gladstone from 1868 to 1886.7. Assess the aims and achievements of Bismarck's foreign and domestic policies between 1871 and 1890.8. To what extent did Alexander II succeed in reforming Russian life and institutions?9. "Success abroad and failure at home." To what extent do you agree with this judgement of thepolicies of Napoleon III?10. Analyse the social and political effects of the developments during the nineteenth century in one or more European countries, of two of the following: agriculture; social legislation; transport.11. Assess the political and economic development of one Scandinavian country in the nineteenth century.12. Evaluate the importance of Austria-Hungary on European developments between 1867 and 1918.13. In what ways, and for what reasons, had the quality of education improved and the number of people educated increased, in one European country by 1900? 14. Analyse the causes and results until the end of 1917, of the first 1917 revolution in Russia. 15. How did the treaties which followed the First World War affect Europe up to 1929? 16. “Lenin succeeded in convincing the Russian people that the path to happiness lay through lawlessness, arbitrary rule and violence.” To what extent does Lenin’s position in, and rule of, the USSR between 1918 and his death in 1924 support this statement? 17. To what extent is it true to say that the League of Nations failed (a) because of its idealistic origins, and (b) in spite of its idealistic origins? 18. Assess the successes and failures of Mussolini's domestic policies.19. Analyse the causes and results of either the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), or thePortuguese Revolution of 1974.20. For what reasons could it be argued that the Second World War in Europe was 'total war'?21.Evaluate the impact of Stalin’s policies between 1941 and 1953 on the USSR, and on Europe. 22. "In spite of the ravages of the Second World War and the anxiety of the Cold War, the period 1945 to 1990 was one of reconstruction and development in western Europe." To what extent do you agree with this statement?23. Compare and contrast the career and importance of two of the following: Adenauer; De Gaulle; Khrushchev.24. How and why were conditions and patterns of work affected and changed by gender issues during the twentieth century?25. Analyse economic and political developments in one eastern European country, excluding the USSR, in the second half of the twentieth century. November 2002 1. Why was Louis XVI executed in 1793?2. “When one thinks of Napoleon, one thinks of war.” Discuss Napoleon’s use of war as ameans of achieving his goals outside France between 1800 and 1815.3. Why did the Congress System collapse after 1822?4. How successful were the foreign policies followed by Palmerston both as Foreign Secretary and Prime Minister?5. How united was Italy by 1871?6. Analyse the effects of the 1848 Revolution in Prussia on the eventual unification of Germanyin 1871.7. “The most dangerous moment for a bad government is usually when it begins to reform itself.” How far do you agree with this assessment of Russia under Alexander II?8. In what ways can the 1878 Congress of Berlin be seen as a turning point in the Eastern Question?9. Assess the impact upon Germany and Europe, between 1888 and 1914, of Kaiser Wilhelm II’s accession to power.10. How successful, economically and politically, was European imperialism between 1885 and 1910?11. Assess the effects of any one of the following on nineteenth-century social and political thought: romanticism; the arts; scientific development.12. “He was out of touch with reality.” How far do you agree with this assessment of Louis Napoleon?13. Assess the political and economic developments in any one Scandinavian country in eitherthe nineteenth or the twentieth century.14. Assess the effects of the creation of the Bolshevik Party on Russia up to 1921.15. How effectively did Stalin deal with domestic opposition between 1924 and 1953?16. “The Treaty of Versailles was fatally flawed.” To what extent do you agree with thisstatement?17. How far do you agree that the principles upon which the League of Nations was based were unsuitable for the political and economic realities of the 1920s?18. How far do you agree that the Spanish Civil War was really an ideological struggle between fascism and communism?19. In what ways did Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany differ ideologically?20. Why, and with what effects on Europe, was the Nazi-Soviet Pact signed in August 1939?21. Assess the impact of Nikita Khrushchev on both the Soviet Union and Europe between 1953 and 1964.22. Why did it take so long for Great Britain to become a member of the European Economic Community?23. Why was the relationship between western and eastern Europe so hostile between 1946 and 1961?24. Assess the influence of Tito on internal Yugoslav affairs between 1946 and 1970.25. “The impetus behind the movement for social and political equality between men and women has gone.” How far do you agree with this statement when analysing the role of the feminist movement in Europe between 1975 and 1990? May 2003 1. To what extent was an outdated monarchy the cause of the 1789 French Revolution?2. Evaluate the results for France, and for Europe, of Napoleon Bonaparte’s foreign policy.3. For what reasons, and with what results, did the Congress of Vienna and the various meetings of the Congress System, take place?4. Why did Louis Philippe become King of France in 1830, but lose his throne in 1848?5. Compare and contrast Peel and Palmerston as statesmen and politicians of Victorian Britain.6. “Cavour united Italy not because he intended or wanted to, but because circumstances forced him to.” To what extent do you agree with this judgement?7. In what ways, and with what results, did economic developments and the 1848 revolutions affect the changing balance of power between Austria and Prussia between 1815 and 1862?8. “Alexander II tried to reform Russian institutions only because the Crimean War showed that Russia was no longer a great military power.” Use specific examples of Alexander’s reforms to show to what extent you agree with this assertion.9. In what ways, and with what results between 1862 and 1871, was Germany unified under Prussia?10. In what ways, and with what results, did the daily life and status of women change during the nineteenth century? Specific evidence should be given from one or more European countries.11. Explain and evaluate the demands for, and the extension of, the franchise in one European country during the nineteenth century.12. Why and with what effects on both countries, was Norway ceded to Sweden in 1814, and the union between the two countries dissolved in 1905?13. Analyse the main political developments in either France or Spain between 1848 and 1914.14. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the First World War lead to economic and social changes? Specific examples should be given from one or more European countries for the period 1914 to 1930.15. Compare and contrast the nature and results of the two 1917 Russian Revolutions.16. Analyse the political developments and external relations of either Weimar Germany between 1919 and 1933 or Great Britain between 1918 and 1935.17. Why had Stalin become ruler of the USSR by 1929?18. For what reasons, and with what results, did Mussolini abandon his Stresa Front allies, France and Great Britain, and ally with Hitler in 1936?19. Evaluate Hitler’s social, economic and religious policies between 1933 and 1939.20. To what extent was the failure and collapse of the League of Nations the cause of the Second World War?21. Assess the rule of either Franco in Spain or Caetano in Portugal.22. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the Soviet Union’s Cold War policies affect Germany between 1945 and 1961?23. Assess the strengths and weaknesses of France under de Gaulle.24. Account for and assess the rise and fall of a Communist regime in either one Eastern or one Central European state excluding the USSR.25. For what reasons, and with what effects, did leisure activities and the media become more widespread and important in one or more European countries during the twentieth century? November 2003 1. What factors made it difficult to establish a limited monarchy in France between 1789 and 1792?2. To what extent did Napoleon apply the principles of the French Revolution in France and in the territories which he occupied?3. Assess the influence of Metternich on Austria–Hungary and Europe between 1815 and 1848.4. Evaluate the success of the Chartist Movement in Britain between 1838 and 1848.5. Why was Mazzini disappointed by the united Italy that emerged after 1871?6. What common factors caused the 1848/9 revolutions in Europe to fail?7. “Alexander II had no one to blame but himself for his assassination in 1881.” How far do you agree with this statement?8. To what extent were Bismarck’s difficulties inside Germany between 1871 and 1890 caused by his own views and policies?9. Why was the Eastern Question so important to Europe in the latter half of the nineteenth century?10. What impact did emigration have on any one European country in the nineteenth century?11. Compare and contrast the impact of nationalism on any two European countries in thenineteenth century.12. For what reasons did political change occur either in Spain or in France between 1848 and 1914?13. Assess the importance of either any one Scandinavian country or Finland in Europe in the first half of the twentieth century.14. Why did Germany sign an armistice with the Allies in November 1918?15. What was the impact of the First World War on Russia between 1914 and 1921?16. What were the main factors that enabled Mussolini to rise to power, and consolidate his position in Italy, between 1918 and 1926?17. What were the aims and achievements of Stalin’s foreign policy between 1928 and 1941?18. “Hitler’s control and organization of the Nazi State was less effective than is commonlybelieved.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?19. Why did the policy of “collective security”, established by the League of Nations, fail to prevent the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939?20. To what extent was the involvement of foreign powers decisive in securing a Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939)?21. Why, and with what consequences for Europe, was the Warsaw Pact signed in 1955?22. “Although his contribution to France was significant, its importance has been exaggerated.”How far do you agree with this assessment of the role of de Gaulle between 1945 and 1969?23. Evaluate the relative achievements of the governments of Salazar and Caetano in Portugal.24. What were the causes and consequences (to 1995) of the 1991 conflict in the Balkans?25. What economic and political impact did the movement towards worldwide globalization have on Europe between 1985 and 1995? May 2004 1. To what extent did the actions and policies of Louis XVI cause the outbreak, and affect the course, of the French Revolution until 1793?2. Analyse the effects of the policies upon France, of either Napoleon I between 1800 and 1815, or Charles X between 1824 and 1830.3. Assess the main weaknesses up to 1848 of the Vienna Settlement and the Congress System.4. “Victorian Britain’s most successful prime minister.” To what extent do you agree with thisassessment of Gladstone?5. Compare and contrast the contributions made by Cavour and Garibaldi to Italian unification.6. Why was Germany unified under Prussia and not under Austria?7. Why did Napoleon III become Emperor of France in 1852 and lose his empire in 1870?8. “The emancipation of the serfs in Russia was the only genuine reform introduced by Alexander II.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion?9. Analyse the successes and failures of Bismarck’s domestic policies between 1871 and 1890.10. Assess the impact on nineteenth century Europe of two of the following: imperialism;industrialization; urbanization.11. Examine the main political and economic developments in Spain in the second half of the nineteenth century.12. Why was the dual monarchy of Austria–Hungary formed in 1867, and dissolved after the First World War?13. To what extent, and with what results, did educational reforms take place in one European country in either the nineteenth or the twentieth century?14. Why did Germany and her allies lose the First World War?15. Assess the part played by Lenin in the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution and in the new Soviet State until his death in 1924.16. Compare and contrast the economic problems faced by two European countries between 1919 and 1939.17. Analyse the impact of Hitler either on Finland or on one Scandinavian country between 1933 and 1945.18. To what extent were the aims of Mussolini’s domestic and foreign policies achieved between 1923 and 1939?19. In what ways, and to what extent, did foreign aid to both the Nationalists and the Republicans between 1936 and 1939 contribute to the outcome of the Spanish Civil War?20. How important were appeasement and the collapse of the League of Nations as causes of the Second World War?21. Assess the impact of the foreign policy of either Stalin between 1941 and 1953, or Khrushchev between 1956 and 1964, on the USSR and Europe.22. In what ways, and with what results, did one western European country recover from post-war problems between 1945 and 1970?23. What were the main political and economic problems faced by one central or eastern European country (excluding USSR) between 1945 and 1990?24. “Considering the difficulties he faced, the success achieved by Gorbachev was remarkable.” To what extent do you agree with this judgement?25. Why did twentieth century Europe experience an increase in the availability and popularity of sport and other leisure activities? November 2004 1. “A ruthless dictator”; “a true social and political democrat”. With reference to the French revolutionary leader, Robespierre, explain which statement you consider to be more appropriate. 2. To what extent has Napoleon’s impact on France between 1800 and 1815 been exaggerated? 3. How successful were the members of the Congress of Vienna in achieving their aims by 1830? 4. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of Disraeli and Gladstone between 1868 and 1886. 5. “Only governments who do not have the will to resist are overthrown by revolutions.” To what extent do you agree with this assessment of the revolutions in France between 1789 and 1848? 6. “The resolution of the question of Rome was the key to Italian unification.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? 7. Assess the importance of the role of Bismarck in the unification of Germany. 8. How consistent were the domestic policies of Alexander II? 9. Why was there such an increase in membership of trade unions in Europe between 1875 and 1900? 10. Analyse the factors that led to the increase of educational opportunity in many European countries between 1850 and 1900. 11. How successfully did the governments of either France or Spain deal with domestic problems in the period 1848 to 1914? 12. “Although Germany was blamed for the outbreak of the First World War other countries were equally responsible.” How far do you agree with this statement? 13. Compare and contrast the political and constitutional development of any two of the following countries in the twentieth century: Denmark, Sweden, Norway, or Finland. 14. Compare and contrast the contributions of Lenin and Trotsky to the establishment and consolidation of a communist state in Russia between 1917 and 1924. 15. Analyse the key factors that led to the break-up of the Austro-Hungarian Empire by 1919. 16. “Unwanted and unloved.” How far do you agree with this assessment of the Weimar Republic in Germany between 1918 and 1933? 17. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of Hitler and Mussolini up to 1940. 18. “He brought his country and his people nothing but harm.” To what extent do you agree with this assessment of Stalin’s domestic policies in the USSR between 1929 and 1953? 19. For what reasons, and with what results, did Britain and France pursue a policy of appeasement in the 1930s? 20. To what extent did the states of Central and Eastern Europe benefit economically from Soviet control between 1949 and 1989? 21. Analyse the effects of technological development on the arts after the Second World War. 22. Assess the significance of Adenauer’s achievements in West Germany between 1945 and 1963. 23. How successfully did Spain make the transition to a constitutional monarchy after the death of Franco? 24. “Gorbachev has been hailed as a great statesman and politician but in reality his domestic and foreign achievements were far less significant than has been claimed.” Discuss. 25. Compare and contrast the social and economic consequences of the Second World War on two European countries. May 2005 1. For what reasons, and with what results, was the French Revolution so violent between 1789 and 1794?2. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of Napoleon I and Louis Philippe.3. ìIt restored peace and stability after a turbulent and revolutionary era.î To what extent do youagree with this judgment of the Vienna settlement (1814ñ1815)?4. Assess the successes and failures of Peel as prime minister of Britain 1834-1835 and 1841-1846.5. Analyse the aims and achievements of Cavour for PiedmontñSardinia and Italy.6. To what extent was Germanyís unification under Prussia due to the weakness of Austria?7. ìA period of consolidation at home and abroad.î To what extent does this statement explain Bismarckís policies between 1871 and 1890?8. For what reasons, and with what results, did Alexander II try to reform Russian institutions?9. Evaluate the importance of imperialism for, and its effects on, one European country duringthe nineteenth century.10. Assess the importance of either nineteenth or twentieth century cultural movements in one or more European countries.11. Analyse the political aims of Louis Napoleonís (later Napoleon III) policies and assess their results on France and on Europe between 1848 and 1871.12. In what ways, and to what extent, was Spain weak between 1848 and 1914?13. ìScandinavia ignored Europe, and Europe ignored Scandinavia.î To what extent does this statement reflect Scandinavian developments in either the nineteenth or the twentieth century?14. To what extent was the Revolution of February/March 1917, in Russia, due to the nature of Tsarism and the policies of Nicholas II (1894-1917)? 15. Analyse the social and economic changes caused by the First World War, in one European country, up to 1929.16. Lenin wrote, “One step forward two steps back; it happens in the lives of individuals, and in the history of nations.” To what extent can this quotation be applied to Lenin’s revolutionary career and his rule of the USSR 1918 to 1924? 17. Assess the strength and weakness of Weimar Germany between 1919 and 1932. 18. Compare and contrast totalitarian rule in Hitler's Germany and Mussolini's Italy, up to 1939.19. What were the results of the Spanish Civil War for Spain and for Europe?20. Why did international diplomacy play an important part in Europe in the inter war years?21. Analyse the effects of the Second World War on the USSR between 1941 and 1948.22. To what extent was Adenauer responsible for the recovery of Germany in the post Second World War period?23. Assess the view that Khrushchev's policies were a failure both at home and abroad between 1955 and 1963.24. Why was Tito able to achieve power in Yugoslavia in 1945, and maintain control until 1980?25. Evaluate the changes in the lives of women in Europe during the twentieth century. November 2005 1. To what extent were the main demands of revolutionaries in France met between 1789 and 1794?2. "Napoleon I's domestic policies successfully reformed and modernized France." To what extent do you agree with this assertion?3. How successful was the Congress of Vienna in achieving peace and stability in Europe between 1815 and 1848?4. In what ways, and for what reasons, was the period 1815 to 1866 one of change for Austria?5. Assess the role of Piedmont-Sardinia in Italian unification between 1850 and 1861.6. For what reasons, and with what results, did Disraeli play an important part in British politics between 1846 and 1880?7. Analyse the reasons for, and the nature of, opposition to tsardom in Russia between 1855 and 1894.8. Evaluate the successes and failures of Bismarck's foreign policy between 1871 and 1890.9. Analyse the development and importance of the trade union movement in one Europeancountry in the nineteenth century.10. Assess the impact of either Marxism or nationalism in Europe, in the second half of the nineteenth century.11. "A period of economic stagnation and political decline." To what extent is this a fair assessment of Spain between 1848 and 1914?12. Assess the successes and failures of the domestic policies of Napoleon III.13. Why did Nicholas II survive the 1905 revolution, but lose his throne in the February/March1917 revolution?14. In what ways, and to what extent, were German and Austrian policies responsible for the outbreak of the First World War?15. Compare and contrast the part played by Lenin and Trotsky in the development of the USSR between 1918 and 1924.16. To what extent did collective security become a victim of economic problems in the inter-war years?17. "A century of peace and prosperity." To what extent is this a valid assessment of either Finland, or one Scandinavian country, in the twentieth century?18. Analyse the main factors which contributed to Hitler's rise to power in January 1933.19. Evaluate the domestic policies of Mussolini between 1922 and 1939.20. To what extent was the Spanish Civil War caused by divisions in Spain and in Spanish society?21. Account for the successes of Nazi Germany in Europe between 1938 and 1942.22. Compare and contrast the parts played in the Cold War by two of the following: Khrushchev;Brezhnev; Gorbachev.23. Examine the impact of the EU (European Union) between 1955 and 1995.24. For what reasons, and with what results, did communist regimes in Eastern Europe (excluding USSR) collapse (1989-90)?25. Assess the successes and failures of educational policies in one European country in the twentieth century. May 2006 1. In what ways and for what reasons did the French Revolution a) benefit France and b) harm France? 2. “The overall effect of Napoleon I’s foreign policy was to bring glory to France.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion? 3. In what ways, and to what extent, did the aims and policies of the Great Powers in the Vienna settlement shape Europe until 1852? 4. Compare and contrast the reasons for the fall from power in France, of Charles X in 1830 and Louis Philippe in 1848. 5. Assess the main features of foreign and imperial policy (excluding Ireland) in Victorian Britain in the second half of the nineteenth century. 6. Analyse the weaknesses of Austria in the period 1815 to 1866. 7. Why was Italy united under Piedmont-Sardinia and not under Rome? 8. In 1862 Bismarck said: “The great questions of the day will not be settled by speeches and majority decisions.” What were “the great questions of the day” for Bismarck, and how did he settle them up to 1871? 9. Compare and contrast the policies of Alexander II (1855-81) and Alexander III (1881-94) of Russia. 10. For what reasons, and with what results, was social legislation an important feature of one nineteenth century European government? 11. Evaluate the nature and importance of cultural developments in one European country during the nineteenth century. 12. Analyse the effects of Napoleon III’s domestic policies. 13. Why and with what results did Spain fail to modernise in the second half of the nineteenth century? 14. Examine the main economic and political developments in one Scandinavian country, or in Finland, in either the nineteenth or the twentieth century. 15. Analyse the long term and short term causes of the 1917 February/March Russian Revolution. 16. Assess the effects between 1914 and 1921, of the First World War on the civilian population of one European country. 17. For what reasons, and in what ways, was a Marxist/Communist state set up in Russia between 1918 and 1928? 18. Account for the foundation of the League of Nations, and assess its success between 1920 and 1935. 19. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of Hitler and Mussolini up to the outbreak of the Second World War. 20. Analyse the reasons for the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War. 21. Assess the political consequences of the Second World War in two European countries between 1939 and 1950. 22. In what ways, and with what success, did Brezhnev direct domestic and foreign policies in the Soviet Union between 1964 and 1982? 23. “The Cold War both helped and hindered the recovery of post Second World War western Europe.” To what extent do you agree with this judgement? 24. Examine the successes and failures of Tito in Yugoslavia. 25. In what ways, and with what results, have twentieth century transport developments changed European work and leisure patterns? November 2006 1. To what extent did the outbreak of war in April 1792 change the nature and the course of the French Revolution?2. “The success of Napoleon’s domestic policies in France between 1802 and 1815 has been greatly exaggerated.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?3. Why were revolutionary activities so widespread in Europe between 1848 and 1849?4. Assess the influence of Robert Peel on British politics during the nineteenth century.5. Compare and contrast the contributions of Mazzini and Garibaldi to Italian unification.6. “The unification of Germany by 1871 was the result of Bismarck’s foresight and careful planning.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?7. Assess the importance of the Eastern Question for Europe between 1850 and 1880.8. To what extent did Alexander II’s reforms cause more problems than they solved?9. To what extent did developments in transport affect the economic development of one European country in the nineteenth century?10. What effects did the demand for, and the development of, the franchise have in one European country in the nineteenth century?11. How important was the Paris commune (1871) for France and for Europe?12. Assess the effects of the Napoleonic Wars and the congress of Vienna on Scandinavia and Finland.13. compare and contrast the causes and consequences of the 1905 and February/March 1917 Russian Revolutions.14. Analyse the factors which led to the defeat of Germany and Austria-Hungary during the First World War.15. How important was Trotsky’s role in the establishment and development of the Soviet state between 1917 and 1929?16. Assess the effects of two of the Paris Peace Settlements.17. Analyse the effect of the Wall Street crash on two European countries (excluding Germany) between1929 and 1935.18. Analyse the reasons for the collapse of the Weimar Republic and the establishment of a Nazi dictatorship in the period 1929 to 1934.19. compare and contrast the domestic policies of Hitler and Stalin up to the outbreak of the Second World War.20. Why did internal tensions in Spain in the 1920s and 1930s lead to a civil war in 1936?21. Analyse the importance of one of the following to the eventual outcome of the Second World Warin Europe: war in the air; war at sea; war on land.22. compare and contrast the foreign policies of Khrushchev and Brezhnev.23. “The history of European cooperation between 1957 and 1975 was harmonious and successful.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?24. Analyse the reasons for the decline and fall of one communist regime in eastern Europe (excluding the USSR).25. Analyse the importance of developments in either education or the arts in two European states between 1960 and 1995. May 2007 1. Assess the importance of two causes of the French Revolution of 1789.2. Why, and with what results for France, did Napoleon I become emperor in 1804, and Louis XVIII king in 1814?3. Analyse the impact of the Vienna Settlement (1814–1815) on Europe until 1848.4. “Economic problems rather than political grievances were responsible for revolutionary outbreaks in Europe in 1848.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion?5. Explain and evaluate the view that the unification of Italy was helped not hindered by the disputes, differences and suspicions between leading Italian patriots.6. To what extent was German unification under Prussia due to Prussian economic superiority between 1814 and 1866?7. Assess the impact of rivalry between Whigs (Liberals) and Tories (conservatives) on British politics in the second half of the nineteenth century.8. “Considering the difficulties he inherited, Alexander II of Russia should be praised not criticised for his reforms.” To what extent do you agree with this judgement?9. In what ways, and to what extent, did the internal and external policies of Austria-Hungary after 1867 lead to the First World War?10. Analyse the political changes in France between 1848 and 1871.11. For what reasons, and with what results, was the second half of the nineteenth century a period ofsocial and economic change?12. compare and contrast the development of the arts in two European countries during the nineteenth century.13. Evaluate the successes and failures of German domestic policy between 1871 and 1914. 14.Analyse political and social developments in one Scandinavian country or in Finland during the twentieth century. 15. Compare and contrast the roles of Lenin and Trotsky in the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, and in the foundation of the new Soviet State until 1924. 16. Analyse the effects on two European states (excluding Germany), of the Paris Peace Settlements, 1919 –20. 17.Why was the Weimar Republic so short-lived? 18.“Mussolini ’s greatest skill lay in projecting himself through propaganda as a great leader.”” How far do you agree with this assertion? 19. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of Hitler and Stalin in Europe, up to the invasion of Russia in 1941. 20. Analyse the causes end results of the Spanish civil War. 21. In what ways, and with what results for Europe between 1939 and 1949, was the Second World War a “total war ”? November 2007 1. To what extent was the bankruptcy of the French monarchy the main cause of revolution in France in 1789?2. “Napoleon’s foreign policies were not nearly as successful as his domestic policies.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?3. For what reasons, and with what results, did the Vienna Settlement of 1815 ignore liberalism and nationalism?4. Assess the influence of William Gladstone on British politics in the nineteenth century.5. Why, despite the opposition of the Republican movement, was Italy unified under thePiedmont-Sardinia monarchy?6. “The revolutions of 1848 in Austria and Prussia ended in total failure.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?7. Evaluate Bismarck’s use of war as an instrument of policy between 1862 and 1890.8. “Despite his apparently liberal policies, Alexander II was just as conservative as Alexander III.”To what extent do you agree with this statement?9. What effect did advances in industrialization have on the economic development of any one European country in the nineteenth century?10. Assess the contribution of music in promoting nationalist movements in two European countries in the nineteenth or twentieth centuries.11. Analyse the successes and failures of Napoleon III at home and abroad between 1852 and 1870.12. compare and contrast the effects of Sweden’s policy of neutrality in the nineteenth century with that of the twentieth century.13. Why was the Provisional Government in Russia unable to consolidate and maintain its power in 1917?14. Assess the relative importance of the long-term and short-term causes of the First World War.15. What were the main factors that led to the foundation of the League of Nations in 1920?16. Why did international diplomacy fail to prevent the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939?17. “Foreign policy is the area which especially preoccupies us.” To what extent do Mussolini’s actions and policies between 1922 and 1939 reflect this statement?18. Assess the importance of indoctrination and propaganda in maintaining control in Germany under the Third Reich between 1933 and 1945.19. In what ways, and to what extent, did social and religious divisions lead to civil war in Spain in 1936?20. compare and contrast the political and economic consequences of the Second World War on any two European countries (excluding Germany).21. Analyse the successes and failures of Soviet policies towards Germany and the eastern European satellite states during the regimes of Khrushchev and Brezhnev.22. compare and contrast the policies of Salazar and Caetano in Portugal between 1933 and 1974.23. Evaluate de Gaulle’s contribution to France.24. Analyse the impact of the ending of the cold War on one European state (excluding the USSR) between 1990 and 1995.25. Assess the success of movements for the emancipation of women in one European country during the twentieth century. May 2008 1. To what extent was the French monarchy both the main cause and the main victim of the 1789 French Revolution?2. Assess the domestic policies of Napoleon I between 1799 and 1814.3. “The Congress System was a genuine attempt by the Great Powers to produce a unified policy, but their interests were too diverse for it to succeed.” To what extent do you agree with this judgment?4. Analyse the main reasons why Louis Philippe became King of France in 1830, but lost his throne in 1848.5. Compare and contrast the roles of Cavour and Garibaldi in Italian unification between 1852 and 1861.6. What were the main areas of industrial growth in Victorian Britain, and how did they affect the social and economic conditions of the people?7. For what reasons, and with what results up to 1871, did Prussia replace Austria as the leading Germanic power in the German Confederation?8. Analyse the strengths and weaknesses of Russia in the second half of the nineteenth century.9. “Bismarck pursued a successful foreign policy between 1871 and 1890, but was often defeated ondomestic issues.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?10. Assess the impact of developments in either transport or agriculture on one European country in the second half of the nineteenth century.11. Analyse the impact of either nationalism or socialism on nineteenth century Europe.12. Why, in spite of crises, was the Third French Republic still in power in 1905?13. Compare and contrast political developments in either the nineteenth or twentieth century, in two of the following: Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden.14. Why were the Central Powers defeated in the First World War?15. Analyse the reasons for the success of the Bolsheviks in the second (October/November) 1917 Russian Revolution.16. Compare and contrast political and economic problems, between 1919 and 1939, in two of the following: France, Germany, Great Britain.17. Mussolini wrote “war alone drives men to make their greatest efforts”. In what ways, and with what success, did Mussolini seek to put this belief into practice?18. Analyse the ideologies of two twentieth century European totalitarian states.19. Compare and contrast the impact of the Spanish Civil War on Spain and on one other European state between 1936 and 1939.20. Why did the Second World War break out in 1939?21. “I am not an adventurer, but we must aid national liberation movements.” To what extent does Khrushchev’s assertion explain his foreign policy between 1953 and 1964?22. What were the main problems faced by post-war western Europe in 1945, and to what extent were they overcome by 1970 ?23. Examine the impact of economic problems between 1939 and 1995 on two communist eastern or central European states (excluding the USSR).24. Assess the role of the media in one twentieth century European state.25. Analyse the successes and failures of one of the following European heads of state: Franco,Gorbachev, Salazar. November 2008 1. Why, and with what consequences for France, was Louis XVI executed?2. To what extent can it be said that Napoleon I was “the child of the French Revolution”?3. “Of the four congresses held between 1818 and 18 the Congress of Troppau was the mostsignificant for the Congress System.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?4. Assess the influence of Benjamin Disraeli on British politics in the nineteenth century.5. Evaluate the importance of Cavour’s contribution to the unification of Italy.6. Why had Prussia, rather than Austria, emerged as the dominant German power by 1871?7. “Bismarck’s domestic policies in Germany between 1871 and 1890 were, in reality, a failure.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?8. Assess the importance of the Crimean War (1854–1856) for Europe in the second half of the nineteenth century.9. To what extent did changes in agriculture affect the economic development of one European country in the nineteenth century?10. Compare and contrast the impact of Marxism on two European countries in the second half of the nineteenth century.11. Assess the effect of political changes in either Spain or France between 1848 and 1914.12. Analyse the impact of war in either the nineteenth or twentieth century on one of the followingcountries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden.13. Assess the successes and failures of Nicholas II between 1894 and 1917.14. “The Bolshevik state under Lenin between 1918 and 1924 was a ruthless dictatorship, caring little for the Russian people.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?15. Why did the Central Powers lose the First World War?16. Compare and contrast the political and economic impact of the First World War on two European powers.17. Compare and contrast the social and economic policies of Hitler and Mussolini.18. Analyse the effects of the Wall Street Crash and the Great Depression on two European countries(excluding Germany and Italy).19. To what extent do you agree that Stalin’s foreign policy between 1928 and 1953 was inconsistent and unfocused?20. Assess the impact of Franco on Spain between 1936 and 1975.21. To what extent was the Second World War caused by Hitler’s policies?22. “The Marshall Plan promised much but achieved little for Western Europe.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?23. To what extent did the states of central and eastern Europe benefit from Soviet control after 1945?24. Assess the effects of Gorbachev’s policies of perestroika and glasnost on the Soviet Union and Europe up to 1995.25. Analyse the importance of leisure and sport on European society after the Second World War. May 2009 1. In what ways, and to what extent, was the French Revolution responsible for the rise of Napoleon I? 2. Compare and contrast the policies of two of the following: Louis XVIII (1814–1824); Charles X (1824–1830); Louis Philippe (1830–1848). 3. Analyse the causes and results of two 1848 revolutions. 4. “A great era for industrialization and social legislation.” To what extent do you agree with this judgement of Britain in the second half of the nineteenth century? 5. Assess the positive and negative contributions of the following to Italian unification: separatism, republicanism, foreign involvement. 6. Why was Germany unified by Prussia and not Austria? 7. Analyse Bismarck’s impact on Germany between 1871 and 1890. 8. “What happened in Russia during the reign of Alexander II (1855–1881) was more of a revolution than many that went by that name elsewhere.” To what extent do you agree with the assertion that Alexander II’s policies were revolutionary? 9. Discuss the importance of either imperialism or emigration for nineteenth century Europe. 10. For what reasons, and in what ways, did education develop in one European country during the nineteenth century. 11. In what ways, and to what extent, were Napoleon III’s policies responsible for his downfall and the establishment of the Third French Republic? 12. Assess the effects of outside events on either one Scandinavian country or Finland during the twentieth century. 13. Why did the First World War break out in 1914? 14. Analyse the causes of the 1917 February/March Russian Revolution. 15. Analyse the causes and results of economic problems in one European country between 1919 and 1939. 16. Compare and contrast the repressive policies of Hitler and Stalin. 17. Evaluate the impact on Italy of Mussolini’s domestic and foreign policies between 1922 and 1939. 18. “The Spanish Civil War was a disaster not only for Spain, but also for Europe.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion? 19. Compare and contrast the governments of Salazar (1932–1968) and Caetano (1968–1974) in Portugal. 20. With reference to the Second World War in Europe, explain the main features and effects of “total war”. 21. “A natural development of the Second World War.” To what extent does this assertion explain the causes of the Cold War? 22. Assess the policies of either Adenauer in Germany or de Gaulle in France. 23. Explain the reasons for, and results of, the Sovietization of one Soviet satellite state in Europe, between 1945 and 1990. 24. In what ways, and to what extent, was Gorbachev responsible for the break up of the USSR? 25. Analyse gender issues in one European country during the twentieth century. November 2009 1. To what extent were economic rather than political factors responsible for the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789?2. In what ways did France benefit from the rule of Napoleon I between 1799 and 1814?3. “The Congress of Vienna resolved nothing that was important, but merely laid the foundations forfuture conflicts.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?4. Assess the importance of Gladstone’s policies for Britain and Ireland in the second half of the nineteenth century.5. “Garibaldi’s contributions to the unification of Italy in 1871 have been greatly overestimated.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?6. Why did revolutions break out in both Prussia and the Austrian Empire in 1848?7. To what extent did Alexander II’s policies succeed in fulfilling his aims?8. “There is little doubt that Bismarck’s policies between 1862 and 1890 were far less successful than Bismarck himself claimed.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?9. Assess the impact on any one European country of either urbanization, or population growth, in the second half of the nineteenth century.10. Analyse the importance of developments in science for nineteenth century Europe.11. How successfully did the Third French Republic overcome the problems it faced before the outbreak of the First World War in 1914?12. Assess the impact of political developments, in either the nineteenth or twentieth century, on one of the following countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, or Sweden.13. To what extent was nationalism the major factor behind the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914?14. Analyse the causes and immediate consequences (up to 1921) of the October 1917 Russian Revolution.15. Analyse the impact of any two post-First World War settlements (excluding Versailles) on new and successor states in central and eastern Europe.16. “The organization of the League of Nations, as laid out in its Covenant, was the main reason for its failure.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?17. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of Hitler and Mussolini between 1933 and 1943.18. Compare and contrast the role that propaganda played in the establishment of any two single-party states in Europe between 1919 and 1939.19. “The contribution of foreign powers to Franco’s victory in the Spanish Civil War has been greatly exaggerated.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?20. Analyse the political and economic consequences of the Cold War on two European countries (excluding West Germany).21. How successful were Tito’s policies in Yugoslavia between 1945 and 1980?22. “Stalin’s domestic and foreign policies between 1945 and 1953 lacked consistent aims.” To whatextent do you agree with this statement?23. “Ultimately the Warsaw Pact was unable to fulfil the expectations that the Soviet Union had for it when it was created in 1955.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?24. Compare and contrast the relative success of Chancellor Adenauer’s policies in West Germany with those of President de Gaulle in France.25. How has twentieth century Europe been affected by either terrorism or peace movements since the Second World War? May 2010 1. To what extent was Louis XVI responsible for the outbreak of revolution in France in 1789? 2. “Napoleon will trample underfoot [destroy] the rights of man, put himself above them and become a tyrant.” To what extent was this prediction correct? 3. Analyse the political factors involved in the unification of Italy up to 1861. 4. Discuss the relative importance of the decline of Austria and the policies of Bismarck as causes of German unification. 5. Why was the Ottoman Empire regarded as an empire in decline in the nineteenth century? 6. Analyse the causes and results of civil war in Lebanon in 1860. 7. Examine the nature and development of political parties in Britain between 1867 and 1914. 8. Why did the Second French Empire, ruled by Napoleon III, collapse in 1870? 9. “His measures of reform did not disguise his belief in the need to maintain autocratic rule.” To what extent do you agree with this view of Alexander II? 10. Compare and contrast the causes and nature of the two 1917 Russian Revolutions. 11. Evaluate continuity and change in German foreign policy between 1871 and 1914. 12. Analyse the successes and failures of one post-First World War treaty. 13. Assess the importance of the Palestine Mandate (1920–1948). 14. “The father and founder of modern Turkey.” To what extent does this statement explain the role and policies of Atatürk? 15. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of Hitler and Mussolini. 16. For what reasons, and to what extent, did attempts to achieve collective security between 1919 and 1939 fail? 17. A colleague said of Stalin: “His last years were the most dangerous. He swung to extremes”. To what extent do you agree with this view? 18. For what reasons, and with what results, was Khrushchev successful in the power struggle after Stalin’s death in 1953? 19. Evaluate the reasons for the formation of NATO and the impact of its policies up to 2000. 20. Analyse Franco’s regime and explain why Spain became a democratic nation after his death in 1975. 21. Compare and contrast the economic policies of Nasser and Sadat in Egypt. 22. Account for the uneasy relations between Israel and the Arab world between 1950 and 1993. 23. In what ways, and with what results, was there an “industrial revolution” in one country of the region in the fifty years you have studied? 24. With reference to one country of the region, either in the nineteenth century or the twentieth century, analyse the importance of two of the following: health reforms; gender issues; immigration; emigration. November 2010 1. To what extent were financial problems the most significant cause of the French Revolution?2. “Napoleon Bonaparte failed to maintain the ideals of the French Revolution in his domestic policies.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?3. Compare and contrast the roles of Cavour and Garibaldi in the unification of Italy between 1850 and 1871.4. Analyse the successes and failures of Bismarck’s domestic policies after 1871.5. Assess the reasons why Greece had gained independence from the Ottoman Empire by 1831.6. Examine the impact of the major European powers on the Ottoman Empire between 1850 and 1880.7. “The Republic is the form of government which divides France the least.” To what extent do you agree with this statement with reference to the period 1870–1914?8. Analyse the impact of the extension of the franchise on the development of British political parties between 1867 and 1914.9. Assess the strengths and weaknesses of Alexander II’s reforms.10. “Lenin abandoned ideology in order to gain and consolidate power.” To what extent do you agreewith this statement?11. In what ways, and with what results, did German foreign and colonial policies change after 1890?12. Compare and contrast the political and economic effects of the Paris Peace Settlements on Germany and Italy up to 1923.13. Analyse the major causes of instability in Palestine between 1917 and 1939.14. How successful was Reza Khan in modernizing Iran between 1924 and 1941?15. Analyse the reasons for the weaknesses and collapse of democracy between 1918 and 1939 in either Italy or Spain.16. For what reasons, and with what results, were appeasement policies followed in the 1930s?17. In what ways, and with what results, had Stalin developed the Soviet Union into a major industrial power by 1941?18. Analyse the extent of Soviet political and economic dominance in one Eastern European state between 1945 and 1968.19. Assess the impact of Cold War tensions on Western Europe between 1945 and 1955.20. To what extent did the European Community (Union) affect the rights of its individual member states between 1950 and 2000?21. “Arab disunity was the main cause of Arab failure in conflicts with Israel from 1948 to 1973.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?22. Assess the political and social developments in Egypt under either Nasser or Mubarak.23. Analyse the social and economic impact of industrialization on one country of the region in the fifty year period you have studied.24. With reference to one country of the region, analyse the developments in two of the following in the fifty year period you have studied: health; education; gender issues. May 2011 1. Analyse the reasons for the violent nature of the French Revolution in the years 1789–1794. 2. “Napoleon’s ambitious imperial policy was the main reason for his ultimate failure.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? 3. Why had Prussia emerged as the leading German state by 1862? 4. Compare and contrast the unification of Germany and Italy in the nineteenth century. 5. Assess the impact of the Tanzimat reforms on the Ottoman Empire. 6. “The Lebanese Civil War (1860) was caused by religious tensions rather than economic differences.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? 7. Why had the republic, established in France in 1848, become an empire by 1852? 8. Analyse Disraeli’s imperial and foreign policies in the years 1874–1880. 9. To what extent were Stolypin’s political and economic policies successful in the years 1906–1911? 10. “There were two revolutions in Russia because of the weakness of the Provisional Government.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? 11. Analyse the impact of the new German Empire on European affairs in the years 1871–1910. 12. Discuss the impact of the First World War on domestic affairs in any one country of the region. 13. “Allied diplomacy during the First World War in the Middle East was contradictory and caused instability in the region.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? 14. In what ways was Ibn Saud able to extend his power and establish the kingdom of Saudi Arabia by 1932? 15. Analyse the consequences of the Great Depression on any one country in Europe. 16. Evaluate the success of Hitler’s domestic policies between 1933 and 1939. 17. To what extent was Stalin’s foreign policy dominated by the desire for security up until 1941? 18. Analyse the causes and consequences of the policies of glasnost and perestroika up until 2000. 19. Why was the Federal Republic of Germany able to experience an “economic miracle” in the post-Second World War years? 20. Assess the political stability of one Western European state (excluding Germany and Spain) in the years between 1945 and 2000. 21. How important were religious, political and external factors in causing the outbreak of the Lebanese Civil War in 1975? 22. Compare and contrast the causes and consequences of two conflicts between Israel and her neighbours in the years 1948–1980. 23. “The microchip was the single most revolutionary invention of the late twentieth century.” With specific reference to one country in the region, to what extent do you agree with this statement? 24. Assess the impact of the welfare state on the lives of citizens of any one country in the region. November 2011 “A new France emerged out of the revolution; Napoleon Bonaparte’s achievement was to organize it.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? Analyse the successes and failures of the Congress of Vienna (1814–1815). Assess the contribution to Italian unification of either Cavour or Garibaldi. Why was Germany unified under Prussia in 1871? Assess the success of either Muhammad Ali in modernizing Egypt or Abdul Hamid in strengthening the Ottoman Empire. Analyse the causes and consequences of the Crimean War (1854–1856). Compare and contrast two of the crises faced by the Third French Republic between 1875 and 1914. In 1867 Disraeli said: “Change is inevitable in a progressive country.” What changes did Disraeli introduce in Britain up until 1880? In what ways, and with what success, did Alexander II attempt to modernize Russia and preserve imperial power? Analyse the impact of the First World War on Russia between 1914 and 1924. Discuss the importance of two of the following in European diplomacy between 1870 and 1914: the Alliance System; global colonial rivalry; changing balance of power; nationalism. Assess the factors that led to the defeat of the Central Powers in the First World War. Analyse the role of religion in Saudi Arabia between 1932 and 1949. For what reasons, and with what success, were attempts made to modernize either Turkey or Iran in the first half of the twentieth century? Why did attempts at cooperation in Europe between 1919 and 1939 end in failure? “The Spanish Civil War was essentially a domestic matter that rapidly became an international issue.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? To what extent did the cult of personality contribute to Stalin’s maintenance of power? Compare and contrast the foreign policies of Khrushchev and Brezhnev. Compare and contrast post-Second World War problems and recovery in two Western European states. Why was Germany divided in 1945 but reunited in 1990? Analyse the changing relations between Israel and the Arab world between 1967 and 2000. Assess the successes and failures of Nasser in Egypt between 1954 and 1970. In what ways, and to what extent, did gender issues change in the fifty year period you have studied? Analyse the impact of technology on one society in the fifty year period you have studied. May 2012 The French Revolution and Napoleon — mid eighteenth century to 1815 1. “The revolutionary wars of 1792–1796 were to defend France and not spread revolution.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? 2. How successful was the Congress of Vienna in achieving the aims of the peacemakers? Unification and consolidation of Germany and Italy 1815–1890 3. Analyse the causes and consequences of the 1848 revolutions in the German states. 4. Assess the contribution made by other powers to the unification of Italy (1848–1871). Ottoman Empire from the early nineteenth to the early twentieth century 5. Assess the importance of the Eastern Question for major European powers between 1850 and 1880. 6. Analyse the impact of the Committee of Union and Progress on the Ottoman Empire between 1908 and 1914. Western and Northern Europe 1848–1914 7. Assess the successes and failures of Gladstone’s Irish policies. 8. Analyse the major political developments in any one country you have studied between 1848 and 1914. Imperial Russia, revolutions, emergence of Soviet State 1853–1924 9. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of Alexander II (1855–1881) and Alexander III (1881–1894). 10. “Lenin was able to consolidate Bolshevik rule in Russia by combining popular policies and repression.” To what extent do you agree with this statement about Bolshevik rule up to 1924? European diplomacy and the First World War 1870–1923 11. Assess the importance of Balkan nationalism as a reason for the outbreak of the First World War. 12. Why were the Central Powers defeated by 1918? War and change in the Middle East 1914–1949 13. “Economic and religious issues were the main cause of tension in the Palestine Mandate between 1920 and 1939.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? 14. For what reasons, and with what consequences, was Reza Khan able to gain power in Iran in 1924? Interwar years: conflict and cooperation 1919–1939 15. Compare and contrast the reasons for the rise to power of Hitler and Mussolini. 16. “The policy of appeasement was a major cause of the outbreak of war in 1939.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 1924–2000 17. Analyse the reasons for Stalin’s emergence as Lenin’s successor by 1929. 18. “The main aim of Brezhnev’s policies was to maintain the Soviet System.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? The Second World War and post-war Western Europe 1939–2000 19. Why had Germany been divided into East and West by 1949? 20. Assess the extent of economic integration in Europe by the 1990s. Post-war developments in the Middle East 1945–2000 21. “The impact of the White Revolution was a major factor in the overthrow of the Shah in 1979.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? 22. Analyse the nature of political developments between 1945 and 2000 in any one Middle Eastern state you have studied (excluding Egypt). Social and economic developments in Europe and the Middle East in the nineteenth or twentieth century 23. Assess the impact of educational change on society over a fifty year period in any one country you have studied up to the year 2000. 24. Examine the impact of religion on society in any one county you have studied up to the year 2000. November 2012 The French Revolution and Napoleon — mid eighteenth century to 1815 1. Assess the contribution made by the ideas of the Enlightenment to the outbreak of the French Revolution. 2. Analyse the factors which allowed Napoleon Bonaparte to gain and retain power in France in the years 1795–1804. Unification and consolidation of Germany and Italy 1815–1890 3. Explain the reasons for the decline of Austria in European affairs by 1870. 4. Assess the successes and failures of Bismarck’s foreign policy in the years 1871–1890. Ottoman Empire from the early nineteenth to the early twentieth century 5. Assess the effectiveness of the settlement of 1861 in reducing the tensions which had led to civil war in Lebanon. 6. “Abdul Hamid II is best described as an enlightened despot.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? Western and Northern Europe 1848–1914 7. “The 1848 revolution in France established the Second Republic almost by accident.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? 8. Examine the domestic policies of Napoleon III. Imperial Russia, revolutions, emergence of Soviet State 1853–1924 9. Analyse the causes and consequences of the 1905 revolution in Russia. 10. Compare and contrast the roles of Lenin and Trotsky in the Bolshevik seizure of power in October 1917. European diplomacy and the First World War 1870–1923 11. Assess the impact of the First World War on the civilian population of any one country you have studied. 12. “The Paris Peace Treaties caused political problems for both the victorious and defeated nations in the early 1920s.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? War and change in the Middle East 1914–1949 13. Why, and with what consequences, did the Arab Revolt of 1916 take place? 14. Assess the reasons for the British decision to hand over the Palestine Mandate to the United Nations by 1948. Interwar years: conflict and cooperation 1919–1939 15. “Mussolini’s foreign policy between 1922 and 1941 was inconsistent and unsuccessful.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? 16. Analyse the political impact of the Great Depression on either Britain or Germany. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 1924–2000 17. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of Stalin’s foreign policy in the 1930s and the post-war years. 18. Analyse the successes and failures of Khrushchev’s domestic policies in the years 1955–1964. The Second World War and post-war Western Europe 1939–2000 19. Assess the changing nature of the Franco regime in Spain in the years 1939–1975. 20. “Governments in post-war Europe were committed to full social welfare provision.” With reference to one country you have studied, to what extent do you agree with this statement? Post-war developments in the Middle East 1945–2000 21. Assess the reasons for the establishment and collapse of the United Arab Republic in the years 1958–1961. 22. Analyse the main obstacles to a peace settlement in the Middle East in the years 1978–1995. Social and economic developments in Europe and the Middle East in the nineteenth or twentieth century 23. Analyse the reasons for the growth of the popular music industry in the years 1950–2000. 24. With reference to one fifty year period you have studied, discuss the impact of urbanization on society. May 2013 The French Revolution and Napoleon — mid eighteenth century to 18151. “The poor judgment of Louis XVI was responsible for the destruction of the monarchy in France by 1793.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?2. Assess the impact of the domestic policies of Napoleon in France in the years 1799–1814.Unification and consolidation of Germany and Italy 1815–18903. Why was the Italian nationalist movement so ineffective in the years 1815–1848?4. How successful were Bismarck’s domestic policies in the years 1871–1890?Ottoman Empire from the early nineteenth to the early twentieth century5. How and why did the major powers intervene against Muhammad Ali in the 1830s?6. Assess the Ottoman Empire’s role in the outbreak of the Crimean War (1854–1856).Western and Northern Europe 1848–19147. “In spite of frequent crises the Third French Republic was stable up until 1905.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?8. Assess the impact of social reform legislation in Britain in the years 1850–1900.Imperial Russia, revolutions, emergence of Soviet State 1853–19249. To what extent do you agree that Alexander II transformed Russian society?10. Assess the impact of the Russo–Japanese War on the reign of Nicholas II up to 1914.European diplomacy and the First World War 1870–192311. Discuss the significance of the Alliance System on European affairs in the years 1871–1914.12. Examine the reasons for, and the consequences of, the United States’ entry into the First World War in 1917.War and change in the Middle East 1914–194913. “Atatürk transformed the political, economic and social structure of Turkey.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?14. Analyse the reasons for Israeli success in the Arab–Israeli conflict (1948–1949).Interwar years: conflict and cooperation 1919–193915. Evaluate the methods used by Mussolini to gain and retain power in the years 1919–1926.16. “Hitler had clear foreign policy aims but no plan of how to achieve them.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 1924–200017. Assess Stalin’s role in the collapse of the wartime alliance.18. Examine the extent of political change in Russia in the years 1991–2000.The Second World War and post-war Western Europe 1939–200019. Why were the Axis powers defeated in Europe in the Second World War (1939–1945)?20. Analyse the reasons for Spain’s relatively peaceful transition from dictatorship to democracy in the years 1975–1977.Post-war developments in the Middle East 1945–2000 21. Examine the causes and consequences of the Intifada 1987–1993.22. Analyse the reasons for the limited success of the Pan-Arab Movement in the years 1950–2000.Social and economic developments in Europe and the Middle East in the nineteenth or twentieth century23. With reference to one country of the region and one fifty year period, examine the social and political impact of immigration.24. With reference to one country of the region, examine the consequences of changes in the media on society up until 2000. November 2013 The French Revolution and Napoleon – mid eighteenth century to 18151. Assess the extent to which the demands of the French revolutionaries had been satisfied by 1794.2. “The restoration of legitimate rulers was the main objective of the Congress of Vienna.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?Unification and consolidation of Germany and Italy 1815–18903. “Economic weakness was the main reason for Austria’s decline in the years 1815–1866.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? 4. “Bismarck was first and foremost a Prussian nationalist.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?Ottoman Empire from the early nineteenth to the early twentieth century5. Analyse the reasons for the view that the Ottoman Empire was the “sick man of Europe” in the second half of the nineteenth century.6. Discuss the role of the Great Powers in Greece’s struggle for independence.Western and Northern Europe 1848–19147. Analyse the successes and failures of Napoleon III’s foreign policy.8. Assess the extent of political and economic change in any one country of Western or Northern Europe between 1848 and 1914 (excluding Germany).Imperial Russia, revolutions, emergence of Soviet State 1853–19249. “Alexander III was a political reactionary but an economic modernizer.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?10. Compare and contrast the role of the Soviets in the February and October revolutions of 1917 in Russia.European diplomacy and the First World War 1870–1923 11. To what extent were the policies of Germany responsible for the outbreak of war in 1914?12. Assess the successes and failures of the Paris Peace Settlement at the end of the First World War.War and change in the Middle East 1914–194913. How successful was the mandate system in the Middle East? Refer to specific examples to support your answer (excluding Palestine).14. Examine the reasons for changing British policy in Palestine in the years 1917–1939.Interwar years: conflict and cooperation 1919–193915. Compare and contrast the economic and political problems facing Germany in the years 1919–1923 and 1929–1933.16. “The Spanish Civil War was caused by divisions in Spanish society, not ideology.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 1924–200017. To what extent is it possible to argue that Stalin’s political, economic and social policies transformed the Soviet Union?18. Examine the extent of Soviet dominance in the years 1945–1991 in one European satellite state (excluding Germany) you have studied.The Second World War and post-war Western Europe 1939–200019. What were the main problems facing post-war Western Europe, and to what extent were they overcome by 1949?20. Why was Britain’s membership of the European Economic Community (EEC) delayed until 1973?Post-war developments in the Middle East 1945–200021. “The 1979 Revolution in Iran was largely caused by social and economic tensions.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?22. Explain the changing causes of tension between Israel and its neighbours from 1948 to 2000.Social and economic developments in Europe and the Middle East in the nineteenth or twentieth century23. Examine the reasons for, and the impact of, health reforms over a fifty year period in any one country of the region you have studied.24. Assess the extent of change in the social structure of any one country in the region you have studied in the years 1950–2000. May 2014 The French Revolution and Napoleon — mid 18th century to 1815 1. Evaluate the causes of the Reign of Terror of 1793–1794. 2. Analyse the reasons for the fall of the Directory in 1799. Unification and consolidation of Germany and Italy 1815–1890 3. Analyse the reasons for Piedmont–Sardinia’s growth in power between 1815 and 1861. 4. Assess the extent of continuity and change in Bismarck’s domestic policy in the years 1871–1890. Ottoman Empire from the early 19th to the early 20th century 5. How strong was Ottoman control over Lebanon in the years 1861–1914? 6. Assess the importance of the Tanzimat reforms to the Ottoman Empire. Western and Northern Europe 1848–1914 7. Compare and contrast the reasons for the collapse of the Second French Republic in 1851 and the 1871 Paris Commune. 8. How successful was Gladstone as prime minister? Imperial Russia, revolutions, emergence of Soviet State 1853–1924 9. To what extent did the reforms of Alexander II achieve his aims? 10. “The First World War was the main cause of the 1917 February/March Revolution in Russia.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? European diplomacy and the First World War 1870–1923 11. Analyse the main objectives of German foreign policy between 1890 and 1914. 12. Compare and contrast the contribution of the British and German home fronts in determining the outcome of the First World War. War and change in the Middle East 1914–1949 13. “The post-First World War settlement in the Middle East was based on the imperial ambitions of the victors.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? 14. Examine the methods used by Ibn Saud to gain and consolidate power in Saudi Arabia. Interwar years: conflict and cooperation 1919–1939 15. “Hitler’s rule in Germany gave most Germans what they wanted in the years 1933–1939.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? 16. Analyse the political impact of the Great Depression on any one country of the region. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 1924–2000 17. Analyse the effects of the Great Patriotic War on the Soviet Union in the years 1941–1945. 18. Evaluate the success of Khrushchev’s foreign policy. The Second World War and post-war Western Europe 1939–2000 19. What were the main factors in the consolidation and maintenance of Franco’s regime (1939–1975)? 20. “The dominant motive for the formation of NATO in 1949 was to contain Soviet expansion.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? Post-war developments in the Middle East 1945–2000 21. Analyse the political and economic impact of Nasser’s domestic policies. 22. Assess the reasons for the failure of the Arab–Israeli peace process in the years 1978–2000. Social and economic developments in Europe and the Middle East in the 19th or 20th century 23. Analyse developments in the arts in any one country of the region over a fifty year period. 24. Analyse the reasons for industrialization in any one country of the region over a fifty year period. November 2014 PAPER 3 The French Revolution and Napoleon — mid 18th century to 1815 1. Discuss the reasons for the Thermidorean Reaction (1794–1795). 2. Examine the reasons for the collapse of the Napoleonic Empire (1812–1815). Unification and consolidation of Germany and Italy 1815–1890 3. “By 1862 the necessary conditions for German unification under Prussian leadership were in place.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? 4. Discuss which Italian leader played the most important role in the unification of Italy. Ottoman Empire from the early 19th to the early 20th century 5. Examine the reasons why the European Powers intervened in the campaigns of Muhammad Ali between 1827 and 1841. 6. Examine the importance of the Balkan Wars (1912–1913) in the decline of the Ottoman Empire. Western and Northern Europe 1848–1914 7. “The Boulanger affair showed the weakness of the Third French Republic.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? 8. Examine the effects of the Second and Third Reform Acts on British political parties. Imperial Russia, revolutions, emergence of Soviet State 1853–1924 9. To what extent did Alexander II’s reforms improve the lives of the Russian peasantry? 10. Evaluate the factors that enabled Lenin to ensure the survival of the Soviet State. European diplomacy and the First World War 1870–1923 11. Examine the importance of global colonial rivalry as a cause of the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. 12. “German military and diplomatic errors were responsible for the defeat of the Central Powers in 1918.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?War and change in the Middle East 1914–1949 13. Evaluate the impact of actions by European Powers on the problems in Palestine in the years 1914 to 1939. questions for the may 2016 paper 2 history exam revealed 14. “Reza Khan’s modernization policies had limited success up to 1941.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? Interwar years: conflict and cooperation 1919–1939 15. “Collective security failed because of the weakness of the League of Nations.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? 16. Evaluate the impact of Hitler’s social and economic policies in Germany up to 1939. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 1924–2000 17. Examine the ways and the extent to which two countries in Eastern Europe (excluding East Germany) experienced liberation between 1944 and 1948. 18. Examine the role played by the Cold War in shaping Brezhnev’s foreign policy.The Second World War and post-war Western Europe 1939–2000 19. Evaluate the reasons why the Allies were victorious in Europe in 1945. 20. Examine the factors that led to German reunification in 1990. Post-war developments in the Middle East 1945–2000 21. Examine the role played by the confessional state in the outbreak of the civil war in Lebanon in 1975. 22. Compare and contrast the nature and consequences of the 1967 and 1973 Arab–Israeli conflicts. Social and economic developments in Europe and the Middle East in the 19th or 20th century 23. Evaluate the reasons for changes to the suffrage in any one country you have studied. 24. Examine the reasons for changes in social welfare policy over a fifty year period in any one country you have studied. Bavarian International School History of the Americas Paper 3 questions