Nuremberg town centre

Nuremberg (Nürnberg), Bavaria’s second- largest city, is a vibrant place where the night- life is intense and the beer is as dark as coffee. The city is one of Bavaria’s biggest draws and is alive with visitors during summer and the spectacular Christmas market. For centuries Nuremberg was the unofficial capital of the Holy Roman Empire and the preferred residence of German kings, who kept their crown jewels here. Rich and stuffed with comely architecture, it was also a magnet for famous artists like Albrecht Dürer, a native son. ‘Nuremberg shines throughout Germany like a sun among the moon and stars,’ gushed Martin Luther. In the 19th century the city was at the heart of the industrial revolution in Germany. The Nazis saw in Nuremberg a perfect stage for their activities. It was here that the fanatical party rallies were held, the boycott of Jewish businesses began and the infamous Nuremberg Laws outlawing Jewish citizen- ship were enacted. On 2 January 1945, Allied bombers reduced the city to rubble and 6000 people were killed.  After WWII the city was chosen as the site of the War Crimes Tribunal, now known as the Nuremberg Trials. Later, the painstaking reconstruction – using the original stone – of almost all the city’s main buildings, including the castle and old churches in the Altstadt, have returned the city to some of its former glory. Orientation Most major sights are within the Altstadt.

The postcard on the right designed by Gustav Goetschel shows the skyline of mediaeval Nuremberg. In the background above Nürnberg castle Hitler is shown in front of a swastika flanked by Julius Streicher and Gauleiter Wagner.
Hitler's D-2600 above Nuremberg on the left from Triumph of the Will, taken from page 17 of Bilder aus dem Leben des Führers.
Clearly, Riefenstahl is deifying Hitler: the ‘plane in which Hitler is flying cuts through dark clouds; the clouds part, and sunlight streams through, silhouetting the crucifix-like shape of the ‘plane upon the ancient churches and houses of Nuremberg. Hitler descends, as a god from the sky, pushing aside the storm clouds of Germany’s problems, ready to give salvation, and enable Germans to inherit the earth. 

More screen shots of the town from the start of Triumph of the Will
video video
Nuremberg old town as seen in Triumph of the Will during the 1934 Party Rally, left, and amateur colour footage filmed at the 1938 Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg.
 Although the city had been practically obliterated during the war, many of the landmarks scene in this clip can still be identified as shown below.

The photo on the right appears to show an Italian delegation.

Links to archival footage:

90% of the city had been bombed to nothing after the war, as this photo from June 1945 shows. What is seen now by the visitor is a marvel of reconstruction.
Bergstraße on the left then and now and the Reichsparteitag of 1937, looking down the same street from the castle.
  Nürnberger Tor and Ludwigstor after the war and today
 Obere Talgasse in 1935 and today, and the Laufer Schlagturm after the war and today

Innere Laufer Gasse before the war and now
Äußere Laufer Gasse in 1918 and now

Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof
Horst Wessel leading SA troops in front of the main train station
Hitler and Himmler reviewing the Leibstandarte-ϟϟ Adolf Hitler.

Adolf Hitler Youth Hostel

The tower behind me, built in 1377, is said to have been the gaol for Kaspar Hauser. During the the 1930s Hitler requested the site be used for accommodation for as many as 450 'young hikers.'

Gästehaus der NSDAP
The Party Guest House was completed in time for the 1936 Nuremberg Party Rally. Hermann Göring stayed here for this and subsequent rallies. Standing directly across from the train station in 2007, it is little changed.

Another Nazi-era building on the Bahnhofplatz- the post office.
ALTES RATHAUS & ST SEBALDUSKIRCHE Beneath the Altes Rathaus (1616–22), a hulk of a building with lovely Renaissance-style interiors, you’ll find the gory Lochgefängnisse (Medieval Dungeons; %231 2690; Rathausplatz; tours adult/ 354 355 BAVARIA BAVARIA 356 FRRUANNCINOGNHIAEA•D• •N•urReumnbneinrgsubhead concession €2/1; h10am-4.30pm Tue-Sun Apr-Oct; 10am- 4.30pm Tue-Fri Nov-Mar, daily during Christkindlesmarkt). The 12 small cells and torture chamber must seen on a guided tour (held every half-hour) and might easily put you off lunch.
The Party Congress of 1934 opened here with a reception on September 4. The following year Hitler had been presented here with a replica of the old German imperial sword. The Party Congress of 1936 saw Hitler stating at the rathaus that that year had been “the most difficult year of my own historic role.”


HAUPTMARKT This bustling square in the heart of the Alt- stadt is the site of markets and in particular the famous Chriskindlesmarkt (Chrismas Market). The ornate Gothic Pfarrkirche Unsere Liebe Frau (1350–58), better known as the Frauenkirche, was built as a repository for the crown jewels of Charles IV who, fear- ing theft, sent them instead to Prague for safekeeping. Beneath the clock the seven electoral princes march around Charles IV every day at noon. Standing like a space probe on the north- west corner of the square is the 19m Schöner Brunnen (Beautiful Fountain). A replica of the late 14th-century original, it is a stunning golden vision of 40 electors, prophets, Jewish and Christian heroes and other al- legorical figures. The first version, made of badly eroded sandstone, stands in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum. On the market side hangs a seamless golden ring, polished bright by millions of hands. A local superstition has it that if you turn it three times, your wish will come true.

The Frauenkirche is one of the few buildings still intact after World War II. This bustling square in the heart of the Altstadt is the site of daily markets as well as the famous Christkindlesmarkt. At the eastern end is the ornate Gothic Pfarrkirche Unsere Liebe Frau (1350-58), also known as simply the Frauenkirche. The work of Prague cathedral builder Peter Parler, it's the oldest Gothic hall church in Bavaria and stands on the ground of Nuremberg's first synagogue.  The western façade is beautifully ornamented and is where, every day at noon, crowds crane their necks to witness a spectacle called Männleinlaufen. It features seven figures, representing electoral princes, parading clockwise three times around Emperor Karl IV.

The Frauenkirche providing the backdrop for the 1933 Party Rally left and 1935.
The American Army by the time of Hitler's birthday, April 20, 1945 and the church today with its Männleinlaufen still ringing in noon.

The church in 1945 and 1946.
Opposite the Frauenkirche is a replica of the Schöner Brunnen (Beautiful Fountain) which dates from around 1385 and now stored in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum)
Hitler and Röhm beside the Schöner Brunnen in Victory of Faith; the photo on the right shows Leni Riefenstahl on the ground as she tries to capture a dramatic angle for the film.

St. Sebaldus Church
 Opposite the Altes Rathaus stands the 13th-century St Sebalduskirche, which is Nuremberg’s oldest church. Check out the ornate carvings that are over the Bridal Door- way to the north, and depict the Wise and Foolish Virgins. Inside the church, the high- light is the bronze shrine of St Sebald, which is a Gothic and Renaissance masterpiece that took its maker, Peter Vischer the Elder, as well as his two sons, more than 11 years to complete. Vischer is in it too, sporting a skullcap. STADTMUSEUM FEMBOHAUS Set in an ornate 16th-century merchant house, the Fembo House Municipal Museum (%231 2595; Burgstrasse 15; adult/concession €4/2 for Noricama or general exhibit, both €6/3; h10am-5pm Tue-Fri, 10am-6pm Sat & Sun). Highlights of this entertaining overview include the restored historic rooms of this 16th-century merchant house and a flashy multimedia show, Noricama, which journeys through 950 years of Nuremberg’s history.
SA troops parading past Hitler with Sebaldus church in the background during the Reichsparteitag der NSDAP 10th-16th September 1935, in Nuremberg. In the car with Hitler is the Blutfahne; Jakob Grimminger, carrier of the Blutfahne flag, is behind. It was at this rally that the Congress of the Nazi Party convened in Nuremberg, Germany, on September 10, 1935, to discuss passage of laws to clarify the requirements of citizenship in the Third Reich, to promote and protect the “purity of German blood and honour,” and to define the position of Jews in the Reich. Two principal laws were enacted by the Reichstag (parliament) on September 15, 1935, which, along with various ancillary laws that followed them, were collectively called the Nuremberg Laws or, in full, the Nuremberg Laws on Citizenship and Race.
The laws actually grew out of a debate over the economic effects of Nazi Party actions against Jews. It was decided that the party would cease such actions once the Reich had formulated a firm official policy against the Jews. The policy, embodied in the Nuremberg Laws, was hastily drawn up—so hastily that, because there was a shortage of regular stationery, some portions of the text of the laws were drafted on menu cards. The first major law, called the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour, prohibited marriage as well as extramarital sexual intercourse between Jews and Germans. The law also barred the employment of German females under 45 years of age in Jewish households.
The second major law, the Reich Citizenship Law, summarily stripped Jews of German citizen- ship, introducing a new distinction between “Reich citizens” and “Reich nationals”—the Jewish Germans to be included in the latter category.
The Nuremberg Laws codified what had been the general but unofficial measures taken against Jews in Germany to 1935.
The Jews' Sow, an example of antisemitic propaganda used by the authorities to ostracise the Jewish minority and still allowed to adorn the church. In 2003 Wolfram Kastner sprayed the slogan 'Judensau' (Jewish Pig) on the church façade to protest the continuing display of this obscenity and to prompt the church to place a sign explaining the meaning of the sculpture.
 St. Lorenz Church
The Lorenzkirche after the war and today
The Apollo-Theater and Zeughaus on Pfannenschmiedsgasse before and after the war and today
Pfannenschmiedsgasse has completely changed since the war
The Nürnberg Polizeipräsidium in 1942 and today, this time relocated to Jakobsplatz with the Franconian eagle
The Museumsbrücke spanning the river Pegnitz to connect the Marktplatz with the Church of St. Lawrence.

Albrecht Dürer Haus
ALBRECHT-DÜRER-HAUS Germany’s most famous Renaissance draughtsman, Dürer lived and worked at the Albrecht-Dürer-Haus (%231 2568; Albrecht-Dürer- Strasse 39; adult/concession €5/2.50; h10am-5pm Tue-Sun, 10am-8pm Thu) from 1509 till his death in 1528. Several of his graphic works are on display, and a multimedia version of Agnes, his wife, takes visitors through the master’s recreated workshop.
During the Nazi era and today
Postcards of the Albrecht Dürer House in Nuremberg regularly portrayed the structure festooned in swastika flags, but the postcards of the Goethe House presented a building seemingly untouched by the passage of time. All in all, the Goethe sites conveyed an image of Goethe and an interpretation of his life and work that was not overtly Nazified. The visitors who arrived by the thousands thus experienced the house and the museum just as visitors had done for decades.
A tour to the Second World War bunkers starts here. There is a four storey passageway under the Albrecht Dürer Platz called “Felsengänge” and was burrowed into the sandstone in the 14th century. The passageway was used as a shelter during the Second World War.


Formerly an impressive late Renaissance building built 1602-05 by the architect Jakob Wolff the Elder, the building was destroyed during the war and replaced by the monstrosity on the right..

The Hangman's Bridge (Henkersteg) was constructed in 1457 as a wooden bridge. Between the 16th and the 19th century, the Nuremberg hangman lived in the tower and the roofed walk above the river Pegnitz. After the flood of 1595, three arches of the town wall bridging the southern arm of the river Pegnitz were demolished and replaced by the wooden Hangman's Bridge with its tiled roof . It was reconstructed in 1954 after almost entirely destroyed during the war.

Luftschutzschule Hermann Göring

During its inauguration and today, derelict 

Another Nazi-era school at Regenbogenstraße 73 with façade dating from 1935

Julius Streicher's Gauhaus
Headquarters at Marienplatz 5 of the Nazi Party in Nuremberg, and of Gauleiter Julius Streicher, Nazi leader of Franconia.
The Gauhaus in flames in this U.S. Army Signal Corps photograph on the left taken on 27 April 1945. The Reich eagle is visible through the smoke.

The name of a newspaper, the Nürnberger Nachrichten, replaces the eagle and swastika on the façade whilst the back of the building is one of the only remaining examples of original Nazi relief, depicting National Socialism fighting the Weimar Republic and Jews.
Compare with Der Racher (The Avenger) from Hitler's favourite sculptor, Arno Breker.
Oct. 1, 1946: Day 218, and last, of the Nuremberg trial. Julius Streicher hearing the charges against him again recited before being found guilty and sentenced to death by hanging.
Streicher was the founder and publisher of the extremely crude and vulgar Der Stürmer 'newspaper', and his publishing firm also produced three anti-Semitic books for children, including one of the most widespread pieces of propaganda, the 1938 Der Giftpilz (The Poison Mushroom), which purported to warn about insidious dangers Jews posed by using the metaphor of an attractive yet deadly mushroom. After the war, he was convicted of crimes against humanity and executed. Controversially so, for his execution went against the idea of freedom of speech, Streicher not having been involved in waging or planning war.

Nuremberg trials court building

NUREMBERG TRIALS COURTHOUSE Nazi war criminals were tried for crimes against peace and humanity in the Schwur- gerichtssaal 600 (Courtroom 600; %231 5421; Fürther Strasse 110; adult/concession €2.50/1.25; htours 1-4pm hourly Sat & Sun). The Allies chose Nuremberg for obvious symbolic reasons. In addition, the building was easily accessible and one of few such complexes to survive the war intact. Held in 1945–46, the trials resulted in the conviction and sentencing of 22 Nazi leaders and 150 underlings, and the execution of doz- ens. Among those condemned to death were Joachim von Ribbentrop, Alfred Rosenberg, Wilhelm Frick and Julius Streicher. Hermann Göring, the Reich’s field marshal, cheated the hangman by taking cyanide in his cell hours before his scheduled execution. To get there take the U1 to Bärenschanze.
The site of the Nuremberg war crimes trials. It is still a working court building, so tourist hours are limited to weekends. It was here that the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg was convened pursuant to the London Agreement of August 8, 1945, which included a charter, signed by representatives from Britain, the US, the USSR, and the provisional government of France, for a military tribunal to try major Axis war criminals on four possible counts: crimes against peace (the planning, instigation, and waging of wars of aggression in violation of international treaties and agreements), crimes against humanity (exterminations, deportations, and genocide), war crimes (violations of the accepted laws and international conventions of war), and conspiracy to commit any or all of the criminal acts listed in the first three counts. As these offences had no particular or specific geographic location. Subsequently, 19 other nations accepted the tribunal provisions of the agreement.
The tribunal was made up of a member (and an alternate) selected by each of the four principal signatory countries. The first session was convened under the presidency of General I. T. Nikitchenko on October 18, 1945, in Berlin when 24 former Nazi leaders were charged with war crimes, and various groups (including the Gestapo) were charged as being criminal in character. After this first session, all others, beginning on November 20, 1945, were held in Nuremberg under the presidency of Lord Justice Geoffrey Lawrence, the British member.
Courtroom 600 in 1945 and today

The judges and the accused; the seats the latter sat on today. Defendants had the right to receive a copy of the indictment, to offer an explanation or defence, to be represented by legal counsel, and to confront and cross-examine all witnesses brought against them.
On the left is the bench where the accused sat. It was expanded during the trial, so it looks a bit smaller now. The video shows the October 17, 1946 U.S. Newsreel of the Nuremberg Trials Sentencing when, at the conclusion of 216 court sessions, the verdicts on 22 of the original 24 defendants were handed down. One defendant, Robert Ley, had committed suicide whilst in gaol, and the aged Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, the great German arms manufacturer, was judged mentally and physically unfit to stand trial. Of the 22 tried, three, Hjalmar Schacht, Franz von Papen, and Hans Fritzsche, were acquitted; four, Karl Dönitz, Baldur von Schirach, Albert Speer, and Konstantin von Neurath, were sentenced to 10 to 20 years in prison; three, Rudolf Hess, Walther Funk, and Erich Raeder, were sentenced to life imprisonment; and 12 were sentenced to be hanged. Of these, ten—Hans Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Julius Streicher, Alfred Rosenberg, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Fritz Sauckel, Alfred Jodl, Wilhelm Keitel, and Arthur Seyss-Inquart—were executed on October 16, 1946. Martin Bormann was tried and condemned to death in absentia, and Hermann Göring committed suicide before sentence could be carried out.
The tribunal established certain enduring principles of international law, including those embodied in the rejection of the chief defences offered by the defendants. The tribunal rejected the contention that only a state, and not individuals, could be found guilty of war crimes. The court concluded that only by holding individuals to account for committing such crimes could international law be enforced. The tribunal also rejected the defence that the trial as well as its adjudication were ex post facto. All acts of which the defendants were found guilty, the tribunal held, had been universally regarded as criminal prior to World War II which created a precedent for subsequent war crimes trials relating to World War II as well as subsequent conflicts.

Deutscher Hof
Like a Roman emperor Hitler rode into this medieval town at sundown today past solid phalanxes of wildly cheering Nazis who packed the narrow streets that once saw Hans Sachs and the Meistersinger. Tens of thousands of Swastika flags blot out the Gothic beauties of the place, the faces of the old houses, the gabled roofs. The streets, hardly wider than alleys, are a sea of brown and black uniforms. I got my first glimpse of Hitler as he drove by our hotel, the Württemberger Hof, to his headquarters down the street at the Deutscher Hof, a favourite old hotel of his, which has been remodelled for him... Later I pushed my way into the lobby of the Deutscher Hof. I recognized Julius Streicher, whom they call here the Uncrowned Czar of Franconia. In Berlin he is known more as the number-one Jew-baiter and editor of the vulgar and pornographic anti-Semitic sheet the Stürmer. His head was shaved and this seemed to augment the sadism of his face. As he walked about, he brandished a short whip. 
William L. Shirer, Berlin Diary, September 4 1934 entry

This is the hotel at Frauentorgraben 29 where Hitler always stayed whilst in Nuremberg, in suite 105.
Loop Club (%686 767; Klingenhofstrasse 52; hThu- Sat) With three dance areas and a languid chill-out zone with lounge music, this place attracts a more mature crowd. Every Thurs- day is 50-Cent night, a collective send-up with cheap mixed drinks flowing to the sound of ’80s hits and karaoke. Take the U2 to Herrnhütte, turn right and it’s a five-minute walk. Hirsch (%429 414; Vogelweiherstrasse 66) This converted factory south of the centre has live alternative music almost daily, as well as theme nights and a summer beer garden. Take the U1 to Frankenstrasse. Mach1 (%203 030; Kaiserstrasse 1-9; cover €4-8; hThu-Sat) This legendary dance temple has been around for decades but still holds a spell over fashion victims. Line up and be mustered. CINEMA Roxy (%488 40; Julius-Lossmann-Strasse 116) This cinema shows first-run films in the original English version, a rarity in Nuremberg. Take tram 8 to the Südfriedhof stop. THEATRE 
A troop of Hitler Youth marching past Hitler and from the same vantage point today

Arabella Sheraton Hotel (Fr
änkischer Hof)
The Fränkischer Hof had originally mostly accommodated the press during Party Rallies.
This Nazi shield with its swastika somewhat intact was reinstalled in the front of this hotel, having originally come from the Fränkischer Hof shown below which shows it and the three other shields high above the entrance.
CLASSICAL MUSIC Nuremberg’s magnificent Städtische Bühnen (Municipal Theatres; Richard-Wagner-Platz 2; www.staats serves up an impressive mix of dramatic arts. The renovated Art Nouveau opera house presents opera, ballet and read- ings, while the Kammerspiele offers a varied programme of classical and contemporary plays. Tickets are available at the box office or by calling %231 3808. The Nürnberger Philharmoniker also performs here. Getting There & Away Nuremberg airport (%937 00), 7km north of the centre, is served by regional and international carriers, including Lufthansa, Air Berlin and Air France. Trains run hourly to/from Frankfurt (€39, 21⁄2 hours) and Munich (€41, 11⁄2 to two hours). There are direct connections several times daily to Berlin (€77, five to 61⁄2 hours) and Vienna (€96, 51⁄2 hours), while a few slow trains also go to Prague (€42, six hours). BerlinLinien buses leave for Berlin daily at 12.10pm (standard one-way €39, four hours). They leave from the Hauptbahnhof. There’s a ride-share service CityToCity Mit- fahrzentrale (%194 40;;  
Its various incarnations after the war.

High Bunker Worhd
CULTURAL CENTRES Amerika Haus (%230 690; Gleissbühlstrasse 13) Impressive range of cultural and artistic programmes each month. EMERGENCY Ambulance (%192 22) INTERNET ACCESS Netzkultur (%211 0782; Färberstrasse 11, 3rd fl; per hr €3; h10am-1am Mon-Sat) LAUNDRY Schnell und Sauber (%180 9400; per load €4; h6am-midnight) East (Sulzbacher Strasse 86; tram 8 to Deichslerstrasse); South (Allersberger Strasse 89; tram 4, 7 or 9 to Schweiggerstrasse); West (Schwabacher Strasse 86; U2 to St Leonhard) MEDICAL SERVICES Full-service hospitals close to the Altstadt: Poliklinik (%192 92; Kesslerplatz 5) Unfallklinik Dr Erler (%272 80; Kontumazgarten 4-18) MONEY Commerzbank (Königstrasse 21) Hypovereinsbank (Königstrasse 3) Reisebank (Hauptbahnhof ) POST Main post office (Bahnhofplatz 1) TOURIST INFORMATION Tourist offices (%233 60; www.tourismus.nuernberg .de) Königstrasse (Königstrasse 93; h9am-7pm Mon- Sat); Hauptmarkt (Hauptmarkt 18; h9am-6pm Mon-Fri, 10am-4pm Sun May-Sep, 9am-7pm Mon-Sat & 10am- 7pm during Christkindlesmarkt) Staff sell the Nürnberg + Fürth Card (€18), good for two days of unlimited public transport and admission to most museums and attractions in both cities. TRAVEL AGENCIES Plärrer Reisen (%929 760; Gostenhofer Hauptstrasse 27) Good all-round travel agency with a last-minute ticket desk at the airport. 
One of the largest air raid shelters during the war, holding 678 people; part now used by organisation to simulate blindness. The photo on the extreme right shows an example of an air-tight door used in Nuremberg air raid shelters.

The Nazi eagle still adorns the main administrative building for the railway.

Nearby is the
Monument at Essenweinstrasse, serving as a reminder of the destruction of another synagogue during Reichkristallnacht.:

The Hauptbahnhof is just outside the old city walls to the southeast. From here, pedestrian Königstrasse runs to the city centre, where the shallow Pegnitz River flows from east to west. About 4km southeast of the centre is the enormous Reichsparteitagsgelände, the Nazi rally grounds also known as Luitpoldhain. The courthouse where the Nuremberg Trials were held is just off the Altstadt. Information BOOKSHOPS Buchhandlung Edelmann (%992 060; Kornmarkt 8) Travel section upstairs and some English-language novels downstairs. Schmitt & Hahn (%2146 711; Hauptbahnhof; h5.30am-11pm) Full selection of international press and a decent section of current paperbacks for those travelling light.
Images of the destruction

Another memorial stone is at Spital Bridge commemorating the destruction of Nuremberg's main synagogue located on Hans Sachs Platz. It was destroyed on August 10 1938, two months before Reichskristallnacht.
Hummelsteiner Weg 12; h9am-6pm Mon-Fri, 9am-1.30pm Sat) right be- hind the south exit of the Hauptbahnhof. Getting Around TO/FROM THE AIRPORT U-Bahn 2 runs every few minutes from Hauptbahnhof to the airport (€1.80, 12 min- utes). A taxi to/from the airport will cost you about €15. BICYCLE The tourist office sells the ADFC’s Fahrrad Stadtplan (€4.50), a detailed map of the city and surrounding area. It also hands out a list of bicycle-friendly hotels in town that will store bicycles for travellers. For bike hire try Ride on a Rainbow (%397 337; Adam-Kraft-Strasse 55; per day €10-18). PUBLIC TRANSPORT The best transport around the Altstadt is at the end of your legs. Tickets on the VGN bus, tram and U-Bahn/S-Bahn networks cost €1.40/1.80 per short/long ride. A day pass costs €3.60. Saturday passes are valid all weekend. TAXI The starting rate for a taxi ride (%194 10) is €2.50.
The photo on the left shows a crowd outside the Schocken department store in Nuremberg on October 11, 1925. During the Third Reich Salman Schocken was politically forced to sell his department stores to the Merkur AG through the policy of Aryanisation) After the war Schocken sold his regained share of the company (51%) to Helmut Horten GmbH, which later became part of Kaufhof and is currently owned by Metro.
 FELSENGÄNGE Under the Albrecht Dürer Monument on Albrecht-Dürer-Platz are four storeys of chilly corridors through the Felsen- gänge (%227 066; adult/concession €4/3; htours at 11am, 1pm, 3pm & 5pm, 3-person minimum). Bur- rowed into the sandstone in the 14th century to house a brewery and beer cellar, it also served as an air-raid shelter during WWII. The tunnels, which can only be seen on a tour, can get pretty chilly so take a jacket. TIERGÄRTNERPLATZ Framed by charming half-timbered houses, the Tiergärtnertor is a square tower from the 16th century. The long, dark passage underneath gives a suitable impression of the city’s walls, in places up to 6m thick. On the square stands the beautiful late Gothic half-timbered Pilatushaus, owned by a wealthy maker of armour for kings and nobles. In front is Jürgen Goetz’ bronze sculpture Der Hase – Hommage à Dürer (The Hare – A Tribute to Dürer, 1984). This nod to Dürer’s watercolour original, called Junger Feldhase (1502), shows the dire results of tam- pering with nature. A few steps further east is the Historischer Kunstbunker (%227 066; Obere Schmiedgasse 52; tours adult/concession €4.50/3.50; htours 3pm Apr-Oct & Dec, Sat & Sun only Jan-Mar & Nov), a climate-controlled bomb shelter used to protect key artworks during WWII. Works were kept here by Albrecht Dürer, sculptor Veit Stoss and Martin Behaim, the maker of a bafflingly accurate 15th century globe. Tickets are available only from brewpub Hausbrauerei Altstadthof (Burgstrasse 19). RUNNINGFHREANDCO•N• IARun••niNnguSreumbhbeardg 357 KAISERBURG A must-see is the humungous Kaiserburg (Imperial Castle; %244 6590; Burg; adult/concession incl museum €6/5, well & tower only €3/2; h9am-6pm Apr-Sep, 10am-4pm Oct-Mar). Construction began here during the Hohenstaufen reign in the 12th century, and dragged on 400 years. The complex embraces the Kaiser’s living quarters, a Romanesque chapel, the Imperial and Knights’ Halls and the Sinwellturm (Sinwell Tower; 113 steps). There’s also the amazing Tiefer Brunnen (Deep Well; 48m-deep), which still yields drinking water. The Kaiserburg Museum (%200 9540; Burg; adult/concession €5/4) chronicles the history of the castle and sheds light on medieval defence techniques. The grassy knoll in the southeast corner of the castle gardens is Am Ölberg, a great spot to sit and gaze out over the city’s rooftops. BAVARIA BAVARIA NUREMBERG 0 0 L Webersplatz Egidienplatz Spital- brücke 54 300 m 0.2 miles To Osteria (200m) To Loop Club (3km) Laufertor Äussere Laufer Platz To Schnell und Sauber (East) (900m) To Poliklinik (300m) Wöhrder Wiese To Reichsparteitagsgelände (Luitpoldhain) (4km); Lorenzkirche 5 2 42 Karthäusertor Opernhaus 31 44 20 3 Lorenzer Platz 26 24 48 49 Museums- brücke Richard 6 7 Wagner 62 Platz Hauptbahnhof 8 43 9 17 Königstor 60 63 22 Bauhof Marientor r - S t Tafelhofstr r FRRUANNCINOGNHIAEA•D• •N•urReumnbneinrgsubhead RUNNINGFHREANDCO•N• IARun••niNnguSreumbhbeardg SPIELZEUGMUSEUM The Spielzeugmuseum ( Toy Museum; %231 3164; Karlstrasse 13-15; adult/concession €5/2.50; h10am-5pm Tue-Fri, 10am-6pm Sat & Sun) exhibits playthings from many periods – from wooden ships and paper figures to electric trains and com- puter games. Kids and parents will love the play area. WEINSTADL & HENKERSTEG On the north side of the Pegnitz, near the Karlsbrücke, is the impressive half-timbered Weinstadel, an old wine depot with two half- timbered stories jutting out over the Pegnitz. It has had a storied life, ranging from lepers’ refuge to student dorm. Crossing the river is the covered wooden Henkersteg (Hangman’s Bridge), built to keep the hangman’s exposure to disease at a minimum. EHEKARUSSELL BRUNNEN At the foot of the fortified Weisser Turm (White Tower) stands the amazing Eheka- russell Brunnen (Marriage Roundabout), a metallic fountain with six interpretations of marriage (from first love to quarrel to death-do-us-part) all based on a verse by Hans Sachs, the medieval cobbler-poet. The artist, Jürgen Weber, faced a storm of criti- cism when the fountain was unveiled in 1984. On Hefnersplatz, the townsfolk had fewer quibbles with another modern fountain, the Peter-Henlein-Brunnen dedicated to the 16th- century tinkerer who is credited with making the first pocket watch. LORENZKIRCHE Lorenzer Platz is dedicated to one of the church’s first archivists, St Lawrence, a revered Catholic saint. Nuremberg’s Catholics were once split into competing factions, one north and the other south of the river; the latter made a statement with Lorenzkirche (Church of St Lawrence), a massive 15th-century church crammed with artistic treasures. Highlights include the stained-glass windows (including a Rosetta window 9m in diameter) and Veit Stoss’ Engelsgruss (Annunciation), a wooden carving with life-size figures suspended above the high altar. The Tugendbrunnen (Fountain of Virtues), on the north side of the church, shows the seven ladies proudly spouting water from their breasts in the shadow of a figure of Justice. REICHSPARTEITAGSGELÄNDE The black-and-white images of ecstatic Nazi supporters hailing their Führer were filmed in Nuremberg. This orchestrated propaganda began as early as 1927, but after 1933 Hitler opted for a purpose-built venue, the Reich- sparteitagsgelände (Nazi Party Rally Grounds). Much of the outsized grounds was destroyed during Allied bombing raids, but enough is left to get a sense of the megalomania behind it. At the northwestern edge was the Luitpol- darena, designed for mass SS and SA parades. The area is now a park. South of here, the half-built Kongresshalle (Congress Hall) was meant to outdo Rome’s Colosseum in both scale and style. To put the grounds into a historical con- text, visit the Dokumentationszentrum (Documenta- tion Centre; %231 7538; Bayernstrasse 110; adult/student €5/2.50; h9am-6pm Mon-Fri, 10am-6pm Sat & Sun) in the north wing of the Kongresshalle. A stunning walkway of glass cuts diagonally through the complex, ending with an interior view of the congress hall. Inside, the exhibit Fascination and Terror examines the rise of the NSDAP, the Hitler cult, the party rallies and the Nuremberg Trials. Don’t miss it. East of the Kongresshalle, across the ar- tificial Dutzendteich (Dozen Ponds), is the Zeppelinfeld, fronted by a 350m-long grand- stand, the Zeppelintribüne, where most of the big Nazi parades, rallies and events took place. Sporting events and rock concerts take place here now, although this rehabilitation is still hotly disputed. The grounds are bisected by the 60m- wide Grosse Strasse (Great Road), which cul- minates, 2km south, at the Märzfeld (March Field), which was planned as military exercise grounds. West of the Grosse Strasse was to have been the Deutsches Stadion with a seating capacity of 400,000. Things never got beyond the first excavation, and the hole filled with groundwater – today’s Silbersee. To get to the grounds, take tram 4 to Dut- zendteich or tram 9 to Luitpoldhain. Both trams pass the Hauptbahnhof. GERMANISCHES NATIONALMUSEUM One of the most important museums of Ger- man culture, the Germanisches Nationalmuseum (%133 10; Kartäusergasse 1; adult/concession €5/4; h10am-6pm Tue-Sun, 10am-9pm Wed) is strangely underrated. It features an archaeological col- lection, arms and armour, musical and scien- tific instruments and toys – but the jewel in its crown is the art section. This varied exhibit not only boasts exquisite paintings, but also sculpture, historical garments, porcelain and glass objects. The display is due to expand in 2007, when the original hall is reopened after a lengthy revamp. Dürer’s work is featured prominently. It affords insight into the artist’s enormous pres- tige at the Holy Roman court; his commissions included portraits for emperors Charlemagne and Sigrimund, whose faces appeared on the doors of the imperial chambers. The artist’s celebrated Hercules Slaying the Stymphalian Birds confirms his superb grasp of anatomical detail and a flash of mischief (Dürer put his own facial features on the Greek hero). The many other gems include Albrecht Altdorfer’s Victory of Charlemagne over the Avars near Regensburg, whose impossible detail tests the human eye. Large, lavishly coloured parch- ments abound, such as Valchenborch’s Cross- ing of the Red Sea. Pick up an audio-guide (€1.50) as few labels are in English. Free guided tours in English take place at 2pm on the first and third Sun- day of each month (normal admission is still charged). At the street leading to the museum, the Way of Human Rights is a row of symbolic white concrete pillars (and one oak tree) bearing the 30 articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Each pillar is inscribed in German and, in succession, the language of a people whose rights have been violated. The oak represents the languages not explicitly mentioned. VERKEHRSMUSEUM Nuremberg’s impressive Verkehrsmuseum (%0180-444 22 33; Lessingstrasse 6; adult/concession €3/2; h9am-5pm Tue-Sun) combines two exhibits under one roof: one about the Deutsche Bahn (German Railways) and one about Kommunika- tion. The former is an entertaining display that explores the history of Germany’s legendary rail system. You’ll see the country’s first en- gine, the Adler, which ran from Nuremberg to nearby Fürth in 1852. Other fine specimens include Ludwig II’s gilded carriage (dubbed the ‘rolling Neuschwanstein’ for its starry ceiling fresco and lavish decoration) and Bis- marck’s sober quarters for official visits. A highlight is the hourly demonstration of one of Germany’s largest model railways, run by a controller at a huge console of blinking lights and switches. The upstairs section covers the evolution of the postal system, but apart from some elaborate delivery coaches, isn’t terribly riveting. NEUES MUSEUM Housed in a spectacular building with an all-glass façade, the Neues Museum (%240 2010; Luitpoldstrasse 5; adult/concession €3.50/2.50; h10am-8pm Tue-Fri, 10am-6pm Sat & Sun) has the suitable pa- nache of a museum devoted to art and design. The upper floor displays contemporary art (mostly abstracts) while the lower showcases the major developments in design since 1945. For a free peek at the exhibits, just stand in the courtyard outside. HANDWERKERHOF A re-creation of a crafts quarter of old Nurem- berg, the Handwerkerhof is a self-contained tourist trap by the Königstor. It’s about as quaint as a hammer on your thumbnail, but if you’re cashed up you may find some decent merchandise. JÜDISCHES MUSEUM FRANKEN IN FÜRTH A quick U-Bahn ride away in the neighbouring town of Fürth is the Jüdisches Museum Franken in Fürth (Frankish Jewish Museum; %770 577; Königstrasse 89; adult/concession €3/2; h10am-5pm Wed-Sun, 10am-8pm Tue). Fürth once had the largest Jewish con- gregation of any city in southern Germany, and this museum, housed in a handsomely 358 359 BAVARIA BAVARIA B  4 2 Haupt- markt Fleisch- brücke 3 WALK FACTS Start Hauptmarkt Finish Hauptmarkt Distance 2.5km Duration 2 hours Festivals & Events From late November to Christmas Eve, the Hauptmarkt is taken over by the most famous Christkindlesmarkt (Christmas Market) in Ger- many. Scores of colourful stalls selling mulled wine, spirits, roast sausages and trinkets fill the square as the smell of Lebkuchen (large, soft, spicy biscuits) wafts overhead. Sleeping Accommodation gets tight and rates rocket during the Christmas market and toy fair (trade only) in late January to early February. At other times, cheap rooms can be found, especially if you book ahead. BUDGET Knaus-Campingpark ‘Am Dutzendteich’ (%981 2717;; Hans-Kalb-Strasse 56; per tent/ person €2/5) A camping ground near the lakes in the Volkspark, southeast of the city cen- tre. Take the U1 to Messezentrum, then walk about a kilometre. Lette ‘m sleep (%992 8128;; Frauentormauer 42; dm €16-20, d €44-52, linen €3; i) A backpacker favourite, this independent hostel is conveniently located within the old town wall, just five minutes from the Hauptbahn- hof. It’s a great place to meet fellow travellers, with a cosy common room, kitchen, bar and free web access, and the hosts are a mine of local information. The many options include dorms, doubles and apartments. DJH hostel (%230 9360;; Burg 2; dm under/ over 26yr €20.70/24.70) In the former castle stables, this excellent, spotless hostel has 317 beds in bright airy dorms, as well as a piano and table tennis. It’s about a 20-minute walk north of the Hauptbahnhof. Probst-Garni Hotel (%203 433; fax 205 93 36; Luitpol- dstrasse 9; s €42-51, d €57-67) A pleasant, family-run outfit in the old centre, with spacious modern quarters, as clean as a new pin. All 34 rooms are on the third floor and are nicely removed from the bustle at street level. Rooms with bathrooms have TVs, and there are a couple of smaller, cheaper rooms with shared bath. MIDRANGE Hotel Lucas (%227 845;; Kaiserstrasse 22; s €65-105, d €90-125; ni) This boutique hotel in the heart of the city offers excellent value and service. There are refined touches throughout, like exposed beams and moveable bed frames that instantly convert two singles into a double bed. The nicer rooms jut out over the rushing waters of the Regnitz, just upstairs from the pleasant café. Hotel Drei Raben (%274 380; www.hotel-drei-raben .de; Königstrasse 63; s €50-170, d €80-170; n) This de- signer hotel builds upon the legend of three ravens perched on the building’s chimney stack, who tell each other stories from Nu- remberg lore. Each of the 21 rooms uses its style and humour and to tell a particular tale – from the life of Dürer to the history of the locomotive. The FC Nürnberg room features a foosball table-cum-writing desk. Staff are delightful. Hotel Deutscher Kaiser (%242 660; www.deutscher; Königstrasse 55; s €70-138, d €98-178; pni) A grand sandstone staircase leads to ornately decorated rooms in this 1880s- built hotel in the Altstadt. The ‘Kaiser’ rooms are slightly dearer but superior to the standard doubles, with bidets in the bathrooms, bro- caded curtains and carved bedsteads. The elegant reading room is a gem. Hotel Elch (%249 2980;; Irrerstrasse 9; s €65, d €85; is) This friendly hotel, based in a 14th-century half-timbered house near the Kaiserburg, has small but comfy rooms up a narrow medieval staircase. Breakfast is served in the quaint woody restaurant, the Schnitzelria, which does a good line in Fran- conian beers and, yes, schnitzel. Am Jakobsmarkt (%200 70; www.hotel-am; Schottengasse 5; s €79-125, d €103-179; pni) Choose from contemporary or tra- ditional rooms at this well-run hotel, reached via a tiny courtyard near the Spittlertor. Unexpected extras include a sauna, solarium and fitness room. TOP END Agneshof (%214 440;; Agnesgasse 10; s €90-175, d €112-225; pni) The Agneshof is a real pleasure – an oasis of calm with an upbeat artsy air, top-notch facilities and elegant modern rooms. If you feel like some pampering, try the whirlpool and in- house health treatments. The comfy Kaiser suites offer unparalleled views of the castle. There’s also wheelchair access. Eating RESTAURANTS Barfüsser Kleines Brauhaus (%204 242; Königstrasse 60; mains €6-13) Munch on hearty Franconian specialities among the copper vats, enamel 360 361 restored building, chronicles the history of Jewish life in the region from the Middle Ages to today. To reach the museum, you take the U1 to the Rathaus stop in Fürth. Walking Tour This circuit covers the main sights of the his- toric city over a leisurely 2.5km walk. With visits to all the museums and attractions listed, it could take the best part of two days. The tour starts on Hauptmarkt, the main square. At the eastern end is the ornate Gothic Pfarrkirche Unsere Liebe Frau (1), or Frauenkirche. The clock’s figures spring into action every day at noon. The Schöner Brunnen (2; Beautiful Fountain) rises up from the cobblestones like a misplaced spire. Walk north to the Altes Rathaus, the old town hall with its Lochge- fängnisse (3), the medieval dungeons. Opposite stands the 13th-century Sebalduskirche (4), with an exterior smothered in religious sculptures and a bronze shrine of St Sebald inside. Just up Burgstrasse, the Fembo House Municipal Museum (5) covers the highs and lows of Nuremberg’s past with a multimedia show. Backtrack south to Halbwachsengässchen and turn right into Albrecht-Dürer-Platz and a dignified statue of the great painter, the Albrecht Dürer Monument (6). Directly beneath are the Felsengänge (7), tunnels once used as an old beer cellar and an air-raid shelter. Moving up Bergstrasse, you’ll reach the massive Tiergärtnertor (8), a 16th century tower. Nearby is the comely, half-timbered Pilatush- aus (9) and a strange, glassy-eyed hare dedi- cated to master Dürer. A few steps east is the Historischer Kunstbunker (10) where precious art was stored in WWII. Looming over the scene is the Kaiserburg (11), the castle of medieval knights with imperial chambers. Go south to the Albrecht-Dürer-Haus (12) where the Ren- aissance genius lived and worked. Continue south along Albrecht-Dürer-Strasse, turn left on Füll and skirt the back of Sebalduskirche to Karlsstrasse, where you’ll reach the Spielzeug- museum (13), with masses of amusing toys. Cross the Karlsbrücke to enjoy a view of the Weinstadel (14), an old wine depot overlook- ing the river. Continue across the Henkersteg (Hangman’s Bridge) and wend your way south to Vordere Ledergasse, which leads west to the amazing Ehekarussell Brunnen (15), with its outrageous views on marriage. Head east on Ludwigsplatz past the Peter-Henlein-Brunnen (16), with a statue of the first watch-maker, and proceed along Karolinenstrasse to reach the city’s oldest house, Nassauer Haus (17) at No 2, and the massive Lorenzkirche (18), a 15th-century tabernacle with a suspended carving of the Annunciation. The Tugendbrunnen (19), a foun- tain of the seven Virtues, is on the north side of the church. Continuing north up Königstrasse will return you to the Hauptmarkt, your start- ing point. Tours The tourist office runs English-language Old Town walking tours (adult/child under 14yr €8/free; h1pm May-Oct & Dec), which include admission to Kaiserburg. Tours leave from the Haupt- markt branch and take 21⁄2 hours. Other organised tours include the following: History for Everyone (%307 360; adult/concession €5/3.50; h2pm Sat & Sun, Sun only Dec-Mar; 2hr) Intriguing two-hour tours of the Nazi rally grounds by a nonprofit association, in English. Meet at Luitpoldhain, the terminus of tram 9, 4km to the east. Nachtwächterin (%997 207; tours €6; h9pm Mar-Sep, 7pm Oct-Dec) Night watchman tours, in German; meets at Hauptmarkt. e s g lber n a g e Am d l b h c a s s e a g d r A b O T S b e g r r - h m D B Johannisstr u e e ü N r s e r gadvertising plaques and oodles of knick- knacks in this atmospheric old grain warehouse, where you can practically lose yourself in the cavernous vaulted cellar. Seri- ous quaffers go for the Eichenholzfässchen, a 5L oak-wood keg of beer. Café am Trödelmarkt (%208 877; Trödelmarkt; dishes €3.50-11) A gorgeous spot on a sunny day, this café is an excellent choice for breakfast or lunch. It overlooks the covered Henkersteg bridge and offers creative salads, filled ba- guettes and a bevy of seasonal dishes, such as pike-perch grilled fresh off the hook. Hütt’n (%201 9881; Burgstrasse 19; mains €8-12) This local haunt is perpetually overflowing with admirers of Krustenschäufele (roast pork with crackling, dumplings and sauerkraut salad) so be prepared to queue. There’s also a near- endless supply of schnapps. Burgwächter (%222 126; Am Ölberg 10; mains €5.50- 12) In the shadow of the castle, this is a great place, with a terraced beer garden and ter- rific city views. The prime steaks and grilled cuts will please carnivores but there are also homemade filled pastas and salads. Kettensteg (%221 081; Maxplatz 35; mains €6.50- 15) This leafy restaurant is Nuremberg’s best open-air option away from the crowds. It offers a modern twist on Franconian fare, serving traditional dishes with a waistline- friendly approach. Enchilada (%244 8498; Obstmarkt 5; mains €8-12) This Mexican haunt with faux adobe walls does generous taco platters, burritos and nachos in a candlelit setting. Later on, the cocktail lists come out for the patrons flowing in from the Hauptmarkt nearby. Prison St Michel (%221 191; Irrerstrasse 2-4; mains €7- 20; hdinner) This is one of Nuremberg’s elegant gourmet restaurants, with the evening’s fresh cuts displayed in the window. It’s noted for its excellent sole and dorade, as well as choice cuts of prime beef; try the Chateaubriand and lamb filets. It’s great for an intimate, romantic night out in a quiet street near the castle. Also recommended: Heilig-Geist-Spital (%221 761; Spitalgasse 12; mains €7.50-19) Classic Nuremberg restaurant with an extensive wine list. Landbierparadies (%287 86 73; Rothenburger Strasse 26; mains €4.50-6.50; hevenings) Pork roast and a wellspring of beers from deepest Franconia. Osteria (%558 283; Pirckheimer Strasse 116; mains €6-12) Boisterous hole-in-the-wall serving big tasty pizzas that dwarf your plate. QUICK EATS Naturkostladen Lotos (%266 180; Untere Kreuzgasse; dishes €2-7) The organic fare at this health-food shop will go some way towards unclogging those arteries – try the lentil crème, spinach soup or veggie pizza. The fresh bread and cheese counter is a treasure chest of picnic supplies. Souptopia (%240 6697; Lorenzer Strasse 27; soups €2.50- 5; hclosed Sun) These homemade soups, made fresh daily and backed up by a good choice of sandwiches, salads and other veggie options, are a real winner. Sushi to Go (%242 5143; Hintere Ledergasse 2; mains €6-15; hnoon-2pm & 6-8pm) This Californian-style sushi bar in a former Bavarian pub has great deals, such as a ‘Bento’ – miso soup, three pieces of sushi, a spring roll and chicken teri- yaki for €9.45. They do great business with takeaway customers. Wok Man (%240 6697; Lorenzer Strasse 27; soups €2.50-5; hclosed Sun) This is a decent, self- service Chinese fast-food place in the pedes- trian zone, with spring rolls and large platters of chow mein. NUREMBERG SAUSAGES There’s hot competition between Regensburg and Nuremberg over whose sausages are the best; the latter’s are certainly more famous. Sample them for yourself at the following places. Bratwursthäusle (%227 695; Rathausplatz 1; dishes €5.80-12; hclosed Sun) Cooked over a flaming beechwood grill, the little links sold at this rustic inn arguably set the standards for Rostbratwürste across the land. You can dine in the timbered restaurant or on the terrace with views of the Hauptmarkt. Bratwurstglöcklein im Handwerkerhof (%227 625; Handwerkerhof; dishes €3-7) Despite its location in the kitsch Handwerkerhof, the sausages here are good. Drie in a Weckla (three links in a roll) will cost you loose change. Drinking Saigon Bar (%244 8657; Lammsgasse 8; hfrom 9pm Thu-Sun) A worthy last gasp to any night out, the Saigon is the quintessential late-night bar for steel-livered Nurembergers. The poison of choice is a caipirinha, prepared with smashed limes, brown sugar, crushed ice and white Pitú rum, just like they do it in Rio. Treibhaus (%223 041; Karl-Grillenberger-Strasse 28) Well off the path of most visitors, this bustling, smoky café is a Nuremberg insti- tution. It serves breakfast till evening and drinks into the wee hours to students and weary shoppers. Meisengeige (%208 283; Am Laufer Schlagturm 3) This comfortable hole-in-the-wall bar draws an intense crowd of film intellectuals thanks to the tiny indie cinema next door. Entertainment The excellent Plärrer (; €2), available at newsstands throughout the city, is the best source of information for events around town. Otherwise try the free Doppelpunkt (www.dop, a monthly listings magazine found in bars, restaurants and the tourist office. CLUBS BA Hotel (%237 30 51; Bahnhofstrasse 5; hWed-Sat) A play on its predecessor, the opulent Bavarian American Hotel, this smart new club-lounge features house music spun by top-flight DJs in retro surrounds. The spacious layout in- cludes a cool lounge area, two bars and a ballroom, with plenty of corners for couples to edge into.