Nazi Remains in Lower Bavaria

Landshut
Hometown of Heinrich Himmler whose family moved to Landshut in 1913 after his father took the job of assistant principal of the Gymnasium in Landshut. Using his reluctant father's connections, Himmler left high school to begin training as an officer candidate on January 1, 1918. On November 11 however, before Himmler's training was complete, Germany signed the armistice ending the war.  Himmler graduated from high school in Landshut in July 1919.
  Towards the end of the Second World War, the Todt organisation set up an external camp of the Dachau concentration camp at the Kleine Exerzierplatz. Here 500 Jewish concentration camp inmates were used for forced labor in armaments projects, of which 83 died as a result of inhumane conditions of detention. A memorial plaque on Landshut-Achdorf cemetery commemorates these victims of the Nazi regime, which included 74 prisoners from a death march in the Flossenbürg concentration camp.  On March 19, 1945, just over a month before the American troops entered the city on May 1, the station area was devastated by the heaviest bombing raid on the city. There were 300-400 victims. On April 29, 1945, the government councilor Dr. Franz Seiff, at the instigation of Gauleiter Ludwig Ruckdeschel without trial, was publicly hanged on the cattle market square by Gestapo men, because he had hoisted a white and blue flag on his house in Schweinbach near Landshut. He was the leader of a 30 to 50 -strong resistance group, which worked as part of the freedom action Bavaria on a peaceful transfer of the city to the Americans. The planned actions could not be carried out after the arrest of Seiff. At the same time occupied police officers who had responded only to the radio call of the freedom action Bavaria, the city hall to hand over the city peacefully to the Allied troops. This action, however, failed. The city honored Franz Seiff in 1946 with a street name. In memory of the victims of National Socialism who lived in Landshut, a total of 26 stumbling blocks were moved to Landshut on October 2, 2012 in Theaterstrasse, the "Altstadt" street, in Seligenthaler Straße and in Gunter Demnig's Inner Münchner Strasse.
Landshut Nazi map
Landshut from a postcard dated 21viii39 with a town map from the same year provided by HPL2008 at warrelics.eu who was also responsible for the subsequent information.
Burg TrausnitzNazi Burg Trausnitz
 Landshut, the town where Himmler spent much of his youth. Himmler’s house is shown prominently at centre right in the period photograph with Burg Trausnitz in the background.
Wittelsbacher Turm
 Drake Winston in the schloßhof and with his mother at the Wittelsbacher Turm
Burg Trausnitz, Drake Winston at Burg Trausnitz, founded in 1204 and considered the seat of the Wittelsbach dynasty, serving as residence of the local dukes until 1503 as each adapted the structure to the style of the time from the late-Romanesque Georgskapelle, a two-storey chapel later decorated with intricate Gothic sculptures; the Renaissance Narrentreppe (Fools’ Stairs) featuring murals of commedia dell’arte scenes and the remarkable collection of rarities, oddities and art amassed by inquisitive rulers including Landshut’s own Prince Wilhelm. The castle is reached via a set of stairs known as the ‘Ochsenklavier’ (oxen piano) shown below, which veers off Alte Bergstrasse which once led to Hitlerplatz.
GIF: Burg Trausnitz,
 
This is the town where Himmler was raised and went to school at what was then Humanistisches Gymnasium). Behind me at Dreifaltigkeitsplatz 1 1/2 is where he lived according to Die Geschichte des Hans-Carossa-Gymnasiums in Landshut 1629-2004 by Werner Ebermeier. (thanks to Heimatschuss for the information). Dr Karl Gebhardt, a friend of Himmler’s youth and head of Hohenlychen sanatorium, explained at the Nuremberg doctors’ trial (Report S.3991): "Himmler came from Landshut, the same town as myself... If my parents’ house was an extraordinarily liberal, free, quiet one, then the Himmler house was that of a strong orthodox Catholic schoolmaster whose son was brought up very strictly and kept very short of money."
Dreifaltigkeitsplatz had been renamed Adolf-Hitler-Platz during the Third Reich as shown on the period postcard on the left. Behind the wife and kid is St. Martin's church which has a stained-glass window featuring Hitler, Goering and Goebbels created after the war by the artist Max Lacher to replace the original window destroyed late in the war. 
Hitler stained glass
Their faces were given to the torturers in a scene depicting the persecution of St. Castalus. (thanks to HPL2008 for this information). His relics reside in the church after having originally stayed in Moosburg. In his 2008 book Hitler, The Germans and the Final Solution, Sir Ian Kershaw records how courageous and noteworthy were the remarks of the Catholic priest Josef Atzinger in Landshut in November 1940, in which he condemned the racial legislation of the Third Reich as ‘godless, unjustified, and harmful.’
From the other side, looking from the hauptstrasse and the Landtor during the Nazi era and today
The Americans marching down Adolf Hitler square May 1, 1945.  The day before the First and Third Battalions had pulled up to the banks of the lsar River and the Third Battalion (I and L Companies) began infiltrating troops onto an island in the vicinity of Landshut. Enemy defences were stubborn and artillery heavy. The First and Second Battalions began crossing the Isar South of Landshut that night and captured the town on May 1st taking over six hundred prisoners. On May 2 the Regiment sped toward the Inn river and a Task Force was rec·onnoitering routes and crossing sites when orders were received from higher headquarters to cease further advances. The Regiment assembled South of Vilsbiburg preparing for further offensive action but on the 5th of May the Regiment moved to Landshut to assume responsibility for the security of surrounding territory. The hotel Draxlmar on the main street of Landshut was the Regimental Command Post when the official announcement of VE Day was made to the relief of the soldiers of the 393d were stationed in and around Landshut.
GIF: Landshuter Neustadt
Landshuter Neustadt before the war with the remarkable war memorial at the intersection of Steckengasse in the direction of the old town and the Barfüßergasse in the direction of the district Freyung.  Since the 18th century until the 1990s, the garrison town of Landshut has housed units of the Duke or Electorate, later the Kingdom of Bavaria, the German Empire, the Reichswehr, the Wehrmacht, and most recently the Bundeswehr. Accordingly, in 1914 Landshut attracted almost 2,800 soldiers into the First World War. The war memorial is dedicated to all 2,091 soldiers who came from Landshut or who had been stationed there before and during the First World War. The Landshuter Zeitung at the time praised the sculptor Wilhelm Lechner's design as "one of the greatest sculptural works of the post-war period" and "a creation of such boldness that it may claim general interest." As early as the beginning of the 1920s Lechner had been a member of the Federal Oberland, later a Nazi party member and served from 1933 in the town council of Oberammergau. Because of his political activity, he was interned by the Allies after 1945.
The monument was inaugurated on June 24, 1928, with the town's notables and the troops of the Reichswehr stationed in Landshut. It represents a maimed German oak tree hurt by nicks and notches, but already showing young shoots- a symbol for the German Reich, which was mutilated by the Treaty of Versailles. Three figures are shown- at the top, bounded and pierced with arrows, is Sebastian , the patron of the dying and soldiers. The figure rising from the trunk below shows a young man holding a shield with the coat of arms of Landshut with a serious and sad look who addresses the young generation. The female figure, with a mournful expression, holds an urn in her left hand whilst her right is raised in a blessing gesture.  Thus a latent dissatisfaction with the political situation as well as a clear demand for the future, in particular a renunciation of the terms of the Versailles settlement, is made monumental and composed in the middle of the old Residenzstadt to be visible to all citizens. After the Second World War the central commemoration ceremonies of the city took place elsewhere on the Day of the Memorial . Recently, discussions about the relocation of the large sculpture have flared up, but after the commemorations held for the first time at the monument in November 2015, these have for the most part ended.
Dr. Karl Gebhardt office Landshut
Located at no.6 on the map, this had been the Städtisches Krankenhaus (Municipal Hospital) where ϟϟ physician Dr. Karl Gebhardt had worked for a while from the autumn of 1922 onwards. He had known Heinrich Himmler from school and stated at the Nuremberg doctors’ trial that "Himmler came from Landshut, the same town as myself... If my parents’ house was an extraordinarily liberal, free, quiet one, then the Himmler house was that of a strong orthodox Catholic schoolmaster whose son was brought up very strictly and kept very short of money."
Looking the other direction towards Trausnitz castle directly across the former hospital was the local Deutsches Arbeit Front headquarters, no.3.
Landshut Nazi headquarters
On the left is the former local Nazi headquarters at no.2 on the map. It was here on December 8, 1935 that Hitler addressed the Ortsgruppe of the NSDAP at the celebration of its fifteenth anniversary,declaring that “He who has the courage to conquer the state with seven men also has the courage and the power and the confidence to maintain that state.”
The main task for Himmler in the Party offices at Landshut, where a portrait of Hitler frowned down on his activities, was to increase the Party’s supporters. His initial salary was 120 marks a month, and the local S.S. were sent out to collect subscriptions and canvas advertisements for the Party newspaper, the Völkischer Beobachter.  In 1926 he was made Deputy Reich Propaganda Chief, and this gradual accretion of subordinate offices led to a modest increase in his salary. Yet he seems to have made little impression at this stage other than by being a willing and dutiful administrator. There are glimpses of him in Goebbels’s excited diary during the period of Party expansion before he went to Berlin – on 13 April 1926, for example, during a speaking tour, he writes: ‘with Himmler in Landshut; Himmler a good fellow and very intelligent; I like him’  
Manvell and Fraenkel Heinrich Himmler- The SS, Gestapo, His Life and Career 


 According to the ϟϟ 1937 address list, the site shown on the right was the headquarters of the 31st ϟϟ-Standarte at Nahensteig 182.  HPL2008 points out that, according to Landshut's local address book, in mediaeval times this street was located in the Jewish quarter of town, which is why its name is name is actually derived from the Hebrew word nahar (= brook). One wonders how many Standarte members were aware of that particular bit of trivia...
Himmler home Landshut 
The apartment in Amalienstrasse on the left where Himmler lived from 1904 to 1913. The recent photos show the flat where he lived on Seligenthaler Str. 11 on his own for two years. 
Himmler's Gymnasium, Landshut
Himmler as a senior schoolboy at Landshut (front row, second from right) and the Gymnasium he attended in 1910 where he studied classic literature. Himmler was generally an above-average student. In religious education and history he was always graded ‘very good’ and in languages he was judged ‘very good’ to ‘good’; his weakest subject was physics, for which one year he was given only ‘satisfactory’. A school report from 1913/14 reads: ‘An apparently very able student who by tireless hard work, burning ambition and very lively participation achieved the best results in the class. His conduct was exemplary.'
Two girls being shamed through the main street on April 14, 1942, escorted by guarded by two members of the criminal police. Around their necks they are forced to carry a placard reading "Wir sind aus der Volksgemeinschaft ausgeschlossen - wegen Verkehr mit Kriegsgefangenen"- We have been excluded from the national community for having relations with prisoners of war. One of the girls has been identified- Anna Scharf. She and her friend are said to have intervened with French prisoners of war. They walked the gauntlet of shame from the town square to Landshut Prison, both ending up in custody. Anna Scharf was sentenced to two years in prison for forbidden treatment of prisoners of war. In her cell she wrote on the wall: "I'm dying for France, I'm going to Jacques's death." For these doodles, she was then once again charged with the Special Court in Munich and got another two months in prison. She was recently found living in Strasbourg and interviewed. Only now was her judgement lifted although she never received compensation. When she had applied in 1956 her application was refused because she was ruled as not having been detained for political reasons. Now she has a German lawyer, Marc-Yaron Popper, who argues that his client was illegally imprisoned for two years and is entitled to compensation. 
GIF: Landshuter Hochzeit The first Landshuter Hochzeit 1475 pageant conducted after the war, one of the largest historical pageants in Europe. More than 2,000 participants in medieval costumes recreate the wedding between Hedwig, the Polish King's daughter, and George, the son of the Duke of Bavaria at Landshut. The first Landshut Wedding recreation took place in 1903 and took the form of a public play performed by 145 citizens each taking on a role. It was subsequently presented annually from 1903 to 1914 (paused during the Great War) and 1922 to 1938 (paused during World War II). During this time the number of actors involved increased to 2000 and became a triennial event from 1950 to 1968 and from 1975 to 1981. Since 1985 the Landshut Wedding has taken place every four years, consisting of mediæval jousting, pageantry, feasting and wedding processions in July.
Landshut einst und jetzt
Hitler delivered a speech in Landshut on June 17, 1927 in which he declared that export-oriented industry could produce only disaster for a nation. Only a healthy peasantry could keep a nation alive. The life of a healthy people (Volk), in Hitler's opinion, was based on Grund und Boden. By Grund und Boden Hitler always meant additional space for Germany. In Hitler's view, the farmer would enable Germany to obtain economic autarchy by providing a secure source of food. Secondly, the rural population would guarantee a constant supply of "healthy" blood for the nation. For Hitler economic autarchy and a secure supply of manpower were valued primarily for racial, expansionistic reasons. This demand for living space which Hitler had emphasised as early as 1923, became a standard part of Hitler's speeches and writings.

 Landshut Schochkaserne

The Schochkaserne in 1940 and today. Towards the end of the Second World War the organisation Todt at the Kleine Exerzierplatz built an outer camp of Dachau concentration camp. 500 Jewish concentration camp prisoners were deployed to coerce with armaments projects, of which 83 died as a result of inhuman conditions of imprisonment. A memorial plaque in the Landshut-Achdorf cemetery recalls these victims of the Nazi regime, including 74 prisoners of a death march from Flossenbürg concentration camp. On March 19, 1945, a month before the invasion of American troops in the city on May 1, the town was devastated by the heaviest bomb attack on the city. There were 300-400 victims. On April 29, 1945, Dr. Franz Seiff, at the instigation of Gauleiter Ludwig Ruckdeschel without proceedings, was publicly hanged in the market square of Gestapoans because he had hoisted a white and blue flag on his house in Schweinbach near Landshut. He had been the leader of a thirty to fifty-strong resistance group, who worked as part of Bavaria's freedom campaign on a peaceful surrender of the city to the Americans. The planned actions could not be carried out after Seiff's arrest. At the same time, policemen, who had merely responded to the radio call of the freedom campaign of Bavaria, occupied the town hall to hand over the city peacefully to the Allied troops. This action also failed. The city honoured Franz Seiff with a street name in 1946. To commemorate those victims of the Nazis who lived in Landshut, a total of sixteen Stolpersteine by Gunter Demnig in Landshut have been relocated since October 2012 to Theaterstraße and "Seligenthaler Straße".
Landshut denkmal
Whilst no reference to the Nazi era is found anywhere in the town, this memorial recognises the mass deportation of the night of June 18, 1951, the third-largest mass deportation in modern Romanian history took place, surpassed only by the wartime deportation of Jews to Transnistria, and the January 1945 deportation of ethnic Germans from Romania. Some 45,000 people were taken from their homes and deported to the Bărăgan. These included Romanians, Germans (mostly Banat Swabians), Serbs, Bulgarians, Romanian and some Ukrainian refugees from Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, and Aromanians.
Meanwhile more considerable changes are occuring to Landshut now as its district head Peter Dreier was forced to call German Chancellor Angela Merkel to tell her personally that if Germany continues its 'policy' of welcoming a million migrants, his town of Landshut will only take in around 1,800. Any extra will be put on buses and sent to her Chancellery in Berlin. As Hansjoerg Mueller of Alternative für Deutschland notes, "the town of Landshut has more or less 50,000 inhabitants and having nearly 2,000 refugees to meddle with the original population – this is quite a big burden. So Bavaria can take more, but not towns like Landshut."
18 kilometres southeast of Landshut, in the district of Landshut, is Vilsbiburg
Hitler at Vilsbiburg
On the left Himmler is shown leading a parade through the high street on March 6, 1927 in preparation for the first speech in Bavaria by Hitler after his release from Landsberg after the failed putsch attempt in which he denounced his continued ban on public speaking in Munich. The same event is shown on the right, with Hitler himself shown fourth from the left. Little appears to have changed since.  
Hitler at the event in the Vilsbiburger Volksfesthalle on the podium with the member of the state parliament, Dr. Rudolf Buttmann, Gregor Strasser (who later amateurishly retouched from the photo), and Heinrich Himmler. He spoke at 15.00 regarding "Zukunft oder Untergang" (future or doom) in the Volksfesthalle, which was later to be renamed the "Adolf Hitler Hall." According to Kershaw (292), the hall was one-third empty and made up mostly of party members and SA men.The venue would continue to serve as a festival hall up to a devastating fire on February 22, 1990. Reporting the next day, the local newspaper Vilsbiburger Anzeiger reported
It happened as in a large city… Mr. Adolf Hitler spoke forwards about 1000 persons about of Germany future or fall. One must leave it to Mr. Hitler: he spoke essentially, sometimes however for our public somewhat with difficulty.
Straubing

Nazi Straubing
Straubing was one of the first Bavarian cities that experienced by the November revolution at the end of the First World War. On November 8, 1918, a demonstration train liberated prisoners. Already on the afternoon of the 9th of November a workers 'and soldiers' council had formed, in the evening a council of citizens.
 Between 1933 and 1945 most of the members of the then small Jewish community of Straubing were murdered or forced to emigrate; today its Jewish community numbers just under a thousand.
Otto Straz, murdered in March 1933, was the first Jewish victim of Nazi rule in Germany. At the November pogrom, the Synagogue of the Jewish Community in Wittelsbacherstrasse was devastated by SA men. A memorial plaque at the memorial for the victims of the wars in the Pulverturm, the victims of forced labour, commemorates the 43 Jewish inhabitants who fell victim to the Holocaust within the cemetery of St. Peter.

Straubing before and after the war 
The town before the war and after looking from the east towards the old town showing the church of St. Peter, St. Peter school and the Schlachthof, now serving as an art gallery.
Straubing unter dem hackenkreuz 
On the main street during the Nazizeit and with wife and baby Drake Winston and looking the other way down Ludwigplatz towards the stadturm and tibertiusbrunnen. During a rally in June 1940, when Straubing and Bogen held its Kriegskreistag, some 20,000 people gathered at the Großdeutschlandplatz. Among the speakers were Gauleiter Wächtler and Gauamtsleiter Erbersdobler. In July 1940, the Donau-Zeitung reported that the Straubing Kreisleiter, Anton Putz, had flown toward France and not returned.   
Straubing unter dem hackenkreuz 
1935 and today.
Straubinger Tagblatt
The publishing house at Ludwigsplatz 32 where the anti-Nazi Straubinger Tagblatt was eventually closed down by the Nazi regime. Both its publisher Georg Huber Sr. and his son Georg Huber Jr. refused to join the party or any of its organisations or to give the Hitler salute. After Alfons Putz became the the new Nazi district leader in June 1934, he wanted to make the building a Nazi printing centre, replacing the Straubinger Tagblatt with the Nazi newspaper "Bavarian Ostwacht" or "Bavarian Ostmark". On May 29, 1935 Huber Sr., who had been denounced for anti-Nazi statements, was taken into 'protective custody.' That same day the Nazis had organised a rally against the Straubinger Tagblatt in the main square which was then banned for two days. By September that year it finally closed for "political unreliability" and Huber was finally excluded from the Reich Association of German Publishers for the same reason. He thus lost the right to work as a publisher and was left to hand over the business to his son Dr. Georg Huber. The company had about seventy employees at this time with the paper enjoying a circulation of over 12,000.  Given that Georg Huber married the Swiss Elsy Wipf, daughter of a packaging entrepreneur from Zurich, a complete Nazi takeover of the "Straubinger Tagblatt" was prevented leading to a compromise - a presumably unique case in Nazi press policy - the "Verlag Straubinger Tagblatt GmbH" was founded, which accounted for 55% of the Nazi-owned Phönix Zeitungsverlag GmbH with Huber owning the rest. The content of the Straubinger Tagblatt was now the same, but thanks to the loyalty of its readers and its continued extensive local reporting it continued to hold its own against their Nazi press competitors- the Bavarian Ostmark printed their last edition in October 1939. During Huber's military service he left his wife in charge. The paper's commercial printing and publishing continued despite Nazi harassment such as the confiscation of machinery and cars, monitoring of mail and telephone, reduction of paper and gasoline allocations, whilst several other local newspapers were shut down under the pretext of wartime reasons by the National Socialists. Thus, in the autumn of 1944, 80% of private newspapers from before 1933 had disappeared. The last issue of Straubinger Tagblatt in the Third Reich appeared on April 18, 1945; the heavy air raid that hit Straubing that day disrupting the supply of electricity, water and gas.
Straubing Deutschland Erwache
The arms used in the top-left canton on the reverse of the Straubing Deutschland Erwache standard reflects the change made in 1923 by the Nazis to remove the French influence shown in the fleur-de-lis, which were added in the 18th century. The arms have since been restored officially, but the spitaltor dating from 1628 shows the version favoured by the Nazis.
The two pages shown are from Deutschland Erwache - The History and Development of the Nazi Party and the “Germany Awake” Standards.

Rosengasse then and now 
Rosengasse then and now. Embedded in a wall on the right is this inscription in Hebrew, a duplicate of what is now in the town museum. Roughly translated, it reads
The crown of our race fell with the death of our father Rabbi Azariah, the son of Jose, who stepped into another world on the eve of Shabbat, the 26th, the month of Iyar, the 88th 
Straubing synagogue 
The synagogue at the turn of the century, and standing in front today. It survived Reichskristallnacht out of fear of any conflagration affecting the neighbouring buildings.
Straubing synagogue The period photos show German women forced to clean the synagogue which had been desecrated on Reichskristallnacht before posing in front. In his book Hitler and Nazism, Dick Geary writes specifically how "[i]n Straubing Nazi excesses against local Jews ended in murder." One reminder of this is found in the stloperstein commemorating Otto Selz in front of what had been his home at Bachstrasse 14. On March 15, 1933, the Jewish cattle and goods trader was dragged out of the house by several men, driven towards Leiblfing and, after torture, shot in a forest near Soplterstein. After the body was found and then dissected, it was brought to Straubing and buried two days later in the Jewish cemetery in Regensburg. The search for the murderers was initially thoroughly engaged by the police and public prosecutor's offices in 1933, but was quickly directed, delayed and stopped from above, especially by the Bavarian political police. After 1945 efforts were made to investigate again, but this was complicated by the long period of time and the disappearance or death of several suspects. The motive for the murder was clearly seen in the conflict between Otto Selz and Julius Streicher, Nazi Gauleiter of Franconia and editor of the Nazi newspaper “Der Stürmer.”
Leistnerstrasse after the bombing with American soldiers after the war
Leistnerstrasse after the bombing with American soldiers after the war
Bernauer Turm in 1941 and today
The  Bernauer Turm in 1941 and today
Auferstanden aus Ruinen
 Schloßbrücke Straubing
On April 28 1945 the ϟϟ blew up the Schloßbrücke Straubing over the Danube to retard the allies' advance. In 1944 and 1945 Straubing suffered from several American air raids during which time the local military hospital was destroyed to the extent of 80 percent with a loss of 45 patients. In three heavy US air raids on the Straubing railroad at least 400 people were killed, and extensive destruction in the urban area was established. Most of the historic buildings survived the bombings undamaged however.

Overlooking the Danube and towards the bridge is this reichsadler, created by Munich sculptor Fritz Schmoll. In 1936, the city of Straubing started building water protection measures with the help of the Water Management Office, building the pumping station on Gscheiderbrückl. After it was completed in 1940, a so-called "bastion" was built, consisting of a roundel with a diameter of 12.60 metres. In addition, a high pillar with a swastika relief and a magnificent Nazi eagle, which was supposed to show the greatness of the National Socialist state, was to be erected on it. However, since the construction work on the bastion and the pillar had to be stopped in the middle of the Second World War due to a lack of workers, the pillar with the eagle was not completed. It was not until nine years later, on December 28, 1954, that the pillar with the eagle was erected, of course without the swastika, under the supervision of the then police commandant and the American occupation forces. The eagle now was therefore no longer to be regarded as a National Socialist symbol of power, but rather as a "Nibelung eagle" and "stone portrait worth seeing". But nevertheless the bastion with the eagle is not only a lookout point for walkers, but serves to remind of the dark history of Germany through remaining traces of evil.
Amtsgericht Straubing on Kolbstrasse 11
What is now the Amtsgericht Straubing on Kolbstrasse 11
GIF: Straubing Einst und jetzt 
Einst und jetzt
The Hans-Schemm-Schule, named after the founder of the National Socialist Teachers' Federation in 1927 and today, renamed St. Jakobsschule. Schemm built the organisation under guiding principles that were clearly anti-democratic, anti-Semitic and anti-Communist, as seen in a number of his quotations as when he proclaimed how "[w]e are not objective – we are German!" and declared "that a Jew should dangle from every lamppost." In 1928, he became a member of the Bavarian Landtag. Schemm has been described by Thomas Childers (119) as "perhaps the most skilled and dynamic of Franconia's Nazi leaders."  Schemm also took on the role of publicist in the late 1920s when for a brief period he took over the leadership of several Nazi newspapers such as Streiter, Weckruf and Nationale Zeitung before founding his own newspaper in April 1929; in August of that year he launched the Nationalsozialistische Lehrerzeitung, the National Socialist Teachers League's (NSLB) journalistic organ. On October 1, 1930 came the first edition of the weekly newspaper Kampf für deutsche Freiheit und Kultur ("Struggle for German Freedom and Culture"), which was published by Schemm, and whose circulation rose from 3,000 in the beginning to 20,000 by 1932.  
In April 1933 Schemm arrived in Passau to attend the laying of the corner stone for the Hall of the Nibelungs where he also spoke at a mass rally; Passau too subsequently honoured Schemm by dedicating a street and a school to him. In March 1935 Schemm was seriously injured in an aircraft crash. Although Hitler personally ordered Berlin Professor Ferdinand Sauerbruch to fly to Bayreuth, Schemm, however, succumbed to his injuries on March 5 before the professor's arrival.
Straubing hauptstrasse during the Nazizeit...
The main market street in Straubing during the Nazizeit...
Ottmar Hoerl,...and on October 14, 2009 when 1,250 garden gnomes with their right arms raised in a Hitler salute were presented by creator Ottmar Hoerl, who had already displayed his provocative gnomes in Belgium, Italy and two German art galleries; the first one in public in Germany despite the law prohibiting the public use of the Hitler salute. A more meaningful and subdued memorial can be found erected in the park near the Straubinger Hagens. A stele-like bronze sculpture created by the artist Meinhart Meyer, it commemorates how the death march that went through Straubing. On April 20, 1945, the last prisoners of the Flossenbürg concentration camp set out for Dachau in large marching columns. Here more than 350 concentration camp prisoners were shot or otherwise killed. The stele is intended to represent various themes of the death marches: on the one hand, the floor plan is derived from a Star of David, on the other, there are stones on the top of the stele that come from the Flossenbürg concentration camp; these stones are reminiscent of the stones of the Jewish tombs. The footprints shown on the bronze sculpture are intended to indicate the suffering and death from the marches. The word "water" is stamped on the other surfaces in various languages ​​of the nations that fell victim to Nazi terror in Flossenbürg. In addition, the bronze sculpture is pierced in some places, which allows a view of the water and symbolises the thirst of the prisoners. Water dispensers are also integrated, as nobody should ever be thirsty again at this point.

Passau
Passau unter dem hackenkreuz
On November 8, 1918, a council of soldiers and workers was formed. In the course of this, a 200-strong civil service was established, which sought to preserve public order in the city. The situation was peaceful after the revolution until the murder of Kurt Eisner in Munich on February 21, 1919 led to the destabilisation of the situation as censorship was enforced and public meetings were prohibited. On April 7, 1919, the Soviet republic was established in Passau. 
Beginning in 1942, an external warehouse of the Dachau concentration camp was located in Passau. The prisoners were used in the construction of an underwater power station at the present lake lake Oberilzmühle. From November 1942 onwards, this external camp was transferred to the Mauthausen concentration camp, which opened Passau II in March 1944, and Passau III in March 1945. The prisoners were here in the Waldwerke Passau-Ilzstadt and at the Bayer.
Passau einst und jetzt
From 1892 until 1894, Adolf Hitler and his family lived here in Passau. The city archives mention Hitler being in Passau on four different occasions in the 1920s for speeches.
Hitler mentions it on the first page of Mein Kampf:
my father had to leave that frontier town which I had come to love so much and take up a new post farther down the Inn valley, at Passau, therefore actually in Germany itself.
According to John F. Williams in his book Corporal Hitler and the Great War 1914-1918: The List Regiment, "[f]rom his childhood – much of which was spent in the German border town of Passau – Hitler had been brought up to consider himself Bavarian."
Hitler's home Passau Apparently the red building today at what is now Kapuzinerstrasse 5 (renamed Klara-Hitler-Strasse 5 in honour of Hitler's mother) is the site of another Hitler residence.
Adolf Hitler nearly drowned when he was four years-old but was saved by a local priest, historians have claimed. Newspaper clippings have emerged detailing how a child – who experts believe was Adolf Hitler – was rescued from a river in Passau, Germany, in January 1894.  The infant is not named in the article, which was uncovered in a German archive, but it matches a story recounted by priest Max Tremmel in 1980. He said his predecessor Johann Kuehberger told him he had rescued Hitler when the Nazi leader was a child. Residents of Passau, where Hitler grew up, also claimed the priest's story was true.  The account of the incident remained uncorroborated until recently when the article emerged.  The Donauzeitung-Danube newspaper described how "a young fellow" was pulled out of the River Passau by a "brave comrade" after he fell through thin ice. The priest is said to have dived into the icy water after spotting the child struggling to stay afloat in the strong current.
 Anna Elisabeth Rosmus, a German author who lived in Passau, said the tale was known by most people in the town in book Out of Passau, Leaving a City Hitler Called Home. "Everyone in Passau knew the story. Some of the other stories told about him were that he never learned to swim and needed glasses," she wrote. "In 1894, while playing tag with a group of other children, the way many children do in Passau to this day, Adolf fell into the river. The current was very strong and the water ice cold, flowing as it did straight from the mountains. Luckily for young Adolf, the son of the owner of the house where he lived was able to pull him out in time and so saved his life."  Hitler told his Nazi generals that he used to play cowboys and Indians on the banks of the river but never admitted to falling in the water.
Hitker house Passau 
Hitler lived here at Theresienstrasse 23 until May 1, 1893 before his family moved across to the other side of the Inn.
[Hitler's father's] life revolved around the usual quarters very much: the Customs station at the river bank, the inns, and the bee hives that were his hobby since childhood. He continued his work in good standing and was promoted again in 1892, when Adolf was 3 years old. The family moved to his next duty station, Passau, fifty miles downriver. 


The change of residence was to exert a significant influence upon young Adolf. Braunau was a provincial, sleepy border town, which had only provided a tiny footnote to German history... The former Imperial town and Episcopal see Passau was of a different calibre. In the Middle Ages, the Prince- Bishop of Passau had ruled over the important market, bishopric and county at the confluence of the Inn and Danube rivers; splendid churches, castles and palaces bore witness to the glory days of the town.
GIF: St. Christopher mural on Pfaffengasse
St. Christopher mural on Pfaffengasse in 1941 andnow
Although Passau was on the German bank of the river and border, the Austrian Customs inspection was located, by mutual disposition of the respective governments, on German territory, where, luckily, the inns closed an hour later at night. Yet for the family in general, and Alois in particular, the change of posting seems not to have been entirely welcome. Alois had lived seventeen years in Braunau, where he had buried two wives, and had developed affection for the small town. There was also the fact that in Braunau he was necessarily a bigger fish than in the much larger Customs office in Passau, and, in addition, the position in Passau was a provisional appointment only, subject to confirmation by his superiors.
It was perhaps only for the youngest member of the family, Adolf, three and a half years old, that the new town was an unmitigated success; he was in the impressionable age in which a child leaves home for the first time and is unfailingly altered by the first impressions of the new environment, the sight of the buildings, the sound of the language. For the rest of his life, Adolf Hitler would speak the distinctive dialect of Lower Bavaria that was spoken in Passau. He insisted later that, from his time in Passau onwards, he had always felt more German than Austrian, and the old town's cultural and historic pedigree certainly provided a different impression than sleepy Braunau. In all probability, he spent two carefree years in Passau. 
John Vincent Palatine (172) Children of the Lesser Men
Of Hitler's accent, it has been described as being that from Passau. According to Keller 2010 (15), "He played a lot with the neighbourhood children, and through them came in contact with the Lower Bavarian dialect, which he retained for the rest of his life. Hamann 2010 (7-8) desscribes how "[b]etween 1892 and 1895 Alois went to work in Passau, on the German side of the border, during which time the three- to six-year-old boy acquired his peculiar Bavarian accent: The German of my youth was the dialect of Lower Bavaria; I could neither forget it nor learn the Viennese jargon." Hitler's childhood friend Kubizek 2006 (37) recalled how "[h]e disliked dialect, in particular Viennese, the soft melodiousness of which was utterly repulsive to him. To be sure, Hitler did not speak Austrian in the true sense. It was rather that in his diction, especially in the rhythm of his speech, there was something Bavarian. Perhaps this was due to the fact that from his third to his sixth year, the real formative years for speech, he lived in Passau, where his father was then a customs official." 
Tag der Arbeit on May 1, 1933 in Ludwigsplatz
Tag der Arbeit on May 1, 1933 in Ludwigsplatz
Nazis marching down Rindermarkt
Nazis marching down the Rindermarkt June 17, 1923 in front of what is now the Hotel Passauer Wolf. 
In addition to Hitler, Heinrich Himmler also spent time in Passau.  In November 1933, the building of Nibelungenhalle was announced. Intended to hold 8,000 to 10,000 guests, and another 30,000 in front of it, in 1935 the hall also became quarters for a unit of the Austrian Legion. At the start of 1934, these troops had occupied a building that belonged to Sigmund Mandl, a Jewish merchant. That building, in turn, was referred to as SA barracks.  Beginning in 1940, Passau offered the building at Bräugasse 13 to Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle. During the war the town also housed three sub-camps of the infamous Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp: Passau I (Oberilzmühle), Passau II (Waldwerke Passau-Ilzstadt) and Passau III (Jandelsbrunn).  
On May 3, 1945, a message from Major General Stanley Eric Reinhart’s 261st Infantry Regiment stated at 3:15 am: "AMG Officer has unconditional surrender of PASSAU signed by Burgermeister, Chief of Police and Lt. Col of Med Corps there. All troops are to turn themselves in this morning."  It was the site of a post-war American sector displaced persons camp.
GIF: Residenzplatz GIF: Residenzplatz einst und jetzt
The Residenzplatz with the Wittelsbacherbrunnen in front of the cathedral
Passauer Tölpel
The Passauer Tölpel then and now with baby Drake Winston in 2011. A sign beside it is supposed to express what happened to the stone head: “I fell down from Passau's cathedral, my beautiful body breaking. I am still well and alert, and only a little weak in my head." It is believed that the stone head comes from a figure of the cathedral, which was destroyed in the city fire of 1662. The stone head has short hair, big eyes and thick, grinning lips.  After the city fire, the towers of the rebuilt cathedral were provided with flat roofs, which Father Gansler took in 1696 as an occasion to call the Passau people "Dölpel", because they were apparently too stupid to put peaks on the towers. Since then, the Passau people have had this derisory name attached to them. 
sGIF: Kaiserin-Elisabeth-Brücke

On the day Hitler finally killed himself, the Kaiserin-Elisabeth-Brücke was blown up, since rebuilt. The city of Passau was bombed three times in the final phase of the Second World War, with a total of about 200 death victims and the destruction of almost 250 buildings. The main target of the attacks was the railway station. After the US Army advanced in the spring of 1945 through Bavaria to the east, a larger defence operation was planned for the city of Passau by the German armed forces. However, only small-scale combat operations took place, and finally, on May 2, 1945, the city was handed over to the units of the US armed forces by the former mayor Carl Sittler. As early as January 1945, the city and the surrounding countryside from Passau were the target of refugees from Silesia who reached Passau with horse carts and overcrowded trains. Towards the end of the Second World War and in the immediate post-war period the arrival of German-born refugees from Bohemia took place. In September 1945 there were over 28,000 refugees and displaced persons in the city. Due to the lack of housing, numerous provisional barrack settlements were built in the urban area.
GIF: Hängebrücke 
The Hängebrücke in 1938 and its current incarnation
Neo Nazis in Passau
Passau has recently been the scene of demonstrations by and against neo-nazis after the town's police chief Alois Mannichl had been stabbed in front of his home by a neo-nazi.


Deggendorf 
Deggendorf alte kaserne
The alte kaserne sporting a swastika during the war and today. Soldiers of the 3rd U.S. Army occupied the city of Deggendorf on April 27, 1945. Deggendorf was the site of a displaced persons camp for Jewish refugees after the war, housing approximately 2,000 refugees, who created a cultural centre that included two newspapers, the Deggendorf Centre Review and Cum Ojfboj, a theatre group, synagogue, mikvah, kosher kitchen, and more. The camp even issued its own currency known as the Deggendorf Dollar. Many of the camp's residents were survivors of the concentration camp at Theresienstadt.According to Giles MacDonogh (334), "locals accused the Jews who inhabited the old concentration camp in Deggendorf of carrying out armed robberies."
The displaced persons camp closed on June 15, 1949. This was ironic given that Deggendorf itself was the site of a notorious mediaeval massacre of Jews, first mentioned in an official document by Duke Heinrich XIV originating from 1338 in which the duke forgave the citizens of Deggendorf for the murder of its Jews and spared them any kind of punishment, going so far as to grant them the right to keep all the possessions they took from the Jews. The inscription in the basilica of Deggendorf dates the events to 1337 in which it is claimed that Jews were purported to have set fire to the town on Easter. It appears that the Jews were massacred for economic reasons and the events were reworked later to justify the act so that in the 15th century the myth took on its own life. It was not until the 1960s that anti-Jewish depictions showing them in the middle of the alleged host desecration were increasingly attacked. Among these was a cycle of sixteen oil paintingsand the "Judenstein," an anvil with daemonic Jewish figures around it. Even though the debate quickly became a heated topic in the press -abroad as well as domestic- it wasn't until 1968 that the first four of the sixteen oil paintings were finally removed.

Bayerisch Eisenstein


The Gasthof Neuwaldhaus flying the Nazi flag and its current incarnation
Bayerisch Eisenstein Jugendberge Youth Hostel
The Youth Hostel, also considerably changed including the Hitler Youth flag in front. Bayerisch Eisenstein is where Bernhard Schmidt would eventually die on September 6, 1960. Born in Pegnitz in 1890, in August 1919 he married and took over the inn of his parents-in-law in Bayerisch Eisenstein. He joined the Nazi Party as member 14,699 in 1925 and the ϟϟ, number 2,069, in 1930. From late June 1934 to late March 1935, Schmidt was camp commander in the Lichtenburg concentration camp, later serving as camp commander in the Sachsenburg concentration camp until July 1937. Thereafter Schmidt was the protective custody camp leader at both the Sachsenhausen and Dachau concentration camps until June 1938. Schmidt was dismissed by Theodor Eicke, leading him to work as a district group leader at the Reich Air Protection Agency Weser / Elbe. His request to return to the Waffen-ϟϟ was not granted on several occasions. Schmidt was never prosecuted after the war.

Osterhofen
Hindenburgplatz during the Nazi regime and today
Hindenburgplatz during the Nazi regime and today. 
Osterhofen was the site of a DP camp after the war; its camp leader at the end of 1946 would be Stanislaw Stankievich, “the arch-butcher” responsible for ordering the massacre of 6,000 Jews at Borissow in 1941. Stankievich had previously found work as a teacher in the Regensburg and Michelsdorf camps after the war. During his time at the camp  he continued his work as a propagandist, becoming the editor-in-chief of the Byelorussian nationalist newspaper Backauseyna (“Fatherland”). On October 31, 1947, the United Nations formally adopted a resolution introduced by the delegate from the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic naming Stankievich “as a war criminal wrongfully harboured by the United States,” which did nothing to remove Stankievich from his position as the leader of the Osterhofen DP camp until May 1950.
The war memorial 
When he left Osterhofen, he was neither arrested nor deported to the Soviet Union, but instead became the “Language Training Supervisor” for the International Refugee Organisation in Munich. Stankievich eventually applied for a visa to the United States under his own name, and although the US Displaced Persons Committee (DPC) was ignorant of his role in the Borissow Massacre, the committee found that Stankievich had “admitted to being the editor of a newspaper which was a German propaganda organ. It was the opinion of the US DPC,” the report continued, “that Stankiewicz was an out-and-out opportunist who changed his politics and allegiance without other thought than personal gain;” his application was thus rejected. He unsuccessfully appealed this decision, trying to explain that he had only supported National Socialism against the Soviet Union because it had been “the lesser of the two evils.” A report was then sent to the American State Department declaring him a good anti-Communist with no known connections with Nazis, even though Stankievich was wanted for the Nuremberg trials as a known war criminal. Nevertheless the American Army recruited Stankievich and got him a job with the Institute of Russian Research, allowing him to come to the U.S. briefly and then permanently in 1969.

Schönberg
Nazi Schönberg
Towards the end of the Second World War the parish church and large parts of the market suffered extensive destruction. 

Simbach
Across the Inn from Hitler's birthplace, Eva Braun spent a year at this boarding school.
Simbach Eva Braun schoolIn 1928 she spent a year at Marienhöhe in Simbach am Inn on the German‑Austrian border, a Catholic institute rich in tradition. A Merian copperplate engraving from around 1700 shows the view of Braunau from Simbach across an old wooden bridge–the same Braunau where Adolf Hitler had been born on April 20, 1889. The institute in Simbach had opened a housekeeping school only a few years earlier. The facility itself had been in existence since 1864, and was run by the Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary, an order of Roman Catholic nuns pledged to the rules and spiritual exercises of St. Ignatius of Loyola. Founded by the English nun Mary Ward, one of the most important woman of the seventeenth century, and thus also known in Germany as the “Institute of the English Maiden,” this order of women was active throughout Europe and is considered even today a pioneer in women’s education. Along with home economics, Eva Braun studied bookkeeping and typing at Marienhöhe and was thereby trained for future office work–a path that was by no means taken for granted for girls in the middle‑class environment of that time. When Eva Braun, at the age of seventeen, returned from Simbach to Munich, on July 22, 1929, she moved back in with her parents. Only a few months later, in September, she answered an ad in a Munich newspaper and found a trainee position: Heinrich Hoffmann, photographer, was hiring.
Heike B. Görtemaker  Eva Braun