Dachau Town

Dachau was a working-class town and, during the Munich Soviet Republic, a stronghold of the SPD, USPD and KPD. When Rudolf Hess wanted to advertise for the Nazi Party in the “Hörhammer” inn, he was expelled with jeers, whistles and the Internationale. In the Reichstag elections in March 1933, the Nazis got only 23.9 percent in Dachau and 43.1 percent in Bavaria. It was proud to be a red city. Nevertheless, Dachau achieved inglorious fame through the Dachau concentration camp set up by the Nazis in 1933, the first “official” camp that, along with Auschwitz, became the epitome of concentration camps in Germany. Himmler had it built to the east of the city of Dachau on the site of the former Dachau Royal Powder and Munitions Factory in 1933. The factory had been falling into disrepair since 1920. The fully developed and hermetically sealed site belonged to the state and was known to Himmler beforehand - which is probably why this location was chosen for the first camp. The Dachau municipal council was not informed. Dachau itself was by no means a stronghold of the völkischmovement, the Nazis, in contrast to the KPD, had not benefited from unemployment. The concentration camp served - especially in its early years, when the Nazis wanted to consolidate its power - to imprison and deter political dissidents. As early as March 22, around 150 prisoners from the prisons in Landsberg am Lech, Neudeck and Stadelheim were brought to the site. 
On November 15, 1933, the former market town of Dachau was elevated to the status of a town. Since April 1, 1939, the Dachau concentration camp has belonged to the city of Dachau. The concentration camp was a training centre for the 
ϟϟ concentration camp guards and is now a memorial. During the war, thousands of Soviet prisoners of war were shot at the shooting range near Hebertshausen between October 1941 and April 1942 by ϟϟ teams on the basis of the "commissar order". In 1945, those former prisoners of the Dachau concentration camp who had died as a result of incarceration in the months immediately after the liberation of the camp were buried in the forest cemetery in the Etzenhausen district. In addition, here is the final resting place of Jewish prisoners who died on the death march from the Flossenbürg concentration camp to Dachau at the end of April 1945. Another memorial site since 1959 is the Leitenberg Cemetery of Honour. From May 1944, an air raid shelter with numerous tunnels and shelters was built under the Dachau Schlossberg. Shortly before the end of the war, on April 28, 1945, the Dachau Uprising took place. A resistance group led by Georg Scherer and Walter Neff, consisting of concentration camp prisoners who had just escaped, Dachau citizens and members of the Volkssturm, wanted to end the Nazi regime in the city and prevent a senseless defensive struggle.
The station immediately during liberation, with clothes scattered all over, and today. Prisoners who arrived at the train station would march down this street to the concentration camp. The railway station served as a “collecting point” for prisoner transports. Dachau’s residents could see how prisoners and, frequently, dead bodies were unloaded from the trains, and how the ϟϟ marched the prisoners to the camp in broad daylight. Moreover, Dachau residents saw the haggard prisoners who, from 1941 onwards, came to town under ϟϟ guard to perform forced labour for local businesses. 
A sidetrack led from Dachau railway station to the ϟϟ camp. The ϟϟ sometimes transported prisoners to the site of their imprisonment in goods trains. The newly arrived prisoners passed through the western entrance of the ϟϟ camp and on to the barracks area. The sidetrack was removed in 1948. At the former entrance to the ϟϟ grounds, where today the Isar-Amperwerke Straße runs, a small section of the line has survived. Two days before the liberation of the Dachau concentration camp on April 29 1945, a prisoner transport from the Buchenwald concentration camp arrived. Loaded with 4,480 prisoners, the train had been on route for 21 days. The ϟϟ had crammed the prisoners in goods wagons and given them practically nothing to eat or drink. During the journey, thousands died of hunger and exhaustion or were shot by the ϟϟ. A train full of dying and already dead persons arrived in Dachau. Only 816 persons survived the transport. The ϟϟ refused the train entry into the ϟϟ camp, so that it remained standing on the track in front of the gates. Upon reaching the Dachau concentration camp, American soldiers found the bodies in the wagons, a discovery that traumatised many of them.
In front of the railway station is Frühlingstrasse, which was renamed Adolf-Hitler-Strasse on March 24, 1933. The documents on the right made this official after the Dachau town council voted unanimously whilst Lord Mayor Georg Seufert of the Catholic Bavarian People's Party declared Hitler an honorary citizen. Soon after on November 15, 1933, the former market town of Dachau was elevated to town status. Hitler himself expressed his thanks:
The honorary citizenship bestowed upon me by the town council gives me great pleasure. I accept the honorary citizenship and would like to express to the town council my most sincere thanks and my sincere best wishes for the well-being of Dachau.
It was down this road that prisoners were marched to the camp. After the war the street's name reverted back to the original.
Originally the Café Alt-Dachau at Frühlingstraße 4, given its involvement in the establishment of the Nazi Party in Dachau it was renamed the Brown Front in 1933. After all the nationalist paramilitary groups that had participated in the Beer Hall Putsch of November 8 and 9, 1923, in Munich were prohibited, the Dachau members of the Bund Oberland (Oberland League) used this restaurant as their meeting place, and it was the first in Dachau which permitted them to enter They met secretly under the name Stammtisch Edelweiss (Edelweiss Club), and the edelweiss on both sides of their collars was the sign of the Freikorps Oberland (Oberland Free Corps).
It was in this restaurant that Dachau's first local Nazi Party group was to be founded by around ten former Oberland members. They met in the café to set up their own party group, but they were tricked by a conman who claimed to have been sent by the Munich Nazi Party leadership. After a short speech the conman collected the entrance fees for party membership, whereupon he disappeared with the money and was never seen in Dachau again. The local Nazi Party was founded some time later, and when internal disputes led to a call for new leadership in 1932, Eberhard Beeskow took over as local leader at a crisis meeting held in this restaurant and attended by several party members. On April 26, 1933, the Dachau League of German Girls held its founding meeting here.
Down Frühlingstrasse to Schleissheimer Strasse under underpass below the rail line leads to the left into Friedenstrasse. This was the same route taken by prisoners marching to the concentration camp. The local town council chose the name Friedenstrasse on October 25, 1919 for the first residential street set up after the First World War, hence its name- 'Freedom Street'. Here it is shown in April 1945 and today with student, showing Dachau residents forced to haul the enormous number of corpses up to Leitenberg mass grave. The name was originally written as two words (Frieden-Strasse), and it was considered by the town council at the time to be "one of Dachau's longest and most beautiful streets" according to the Dachauer Volksblatt. 
Along Friedenstrasse to Fritz-Müller-Weg on the left is a foot and cycle path that leads to this footbridge that follows the route of the former rail siding that linked Dachau station to the ϟϟ camp. On the left by the footbridge a small stretch of the track can be still be seen today, where it curves right in front of the bridge over the driveway leading to the Dachau Volunteer Fire Department.) The prisoners were marched from the station to the concentration camp along Schleissheimer Strasse and Friedenstrasse, and then they followed this road beside the rail track which led directly to the camp. They were only transported by rail cars via this industrial rail line in exceptional cases. The track had been built on a weak foundation, and was difficult to maintain. Prisoners had to carry out repeated repairs. The siding was built by Bavaria's military authorities in 1915 for the use of the Dachau Royal Gunpowder and Munitions Factory. Above is the scene as the Americans found it in April 1945 and how it appears today.

The town hall's topping out ceremony in 1934. The town hall was first mentioned on April 9, 1486, and was rebuilt in 1614-15 shortly before the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War, but three hundred years later it was so dilapidated that it could no longer be preserved. The town hall was closed to the public because it was in danger of collapsing, and surveyors decided in April 1934 that it should be demolished. The town's administration was transferred to the first story of the Ziegler villa in Freisinger Strasse 2 (today Konrad-Adenauer-Strasse 3), which the town had already bought from Eduard Ziegler in 1933. On April 29-30, 1934, the Amper-Bote reported that "the town treasury has already moved to new premises in the old savings bank on Schrannen square, and the Kreisleitung of the NSDAP is also moving into temporary new quarters." The new building was designed by the Munich architect Georg Buchner with Baroque gables in keeping with the original.' On March 12, 1936, the first public mayoral conference took place "in the now fully completed, spacious and attractive conference hall of the town hall" (Dachauer Volksblatt). At that meeting Lambert Friedrichs, the mayor and Kreisleiter of the Nazi Party at the time, stated that "the town of Dachau can look ahead confidently to the future." The Dachauer Volksblatt reported on March 14, 1936: "Now that it has two ϟϟ camps, Dachau has become a garrison town and this has led to a perceptible upswing for Dachau's trade, business and commerce." The "two camps" were the concentration camp and the ϟϟ training camp. However, a substantial upturn in the economy of the impoverished town did not materialise.
The rathaus in 1936 and today. In the passageway through the new town hall on the right are these two plaques that commemorate the Jews of Dachau who died in the Holocaust. The plaque on top refers to Reichskristallnacht. The one below it lists the names of five of the twelve Jews of Dachau who would die in the death camps: Julius Kohn, Max Wallach, Melly Wallach, Hans Neumeyer, and Vera Neumeyer.
 On April 28, 1945, the town hall was the scene of the Dachau Uprising. Its aim was to topple the Nazi regime in Dachau by occupying the town hall and the Landratsamt (county administration office) nearby. In the last months of the war the office of the mayor also had an external work unit from Dachau concentration camp, although it consisted of only one prisoner. The rapid growth of the town after the First World War made it necessary to build a new and larger town hall.

On the left is the Hörhammerbräu Inn where, in November 1922, the Bund Oberland was established which would later become the Dachau Nazi party in 1929 and where it would hold regular meetings; one speaker had been Rudolf Hess who was prevented from speaking by communists in February 1933. Because the KPD did as well, violent fights would break out. Indeed, in the years preceding the Nazis' seizure of power this inn was repeatedly the scene of embittered conflicts between Dachau Communists and members of the Nazi Party, although aparently they never came to blows. The local Dachau branch of the KPD organised mass meetings with leading Bavarian party speakers such as one occasion on October 19, 1932 when Leonhard Hausmann, the party secretary from Augsburg spoke. He was later murdered by the ϟϟ in Dachau concentration camp on May 17, 1933. The Eiserne Front was also active against the Nazi rise in Dachau. As late as March 2, 1933, the Iron Front announced a meeting in the Dachauer Volksblatt, to be held in the hall of the Horhammerbräu inn the next day and called on Volksgenossen to attend. In view of the Reichstag elections to be held on March 5, a speaker of the Iron Front spoke of the decisive struggle for "freedom, work and bread." Up until November 1933 the Hörhammerbrau Inn was one of four polling stations in Dachau; on March 13, 1932, in the first round of the elections for the president of the Reichstag, 872 Dachau residents voted at the Hörhammerbräu inn for Hindenburg and only 143 voted for Hitler. On April 10, in the second round, 1,137 votes were cast here and only twenty votes were for Hitler. 
In February 1934, the Dachauer Zeitung reported on the Dachau guard troops’ Fasching ball, held here, which besides the concentration camp guards was attended by members of the Upper Bavarian Standarte of the ϟϟ and "the civilian population of Dachau". The paper found that it was above all the "crisp black uniforms of the  ϟϟ" which "lit up the scene". 
In the autumn of 1937 the inn was forced to shut down by the Nazis after the owner complained about the behaviour of an ϟϟ man. He also had to pay a fine of 500 Reichsmarks and make a public apology on October 29 in the Dachauer Volksblatt: "I take back the offensive remarks I made about the ϟϟ and the Party and greatly regret having made them. Josef Schmid."
During the war the Nazi Party Kreisleiter convened a meeting in this inn at which he issued a stern admonition to all the women living on Freisinger Strasse (now the Konrad-Adenauer-Strasse) for aiding prisoners after having arranged food for a work unit from Dachau concentration camp in the winter of 1943-44, although this had been expressly forbidden by the ϟϟ.
 On the right is the Obere Apotheke, which had been damaged in the fighting on April 30, 1919 between the Freikorps Görlitz, sent by the government from Berlin, and the Red Army which had occupied Dachau since winning the so-called "Battle of Dachau" a fortnight earlier. The Freikorps was also known as the White Guard because they wore white armbands while the Red Army wore red armbands. After a battle that lasted one day, the Freikorps liberated the town of Dachau from the Communists. The white armbands, worn by the Freikorps, were decorated with an ancient emblem called the swastika. 
 During the war the chemist's supplied the medicine to the prisoners at the camp, delivered by way of the parish office of St. Jakob and even provided medication illegally to prisoners working in the town on work details. After his release from the concentration camp the former prisoner Heinrich Rupieper, a Catholic priest, thanked the Lernbecher family in a personal letter for the medical aid they had provided. On September 1, 1945, Rupieper was temporarily appointed district superintendent of schools and entrusted with the task of rebuilding the school system in Dachau.

Heldengedenktag commemoration conducted by the Nazis next to St. Jakob church at Schrannenplatz; today a large tree has all but obscured the war memorial behind it which was designed by Karl Kroher and dedicated in 1929. It shows the martyrdom of St. Sebastian and reads: "To protect Dachau and you, the heroes went to battle. We offer them our thanksgiving. So great was their sacrifice." 
In 1930 Friedrich Pflanzelt became parish priest at St. Jakob's. When the concentration camp was opened in March 1933, he volunteered to say Mass for the prisoners in one of the barracks despite it not belonging to his parish at that time, seeing it as his duty to carry out pastoral work with the prisoners. Indeed, that Easter Monday Hilmar Wackerle, the camp commandant, allowed him to celebrate mass leaving Pflanzelt to write enthusiastically to the bishopric in Munich on April 9, 1933 how "[t]he SA and ϟϟ guards quickly responded to my invitation and came to the parish church on Palm Sunday. They came to the church in good soldierly manner and made an excellent impression on the other church-goers with their firm discipline and exemplary conduct." After Wackerle's replacement as commandant of the camp, his successor Theodor Elcke initially indicated that he was amenable to Pflanzelt's applications to hold mass and confession at the prison camp. However, the climate began to change and Pflanzelt's activities were increasingly restricted. He continued to say Mass and hear confessions at the camp until August 1936 by which time the number of prisoners attending Mass decreased considerably, fearing as they did the threats of beating and be forced to work on Sunday. At one point the ϟϟ even mocked Pflanzelt as soon as the approached the camp grounds by playing a popular song on the loudspeaker: "Du schwarzer Zigeuner komm spiel mir was vor" (Come, you black gypsy and play me a song). In the end the priest had to discontinue all visits to the concentration camp. On November 4, 1936, he wrote to Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber "although it is deeply regrettable and makes my heart bleed, that since late August no one has been coming to mass any more! I went to the camp every Sunday until October 15.... But after mass was announced I was always told: 'Sir, no one has reported.'" 
On the nights of March 29 and April 20, 1936, several windows of the rectory on Pfarrstrasse 7 were smashed. The suspect was an SA man who was angry at Pflanzelt's refusal to ring the church bells on the eve of the elections held on Sunday, March 29, at which Germans were called upon to declare their "unreserved devotion" to Hitler and his policies. 
Despite this Pflanzelt gave a statement to the Dachauer Volksblatt which was published on April 23, 1936, describing how "in the night from March 29 to 30, and again last night at half past two, miserable wretches deliberately smashed some of the windows of the rectory with brute force. These 'heroes' may be proud of their nightly pranks, but I have only ONE answer for them that I, as a priest and a German, will continue to do my duty without tire or worry! But I warn every nightly disturber of the peace that I wil give him something to think about if I ever catch him in Pfarrstrasse. I can accept no responsibility for what might happen to such a hooligan." In fact, Pflanzelt ended up applying to the Dachau district administration for a gun license even though in 1934 the Bavarian Secret Police instituted legal proceedings against Pflanzelt at the Munich Special Court for infringement of the Military Equipment Act due to two old rifles had been found in the rectory attic. The charges were later dropped. On February 25, 1937, the public prosecutor's office in Munich brought charges of "slander" instigated by the Gestapo on behalf of the camp commander Hermann Baranowski. These charges too were dropped the following year.
 Since Dachau is built on a hill, it has many underground passages including the one under the church. 
The Kochwirt restaurant before the First World War and today, sited directly across the street from the church (on the steps of which I took my photo). It had developed into a favourite meeting place of Dachau's factory workers who were attracted to its low prices, and generally avoided the more middle-class brewery inns. After the fall of the monarchy in Bavaria, members of the Dachau Social Democratic Association and the Dachau Free Trade Unions held a public meeting here on November 14, 1918, to formally found the Dachau Council of Workers, Citizens and Farmers. The first activities of this council on November 18 consisted of closely monitoring the work of the town administration and district authorities, combating profiteering, working towards a fairer distribution of food and the introduction of fixed prices, seeing to an economic use of the town's monies, and also promoting welfare work and housing construction. Five months later after the Red Guards took Dachau on April 16, 1919, Ernst Toller- who served for six days as President of the short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic and would gain international renown as a writer after his subsequent imprisonment- spoke to Dachau's workers from the porch of the Kochwirt Restaurant.
The restaurant was badly damaged on New Year's Eve, 1940, when ϟϟ men, picking for a fight, attacked members of the Dachau traditional alpine costume association "D'Schlossbergler". In the ensuing brawl windows and glasses were smashed. That same night ϟϟ soldiers also attacked the guests in Café Belstler, a popular dance hall, wine and weissbier bar, as well as patrons in the Zieglerbräu Inn.
The Stadtkeller shown on the left has had its name since July 1936 when SA man Paul Taut, serving on the town council, leased the building to open a restaurant. Up to then it had been owned by the Dachau Association of Free Trade Unions where the Social Democrats held their party meetings and as a result it became the centre for the trade unions. When the Nazis won the March 5, 1933 elections, union leaders met here to plan their defence against the coming attack by SA men from Augsburg. The attack, however, did not take place. On March 9, the union building again became the focus of attention when the police admonished the SA and ϟϟ to be level-headed whilst taking control of Dachau, advising them against seizing the union building so as to avoid a bloody clash with the workers. The Recreation Centre was taken over by the Nazi-controlled German Labour Front (DAF), which was founded in November 1933. It provisionally set up its Dachau office here where previously meetings of the Dachau Social Democrats had been held, thus now losing its traditional meeting place. At a compulsory auction held by the Nazis in June 1935, the town council offered 30,000 Reichsmarks for the site, which was heavily encumbered with mortgages. The restaurant was eventually leased from the town council by Paul Taut, a councilor and SA-Sturmführer, and his wife, who ran it as of July 1, 1936. Taut was commander of the SA-Sturmbann III/1 in Dachau and, as a butcher, had previously worked at the local Wülfert meat-processing factory.
The Brückenwirt Inn, site of a particular tragedy during the Nazi era. Its innkeeper and butcher, Ludwig Rosner, was arrested after making anti-Nazi remarks here and sent to the camp. During the time he was incarcerated his wife had suffered an emotional breakdown and had taken their two sons (aged about six and seven) where they were last seen in a shop in Eschenried where she bought them candy.
She was last seen in Eschenried where she bought candy for her children in a little shop. Then all trace of the three was lost. They were still missing when Rosner returned home from the camp.They remained missing when Rosner had been released months later after raspberry-pickers came across the bodies of the three amongst the bushes in Zieglerwald, where the ASV stadium stands today. Mrs. Rosner had committed suicide there with her sons, using the captive-bolt pistol from her husband's butcher's shop. Past the inn, one arrives at the Mühlbachweg, which was the path women from Dachau used when they accompanied escaped prisoners from the concentration camp during the Dachau Uprising on April 28, 1945.

Further along the street after the Brückenwirt Inn, the New Gallery was once the site of the Dachau Labour Service Camp shown in 1937 and today. In 1935 those between the ages of 18 to 25 as well as the unemployed were made to volunteer for one year of labour service. By the end of the war teenagers and those over the age of sixty were called up into the Volkssturm and this was its base. 
On the morning of April 28, 1945 an armed revolt broke out in Dachau in which, a resistance group led by Georg Scherer and Walter Neff, consisting of recently escaped concentration camp prisoners, Dachau citizens and members of the Volkssturm, actively sought to end the Nazi regime in the city and prevent a senseless defence. At around 8.30 they occupied the Town Hall but, due to the superior forces of the deployed ϟϟ units, it was bloodily suppressed in a few hours. Nevertheless, the revolt not only contributed to saving the town of Dachau from destruction by the Allies, but also to ending the evacuation transports from the concentration camp.
The Unterbräu Inn in 1934 and today. It is apparently the oldest brewery in Dachau. On April 16, 1919 this was the headquarters of the Red Army when it controlled Dachau before being overthrown over a week later by Freikorps Görlit. It holds a place in Nazi mythology as the site where the Dachau NSDAP Ortsgruppe was officially founded on February 1, 1930 under the chairmanship of Nazi Gauleiter for Upper Bavaria, Fritz Reinhardt who, on April 1, 1933 was appointed State Secretary in the Reich Ministry of Finance. In fact, it was to this man that “Aktion Reinhardt” was named whereby the Jews of the Polish General Government became the first large group of Jews to be liquidated by gas in 1942–43. Fritz Reinhardt had by then become the official in the Finance Ministry responsible for administering the valuables, including dental gold, taken from the victims before or after their deaths.
However, a more infamous event took place here on Sunday, July 17 1932- the so-called Battle of Unterbräu Inn where seven SA men had fled after having antagonised members of the Reichsbanner by stealing a flag from the Jungsozialisten. They were protected by the innkeeper who stood in the doorway with two dogs until they were saved by a Bavarian state police riot squad.
  Dachau's old cemetery dates back to 1571 when the municipal authorities decided to establish a new cemetery north of the moat, since the older cemetery surrounding St. Jakob had become too small. Up until the middle of the nineteenth century, it was customary in Dachau to distinguish between the Friethof (churchyard) surrounding St. Jakob's, which existed until 1833, and the burial ground called Gottesacker ("God's own acre") outside the town's ramparts in the churchyard of the Chapel of the Holy Cross, which was built in 1627-28 and ascribed to Hans Krumpper. This chapel, consecrated in 1961, is now Dachau's war memorial and commemorates those killed in action in both World Wars.
 This cemetery has a number of "old, bourgeois family graves, some dating back to the eighteenth century" (Dreher), and is also the final resting place of Georg Scherer, former Dachau concentration camp prisoner and later mayor of Dachau. (To find his simple grave go right at the entrance of the Gottesacker burial grounds and follow the cemetery wall.)
Memorial to four members of the Freikorps Görlitz buried here, who were killed in fighting with the Red Army near Pellheim on April 30, 1919. In May 1919 the municipal authorities decided to pay the burial costs of the "members of the government troops who were killed while driving the Red Guards out of Dachau" and also to cover the costs of a gravestone and care of the grave site. The records of the 17th Dachau town council meeting on October 25, 1919, include the following assessment of the gravestone for the dead: "Prior to the meeting the members of the town council gathered in the cemetery to inspect the monument to the Freikorps Görlitz. It was noted that the monument is not at all as unsightly as the building committee had reported. The monument simply lacks an appropriate base, and this should now be provided." The commemorative plaque, dubbed the "Görlitz Memorial", was not completed until 1934. The Amper-Bote reported: "On Sunday, April 29, an old wish of the faithful friends of the Görlitz men will be granted - that there finally be a fitting gravestone for the four soldiers who died liberating Dachau. ... At the request of Mayor Seufert, Mr. Eduard Wittmann from Würmmühle donated the marble for the two steps up to the monument; two large stone blocks unearthed during the extension of the gymnasium in Brunngartenstrasse were lowered into the ground to serve as the foundation. The gravestone slab was donated by Mayor Seufert, who had bought it years before from the Hallmeyer tannery. The slab is unusually large and attractive and its transportation to the monument wall required the strength of 15 men. ... The monument was designed by Mayor Seufert, as were the garden surroundings. The base for the monument and the inscription were carved most skillfully by Lehner, the master stonemason, and his son."
The plaque now bore the inscription: "Deutschland, Deutschland, über alles / True to the Hymn of the German People / They died in the liberation of Dachau/on April 30, 1919, men of the Freikorps Görlitz / 2nd Lieutenant Bertram / Musketeer Labuke / Private Hauk / Gunner Hilbig." The first line was later erased and
today the city distances itself from this memorial, the Freikorps is considered to be the bearer of right-wing extremist violence and a pioneer of National Socialism.
 The chapel shown right was dedicated to the town's war dead in 1961.
The municipal authorities also arranged and paid for the burial of the five members of the Red Army who were court-martialed and executed by soldiers of the Freikorps Görlitz on April 30, 1919. In May 1919 the bodies of Alois Schießl, Philipp Weigand and Josef Unsinn were exhumed and transferred to Munich, and the remains of Albert Kaul were taken to Bamberg. In 1933 the first victims of Dachau concentration camp were also buried at the cemetery. After suffering greatly, Franz Stenzer, the Communist Reichstag Deputy, was shot in Dachau concentration camp on August 22, 1933, allegedly whilst attempting to escape. The Amper-Bote reported on the funeral in its August 29 issue: "Thirty-two year old... Franz Stenzer from Pasing, who was shot and killed during a break-out attempt at Dachau concentration camp, found his final resting place at Dachau town cemetery. His quiet funeral last Saturday at 3 pm. was attended by his grieving wife with her three children, his elderly mother, and various relatives. Numerous friends and colleagues were also in attendance. ... May this fresh grave mound give cause to all those who sympathise with the views of the deceased to reflect upon and to change their ways!"

Parish priest Friedrich Pfanzelt (Dillon in his excellent book Dachau and the SS: A Schooling in Violence, gives his name as "Pfanzfelt") with ϟϟ men at a funeral at the cemetery. In terms of his political convictions, Pfanzelt had belonged to the bourgeois nationalist camp of the Weimar period and, fearing communism, resulted in a sympathy for the Nazis although despite rumour that he had joined the Nazi Party, this has been debunked. In 1933 Pfanzelt became a prisoner pastor in the Dachau concentration camp, where he initiated courageous relief efforts, but was banned from the camp in 1936 because he is said to have listened to an ϟϟ man's confession in a manner which appeared to oppose the regime. At no time did the Americans consider destroying the town of Dachau or the concentration camp despite the legend that Pfanzelt had asked for the rescue of Dachau when he and Mayor Zauner kneeled on the floor in the American headquarters, which was quartered in his grandparents' house, and personally asked for the town to be spared. Presumably Pfanzelt himself spread this story by sending a letter to the Ordinariate after the end of the war stating that he had prevented the bombing of Dachau.
In the foreground in the photo of Augsburgerstraße at number 17 on the right is the Bäckerei Teufelhart which had supplied bread to the camp and to prisoners in the town on labour detail at the beginning of the camp's existence. 
Town bakers were soon delivering 7,000 loaves of bread per week to the camp, the rent market was vibrant, and Dachau’s many innkeepers enjoyed a sustained boost in demand. Yet the upbeat mood proved short-lived. As has been seen, under Eicke the SS developed its own workshops with a costless and terrorised labour force. Local businesses soon came to regard them as unfair competition, much as German private enterprise had always been wary of carceral labour. By 1939, to pursue the bread index, the camp bakery was turning out 25,000 loaves of bread each week, while in-house camp butchers, carpenters, metalworkers, tailors, saddlers, and shoemakers ensured that local enterprises could expect little custom from the concentration camp.
Dillon (228) Dachau and the SS: A Schooling in Violence
This bistro continues the gastronomic tradition of the old Kraisy buildings, which housed an inn as early as 1618. Joseph Kraisy took over the property on April 19, 1832, and in 1851 erected the building still to be seen here today, which held the Zum Lamm Inn. In the last years of the war the premises of the "Kraisy", was used for the production of arms. Prisoners did forced labour here in the large hall of the inn.
Ludwig Thoma House at Augsburger Strasse 23, set slightly back from the street. It had been the venue for Dachau residents for decades and in 1917 the inn became the Catholic Community Centre, becoming the focal point for the activities of various Catholic associations in Dachau. Toward the end of the Weimar Republic the speeches of Dr. Emil Muhler, a Munich priest, caused some controversy here. Muhler had been a curate at the Dachau parish of St. Jakob from 1920 to 1924. On February 11, 1932, he was invited by the Catholic Journey. men's Association to speak at the Catholic Community Centre, and on February 24, 1933, he spoke there at an election rally of the Bavarian People's Party. On both occasions before a packed hall he insistently warned his listeners of the Nazis' true aims. Persecution and imprisonment were the price Muhler had to pay for his resistance to the Nazis. After the war a street in Dachau was named after him. In addition, Father Rupert Mayer, beatified by Pope John Paul II on May 3, 1987, was also twice a guest speaker at the Catholic Community Centre in 1933. This itinerant preacher and men's pastoral worker spoke here on the topic "We Catholics and Our Time". His public appearances were a particular thorn in the side of the Nazis; in 1936 the Jesuit was cautioned for the first time by the public prosecutor in Munich, and on April 7, 1937, the Gestapo in Berlin banned him from speaking anywhere in the Reich. When the steadfast priest disregarded the ban, he was detained for the first time on June 5, 1937, and on July 23, 1937, he was sentenced to six months in prison. However, because of the indignation of the cardinal and large parts of the Munich population, he was released. Before the special court he declared: "Despite the ban on me from speaking, I will continue to preach, even if the state authorities judge my pulpit speeches to be a criminal offence and pulpit abuse."As he continued to preach anti-regime, he was arrested again on January 5, 1938 and taken to the prison in Landsberg am Lech. He was released through an amnesty on May 3, 1938 and adhered to the ban on preaching, but refused to provide information about his pastoral talks. Therefore, on November 3, 1939, he was arrested for the third time and taken to Sachsenhausen concentration camp. After the war, he returned to Munich where, on the feast of All Saints' Day, he suffered a stroke during the sermon at morning mass in the Kreuzkapelle of Munich's St. Michaels Church. He received last rites and died 2 1/2  hours later. 

 Memorial in the town designed by Israeli Abraham Borenstein for the 50th anniversary of the camp's liberation in collaboration with the Dachau State Vocational School and Dachau artists. It is made up of original railway track near where the 45th Thunderbird division discovered the so-called "death train" within which the remains of 2,310 prisoners shipped from Buchenwald three weeks before were left and is located
at John-F.-Kennedy-Platz near the concentration camp memorial.
The second memorial shown in the next two photographs is one designed by Hubertus von Pilgrim in the town itself, dedicated to the concentration camp inmates who where sent on so-called Todesmärsche (death marches) from Dachau in April 1945 southwards. this is one of 23 such memorials that are along the routes of the marches (apart from the last which is in Jerusalem).
After the war displaced persons were settled in Dachau, as in many other Bavarian communities, which led to a population increase of approximately thirty to 40%. After being temporarily accommodated in the barracks of the former concentration camp, the families were housed with the local population. Only the expansion through the new building areas in Dachau-Süd and the new settlement Dachau-Ost brought relaxation here. All in all, the population of the place grew very strongly during the so-called Wirtschaftswunder and there was a structural change from a rural, small-commercial place to a place of residence today with many commuters.
Dachau's Waldfriedhof is one of the four cemeteries in the town located at  Krankenhausstraße 30. From May 1945, victims of the Dachau concentration camp, its satellite camps and their death marches were also buried here in the central "terrace grave complex". Here in the northern part of the cemetery there is a terraced grave site that was laid out for 1,312 concentration camp victims. These were former Dachau prisoners who died in the months after their liberation on April 29, 1945 as a result of their concentration camp imprisonment.
Between 1955 and 1958, the Italian, French, Belgian and Dutch recovery services exhumed some of the victims buried in the forest cemetery and repatriated them back to their home countries. Victims of the "death marches" from abandoned Upper Bavarian concentration camp cemeteries were reburied in the freed graves having initially been buried in cemeteries along the way. Some Polish nationals who worked for the American military government as guards in the Dachau internment camp are buried in the top row of graves. In the vicinity of the cemetery there are memorials in memory of the Jewish, Polish and Austrian Nazi victims as well as a memorial stone in memory of those who died in the “Dachau Uprising” on April 28, 1945 when an armed resistance group made up of escaped concentration camp prisoners and Dachau residents. Citizens stormed the town hall on that day in order to liberate the city from the Nazi regime before the arrival of the Allies. Waffen-ϟϟ units put down the uprising and killed six of the resistance fighters.  
 In 1950, the "Comradeship of the Politically Persecuted in the Austrian mPeople's Party " erected the memorial on the right, consisting of a large stone cross between two stone pillars supporting fire bowls. In between are two memorial plaques, one of which bears the inscription: 
Blessed are those who suffer persecution For the sake of justice 
The four-metre high monument shown in these photos overlooking both Jewish and non-Jewish graves, is dedicated to the Jewish prisoners killed on the death march from from the Flossenbürg camp as the war ended. Another plaque on the Dachau town hall square commemorates the victims of the “Dachau Uprising”. Several elongated raised mass graves lie parallel to one another. Rectangular stone slabs placed on top commemorate the deceased. 
Rows of wooden crosses on the cemetery for concentration camp victims in the forest cemetery around 1945, with the nearby village seen in the background and the site today with the memorial to the right. The memorial seen here was erected in 1964 by the "National Association of Jewish Persecutees and Concentration Camp Invalids" for the Jewish victims of the Dachau concentration camp. Under a Star of David, it bears the following inscription in German, Hebrew and English: 
Remember the victims 1933–45 In memory of disaster victims remember the victims.
Before the war the District and Municipal Savings Bank of Dachau-Indersdorf established its main branch in this building, known as the Ziegler villa. In the second half of the eighteenth century it housed the court registry, and documents show that Sebastian Knorr, a regional court clerk, lived here in 1784. The property later fell into disrepair and was used as a barn, which a source mentions as being purchased by the farmer Franz X. Wieninger in 1827. Wieninger erected a new building here which passed by inheritance into the hands of the Ziegler family in 1856. In 1933 Eduard Ziegler sold the Ziegler villa to the town council. The offices of the town hall, which was in danger of collapsing, were then transferred to this building. After the Nazis took over power in Dachau on March 14, 1933, an ϟϟ and SA guardpost was set up as an auxiliary police force in the Ziegler villa. However, a fortnight later the guardpost was withdrawn again. "The premises", the AmperBote announced on March 30, "are now at the disposal of the Special Commissioner, Mr. Friedrichs, whose office hours are 8-9 a.m., and the acting deputy mayor, Mr. Beeskow. The deputy mayor deals with applications and orders for deliveries to the concentration camp and can be contacted in the new premises from 9-12 a.m. and 3-5 p.m." Over the following weeks the Nazis established the "Dachau NSDAP Political Head Office" for the area of the "Dachau Market" in the Ziegler villa. The Kreisleitung headed by Hans Freiberger and the local Dachau Ortsgruppe headed by Erhard Beeskow was now located here. The building also held the offices of the ϟϟ (led by ϟϟ Sturmführer Dobler) and the SA (SA Sturmbann 11 led by SA-Sturmführer Taut, SA-Sturmbann 1/2 led by SA Sturmbannführer Rank, SA Reserve led by SA-Sturmführer Nadler, and the SA Engine Company). The Ziegler villa also housed the offices of various National Socialist bodies - the Nazi Factory Cell Organisation (NSBO), the Farmers Organisation, the Civil Servants' Section and the Disabled Veterans' section. The leadership of the Hitler Youth also set up its local headquarters there.
On April 28, 1945, this was the scene of a terrible incident. After the collapse of the so-called Dachau Uprising when an attempt was made to prevent the ϟϟ from defending the town in what was clearly going to be a pointless, destructive act of futility. In response the ϟϟ lined up its five prisoners against the wall of this building and summarily executed them. Those who died in this way were Friedrich Dürr, Anton Hackl, Anton Hechtl, Johann Pflügler, and Lorenz Scherer. Their bodies were left lying on the street in front of the building as a deterrent. A plaque at the execution site today, shown here above during its official unveiling, commemorates the victims of the Dachau Uprising. (The name of Anton Decker, who was also killed by the ϟϟ on April 28, 1945, is not mentioned on the plaque, however.) The town council arranged for the concentration camp prisoners Dürr and Hackl, as well as their comrade Erich Hubmann to be buried in honorary graves at the Dachau Waldfriedhof.
 Across the street and directly in front of the Hörhammerbräu Inn is the red Untersberg marble fountain designed by Ignatius Taschner. It dates from 1915 and  replaced the former town fountain which had been relocated moved to the corner of Wieningerstrasse and what had been Freisingerstrasse, now Konrad-Adenauer-Strasse. Although not seen in my recent photo (taken in November), its sides display the carved figures of locals wearing the traditional dress of Dachau. The older photograph taken from the same spot shows what had been the Hölzl department store, established in 1930 after Karolina (Lina) Hölzl bought the building (which stood on the site of an even older house that was built by an innkeeper shortly before 1589)  and set up a business for fashion, accessories, and cleaning materials. Dachau's new Office of Cultural Affairs, Tourism and Contemporary History has been situated here since April 18, 1997. During the war sections of the catacombs here in the Upper Town served as air-raid shelters, such as the vaults beneath the convent school (from its entrance on Burgfriedenstrasse), the Götschl cellar at Wieningerstrasse 11 and the Zauner cellar. These complemented an air raid shelter with numerous tunnels and shelters which was also built under the schlossberg from May 1944. In the last days of the war prisoners who had escaped from concentration camp work units were hidden by Dachau residents in the labyrinth beneath the Old Town.
Münchener Straße in 1910 and today. In the right background is the so-called "Spatzenschlössl," the stately house of painter, draughtsman, illustrator and local historian Hermann Stockmann. Built in 1899 in the neo-baroque style, is still in a well-preserved condition and is rented to artists by the city of Dachau. Co-founder of the Dachau artist group (Künstlervereinigung Dachau), he was instrumental in the artist group's first exhibition on June 11, 1919 in schloss Dachau. After its dissolution, he became involved in the Dachau Artists' Association, founded in 1927, as its first chairman until 1929 before being made an honorary member. In 1927, on his sixtieth birthday, he was made an honorary citizen of Dachau. Stockmann was represented with two pictures at the Great German Art Exhibition in Munich in 1938 which saw Hitler personally buying his oil painting “Captive Russians” for 2500 Reichsmarks.
Across from the schloss on the parking lot is the former municipal court prison, built in the Bocksgarten on Schlossplatz, not far from the law courts on Schlossgasse. After its completion it attracted so much attention that a picture of it was even published in the Süddeutsche Bauzeitung on February 20, 1909, describing it as having "a guard room, four group cells, and 24 solitary confinement cells." In 1937 the Dachau municipal court prison was equipped to house a maximum of sixty prisoners, as noted by the Chronicle of the Dachau municipal court. Apparently the average number of prisoners was 55 - just under capacity - but frequently there were more prisoners, leading to overcrowding and staff shortages. Plans for building an extension were drawn but not implemented, no doubt due to political considerations in 1937. Such overcrowding resulted mostly because of the transfer of prisoners from the camp, the the three or four prison guards unable to cope.
On the right is the schloss from a Nazi-era postcard and as it appears today, seen from the English Garden. Immediately after the Nazis came to power the municipal court gaol began to play an infamous when Dachau Communists and other local political opponents of the Nazis were held here in protective custody for several weeks on end. Georg Scherer was one of those who was first interned here and then sent to the concentration camp. But even before 1933, Dachau Communists, who came into conflict with the authorities by protesting against unemployment and hunger, were not spared visits to the prison here on Schlossberg hill. During the so-called Bavarian soviet republic a Red Army military tribunal was set up in the prison on April 21, 1919, at the request of Ernst Toller. But the tribunal convened only once, on April 30. It consisted of four soldiers, chosen by their comrades, with Otto Frobler presiding. In his study on the 1918-19 revolution in Dachau, Gerhard Wilhelm reported how a common soldier took on the role of public prosecutor and anyone was entitled to defend the accused. In total only four soldiers were condemned - two for theft, one for being drunk on duty, and another for spreading unfounded rumours. Frobler acquitted all the civilians who had been arrested on suspicion of spying which suggests that there was no real Red Army terror against the citizens of Dachau. 
Inside the schloss's English Garden and, again, from a Nazi-era postcard. One particularly brave figure among those who presided over the court during the Nazi era was Lorenz Meyer, who took over on May 1, 1933. He courageously confronted the ϟϟ and even instituted investigations against the commandant of Dachau concentration camp whenever the death of prisoners was reported to him through official channels. It was to his credit that Carl Wintersberger, the chief public prosecutor, and Josef Hartinger, the senior public prosecutor, became aware of the early fatalities in the camp and initiated actions against the ϟϟ which would lead to the recall of the camp's first commandant, Hilmar Wackerle. Chief municipal court judge Meyer also visited the concentration camp in person to look closely at the scene of each respective crime. For example, on May 18, 1933, as a member of a commission including Dr. Flamm, the regional court medical examiner, and Brücklmeier, a judicial clerk, he visited the prison in the inner compound near the quarters of the 10th Infantry Company to investigate a new ϟϟ crime. On this occasion he took measurements to confirm how limited the freedom of movement was for a Dachau prisoner in solitary confinement in a dark cell. The chief municipal court judge further meticulously noted that windows were boarded up from the outside with wooden slats made from the lids of crates, through which hardly a ray of sunlight could penetrate into the cell. In a report drafted by Lorenz Meyer after the First World War, he described the lengths the ϟϟ went to in order to hinder any investigations in the camp by the judiciary: "In all the instances I can recall, the judicial commission was made far from welcome. It began right at the gate, where the commission had to wait a very long time while the guards phoned headquarters, obtained the commandant's permission for the commission to enter the camp. and then finally opened the gate. The frosty expression on the faces of the ϟϟ men who escorted the commission from the gate to the headquarters in the camp was also revealing."
Looking down from the at the Schlossberg Brewery. Immediately to the left of it is the former Zieglerkeller Inn with its large beer garden (today the Bräustüberl Inn although it appeared shut down when I visited last).
The Dachau ϟϟ was founded in the Zieglerkeller Inn in 1930 - at that time it had just six members. On June 15, 1933, the church holiday of Corpus Christi, an ϟϟ propaganda march from Dachau concentration camp ended in front of the inn. This was the first time the guard unit officially showed itself in public in Dachau.' The procession, headed by the ϟϟ-Sturmhauptführer and Dachau camp commandant Hilmar Wackerle, began at the concentration camp and continued on toward the Upper Town.
The march ended in front of the Zieglerkeller Inn. On June 17, 1933, the Dachauer Zeitung reported: "At 11 a.m. a public concert was held in front of the concentration camp, attended by numerous members of the public. ... The prisoners of the well-known Dachau concentration camp had been assembled behind the large front gates, and packed together, they listened to the rousing music of the SA band. ... That same afternoon at around 3 p.m. a strong detachment of ϟϟ men set off from Dachau concentration camp to the fife and drum of the SA band. They marched through the town to the Zieglerkeller Inn, where a large public concert was held. At the fore was Wäckerle, the commandant of the camp and party member, astride his steed. He was followed by off-duty ϟϟ men from the camp, the Dachau ϟϟ with their Sturmführer Dobler, and an ϟϟ company from Munich. That was a glorious sight to see the youth of Germany was here and marching through Dachau!"
Opposite the Schlossberg Brewery is the brewery cellar which also served the Wülfert meat-processing factory as a cold-storage room during the war. Prisoners from Dachau concentration camp who belonged to the Wülfert work unit did forced labour here.
Klosterstrasse leads from the Schlossberg Brewery past the entrance to the former Wülfert cold storage cellar and down Schlossberg hill to the Wittmann Bookstore on the right on the corner of Klosterstrasse and Augsburger Strasse.
The Wittmann Bookstore is located in a building first mentioned in 1626 and inhabited for centuries by bakers." From 1880 onwards Josef Wittmann and his wife Maria ran a store selling flour, groceries and artists' supplies, and later opened a small publishing business. In the early 1930s Hans Weinzierl opened a drugstore here, which existed until the end of the war.
One of the concentration camp's prisoners, Albert Zeitler, was sent here to do some electrical work where he was secretly given food by Sybille Wittmann. This was completely against Nazi policy despite food packages being allowed to be delivered. On July 1, 1944 the ϟϟ Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service, SD) took over two vacant rooms for office purposes. After his liberation Zeitler set up a lending library in the office with most of the books coming from the camp library which had contained 15,000 volumes
Across the street shown on the right in a period photo and today is the Rauffer house where  Ludwig Thoma had his law office from  October 18, 1894, to May 17, 1897, and this is commemorated today by a plaque on the outside wall of this corner house on Augsburger Strasse. Since the business prospects for lawyers in Munich did not seem favourable to him, he chose Dachau, a small town in the surrounding area, as his domicile, after initially considering Erding. He claimed in his memoirs that he "didn't think twice and asked for approval in Dachau. Old gentlemen and concerned friends advised me against it, but I followed the sudden idea and I had no regrets. With not quite a hundred marks in my fortune, I moved into the house of a Dachau master tailor two months later and was the strange example of the first local lawyer for the place and the surrounding area." Such a description in his autobiography is incorrect in three respects: The hundred marks were borrowed from Jakob Frankl, the “master tailor” ran a textile department store, and several lawyers had been admitted to Dachau for many years. Viktoria Pröbstl, who took Thoma into his service after her mother's death, and sisters Marie and Bertha ran the household. The firm did well, Thomas's income rose, and he was later able to draw material for his literary work from the legal cases of his peasant clients.
Thoma became popular because of his realistic and satirical descriptions of everyday life in Bavaria and the political events of his time. Due to the reactionary and anti-Semitic publications in the last years of his life, he has been viewed increasingly critically for several years with a 1989 Spiegel article accusing Thoma of having developed into an angry anti-Semite and a pioneer of Hitler in old age. Lawyer Otto Gritschneder emphasises his six weeks imprisonment in Stadelheim in 1906 for his poem published in Simplicissimus seen as "insulting by some members of a morality association" and "the extremely anti-Semitic and anti-democratic vulgar essays Thomas from his last years in the Miesbacher Anzeiger" as dark stations in Ludwig Thomas' life. He also points out that Thoma never submitted his doctoral thesis, but nevertheless called himself "Doctor Ludwig Thoma", which should be mentioned in the case of an author who is so critical of his fellow men. His biographer Martin A. Klaus, who researched Thoma for more than three decades, is convinced that Thoma knew Hitler personally through the mediation of the writer Dietrich Eckart.

The Gasthaus Drei Rosen on the corner of Münchener Straße and Ludwig-Dill Straße. For two years before the war this had been the home of Heimito von Dodero, nominated for the Nobel Prize for Literature five times. He joined the Austrian Nazi Party on April 1, 1933 as member 1,526,987 along with his publisher Rudolf Haybach. He would later write how, already by the end of 1929, he saw how “Judaism in Austria, and especially in Vienna, would be of overwhelming importance in decisions that were already being felt at the time have to."A manuscript with the title “Speech about the Jews” dated June 1936, in which Doderer draws a positive conclusion on the Nazi seizure of power, euphorically welcomes the Nuremberg race laws and, according to Stefan Winterstein, who describes the speech as a “hate speech” equates Hitler indirectly with the Messiah. In August 1936 Doderer moved here, never making any reference to the concentration camp there in diary or letters. Since the Austrian Nazi Party had been banned on June 19, 1933, Doderer renewed his party membership in Dachau and at the same time submitted an application for admission to the Reichsschrifttumskammer. Regarding Doderer's further relationship to the Nazis, Alexandra Kleinlercher speaks of “progressive disenchantment” starting with his initial disappointment of not having been discovered as a writer by the Third Reich; 1936 and his rejection of what he perceived as socialist about National Socialism. By 1940 he converted to Catholicism and that year was drafted into the Wehrmacht . He would never however leave the Nazi Party, referring to his “barbaric error” in the May 5, 1946 entry of his diary. He was posted to Oslo in April 1945 at the very last stages of the war being released from captivity in Norway at the end of the year, and at the end of January 1946 returning to Austria but - out of fear of being punished for his former membership in the Nazi Party- not to Vienna which was partly occupied by the Soviets.
Ludwig-Thoma-Strasse ends at the bridge over the Amper River. This bridge was originally made of wood. In 1928 a stone bridge was built and the old Steinmühlstrasse was renamed Ludwig-Thoma-Strasse. This bridge links Ludwig-Thoma-Strasse with Münchener Strasse. On the bridge you can see the statue of Saint Christopher with the Christ Child, created by Dachau sculptor Walter von Ruckteschell.
 It was quickly rebuilt in stone after the end of the war, with the reopening ceremony taking place on August 11, 1945. The American commandant of the town at the time, Captain Malcolm A Vendig, cut through the white ribbon, and said: "Just as this bridge is built on a strong foundation, so, too, should Germany rebuild upon the strong base of freedom and democracy!" Mayor Linmaier delivered a speech in which he commemorated the men who took part in the Dachau Uprising after which parish priest Pflanzelt gave the church's blessing. The official paper Amtsblatt für die Stadt und den Landkreis Dachau reported that Linmaier "pointed out... that the old bridge was destroyed whilst American tanks were already approaching Dachau. In the final hours, a small group of courageous anti-Fascists had tried to free the town from terror at the last minute and to hoist the flag of freedom. But they were defeated by the superior ϟϟ force, and then this bridge, like so many others, was destroyed. This was a symbol of the ruins that the Nazi system left behind. Yet, as the bomber aircraft were still flying south over the town, the first attempts to rebuild this bridge were being made. This was only possible thanks to the assistance given by the military government, and the town authorities expressed their sincerest thanks."
The Ludwig Thoma school, opened in 1930 at the entrance to the town's fairgrounds which were located here after the end of the Great War. On the night of August 22, 1934 there was a massive brawl here between locals and members of the Austrian Legion; in fact, an emergency police unit from Munich had to come to sort it out. Two years later the following remarkable letter from the local priest. Friedrich Pflanzelt, was sent to the diocese's office in Munich:
The town has become much more peaceful since the [Austrian Legion] left, although the German ϟϟ aren't exactly angels! If I were to describe the general mood in Dachau, I would have to say that the people of Dachau would be infinitely happier if they could have their old town back as it used to be! The trend of people leaving the church discloses a terrible and gloomy picture: 439 members of the ϟϟ! 14 faithful members of the parish!
Just before the Munich conference in 1938 a journalist, Paul Herterich, described the dark mood at the fair:
Men wearing black uniforms and steel helmets patrolled the beer tent. Whilst the band played the Egerland March the people's cheerful laughter was silenced by the synchronised march of the ϟϟ.
The school's annex was soon deemed unhygienic for students and teachers and in 1933 became a Hitler Youth hostel with the fairgrounds serving as a marching ground for the town's Hitler Youth as well as a site where they would engage in pledge rituals, flag ceremonies and sporting events. The site also supported the Deutsches Jungvolk for boys and Deutsche Jungmädel for the girls. Under the Nazis the school itself supported the Luftwaffe as a decree from May 13, 1938 sets out:
As a result of the negotiations with the Reich Air Defence League, it has been decided to use the attic of the boys' school on Ludwig-Thoma Straße to set up an air raid protection training centre with two lecture halls and a practice room and the required auxiliary rooms.

Hofmann (now a retired colonel) headed the Dachau Association for the Protection of Children until his death on June 2, 1936. The Dachau parish priest Friedrich Pflanzelt succeeded him as chairman of the association on November 8, 1936.

In the 1930s the kindergarten was known as Haus Nazareth, and in 1938 the mayor of Dachau, Hans Cramer, decided that it should be taken over by the NS-Volkswohlfahrt (National Socialist People's Welfare Organisation, NSV). This proved to be difficult at first, because the kindergarten was run by a registered charity. There followed a long and fruitless struggle to prevent the charity from being dissolved, in which Pflanzelt, the parish priest, was particularly active. But the kindergarten was taken over by the NSV on March 1, 1940, on orders from the State Police headquarters in Munich.
On March 30, 1940, County Administrator Dr. Emil Böhmer declared the kindergarten dispute to be resolved, and the Nazi leadership was quick to express its thanks for the successful outcome. On April 9, department head Sandtner from the People's Welfare Office wrote to the new Dachau mayor, Carl Dobler, who had replaced Cramer "On behalf of the National Socialist Welfare Organisation I would like to express my sincerest thanks for your efforts in placing the Catholic Nazareth kindergarten in Ludwig-Thoma-Str. in the hands of the town. I will soon be sending party member K., the Gau administrator, to Dachau so that the kindergarten can now be run according to the principles of National Socialist Welfare and the party. The necessary measures with regard to the organisation and restructuring ... can be put into writing on site."
With this Haus Nazareth was renamed NSV-Kindergarten. After the war the former name was restored. Pflanzelt's application for the kindergarten to be returned to the Dachau Association for the Protection of Children was approved, and in 1975 it was taken over by the Caritas Association.
The editorial offices of the local newspaper Amper-Bote, founded in 1872 and closely associated with the Bavarian People's Party during the Weimar Republic. During the July 1932 national elections, stones were thrown at its windows with five of its seven windos shattered. When the Nazis took power the paper was taken over by the SA and merged with the Dachauer Zeitung. Its front pages were headed with the legend "Official Gazette of all Dachau Authorities and Communities of Dachau County" as well as serving as the "Party Organ of the NSDAP." Its January 11, 1934 issue repeated reports of the concentration camp's exemplary equipment, the good food, excellent medical care, quality of the sports area, and extremely hygienic conditions. It went on to claim that inmates only had to work three to four days and only two inmates had died, with reports of abuse belonging “absolutely to the realm of fables.”
It was shut down after the war but was restarted in 1952 as an advertising journal.

Concentration Camp Memorial Cemetery Dachau-Leitenberg
Dachau Leitenberg concentration camp cemetery in the Dachau district of EtzenhausenThe Dachau Leitenberg concentration camp cemetery in the Dachau district of Etzenhausen has been a concentration camp cemetery for some of the victims of the Dachau concentration camp near Munich since 1959. The burial site of Leitenberg, originally laid out as a mass grave by the ϟϟ in 1945, includes the individual graves of 7,609 concentration camp inmates after reburial in the post-war period. The first mass graves at this place were found between February 28 and April 27, 1945, although the first mass grave may have already been dug there in October 1944 when eight large mass graves were laid by prisoner detachments on the Leitenberg on the instructions of the commandant's office of the Dachau concentration camp. Up until the liberation of the Dachau concentration camp on April 29, 1945, there is evidence that 4,318 concentration camp inmates were buried there. According to the Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site,
[t]here is demonstrable proof that 4,318 dead concentration camp prisoners were buried there up until liberation on April 29, 1945. A further 1,879 dead prisoners as well as regular German army troops killed in fighting around Dachau were buried in two further mass graves by May 18, 1945 at the latest...
... according to counts made by the responsible authorities, a total of 7,609 dead are buried at the concentration camp cemetery Leitenberg, of whom only 204 are known by name.
 In order to stem the spread of typhus and typhus , American soldiers buried another 2,000 to 2,400 corpses of concentration camp prisoners in a second complex of neighbouring mass graves in May 1945, both corpses found in the concentration camp and those from the death train from Buchenwald. To do this, Dachau civilians had to transport twelve carts, each carrying thirty to forty corpses, through the town to the Leitenberg in columns for days. Up until May 18, 1945 alone, 1,879 concentration camp prisoners were buried in two mass graves, along with forty Wehrmacht soldiers who died in the battles around Dachau. After the liberation, Dachau was under quarantine due to an American order , as typhus and typhus were rampant on the premises. Nevertheless, there were further epidemic deaths among the initially surviving prisoners, and former prisoners also died as a result of malnutrition. At least until May 18, 1945, a further 1,879 deceased prisoners and Wehrmacht soldiers who had fallen in fighting around Dachau were buried in two additional mass graves. 
On the right, Dachau residents are shown transporting the dead to the cemetery at Dachau-Leitenberg on the left, and depositing the bodies on arrival.
In the immediate post-war period, the former Dachau concentration camp served as accommodation for displaced persons, homeless and sick former prisoners until July 1945.  Subsequently, the American military authorities established the Dachau internment camp for war criminals, members of the ϟϟ and Nazi Party officials on the site. This "War Crimes Enclosure" had a capacity of 30,000 people. From 1947 to 1948 it was gradually handed over to the German authorities.  In 1945, the American army and, as a result, the military government obliged the city of Dachau to erect an appropriate memorial for the dead on Leitenberg which the town delayed for years. 
In August 1949, René Simon, a former prisoner of the Dachau concentration camp, was taking a walk on the Leitenberg and accidentally came across human bones that had previously been uncovered during sand mining. He informed the local Association of Victims of the Nazi Regime (VVN). The cemetery administrator actually claimed that the bones were from a mediæval settlement. According to forensic medicine, they in fact had lain in the ground for fifty to 100 years. But there was an international discussion about the neglected state of this last resting place for concentration camp victims, leading to the "Leitenberg scandal".  
Last but not least, these controversies about an appropriate way of dealing with the commemoration of the dead led to the addition to the Franco-German Protocol on the End of the Occupation Regime in the Federal Republic of Germany of October 23, 1954 in Paris, which additionally stipulated “that memorial sites with the remains of victims of National Socialist rule must be permanently secured and made accessible”. 
Dachau Leitenberg mass graveOn December 16, 1949, the preliminary inauguration of the Leitenberg concentration camp cemetery took place. In 1951 the shell of the octagonal memorial hall was erected, ten metres high and nine metres in diameter. It was completed by the summer of 1952, and the inauguration was initially postponed and then forgotten. The French tracing service had the graves exhumed between 1955 and 1959 in order to transfer the dead identified as French nationals to France, as well as those from Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway and Italy. The remaining dead were reburied on the Leitenberg, together with more than 1,200 exhumed concentration camp victims from other concentration camp cemeteries in Upper Bavaria and 226 dead from the concentration camp burial ground of Dachau's Waldfriedhof. In total, more than 400 concentration camp cemeteries in Bavaria including the sub-camps in Baumheim and Lauingen on the Danube, as well as victims of the concentration camp sub-camp complex Mühldorf who were reburied after the war in Altötting, from graves through death marches in Luhe-Wildenau. 


This tiny hamlet just to the Northwest of Dachau was the site of a massacre the day the camp was liberated. A Waffen-ϟϟ unit had arrived to take up defensive positions in trenches dug around the farms by French PoW workers in order to delay the advance of American tanks of the 20th Armoured Division and infantry units of the 7th US Army which was approaching Dachau. The farms, mostly run by women (whose husbands were either dead, prisoners of war or still fighting) with the help of French PoWs, came under fire on the morning of April 29 forcing all inhabitants to rush for the cellars. One soldier of Company F of the American 222nd Infantry Regiment of the 42nd Rainbow Division was killed upon entering the hamlet under fire from the Waffen-ϟϟ unit. This led the first German to emerge from the cellar, the farm's owner Herr Furtmayer, to be immediately shot. 
The French PoWs then informed the Americans that that only civilians were actually hiding in the cellars which led the soldiers to round up the men of the ϟϟ unit. The first of those to surrender was an officer, Freiherr von Truchsess, who led a detachment of seventeen men who was then struck with a trenching tool splitting his head open. The others were lined up in the farmyard and summarily shot. On a slight rise behind the hamlet, another group of eight ϟϟ were shot. Their bodies were found lying in a straight line with their weapons and ammunition belts neatly laid on the ground suggesting that the men were shot after they surrendered. Altogether, one ϟϟ officer and forty one men lay dead as the infantry regiment proceeded on their way towards Dachau. Next day the local people, with the help of the French PoWs, buried the bodies in a field to be later exhumed by the German War Graves Commission and returned to their families. The site today is remembered by a memorial; photos above taken on the anniversary of the massacre.

A colleague shared this photo he took whilst driving to work. The car in front with Dachau license plates has a yellow star with the legend "Diesel Fahrer".  I found online that "Star of David bumper sticker on a diesel vehicle with Dachau license plates is an example of antisemitism and trivialisation of the Holocaust seen on an increasing basis in Germany. Such displays are usually seen related to vaccines and Corona, but in this case, related to diesel engines. In the right-radical spectrum, the Greens and Greta Thunberg are often displayed as Nazis with regard to stances against internal combustion engines and specifically diesels in the wake of dieselgate."
I was chuffed to have met Erez Kaganovitz, whose remarkable photographic exhibition- Humans of the Holocaust- is taking place at the Max Mannheimer Haus in Dachau and which tells the extraordinary stories of forty Holocaust survivors as well as second- and third-generation survivors. The exhibition engages viewers with the human stories behind every photo, and by extension, helps them to imagine the millions of untold stories.

Dachau is a large district town in the Upper Bavarian district of the same name and is located northwest of Munich in the Munich metropolitan region .  coat of arms Germany map   Dachau  Map of Germany, location of the city of Dachau highlighted  Basic data Coordinates : 48° 16′  N , 11° 26′  ECoordinates: 48° 16′  N , 11° 26′  E Federal State : Bavaria Administrative district : Upper Bavaria District : Dachau Height : 482 m above sea level NHN Area : 34.96 km2 Resident: 48,195 (Dec 31, 2022) [1] Population density : 1379 inhabitants per km 2 Postal code : 85221 Phone prefix : 08131 License Plate : DAH Municipality key : 09 1 74 115 City structure: 20 parts of the community City administration address : Konrad-Adenauer-Straße 2–6 85221 Dachau Website : www.dachau.de Mayor : Florian Hartmann ( SPD ) Location of the city of Dachau in the Dachau district Map Map  Schlossberg with castle and town hall  Dachau old town with the Dachau District Museum (center left in the picture)  Dachau old town, source: Bayernheft, No. 41, p. 1 geography Edit Geographical location and landscape Edit  View from the castle terrace to the south-east of Dachau, the gravel plain, Munich and the Alpine chain The city is located northwest of Munich on the Amper at the interface between the Munich gravel plain , in which the Dachauer Moos lies, and the Tertiary Danube-Isar hill country to the north .  topography Edit The highest point within the city limits is the Schlossberg ( 518  m above sea level ), the lowest point is near the Prittlbach district on the border with the municipality of Hebertshausen ( 472  m above sea level ).  Nature Edit The nature worth seeing in Dachau includes the Dachauer Moos , the Schlossberg with its courtyard garden and park and, since 2001, a fauna, flora, habitat (FFH) and bird sanctuary along the Amper. Rare animal and plant species also live here. In the south is the city forest with a landscape lake for breeding birds. There is a 2.75 km long “ fitness trail ” in the city forest. The Ammer-Amper cycle path, certified 4-star by the ADFC , runs through the charming landscape along the Amper and connects the Ammerquelle with Moosburg an der Isar . There are 30 natural monuments in the city of Dachau : the 100-year-old city linden tree (planted in 1907 as a 10-year-old tree) at the Resistance Square and Gottesackerstrasse, the copper beeches at the water tower and the Rotkreuzheim, the linden avenue at the Scheierlwiese, the chestnut trees at the train station and in the inn garden of the “Stadtkeller” or the poplar on the Amperbrücke. [2] The Würm-Reschenbach-Aue was renatured by the city.  Viewpoints Edit Popular viewing points are the terrace of the Hofgarten [3] and the terrace at the town hall [4] with a wide view over the gravel plain, Munich and, especially with foehn, of the Alpine chain. A beautiful view of the Dachauer Land, Dachau, castle and the old town can be found north of Steinkirchen below the Hoher Berg at the eastern “Hafnerloch” in an oak and beech grove. The open-air painters of the Dachau artist colony loved this view: from the so-called “Lange Gasse”, a dirt road in Etzenhausen in the northwest of Dachau, over Steinkirchen to the historic old town of Dachau. [3] From the Thomawiese, at the western foot of the old town, you can see the typical Dachau city skyline at a glance. From Dachau Castle over the new and old town hall, behind it rises the tower of St. Jacob's Church. [3]  Neighboring communities Edit Neighboring communities are:  waters Edit Rivers and canals Edit  Water treading facility in the Moorbad Park on the Holzgarten Canal  The Mühlbach in Dachau Dachau lies in a border landscape. The flat Munich gravel plain with the Dachauer Moos meets the edge of the Tertiary hill country here . The Amper with its flat floodplains stretches at the interface between the two landscapes .  Coming from the west, the Amper flows south of the old town, changes its course from the former paper factory towards the northeast and enters the municipality of Hebertshausen at Prittlbach, just behind the Würmmühle .  Numerous streams run through the city and flow into the Amper here: Prittlbach and Webelsbach come from the hilly region. Ascherbach, Gröbenbach, Forellenbach, Reschenbach, Saubach, Kalterbach and the Würm , which drains Lake Starnberg , flow from the Moos to the Amper.  Coming from the west, the Maisach flows into the Amper near Mitterndorf . The river rises in the Fürstenfeldbruck district near Moorenweis and, over long stretches, separates the tertiary hill country from the plain, which spreads south towards Amper.  Coming from Karlsfeld, the Würm crosses Dachau-Ost and passes the Dachau concentration camp memorial . A few hundred meters behind the Würmmühle it flows into the Amper just before the municipal border with Hebertshausen.  The Gröbenbach , which has its origins near Germering , flows from Dachau-Süd through the urban area and flows into the Amper east of Martin-Huber-Straße in front of the railway line.  The Ascherbach flows into the Amper at the level of the festival meadow. He comes from Graßlfinger Moos near Gröbenzell , Fürstenfeldbruck district. There was a mud bath there, which was set up by Andreas Deger in 1878. Today there is a Kneipp natural bath there.  The Mühlbach is an artificial stream that branches off from the Amper from the power station , runs parallel to it and flows back into it after the former paper factory. The name is derived from the mills that were common in the past and took advantage of the gradient between the Mühlbach and the Amper. In earlier times it served as a bathing river, the castle's drinking water supply, the mills and, above all, the paper factory with its high water consumption. To the west of the festival meadow there is still a canal (Lodererbach).  Parts of the Dachau-Schleißheimer Canal still exist in the urban area. This canal was built at the end of the 17th century as part of the North Munich canal system , which also includes the Nymphenburg Canal . The canal was used as a transport route between Dachau and Schleißheim Castle. The building material obtained from the demolition of the three wings of Dachau Castle was transported to Schleißheim this way. Due to overgrowth and deliberate planting by the city, the canal is only recognizable as such between Frühlingsstrasse and the Pollnbach. After the city limits, the canal is available again to Schleißheim Castle .  lakes Edit There is a swimming lake in the city area, the Stadtweiher, in Dachau Süd.  climate Edit The climate is mild and generally warm and temperate. “Cfb” is the Köppen-Geiger classification . The average annual temperature in Dachau is 8.1 °C. About 886 mm of precipitation falls annually. [5]  There is significant rainfall throughout the year in Dachau. Even the driest month of February still has high amounts of precipitation, with an average of 48 mm. Compared to the wettest month of June, with an average of 118 mm of precipitation, the difference is 70 mm. [5]  Average temperatures vary by 19.1 °C throughout the year between the warmest month of July and the coldest month of January. In July, average temperatures reach 17.5 °C. In January the average temperature is −1.6 °C. [5]  Dachau (1982 – 2012) Climate diagram J F M A M J J A S O N D 51  1  -5  48  3  -4  52  8th  -1  66  13  3  95  18  7  118  21  11  111  23  12  105  22  12  72  19  9  54  13  4  58  7  0  56  3  -3  _ Temperature (°C)   _ Precipitation (mm) Source: Climate-Data.org [5] Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Dachau (1982 – 2012)  Jan Feb Mar April May June Jul Aug Sep Oct November Dec   Mean Temperature (°C) −1.6 −0.3 3.7 7.8 12.3 15.7 17.5 16.8 13.8 8.6 3.4 −0.3 ⌀ 8.2 Mean daily max. (°C) 1.4 3.3 8.0 12.9 17.6 20.9 22.8 22.1 18.9 13.1 6.5 2.5 ⌀ 12.5 Mean daily min. (°C) −4.6 −3.8 −0.6 2.8 7.0 10.5 12.2 11.5 8.7 4.2 0.3 −3.1 ⌀ 3.8 Precipitation ( mm ) 51.0 48.0 52.0 66.0 95.0 118.0 111.0 105.0 72.0 54.0 58.0 56.0 Σ 886 Source: Climate-Data.org [5]  Das Foto zeigt die mit sommerlichen Blumen und Gräsern bewachsene Terrasse des Rathauses in Dachau, im Hintergrund die gelbe Schlossmauer von Schloss Dachau View of Dachau Castle Story Edit  Dachau city and castle, view around 1750  Court garden side: Dachau Castle Early history Edit The Amper , which is rich in oxbow lakes , could be crossed here through a few fords. The oldest finds in the Dachau area therefore date back to the Stone Age. In the La Tène period , Celts settled in the area around Dachau. [6]  Roman period Edit The foothills of the Alps were founded in 15 BC. Conquered by the Romans in BC. The Romans incorporated the area into the province of Raetia . Three Roman roads intersected at the Ambra road station in the Würmmühle an der Amper district and partly led through today's urban area. The most important connections through the Ambra (Würmmühle) road station ran from Augsburg to Salzburg , from Kempten to Salzburg and from Ambra via Partenkirchen to the Inn Valley. Further connections led north to the Danube and on to Regensburg , along the Amper and Isar to the Danube and on to Passau and a connection via Föhring towards Wasserburg . [7] [8]  middle Ages Edit The first documented mention of Dachau can be found in a medieval deed of gift from the noble Erchana of Dahauua to the Bishop of Freising, both of whom come from the noble Aribon family . With this document she transferred her five colony farms and their associated serfs to the Bishop of Freising in 805 AD after her death.  The origin of the name Dachau is not clearly clear. It could have both Celtic and - more likely - Old High German origins. The name Dachau is then made up of the Old High German words dâha (clay) [9] and ouwe (land surrounded by water). [10] Both variants are attributed to the loamy soil of the Tertiary hill country .  Originally there was a castle belonging to the Counts of Dachau from the early Middle Ages on the approximately 500 meter high Schlossberg. The Counts were a branch of the Counts of Scheyern . In 1182, Otto I, from the Palatinate line of the Wittelsbachs, acquired the castle and county of Dachau. However, it was destroyed in 1398 and 1403.  The parish square in Dachau, view of the parish church of St. Jakob and its church tower. The parish square in Dachau, view of the parish church of St. Jakob The favorable location on the main road that connected Munich with Augsburg brought Dachau a boom. From the 12th century onwards, Dachau served as a summer residence for numerous Bavarian princes. Between 1240 and 1270, Dachau received market rights , either from Duke Otto II or his son, Duke Ludwig II the Strict. From 1467 to 1501, Dachau was a domain of the abdicated Duke Siegmund and so there was the short-lived Duchy of Bavaria-Dachau, which reverted to Bavaria-Munich after the Duke's death .  Early modern age Edit  Dachau in the Topographia Bavariae (Merian) from 1665 Between 1546 and 1577, Dachau Castle was rebuilt in the Renaissance style by the Wittelsbach family , Duke Wilhelm IV and later his son Duke Albrecht V. A four-wing Renaissance palace and courtyard garden were built.  From around the middle of the 16th century, a paving fee was levied for the use of inner-city streets. The Zollhäusl (18 m²) was built specifically for this purpose in Dachau's old town around 1820. Today it houses the information office “Local Recreation and Tourism in the Dachauer Land”.  The worst time for the population was during the Thirty Years' War , when the market was besieged and looted by the Swedes. Dachau was involved in the war until the last year of the war: The Battle of Dachau on October 5, 1648 was the last major military confrontation of the Thirty Years' War .  In the years 1715 to 1717, the castle was given a Baroque design by Joseph Effner according to the latest French fashion. For some time under Elector Max II Emanuel, Dachau again became a favorite country seat of the Munich court. However, over the course of the 18th century, the buildings fell into disrepair because the court came to Dachau less and less. Elector Max III. However, Joseph still had the court garden redesigned. At the beginning of the 19th century, the north, east and south wings of the palace complex were demolished due to their dilapidation because the first king of Bavaria, Maximilian I Joseph , did not have the money for extensive repairs after the Napoleonic Wars. The dance or garden hall wing has been preserved to this day.  The original Renaissance coffered ceiling made of wood can still be seen on the first floor of this wing. It is the work of the Kistler Hans Wisreutter and is considered one of the most important Renaissance ceilings in southern Germany. Remains of the terracing on the Schloßberg still bear witness to the cultivation of fruit there for the court kitchen. In earlier centuries, Dachau was famous for the excellent quality of the table fruit produced here in protected locations .  Dachau in the 19th century Edit  Pleickhard Stumpf: Dachau (1852) A profound change began in Dachau from around 1840 with industrialization, the construction of the railway and the draining of the Dachauer Moos. New population groups settled in the moss. Another seed was the Paun paper mill on Brunngartenstrasse, which was bought by the Munich paper manufacturer Gustav Medicus in 1859. In 1862 he founded the München-Dachauer Actiengesellschaft für Maschinenpapierfabrikation (MD), which temporarily became the largest paper factory in Germany and was the region's largest employer until 2007. In 1865 a malt factory was built.  On November 14, 1867, the Munich–Ingolstadt railway line was opened with Dachau station .  The Royal Bavarian Powder Factory (“Pumpf”), from which the Dachau powder and ammunition factory emerged from 1915/1916, on the lands of the communities of Prittlbach and Ebenhausen just outside Dachau in Würmmüllerhölzl, also attracted thousands of workers to Dachau, and thus shaped the sociological change in Dachau from a trading and agricultural area to a location for an industrial workforce.  After the middle of the 19th century, the place became home to numerous artists. The Dachau artists' colony made the place the most important painters' colony next to Worpswede in Germany outside of the big cities. In order to do justice to this status, a municipal picture gallery was opened at the belated celebration of the market's 1,100th anniversary in 1908 in Dachau Castle .  Dachau in the early 20th century Edit The First World War meant a turning point for Dachau, because Dachau residents and artists now had to go to the front. Between 1914 and 1918, 160 soldiers from Dachau died.  The Dachau powder and ammunition factory in particular ensured that the workforce grew significantly during the First World War . Due to the end of the war in 1918, the factory had to stop operations. As late as 1919, fighting took place in Dachau as part of the Munich Soviet Republic , which also went down in history as the Battle of Dachau . The lack of jobs resulted in high and persistent unemployment. Until the 1930s, Dachau was considered a so-called emergency community in the German Reich. Attempts were made to alleviate the suffering of the population with numerous government measures, such as regulating the river Amper, building electrical power stations or building roads.  Dachau during the Nazi dictatorship (1933–1945) Edit  Heinrich Himmler during a visit to the Dachau concentration camp on May 8, 1936 Dachau was a workers' town and, during the time of the Munich Soviet Republic, a stronghold of the SPD, USPD and KPD. When Rudolf Heß wanted to advertise for the NSDAP in the “Hörhammer” inn, he was driven away with jeers, whistles and the International . In the Reichstag election in March 1933, the Nazis only got 23.9 percent in Dachau, compared to 43.1 percent in Bavaria. People were proud to be a red city. [11]  However, Dachau gained notoriety because of the Dachau concentration camp built by the National Socialists in 1933 , the first “official” camp, which, along with Auschwitz in Germany, became the epitome of concentration camps .  Heinrich Himmler , Reichsführer SS and Munich police chief in 1933, had it built east of the city of Dachau on the site of the former Dachau Royal Powder and Ammunition Factory . The factory had fallen into disrepair since 1920. [11] The fully developed and hermetically sealed area belonged to the state and was already known to Heinrich Himmler - which is probably why this location was chosen for the first camp. The Dachau local council was not informed about this. Dachau itself was by no means a stronghold of the ethnic movement; unlike the KPD, the NSDAP did not benefit from unemployment. The concentration camp served - especially in its early years when the NSDAP wanted to consolidate its power - to imprison and deter political dissidents. On March 22nd, around 150 prisoners from the Landsberg am Lech , Neudeck and Stadelheim prisons were brought to the site.  On November 15, 1933, the former Dachau market became a city.  Since April 1, 1939, the Dachau concentration camp has been part of the Dachau urban area. The concentration camp was a training facility for the SS concentration camp guards and is now a memorial site.  During the Second World War, thousands of Soviet prisoners of war were shot at the firing range near Hebertshausen between October 1941 and April 1942 by SS teams based on the “ Commissar Order . ” In 1945, those former prisoners of the Dachau concentration camp who had died as a result of their imprisonment in the months immediately after the liberation of the camp were buried in the forest cemetery in the Etzenhausen district. In addition, here is the final resting place of Jewish prisoners who did not survive the death march from the Flossenbürg concentration camp to Dachau at the end of April 1945. Another memorial site has been the Leitenberg Cemetery of Honor since 1959 .  From May 1944, an air raid shelter with numerous tunnels and shelters was built under the Dachau Schlossberg.  Shortly before the end of the war, on April 28, 1945, the Dachau Uprising took place. A resistance group led by Georg Scherer and Walter Neff , consisting of recently escaped concentration camp prisoners, Dachau citizens and members of the Volkssturm , wanted to end the Nazi regime in the city and prevent a senseless defensive struggle.  Dachau in the post-war period Edit  Konrad-Adenauer-Strasse In 1947, the Dachau Dora Trial took place in Dachau. He was part of the 489 Dachau Trials , which US Army military courts conducted from 1945 to 1948 in Dachau on the site of the former Dachau concentration camp against Nazi war criminals .  Nach Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges wurden in Dachau, wie auch in vielen anderen bayerischen Gemeinden, Heimatvertriebene angesiedelt, was zu einem Bevölkerungszuwachs von ca. 30 bis 40 % führte. Nach vorübergehender Unterbringung in den Baracken des ehemaligen Konzentrationslagers wurden die Familien bei der einheimischen Bevölkerung untergebracht. Erst die Erweiterung durch die Neubaugebiete in Dachau-Süd sowie die neue Siedlung Dachau-Ost brachten hier eine Entspannung. Insgesamt wuchs so die Bevölkerung des Ortes während der „Wirtschaftswunder“zeit sehr stark an und es erfolgte ein Strukturwandel vom bäuerlichen-kleingewerblich geprägten Ort zu einem Wohnort mit vielen Pendlern. Der im ehemaligen KZ entstandenen Knabenkapelle Dachau wurde aufgrund ihrer Vergangenheit der Einmarsch bei der Eröffnungsfeier der Olympischen Spiele 1972 verweigert. Auch ihre Herkunft aus Dachau wurde in den 1970er bei offiziellen Auftritten verschwiegen. Die ehemalige SS-Unterkunft beim KZ Dachau wurde nach 1945 von der US-Armee als Eastman Barracks belegt. 1973 zog dort die Bayerische Bereitschaftspolizei (VI. Abteilung) ein.  Dachau im 21. Jahrhundert Bearbeiten Bei der Kommunalwahl 2002 wurden im Wahlfälschungsskandal von Dachau Stimmen hundertfach zugunsten von mehreren CSU-Kandidaten manipuliert.  Im Juni 2007 wurde die traditionsreiche MD-Papierfabrik, mit 350 Arbeitsplätzen größter Arbeitgeber der Stadt, nach einer letzten Schicht der Arbeiter geschlossen.[12] Sie ging zurück auf die München-Dachauer Papierfabriken, die als MD-Papierfabriken zeitweise die größte Papierfabrik Deutschland war. Unter anderem wurde dort das Papier für die Satirezeitung „Simplicissimus“ hergestellt und während der Räterepublik sogar Geldnoten. Der Schließung vorausgegangen war die zum 1. Februar 1996 erfolgte Übernahme der MD Papier GmbH durch die finnische Papier-Gruppe Myllykoski. Die Schließung wurde seitens Myllykoski mit einer sehr schlechten Marktsituation und Überkapazitäten begründet. Zudem seien die Anlagen in Dachau überaltert und der Schwesterbetrieb von Myllykoski in Plattling leistungsfähiger, um dort die Produktion fortzusetzen.[12] Im Januar 2019 begann der Abbruch der Fabrik, wobei kleinere Teile als denkmalgeschützte Bauten erhalten werden sollen. Die notwendige Sanierung der kontaminierten Böden und die damit verbundenen Kosten waren die Hauptursache für die jahrelange Industriebrache in attraktiver Zentrumsnähe. Die Gesamtfläche der ehemaligen Betriebsstätten liegen bei 17 ha.[13]  The city of Dachau announced an ideas competition for the redesign of the MD quarter (“Mühlenquartier”), as the area enables a completely new district.1. The award winners were the architects Trojan, Trojan & Wendt and the landscape architects Lohrer & Hochrein. The city is aiming for heterogeneous use of the Mühlenquartier as a cultural, working, residential and business district and wants to develop a development plan. [14]  On January 11, 2012, there was a murder in the Dachau district court , which attracted nationwide attention and led to stricter access regulations at the district court.  In 2015, the city council decided to rebuild the municipal indoor swimming pool, a major investment for the city (plan costs EUR 20 million). Most recently, almost 70,000 visitors used the old indoor swimming pool every year, pushing it well to its capacity limits. By the end of 2023, the new indoor swimming pool will have eight lanes, a slide, one- and three-meter boards, a sauna, a non-swimmer pool and a children's area.  Today, Dachau sees itself as a place of learning and remembrance.  structure Edit City structure and expansion of the urban area Edit The old town of Dachau with its charming silhouette, colorful houses and small streets has been under ensemble protection since 1984 . This also means that all streets in the old town have traditional cobblestones.  The municipality has 20 municipal parts (the settlement type is given in brackets): [15] [16]  Assenhausen ( hamlet ) Dachau (main town) Dachau-Ost (settlement) Eisingertshofen ( desert ) Etzenhausen ( village ) Wooden Garden (Village) Lohfeld (village) Mitterndorf ( parish village ) Oberaugustenfeld (village) Obergrashof (wasteland) Obermoosschwaige (village) Pellheim (parish village) Polln (village) Pullhausen (village) Steinkirchen (hamlet) Udlding (village) Unteraugustenfeld (village) Viehhausen (desert) Webling ( Kirchdorf ) Würmmühle (hamlet) The city is divided into three sub-centers:  Old town: Old town Dachau , Mitterndorf, Udlding, Etzenhausen, Unterer Markt , Webling Dachau-East: Unteraugustenfeld, Obergrashof, parts of Prittlbach , Würmmühle Dachau-South: Oberaugustenfeld, Himmelreich , Holzgarten, parts of Gröbenried as well as the area of ​​the former municipality of Pellheim, which was incorporated in 1972 as part of the municipal reform , with the towns of Pellheim, Pullhausen, Assenhausen, Lohfeld and Viehhausen. The urban area has an area of ​​34.96 km².  Incorporations Edit In the second half of the 19th century, Dachau saw a large influx of industrial workers, especially in the cardboard industry. But the artists' colony also brought an influx of population to Dachau. The new railway connection to Munich also led to the first signs of urbanization being observed. Dachau's population, which had remained constant for a long time, rose from 1,404 in 1861 to 5,764 in 1910. The rapid increase to over 7,000 inhabitants can be attributed to the opening of a powder and ammunition factory in 1915. Dachau therefore suffered from a severe housing shortage between the two world wars. A further increase was recorded from 1933 onwards due to the influx of SS members.  On April 1, 1939, several areas were incorporated into Dachau (population figures in brackets):  Etzenhausen community (complete): Etzenhausen, Steinkirchen, Webling, parts of the SS camp, Obergrashof (2,510) Augustenfeld municipality: Polln, Ober- and Unteraugustenfeld, Schuster cardboard factory, Obermoosschwaige (1,300) Municipality of Günding: Holzgarten, Bad, Udlding (280) Municipalities of Prittlbach and Hebertshausen: parts of the SS compound (3,520) As a result, the population jumped from 9,960 to 17,570 people. [17]  On July 1, 1972, the community of Pellheim was incorporated. [18] The town of Mitterndorf in the municipality of Günding was added on May 1, 1978. Parts of the neighboring community of Karlsfeld followed on January 1, 1979. [19]  With effect from February 1, 1973, Dachau was made a major district town. [20]  Population development Edit   Population development of Dachau from 1840 to 2018 Since the 1980s, suburbanization and the increasing attractiveness of the Munich metropolitan region have ensured a continuous influx to Dachau, but also a high surplus of working people commuting out. As a result, the population rose from 33,950 in 1980 to 47,400 in 2018. Between 1988 and 2018, the city grew from 34,183 to 47,400 by 13,217 inhabitants or by 38.7%.  Year Resident 1840 1,304 1861 1,404 1910 5,764 1916 7,054 1919 7,225 1926 7,148 1960 29,036 1970 34,107  Year Resident 1980 33,950 1990 35,387 1995 36,454 2000 38,398 2005 39,922 2008 41,780 2010 42,954 2015 46,705  Year Resident 2016 46,914 2017 47,255 2018 47,400 [21] 2019 47,721 [22] 2020 47,970 inhabitants (July 2020) [23] The population forecast is 53,400 inhabitants in 2037. [24]  Socio-cultural population development Edit Historically, Dachau was initially a town with craftsmen and traders, which faced a farming community from the urban area and the surrounding area. From around 1840, this changed fundamentally with the industrialization in Dachau, as the companies recruited large numbers of workers. Large companies, such as the Dachau paper mill, required a large workforce. The increase was then rapid due to the demand for labor at the Dachau powder and ammunition factory during the First World War. From 5,764 in 1910, the number of residents rose to 7,054 by 1916 (+22.4%). After the end of the war in 1918, the workforce in a “workers’ town” could hardly be employed. This led to the impoverishment of large sections of the population. In some cases there was emigration or the workforce was poorly employed by the Reich government of the Weimar Republic in job creation measures, such as river regulation , road construction, infrastructure, etc. The population actually fell in the early 1920s. With the establishment of the Dachau concentration camp, the structure changed again: personnel from the Reich territory came to Dachau or local residents found work here.  After the war, there was an influx of displaced persons and refugees who settled in Dachau for the long term. These were spread across the entire city, with a focus on Dachau East and Dachau South. In 1960, Dachau already had 29,036 inhabitants. There was also an increased influx of guest workers during the recruitment period of the economic miracle years from 1955 to 1973. The first contingents came e.g. B. from Greece, who still form a strong community in Dachau today.  religion Edit The two parish associations of St. Jacob / Maria Himmelfahrt and Heilig Kreuz / St. Peter with their branch churches become a common parish association, a Dachau city church for the approximately 20,000 Dachau Catholics (around 40% of the total population). [25]  politics Edit City council Edit In the 2020-2026 legislative period, the city council consists of 40 members and the mayor Florian Hartmann (SPD).  Party/list Seats 2014 [27] Seats 2020 [28] SPD 7 11 CSU 15 10 Alliance 90 / The Greens 4 6 Alliance for Dachau 4 3 AfD 0 2 O.B 4 2 Free Voters Dachau 3 2 FDP 1 1 Citizens for Dachau 2 1 The Left / The PARTY 0 1 WE 0 1 In total 40 40  City hall  Old Town: Office for Culture and Tourism Mayor Edit Mayor Florian Hartmann (SPD) was confirmed in office in the 2020 local elections as a joint candidate of the SPD, Alliance for Dachau and Alliance 90/The Greens with 76.0%. [29]  coat of arms Edit  Blazon : “In blue, three two-to-one shields; 1 in red a silver spur, 2 in black a left-turned, red-crowned and red- armored golden lion, 3 in silver a blue snake with a red tongue.” [30] Reasons for the coat of arms: The spur , which already adorned the Dachau seal in 1374, probably comes from the coat of arms of Hans von Marschalck, who was the Dachau castle keeper in the service of the Wittelsbach family from 1371 to 1373. The Palatine Bavarian lion underlines the close connection between Dachau and the House of Wittelsbach since the 1180s. The shield with the lion used to be interpreted as the apocryphal coat of arms of the Counts of Dachau, who was named Conrad III. died out in 1182. The snake is the heraldic animal of the Visconti family , which Elisabetta Visconti , the daughter of the Milanese city lord Bernabò Visconti , brought to Bavaria. The Milanese woman, who married the Bavarian Duke Ernst in 1396, received the town of Landsberg am Lech and the Dachau market as a gift . This coat of arms has been used since 1374. The city's colors are white and red.   Klagenfurter Lindwurm at Klagenfurter Platz Town twinning Edit Culture and sights Edit architecture Edit  Parish church of St. Jakob  Sundial of the parish church of St. Jakob Zu den Sehenswürdigkeiten Dachaus gehören zunächst die Altstadt, das alte und das neue Rathaus, das Schloss Dachau sowie dessen Hofgarten. Anteil am kulturellen Leben Dachaus haben auch die Dachauer Gemäldegalerie, welche vor allem Exponate mit Landschaften aus der Umgebung Dachaus zeigt, die Neue Galerie Dachau – eine Sammlung von Werken aus der modernen Kunst – und das Bezirksmuseum, das die Kulturgeschichte und Volkskunde Dachaus beleuchtet.  Nennenswerte Sakralbauten sind unter anderem die Stadtpfarrkirche St. Jakob und die Filialkirche St. Laurentius in Etzenhausen, bei der das heutige Erscheinungsbild hauptsächlich in der Zeit ab 1500 geprägt wurde. Die Pfarrkirche St. Jakob ist schon von weitem sichtbar und überragt mit ihrem 44 Meter hohen, achteckigen Turm die Dachauer Altstadt. Sie steht inmitten von malerischen Bürgerhäusern direkt im Stadtzentrum. In den Jahren 1624–25 entstand der heutige Bau im Stil der Spätrenaissance. An dieser Stelle befand sich zuvor eine kleine spätgotische Kirche, aus der die Sakristei und das quadratische Untergeschoss noch erhalten sind. Unter der Leitung des Münchner Hofbaumeisters Friedrich Sustris erfolgte der Chorbau, das Langhaus wurde nach dem Entwurf von Hans Krumpper erbaut. Eine stattliche Sonnenuhr aus dem 18. Jahrhundert ziert die Südseite, an der nicht nur die Zeit, sondern auch Monat und Sternzeichen abzulesen sind. Dachau und die Kirche St. Jakob liegen übrigens am berühmten Jakobsweg.  Die Filialkirche St. Johann in der Schillerstraße wurde in den Jahren 1932/1933 gebaut und seit 2000 für griechisch-orthodoxe Gottesdienste genutzt.[32] Weitere sehenswerte Pfarrkirchen sind St. Nikolaus und Maria im Gemeindeteil Mitterndorf, Heilig Kreuz in Dachau-Ost, die heute unter Denkmalschutz steht, die evangelische Friedenskirche Dachau,[33] welche 1953 fertiggestellt wurde, und die Gnadenkirche Dachau aus dem Jahr 1964.  Bekannt ist Dachau vor allem als ehemaliger Standort des Konzentrationslagers Dachau in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus, an das die KZ-Gedenkstätte als Mahnstätte erinnert. Die Versöhnungskirche ist ein wichtiges Architekturbeispiel des Brutalismus. Nahebei liegt das Karmel Heilig Blut, das Kloster der Karmelitinnen an der KZ-Gedenkstätte.  Ein für Dachau und das Dachauer Land seit dem 19. Jahrhundert typisches Schmuck- und Schutzsymbol an Häusern sind die zahlreichen Dachauer Haustafeln.  NS-Gedenkorte Bearbeiten   Max-Mannheimer-Haus Studienzentrum und internationales Jugendgästehaus Die Stadt bekennt sich ausdrücklich zur Auseinandersetzung mit der NS-Vergangenheit. Sie fördert daher mit unterschiedlichen Ansätzen die Erinnerungskultur. Die historisch bedeutsame Geschichte des KZ Dachau, der Prototyp der nationalsozialistischen Menschenverachtung, macht Dachau zu einem Ort mit Mahnstätten und Erinnerungsorten. Diese Orte des Erinnerns an die NS-Opfer werden jährlich von über 1.000.000 Besuchern aus dem In- und Ausland aufgesucht. Zu diesen Orten zählen:  KZ-Gedenkstätte Dachau SS-Schießplatz Hebertshausen KZ-Ehrenfriedhof Leitenberg (mit der Kapelle Regina Pacis) Kräutergarten Dachau zwei Eisenbahnrampen bzw. Gleis an der Isar-Amperwerk-Straße Kloster Karmel Heilig Blut Gräberanlage Waldfriedhof Dachau.   „Weg des Erinnerns“: im März 2007 eingeweiht. Zwölf Informationstafeln, entlang der Strecke vom Dachauer Bahnhof bis zum Besucherzentrum der KZ-Gedenkstätte Dachau. Der „Weg des Erinnerns“ wurde im März 2007 eingeweiht. Dieser wird von zwölf Informationstafeln, die entlang der Strecke vom Dachauer Bahnhof bis zum Besucherzentrum der KZ-Gedenkstätte Dachau aufgestellt sind, gesäumt. Diese Tafeln erinnern an die geschichtliche Bedeutung des Weges, auf dem die meisten Häftlinge während der NS-Zeit ins Konzentrationslager Dachau gebracht wurden. Für den drei Kilometer langen Fußweg benötigt man ca. 45 Minuten. Die Informationstafeln stellen die Beziehung der Häftlinge zum Dachauer Umfeld dar. Sie weisen auf Spuren hin, die durch die NS-Herrschaft in Dachau verblieben sind. Es ist noch ein Bahndamm erkennbar, über den ganze Züge mit Gefangenen ins Lager transportiert wurden. Die Häftlinge wurden zum Bau öffentlicher Straßen entlang des Weges eingesetzt. Das letzte Stück führt entlang der ehemaligen SS-Kaserne bis zur heutigen KZ-Gedenkstätte.[34]    Stolperstein in Dachau für Maria Linner[35] Die Stadt hat seit 2005 auch 15 „Stolpersteine“ des Künstlers Gunter Demnig verlegen lassen. Die in den Boden eingelassenen Messingplatten rufen zum Gedenken an alle Menschen, die unter dem nationalsozialistischen Regime leiden mussten, auf: Juden, Sinti und Roma, politisch Verfolgter, religiös Verfolgter, Zeugen Jehovas, Homosexueller, geistig und/oder körperlich behinderten Menschen, Zwangsarbeiter und Deserteure.[36]  The Max Mannheimer House study center and international youth guest house is an educational and meeting place about the Nazi past. Every year in July/August, workshops for young people from all over the world on forms of nationalism and discrimination are held in the Max Mannheimer House. Every year in October, a scientific exchange on topics related to National Socialism takes place in Dachau.  180 degree panorama of the Dachau concentration camp memorial: on the right a watchtower on the east side, in the center two barracks (in the north) and on the left the “Jourhaus” gate building in the west  Monuments Edit Since 1964, a monument by sculptor Will Elfes has commemorated the mass shooting of thousands of Soviet prisoners of war . Other memorials at the graves of thousands of concentration camp victims can be found at the Leitenberg Cemetery and the Dachau Forest Cemetery . as well as on the Resistance Square to commemorate the " Dachau Uprising " of April 28, 1945. [37] The "Death March" memorial in Theodor-Heuss-/Sudetenlandstrasse commemorates the death march of April 26, 1945, when the SS killed almost 7,000 prisoners of the Dachau concentration camp drove south on foot. Memorials along the route have supplemented the memory since the late 1980s .  Culture and regular events Edit Museums and galleries Edit   Artists' Trail Dachau, stele: Paula Wimmer Dachau has a district museum dedicated to the Dachau region. In the art area, there is the Dachau Painting Gallery, which exhibits numerous works by the Dachau artists' colony . Until the First World War, this was one of the most important artists' colonies in Germany. The second art museum with a focus on modern and contemporary art is the Neue Galerie. In September, a “Long Night of Open Doors” will be held by studios, galleries and artists’ workshops, also as a reminiscence of the Dachau artists’ colony.  Dachau Folk Festival Edit   Dachau Folk Festival ⊙  Chain carousel at the Dachau Folk Festival ⊙ The Dachau Folk Festival [38] has its origins in horse races, which were held from 1652 and already had a kind of folk festival character. The original location of these events was the so-called Zieglerwiese, where the “Postschule” was located until December 2006. These festivals were celebrated over more or less longer periods of time. In 1894, the city of Dachau's port of luck was set up for the first time, a raffle of goods for the benefit of the Dachau poor fund, now the Bürgerspital-Stiftung. In 1920 the folk festival was moved from the Zieglerwiese to the current location, the Ludwig-Thoma-Wiese. The Dachau Folk Festival has taken place there regularly every year since 1946. Oxen races were held from 1947 to 1973.  The Dachau Folk Festival takes place every year for ten days in August from a Saturday to the Monday after next. The folk festival always ends on the Monday after the Assumption Day holiday on August 15th. If the Assumption of Mary falls on a Monday, the festival ends on August 22nd at the latest. The earliest it ends is August 16th if the holiday falls on a Sunday. [39] Since 1989, the Dachau children's pageant has taken place on the first Sunday of the folk festival in odd-numbered years. The Dachau Folk Festival traditionally has the lowest beer price of all the major folk festivals in Bavaria. Since 2002, Blechblos'n Day has taken place every year on the eve of the folk festival in the large festival tent .  Cultural events Edit The Dachau Old Town Festival is held every year on the second Saturday of July . For many years, a beer mug with a historical motif was issued to mark the occasion. Older editions of these beer mugs are traded by collectors for four-digit euro amounts. At the beginning of September there is a street festival called “LangeTafel” along Münchner Straße.  A Christmas market also takes place annually in Dachau's old town, during which the town hall front above the Christmas market serves as an Advent calendar . [40]  The Dachau Castle Concerts have been offering international concerts of classical chamber music since 1979 in the Renaissance Hall of the Dachau Castle.  The Dachau Music Summer takes place every year in the summer months of June/July with a variety of individual events. These include “Jazz in all streets”, “Baroque picnic” and open-air concerts . The artists who have already performed in Dachau include the band Haindling , Angelo Branduardi , Umberto Tozzi , Nigel Kennedy , Abdullah Ibrahim , Biréli Lagrène , Calexico , The National , Lambchop and Fiddler's Green .  Every year, Dachau clubs organize the cultural spectacle Amperitiv on the Ludwig-Thoma-Wiese in the last week of September.  On August 15th every year, the Dachauer Bergkriterium , one of the largest road cycling races in Bavaria, takes place in the old town.  Since 2005, the city of Dachau has awarded the Dachau Prize for Civil Courage every two years . In addition, the city of Dachau, together with the Dachau Youth Council, annually awards the Dachau Youth Prize .  Every year around All Saints' Day, one of the most beautiful bird shows in Bavaria takes place in the gymnasium on Brunngartenstrasse. Since 2007, the Bird Protection and Breeding Association Dachau and the surrounding area has been organizing an open city championship.  Beer gardens Edit Beer gardens, as a traditional Bavarian institution, can be found in four places in the city: Amperlust , Drei Rosen , Stadtkeller and the Alte Liebe an der Amper in the Mitterndorf district.  Sports Edit  Dachau family swimming pool (diving pool) Dachau has an indoor swimming pool with a sauna area (6 lanes in the 25 m sports pool, non-swimmers' pool and diving tower 1 m / 3 m), which was completed in 1971 and is currently being expanded with a new building (planned to open in 2022). For the outdoor pool season (May to September) there is a spacious family/outdoor pool with diving pool (diving tower 1 m / 3 m / 5 m), 8 lanes of 50 m swimming pool, 2 water slides and non-swimmer pool. [41] The operator, Stadtwerke Dachau , states the annual number of visitors at around 70,000 people. The town pond is available as a natural pool for swimming.  In winter (end of October to beginning of March) there is an artificial ice rink on the ASV site . The ice rink has an ice surface of 60 × 30 m and was opened in 1978. [42] Around 12,000 adults and 19,000 children come each season - plus the several thousand young people who go ice skating with their schools on four mornings. The ice hockey players from ESV Dachau Woodpeckers e. V. train and play there. Curling is also possible there. [43]  ASV Dachau has been German champion in the Volleyball Bundesliga several times . With TSV 1865 Dachau there is only one other sports club in Dachau, as it was merged with SSV Dachau. The billiards club BSV Dachau is the German team champion in pool billiards in 2005, 2006, 2016 and 2017. Among others, the European coach in pool billiards, Andreas Huber (billiards coach) , as well as many successful individual players belong to this club. The football club JFG Dachau-Land 06 is active in several towns in the Dachau district. The Dachau Golf Club was founded in 1965 and is therefore one of the oldest golf clubs in Bavaria. Economy and Infrastructure Edit Business enterprises Edit   Dachauer Land: Wind turbine north of Dachau Die ehemals wichtigsten Stützen der Dachauer Wirtschaft, die Ziegelherstellung und die Papierproduktion (Schließung der MD-Papierfabrik am 1. Juli 2007) befinden sich im Niedergang. Größere Arbeitgeber innerhalb der Stadt Dachau sind heute die Stadtwerke Dachau und kommunale Betriebe, das Ersatzteillager der MAN, Autoliv und das Helios Amper-Klinikum Dachau. In Dachau Ost sind eine Reihe von mittelständischen Industrie-, Dienstleistungs- und Handwerksbetrieben konzentriert angesiedelt. Die größten Arbeitgeber sind:  Amper Kliniken AG Sparkasse Dachau und Volksbank Dachau eG Autoliv B.V. & Co. KG Volksbank Raiffeisenbank eG Ludwig Meister GmbH & Co. KG Marco Systemanalyse und Entwicklung GmbH Stadtwerke Dachau NAT Neuberger Anlagen-Technik AG[44] Branchenstruktur Bearbeiten Wirtschaftsbereich Anteil der Beschäftigten (%) Produzierendes Gewerbe 30,7 Handel, Gastgewerbe, Verkehr 24,1 sonstige Dienstleistungen 45,2 (Quelle: Bay. Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung)[44]  Einzelhandel Bearbeiten Das in den 1980ern erweiterte, ab den 1990er Jahren stark erweiterte Gewerbegebiet Dachau Ost am Schwarzen Graben hat eine Ansiedlung von Discountern, Einzelhandelsgeschäften, Baumärkten und Großmärkten (REWE und Kaufland) ermöglicht. Durch die vermehrte Ansiedlung großer Supermärkte am Schwarzen Graben nahm das Aussterben kleinerer Geschäfte gerade in der Dachauer Altstadt zu. Bis auf das Gewerbegebiet gibt es in Dachau längs der Münchner Straße und am Anfang der Schleißheimer Straße vorrangig noch Einzelhandel. Faktisch ergab sich eine Dreiteilung von Einzelhandelsflächen: Altstadt (Oberstadt), Münchner-, Bahnhofs- und Schleißheimer Straße (Unterstadt) und Dachau Ost (Schwarzer Graben).  Banken und Kreditinstitute Bearbeiten Zu den wichtigen ortsansässigen Kreditinstituten zählen die Volksbank Raiffeisenbank Dachau und die Sparkasse Dachau. Daneben sind Postbank, Commerzbank, Sparda-Bank und die Hypovereinsbank mit Filialen vertreten.  Transportation Edit Referenzpunkt Bearbeiten Referenzpunkt für alle Entfernungen von und nach Dachau ist die Stadtpfarrkirche St. Jakob in der Altstadt.  Straßenverkehr Bearbeiten   Dachau Bahnhof   Haltepunkt Dachau Stadt an der Bahnstrecke nach Altomünster   Bahnhof und Busbahnhof Dachau In the south of Dachau, Münchner Straße turns into federal highway 304 to Munich. Federal highway 471 runs along the southern edge of the entire urban area . In the west it leads to the federal highway 8 (Munich–Stuttgart) and to Fürstenfeldbruck , and in the east to the federal highway 92 (towards Munich Airport and Deggendorf ) and to Oberschleißheim. There is an indirect connection to the A99 motorway ring via the arterial roads and motorways mentioned .  Rail transport Edit At Dachau train station , the Dachau–Altomünster railway line branches off from the Munich–Treuchtlingen railway line . Dachau is connected to the MVV by line S2 of the Munich S-Bahn and is the end point of the ten-minute timetable. The second train station in Dachau is on the route to Altomünster , the Dachau Stadt stop . From Dachau train station there are continuous regional connections to Ingolstadt , Treuchtlingen , Nuremberg and Munich main station . The regional trains to Munich reach the main station from Dachau in around 15 minutes; with the S2 the route takes around 30 minutes.  Air traffic Edit Dachau can be reached via Munich Airport, which is approximately 26.8 km away. The nearest commercial airfield is in Augsburg.  Bus transport Edit The city of Dachau is connected to the regional bus network of the Munich Transport and Tariff Association with several bus routes . Dachau is in tariff zones 1 and 2.  There are a total of eight city bus routes that connect the districts with each other. These lines are operated by the Dachau municipal utility company. There are also eleven regional bus routes to the Dachau district, one regional bus route to the Munich district and an MVG city bus route to the state capital Munich.  In addition, Dachau is connected to the express bus ring with the two express bus lines X201 and X800 .  And there are two call taxi lines in the city for access during times of low demand.  line Line gradient Traffic Company X201 Dachau SR - Oberschleißheim – Garching-Hochbrück U - Garching Research Center U Bus transport in southern Bavaria X800 Buchenau S – Esting S – Dachau SR - Dachau, Newtonstraße North Amperbus GmbH 172 Dachau SR - Karlsfeld - Karlsfelder Straße - Feldmoching USR - Dülferstraße U - Pulverturm - Am Hart U MVG 291 Dachau SR - Oberschleißheim S – Unterschleißheim S West Bus transport in southern Bavaria and Bayernbus 702 Karlsfeld S – Dachau SR – Dachau, schools Bus transport in southern Bavaria 703 Erdweg / Gaggers (- Unterweikertshofen ) – Odelzhausen – Dachau SR – Munich, Karlsfelderstrasse Geldhauser 704 Lauterbach, junction – Thalhausen – Kleinberghofen – Schwabhausen – Dachau SR RVO 705 Altomünster S/ Oberndorf – Kleinberghofen S – Erdweg S – Dachau SR – Munich, Karlsfelder Straße Stanglmeier 706 (Klenau/ Schiltberg –) Hilgertshausen – Markt Indersdorf S – Dachau SR – Karlsfeld - Vogelloh/ Allach S East RVO 710 Moosach USR – Karlsfeld – Dachau SR Bus transport in southern Bavaria 716 City bus: Dachau SR - Watzmannstraße - school center - Ignatz-Taschner-Gymnasium - Dachau SR Dachau municipal utilities 717 City bus: Dachau SR - Dachau, Moosstraße Dachau municipal utilities 718 City bus: Dachau SR - Bahnhofstraße - Am Rennplatz - Stadtweiher - Graf-Konrad-Straße - Eschenrieder Straße - Dachau SR Dachau municipal utilities 719 City bus: Dachau SR - Bahnhofstraße - Festwiese - Rathaus - Martin-Huber-Straße - Frühlingstraße - Dachau SR Dachau municipal utilities 720 City bus Dachau ring line Dachau municipal utilities 721 Unterumbach – Odelzhausen – Dachau SR RVO 722 City bus Dachau ring line Dachau municipal utilities 723 Haimhausen – Inhausermoos – Hebertshausen S (Walpertshofen) – Dachau, schools Geldhauser 725 Fahrenzhausen – Haimhausen – Hebertshausen – Dachau SR – Dachau, schools – Munich, Karlsfelder Straße Geldhauser 726 CityBus: Saubachsiedlung - Concentration Camp Memorial - Dachau SR Dachau municipal utilities 736 Olching S – Bergkirchen – Dachau SR – Dachau, school center Griensteidl 744 CityBus: Dachau, herb garden - Dachau SR Dachau municipal utilities 791 Gröbenried – Eschenried – Dachau SR – Bergkirchen Schilcher 7000 Call taxi: Hebertshausen S - Schwabhausen S - Bachern S - Dachau SR Geldhauser 7100 On-call taxi: Dachau SR - Bergkirchen - Bachern S Geldhauser Education Edit  Dachau City Library – main office at Max-Mannheimer-Platz  Josef Effner High School In Dachau there is a wide range of public and private schools, consisting of:  four elementary schools, two secondary schools (also with M branch ), a Montessori school (primary and secondary school), a special education center, a secondary school , two high schools ( Josef-Effner-Gymnasium Dachau , abbreviated JEG, and Ignaz-Taschner -Gymnasium Dachau, abbreviated ITG), the state-recognized business school Scheibner e. V. (abbreviated WSS), a state vocational school , a vocational school for nursing Dachau is also a police training location for the VI. Riot police department in Bavaria. [45]  There is also a wide range of adult education options . This is mainly supported by the municipal adult education center in Dachau and the Catholic Dachau Forum .  A special feature is the youth guest house of the German Youth Hostel Association (DJH) . It supports historical-political education on the city's history and the history of the concentration camp. [46]  Public facilities Edit  Helios Amper Hospital Dachau (Dachau Hospital)  Student dormitory (old post office) next to the city library on Max-Mannheimer-Platz Hospitals Edit Dachau's former two clinics, the district hospital and the Dr. Koschade Clinic (later the Dachau Women's Clinic), merged in the 1990s. After major renovation and expansion work at the district hospital between 1997 and 2005, the women's clinic was closed. The house of the Helios Clinic Group, now called Amper-Klinikum Dachau, has developed into a modern hospital with specialized care and has the specialist departments of internal medicine I and II, visceral, thoracic and vascular surgery, trauma surgery and orthopedics, and ear, nose and throat medicine , gynecology and obstetrics, neurology, physical medicine, pain therapy and plastic and reconstructive surgery. Since 2020, the Amper Clinic Dachau has come under criticism: Articles in the Süddeutsche Zeitung pointed to “scandalous conditions for patients and employees” complained of by employees. Due to the nursing shortage , patients are receiving inadequate care, care is being taken to ensure that grievances do not reach the outside world, and there are “far too few staff and poor pay”. The clinic management denied the allegations. [47] [48] [49]  Sovereign institutions Edit Dachau District Court Bavarian riot police : VI. Riot police department Dachau police station of the Bavarian State Police Technical relief organization OV Dachau Dachau Volunteer Fire Department v. Bavarian Red Cross , Dachau district association Dachau as a film city Edit The district clinic served as a filming location for two films by the comedian Didi Hallervorden . Recordings from the medical series Dr. Stefan Frank shot. The crime series Agathe can't help it was partly filmed in Dachau's old town.  Since August 2007, the new series Dahoam is Dahoam for Bavarian Television has been recorded on the former site of the Schuster fine cardboard factory, then Seeber . For this purpose, the old buildings were extensively converted and renovated.  Some scenes from the series For Heaven's Sake were filmed in the Hörhammerbräu in Dachau's old town.  For the children's film based on the book of the same name by Bamberg's Paul Maar Sams im Glück, some scenes were filmed in Dachau's old town / Wieninger Straße / Pfarrplatz in 2011. [50]  In 2012, the excavator pond on Schleißheimer Straße served as a filming location for the film V8 - You want to be the best . [51]  Scenes in the changing rooms of the gym for Fack ju Göhte 3 were recorded in the former MD paper factory . [52]  Personalities Edit Illustrations Edit Ehemaliges Zollhäusl in Dachau (Sitz des Tourismus Dachauer Land – Dachau AGIL e. V.) am Karlsberg 1a, D-85221 Dachau (Walmdachbau, um 1820)  Former customs house in Dachau (headquarters of the Dachauer Land Tourism - Dachau AGIL e. V.) at Karlsberg 1a, D-85221 Dachau (hipped roof building, around 1820)  Das Dachauer Rathaus im Advent mit Adventskalender  The Dachau town hall in Advent with an Advent calendar  Gärtnerei des Hofgartens  Gardening in the Hofgarten  Schloss Dachau – Schlösserverwaltung  Dachau Castle – palace administration  Christophorusfigur auf der Amperbrücke  Christophorus figure on the Amper Bridge  Ernst-Reuter-Platz (Stadtteilzentrum in Dachau-Ost)  Ernst-Reuter -Platz (district center in Dachau-Ost)  Alter Wasserturm auf dem Schlossberg in Dachau (Betriebszeit 1910 bis 1969)  Old water tower on the Schlossberg in Dachau (operation period 1910 to 1969)  Schloss Dachau (Parkseite)  Dachau Castle (park side)  Schloss Dachau (Auffahrtsseite)  Dachau Castle (driveway side)  KZ-Gedenkstätte Dachau  Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial  Hauptgebäude der ehemaligen Deutschen Versuchsanstalt für Ernährung und Verpflegung (DVA), Dachau, Am Kräutergarten 4  Wochenmarkt in der Altstadt  Weekly market in the old town  Filialkirche St. Johann  St. Johann branch church  Evangelische Friedenskirche von 1953  Evangelical Peace Church from 1953  Aussichtsterrasse hinter dem Rathaus  Viewing terrace behind the town hall  literature Edit Gerhard Hanke, Wilhelm Liebhart, Norbert Göttler and Hans-Günter Richardi: History of the market and the city of Dachau , cultural history of the Dachau region, Volume 3, Museumsverein Dachau e. V., Bayernland Verlag, Dachau 2000, ISBN 3-926355-03-4 Hans-Günther Richardi: Dachau contemporary history guide. Dachau 1998. Wilhelm Neuhauser. Dachau Museum Writings , Volume 1, Museumsverein Dachau e. V. in collaboration with the publishing house “Bayerland” Dachau, 1985. Lorenz Josef Reitmeier (ed.): Dachau - views and testimonies from twelve centuries , City of Dachau, Dachau 1976. Franz Dionys Reithofer : Chronological history of Dachau in Bavaria. Munich 1816 ( [1] ). August Kübler: Dachau in past centuries, printing and publishing house “Bayerland”, Dachau, 1928. Web links Edit City administration Churches and chapels in the Dachau urban area Dachau: Official statistics from the Bavarian State Office for Statistics Dachau from a bird's eye view - video from the tourist office Individual evidence Edit ↑ Genesis online database of the Bavarian State Office for Statistics Table 12411-003r Update of the population status: municipalities, reference date (population figures based on the 2011 census) ( help ). ↑ Natural monuments: local recreation and tourism Dachauer Land. In: www.tourismus-dachauer-land.de. Retrieved December 26, 2019 . ↑ Jump up to:a b c City of Dachau: Dachau Castle and view of Munich. City of Dachau, accessed on March 17, 2021 . ↑ City of Dachau: Webcam Dachau, current view from the old town of Dachau towards Munich. City of Dachau, accessed on March 17, 2021 . ↑ Jump up to:a b c d Alexander Merkel: Climate in Dachau. climate-data.org, accessed December 22, 2019 . ↑ Andreas R. Bräunling: The Celts in the Dachauer Land. In: Amperland. 47, 2011, pp. 302–306. ↑ Hans Bauer: The Roman highways between Iller and Salzach according to the Itinerarium Antonini and the Tabula Peutingeriana. New research results on route guidance. Munich 2007, pp. 52f and 103. ↑ Scientific review ↑ Johann Jakob Egli : Nomina geographica. Linguistic and factual explanation of 42,000 geographical names from all areas of the earth. 2nd, increased and improved edition. Brandstetter, Leipzig 1893, DNB 579328538 ; Reprint of the 2nd edition. Olms, Hildesheim/New York 1973, ISBN 3-487-04571-0 , p. 229. ↑ Documentation of the exhibition “Franked City History(s)” Postcards from Dachau, p. 9. (PDF file; 10.5 MB) ↑ Jump up to:a b Peter Schmalz: Shame as an opportunity. In the world. January 21, 1999, accessed February 27, 2020 . ↑ Jump up to:a b MD paper factory is closed. In: Munich Merkur . August 4, 2009, accessed November 24, 2019 . ↑ Petra Schafflik: Demolition of the MD paper factory - 40 tractor-trailers daily on Dachau's streets. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . November 22, 2018, accessed November 24, 2019 . ↑ BP 144/08 MD site. City of Dachau, accessed on December 27, 2023 . ↑ Dachau community in the location database of the Bavarian State Library Online . Bavarian State Library, accessed on September 11, 2019. ↑ Dachau municipality, list of official municipal districts/districts in the BayernPortal of the Bavarian State Ministry for Digital, accessed on December 18, 2021. ↑ StadtA DAH files before 1945, subject 96/19: Incorporations ↑ Wilhelm Volkert (ed.): Handbook of Bavarian offices, communities and courts 1799–1980 . CH Beck, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-406-09669-7 , p. 443 . ↑ Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipal directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, boundary and key number changes for municipalities, districts and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 571 . ↑ Legal ordinance of January 4, 1973, GVBl p. 19 ↑ Population figures as of December 31, 2018 , on statistic.bayern.de ↑ Population figures as of December 31, 2019 , on statistic.bayern.de, accessed on October 21, 2020 ↑ Living in Dachau , on dachau.de, accessed on October 21, 2020 ↑ City of Dachau, Dachau district, municipal data, detailed data bases 2018, on www.pv-muenchen.de ↑ Dachau Catholics celebrate the start of the founding of their city church , on merkur.de ↑ Preliminary official final results of the Dachau city council election 2020. Archived from the original (no longer available online) on March 31, 2022 ; accessed March 16, 2020 .  Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ↑ Seat distribution 2014. Archived from Original (no longer available online) on October 25, 2019 ; accessed March 16, 2020 .  Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ↑ Preliminary results of the city council election on March 15, 2020. dachau.de, accessed on December 27, 2023 . ↑ Bavarian State Office for Statistics: Local elections - results of the personal election in the graphic view for Dachau, GKSt. Bavarian State Office for Statistics, March 15, 2020, accessed on March 24, 2020 . ↑ Entry on the Dachau coat of arms  in the database of the House of Bavarian History ↑ Dachau town twinning. ( Memento of Originals from November 9, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.on: dachau.de ↑ The first 50 years of the Parish of the Assumption ↑ Gerhard Hanke: The beginnings of the Protestant parish in Dachau. In: Amperland . 1988, pp. 150-151. ↑ Path of remembering. City of Dachau, accessed on December 26, 2019 . ↑ Stumbling blocks. Retrieved February 16, 2022 . ↑ Stumbling blocks. Retrieved February 16, 2022 . ↑ Memorials for the victims of National Socialism. A documentation. Volume 1, Federal Agency for Civic Education, Bonn 1995, ISBN 3-89331-208-0 , p. 128. ↑ Gerhard Hanke: The Dachau folk festivals before 1900 . In: Amperland. 1989, pp. 289–292. ↑ City of Dachau: History of the Dachau Folk Festival. Archived from Original (no longer available online) on December 26, 2019 ; accessed December 26, 2019 .  Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ↑ City of Dachau: Dachau Christmas market. Retrieved December 26, 2019 . ↑ City of Dachau: Dachau family pool / outdoor pool. Archived from Original (no longer available online) on December 26, 2019 ; accessed December 26, 2019 .  Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ↑ City of Dachau: Municipal artificial ice rink Dachau. Retrieved December 26, 2019 . ↑ City of Dachau: History of the artificial ice rink. Archived from Original (no longer available online) on December 26, 2019 ; accessed December 26, 2019 .  Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ↑ Jump up to:a b Economic structure - City of Dachau In: dachau.de , accessed on February 12, 2021. ↑ The Bavarian Police - Your training and study locations ↑ Dachau - understanding history. German Youth Hostel Association Main Association for Youth Hiking and Youth Hostels eV, accessed on April 19, 2019 . ↑ Jacqueline Lang: Another argument in the Helios Amper Clinic in Dachau. Retrieved June 5, 2022 . ↑ Süddeutsche Zeitung: Renewed criticism of the Dachau Hospital. Retrieved June 5, 2022 . ↑ Jessica Schober: Dachau Clinic: Hungry and unwashed patients due to a lack of nurses. Retrieved June 5, 2022 . ↑ Film backdrop Bavaria. In: Website. BAYERN TOURISMUS Marketing GmbH, accessed on March 17, 2021 . ↑ Film backdrop Bavaria: V8 - You want to be the best , on bayern.by ↑ Andrea David: Filming locations for Fack ju Goethe 3. In: Website. Retrieved March 17, 2021 .