Nazi Sites around Nuremberg town centre

Nuremberg Castle then and now with Sinwell Tower in the middle left and Luginsland Tower in the far right. During the war, the castle was damaged in 1944-45, with only the Roman double chapel and the Sinwell Tower remaining entirely intact. After the war, the castle was restored under the direction of Rudolf Esterer and Julius Lincke to its historical form, including the Luginsland tower which had been completely destroyed.

The postcard on the right designed by Gustav Goetschel shows the skyline of mediaeval Nuremberg. In the background above Nürnberg castle Hitler is shown in front of a swastika flanked by Julius Streicher and Gauleiter Wagner.
Hitler's D-2600 above Nuremberg on the left from Triumph of the Will, taken from page 17 of Bilder aus dem Leben des Führers.
Clearly, Riefenstahl is deifying Hitler: the ‘plane in which Hitler is flying cuts through dark clouds; the clouds part, and sunlight streams through, silhouetting the crucifix-like shape of the ‘plane upon the ancient churches and houses of Nuremberg. Hitler descends, as a god from the sky, pushing aside the storm clouds of Germany’s problems, ready to give salvation, and enable Germans to inherit the earth. 

More screen shots of the town from the start of Triumph of the Will
William L. Shirer describes the 1934 Reichsparteitag des deutschen Volkes in Nüremberg as a pseudo-pentecostal event in which the masses viewed Adolf Hitler “as if he were Messiah, their faces transformed into something positively inhuman”  . Despite the official purpose of strengthening the liaison between the Nazi Party and the German people and exemplifying the “unfolding glory and power” of the Third Reich, the annual NSDAP Nüremberg Rallies, as eminent historian Richard J. Overy claims, mainly served to foster Hitler’s cult of personality. Hitler desired the Nüremberg Rally of 1934 to be immortalised in recording and assigned his protégée, prominent filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl, the duty. The result was the groundbreaking masterpiece, Triumph des Willens, a motion picture that, despite its close association with Nazism, is still considered a keystone and “breathtaking” role model of modern cinema. Up to her death in 2003, Riefenstahl has consistently denied her alleged sympathy with the Nazi Party and has insisted that “Triumph of the Will” be regarded as a work of art rather than propaganda.  Every party rally was orchestrated thematically, yet the September 1934 Nüremberg Rally was the exception; only later, after Riefenstahl’s film, was it declared to be the “Rally of Power”. However, this Rally posed a challenge for the dictator : just three months earlier, Hitler had taken action against the Sturmabteilung (SA) and its leader, Ernst Röhm, in the infamous Night of the Long Knives, an operation involving at least 85 extra-judicial killings, spanning the 30th of June until the 2nd of July. Now, facing the entire Party, including the SA, as well as a crowd of several thousand civilians at the Nüremberg Rally, Hitler encountered the task of publicly rationalising Operation Hummingbird. This would suggest that his position as leader in 1934 was not as solid as commonly assumed.  
Triumph of the Will addresses the Night of the Long Knives through several significant details. It strikingly captures the grave moment Adolf Hitler walks through an immaculate formation of 150,000 SS and SA troops, flanked by Heinrich Himmler and Victor Lutze. The latter was the new appointed leader of the brown-shirts, having just replaced the defamed Ernst Röhm after Operation Hummingbird. Being his first official appearance as Stabschef, Lutze encountered an aura heavy with the suppressed memory of the Party’s recent exploits and the violent riddance of his predecessor. In his eye-witness account, William L. Shirer notes that “the SA boys received him coolly”. In one of the final scenes, Hitler holds a speech with references towards “unity” and “loyalty”, alluding to the reason for the Night of the Long Knives.  It is important to note that the planning and organisation for the 1934 Nüremberg Rally took into account the making of Triumph of the Will and was designed to allow effective filming, always bearing in mind the resolute goal of publicizing the event to the broader German public. For instance, her crew was ensured to have ruts and space for camera tracks. Therefore, to an extent, many of the visual arrangements were suited to the filming, making practicality a secondary concern.
Pankraz Labenwolf's Gänsemännchenbrunnen, or Goose Man fountain, makes an appearance in Triumph of the Will and as it appears today. It was created around 1550 and is one of Nuremberg’s oldest fountains featuring a bronze figure of a farmer holding a goose under each arm with water coming out of their beaks. Before 1945 the fountain was located in the goose market but now is located in a courtyard behind the town hall.

Nuremberg old town as seen in Triumph of the Will during the 1934 Party Rally, left, and amateur colour footage filmed at the 1938 Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg.
 Although the city had been practically obliterated during the war, many of the landmarks scene in this clip can still be identified as shown below.
Links to archival footage:

90% of the city had been bombed to nothing after the war, as this photo from June 1945 shows. What is seen now by the visitor is a marvel of reconstruction. Nuremberg was one of the frequent targets of Allied air raids during the Second World War, severely damaging the city. On January 2, 1945, the Nuremberg Old Town was almost completely destroyed. Also in the five-day battle of Nuremberg in April 1945, most historic buildings were destroyed. After the war, there were actually considerations to completely abandon the ruined city and rebuild it elsewhere as food shortages and a lack of housing prevailed in the city. Of the 134,000 homes before the war, only 14,500 remained undamaged. Martin Treu and Hans Ziegler were appointed by the American military government in July 1945 to serve as the new Lord Mayors of the city.
 At the beginning of 1948 an architectural competition was decided to rebuild the largely destroyed city according to development plans by Heinz Schmeißner and Wilhelm Schlegtendal. In 1949, the German Building Exhibition took place in Nuremberg under the motto "We must build". During the reconstruction, most people oriented themselves on the historical city structures, so that they are still legible in many places despite the predominantly destroyed building fabric. As seen in the GIF at the top of this page, the roofscape has again been formed similar to the pre-war state. Many important church buildings were also largely reconstructed, as well as buildings along the later historic mile as the Reichsburg. Important townhouses such as the Toplerhaus and the Pellerhaus or the buildings on the Hauptmarkt were not or only partially rebuilt.
  
Bergstraße on the left then and now and the Reichsparteitag of 1937, looking down the same street from the castle.
  Nürnberger Tor and Ludwigstor bedecked in swastikas and today
 
 Obere Talgasse in 1935 and Innere Laufer Gasse showing the Laufer Schlagturm before, after the war and today
Äußere Laufer Gasse in 1918 and now
 e
The main railway station before the war and today
 
Horst Wessel leading SA troops in front of the main train station
 
Hitler and Himmler reviewing the Leibstandarte-ϟϟ Adolf Hitler.


Another Nazi-era building on the Bahnhofplatz- the post office, with the Nazi eagle on the corner long removed.


Deutscher Hof
Like a Roman emperor Hitler rode into this medieval town at sundown today past solid phalanxes of wildly cheering Nazis who packed the narrow streets that once saw Hans Sachs and the Meistersinger. Tens of thousands of Swastika flags blot out the Gothic beauties of the place, the faces of the old houses, the gabled roofs. The streets, hardly wider than alleys, are a sea of brown and black uniforms. I got my first glimpse of Hitler as he drove by our hotel, the Württemberger Hof, to his headquarters down the street at the Deutscher Hof, a favourite old hotel of his, which has been remodelled for him... Later I pushed my way into the lobby of the Deutscher Hof. I recognized Julius Streicher, whom they call here the Uncrowned Czar of Franconia. In Berlin he is known more as the number-one Jew-baiter and editor of the vulgar and pornographic anti-Semitic sheet the Stürmer. His head was shaved and this seemed to augment the sadism of his face. As he walked about, he brandished a short whip. 
William L. Shirer, Berlin Diary, September 4 1934 entry
  
This is the hotel at Frauentorgraben 29 where Hitler always stayed whilst in Nuremberg, in suite 105. It was whilst he was about to leave after one such stay on September 18, 1931 that Hitler received a phone call from Rudolf Hess telling him that his niece Geli, his constant companion for the past six years, had killed herself in her room at his new Munich apartment in Munich. He then rushed back to Munich during which time he had been stopped by the police for speeding. On the right a troop of Hitler Youth marches past Hitler and from the same vantage point today.

Adolf Hitler Youth Hostel

The tower behind me, built in 1377, is said to have been the gaol for Kaspar Hauser. During the the 1930s Hitler requested the site be used for accommodation for as many as 450 'young hikers.'

Gästehaus der NSDAP
The Party Guest House was completed in time for the 1936 Nuremberg Party Rally. Hermann Göring stayed here for this and subsequent rallies. Standing directly across from the train station in 2007, it is little changed.

Rathaus
  
Standing in front of the town hall. The Party Congress of 1934 opened here with a reception on September 4. The following year Hitler had been presented here with a replica of the old German imperial sword. The Party Congress of 1936 saw Hitler stating at the rathaus that that year had been “the most difficult year of my own historic role.” 
After the 1944 and 1945 bomb attacks during the air raids on Nuremberg, the entire town hall complex burned down to the surrounding walls. It was not until 1956-1962 under the direction of Harald Clauß that the Old Town Hall was rebuilt over the ruins. The Old Town Hall was restored on the inside only between 1982 and 1985, including wall panelling and the coffered wooden tonneau ceiling. Because the photo documentation of the interior wall paintings by the workshop of Albrecht Dürer crafted according to his designs was lost, the painter Michael Mathias Prechtl was commissioned with a draft for a contemporary painting. After a long, controversial and bitter discussion Prechtl withdrew his design in 1988 leaving the walls white.

The Frauenkirche is one of the few buildings still intact after the Second World War. This bustling square in the heart of the Altstadt is the site of daily markets as well as the famous Christkindlesmarkt. At the eastern end is the ornate Gothic Pfarrkirche Unsere Liebe Frau, also known as simply the Frauenkirche. The work of Prague cathedral builder Peter Parler, it remains the oldest Gothic hall church in Bavaria and stands on the ground of Nuremberg's first synagogue.  The western façade is beautifully ornamented and is where, every day at noon, crowds crane their necks to witness a spectacle called Männleinlaufen. It features seven figures, representing electoral princes, parading clockwise three times around Emperor Karl IV.  It was this emperor who, in 1349, ordered the destruction of the Jewish quarter to make the area into a market place: there was a pogrom and 562 of the 1500 Jews were burnt alive. In Triumph of the Will, Leni Riefenstahl's 1935 propaganda film about the 1934 Nuremberg Rally, the final scene consists of a military parade through downtown Nuremberg, with Adolf Hitler shown receiving salutes from Nazi troops with the Frauenkirche in the background.

The Frauenkirche providing the backdrop for the 1933 Party Rally left and 1935.
The American Army by the time of Hitler's birthday, April 20, 1945 and the church today with its Männleinlaufen still ringing in noon.

The church in 1945 and 1946.

Opposite the Frauenkirche is a replica of the Schöner Brunnen (Beautiful Fountain) which dates from around 1385 and now stored in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum); the wife in the centre is spinning one of the two brass rings embedded in the fence surrounding the fountain which is said to bring good luck.On the right is Hitler's supposed painting of it. During the Second World War the fountain was wrapped in a concrete coat and survived the bombardment intact.
Hitler and Röhm beside the Schöner Brunnen in Victory of Faith; the photo on the right shows Leni Riefenstahl on the ground as she tries to capture a dramatic angle for the film. Whether Triumph of the Will should be viewed as a documentary, a work of art or a piece of propaganda is matter of debate. These different stances have an effect on its suitability and value as a historical source. The Wagnerist music, aptly matching the ideology, appeals to the viewers’ emotions and thus poses an obstacle to the objective interpretation of the Rally. The fact that there are only shots of crowds, not of individuals (with the exception of Party officials) further presses the ideological concept of a homogenous population showing wholehearted support for the NSDAP, classifying the film, although not official propaganda, as a work with National Socialist sympathies. Riefenstahl had some of the official speakers reenact their speeches in studios when the cut during the actual Rally was not suitable. This indicates that the Riefenstahl did not attempt to portray the Rally as it happened, but had artistic priorities. It is not useful to a historian wishing to learn about the nature of the speeches at the event itself. Regardless of this however, Triumph of the Will is useful as evidence of how the Nazi Party portrayed itself to the broad German public, as well as the world outside of Germany.
When regarded as a work of art rather than an objective account of the Nüremberg Rally, one would assume that the film does not guarantee a realistic portrayal of the events, but rather manipulated them in order to achieve the greatest aesthetic effect. Similarly, if one considers it an element of Nazi propaganda rather than an independent documentary, one would conjecture that the design to convey political messages outweighed the notion of portraying the events of the Rally soberly. This is confirmed by the camera angles chosen to depict Hitler; Riefenstahl used techniques such as camera angles and clear sky backgrounds to bestow on the Führer a superhuman, larger-than-life quality. However, it is important to note that the Nüremberg Party Rally of 1934 was organised bearing in the mind the making of the film and that therefore, the itinerary of the event was adapted to suit the filming. The position of troops and officers, for example, was planned to create a visual aesthetic effect, rather than have a practical purpose. It is appropriate to examine the Nüremberg Party Rally and Triumph of the Will as one unit, because one was outlined with respect to the other. Hence, although aspects such as music and camera angles may manipulate viewers’ perception of events, the film does not necessarily warp the reality of the Nüremberg Party Rally itself.
SA troops parading past Hitler with Sebaldus church in the background during the Reichsparteitag der NSDAP 10th-16th September 1935, in Nuremberg. In the car with Hitler is the Blutfahne; Jakob Grimminger, carrier of the Blutfahne flag, is behind. It was at this rally that the Congress of the Nazi Party convened in Nuremberg, Germany, on September 10, 1935, to discuss passage of laws to clarify the requirements of citizenship in the Third Reich, to promote and protect the “purity of German blood and honour,” and to define the position of Jews in the Reich.
The Jews' Sow, an example of antisemitic propaganda used by the authorities to ostracise the Jewish minority and still allowed to adorn the church. In 2003 Wolfram Kastner sprayed the slogan 'Judensau' (Jewish Pig) on the church façade to protest the continuing display of this obscenity and to prompt the church to place a sign explaining the meaning of the sculpture.
The Nuremberg Laws codified what had been the general but unofficial measures taken against Jews in Germany in 1935. Two principal laws were enacted by the Reichstag (parliament) on September 15, 1935, which, along with various ancillary laws that followed them, were collectively called, in full, the Nuremberg Laws on Citizenship and Race. The laws actually grew out of a debate over the economic effects of Nazi Party actions against Jews. It was decided that the party would cease such actions once the Reich had formulated a firm official policy against the Jews. The policy, embodied in the Nuremberg Laws, was hastily drawn up—so hastily that, because there was a shortage of regular stationery, some portions of the text of the laws were drafted on menu cards. The first major law, called the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour, prohibited marriage as well as extramarital sexual intercourse between Jews and Germans. The law also barred the employment of German females under 45 years of age in Jewish households.
The second major law, the Reich Citizenship Law, summarily stripped Jews of German citizenship, introducing a new distinction between “Reich citizens” and “Reich nationals”—the Jewish Germans to be included in the latter category.

  Königsstraße bedecked with Nazi flags with the Lorenzkirche in the background
The Lorenzkirche after the war and today. dedicated to Saint Lawrence. The church was badly damaged during the Second World War and later restored remaining one of the most prominent churches of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria.
 
The Apollo-Theater and Zeughaus on Pfannenschmiedsgasse before and after the war and today
 
Pfannenschmiedsgasse has completely changed since the war
 
The Nürnberg Polizeipräsidium in 1942 and today, this time relocated to Jakobsplatz with the Franconian eagle
 
The Heilig-Geist-Spital (Hospice of the Holy Spirit) seen from the Museumsbrücke spanning the river Pegnitz to connect the Marktplatz with the Church of St. Lawrence.


Albrecht Dürer Haus
      
During the Nazi era and today
Postcards of the Albrecht Dürer House in Nuremberg regularly portrayed the structure festooned in swastika flags, but the postcards of the Goethe House presented a building seemingly untouched by the passage of time. All in all, the Goethe sites conveyed an image of Goethe and an interpretation of his life and work that was not overtly Nazified. The visitors who arrived by the thousands thus experienced the house and the museum just as visitors had done for decades.
A tour to the Second World War bunkers starts here at Dürerplatz. There is a four storey passageway under the Albrecht Dürer Platz called “Felsengänge” and was burrowed into the sandstone in the 14th century. The passageway was used as a shelter during the Second World War.

Pellerhaus

Formerly an impressive late Renaissance building built 1602-05 by the architect Jakob Wolff the Elder, the building was destroyed during the war and replaced by the monstrosity on the right..

Henkersteg 
The Hangman's Bridge (Henkersteg) was constructed in 1457 as a wooden bridge. Between the 16th and the 19th century, the Nuremberg hangman lived in the tower and the roofed walk above the river Pegnitz. After the flood of 1595, three arches of the town wall bridging the southern arm of the river Pegnitz were demolished and replaced by the wooden Hangman's Bridge with its tiled roof . It was reconstructed in 1954 after almost entirely destroyed during the war.

Luftschutzschule Hermann Göring

During its inauguration and today, derelict 

Another Nazi-era school at Regenbogenstraße 73 with façade dating from 1935


Julius Streicher's Gauhaus
Headquarters at Marienplatz 5 of the Nazi Party in Nuremberg, and of Gauleiter Julius Streicher, Nazi leader of Franconia.
 
The Gauhaus in flames in this U.S. Army Signal Corps photograph on the left taken on 27 April 1945. The Reich eagle is visible through the smoke.

The name of a newspaper, the Nürnberger Nachrichten, replaces the eagle and swastika on the façade whilst the back of the building is one of the only remaining examples of original Nazi relief, depicting National Socialism fighting the Weimar Republic and Jews.
 
Compare with Der Racher (The Avenger) from Hitler's favourite sculptor, Arno Breker.
Oct. 1, 1946: Day 218, and last, of the Nuremberg trial. Julius Streicher hearing the charges against him again recited before being found guilty and sentenced to death by hanging.
Streicher was the founder and publisher of the extremely crude and vulgar Der Stürmer 'newspaper', and his publishing firm also produced three anti-Semitic books for children, including one of the most widespread pieces of propaganda, the 1938 Der Giftpilz (The Poison Mushroom), which purported to warn about insidious dangers Jews posed by using the metaphor of an attractive yet deadly mushroom. After the war, he was convicted of crimes against humanity and executed. Controversially so, for his execution went against the idea of freedom of speech, Streicher not having been involved in waging or planning war.

Nuremberg trials court building

Standing in front of the site of the Nuremberg war crimes trials. It is still a working court building, so tourist hours are limited to weekends. In parallel with denazification at the municipal level, the Nuremberg trials against leading war criminals of the National Socialist dictatorship took place in the Justizpalast on Fürtherstrasse from November 1945 onwards. Since the Palace of Justice with the adjoining prison had survived the war largely unscathed, Nuremberg was chosen instead of Berlin as a place of trial, especially since Nuremberg as a city of the Nazi rallies had a similar symbolic importance as the capital or Munich.
It was here that the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg was convened pursuant to the London Agreement of August 8, 1945, which included a charter, signed by representatives from Britain, the US, the USSR, and the provisional government of France, for a military tribunal to try major Axis war criminals on four possible counts: crimes against peace (the planning, instigation, and waging of wars of aggression in violation of international treaties and agreements), crimes against humanity (exterminations, deportations, and genocide), war crimes (violations of the accepted laws and international conventions of war), and conspiracy to commit any or all of the criminal acts listed in the first three counts. As these offences had no particular or specific geographic location. Subsequently, 19 other nations accepted the tribunal provisions of the agreement.
The tribunal was made up of a member (and an alternate) selected by each of the four principal signatory countries. The first session was convened under the presidency of General I. T. Nikitchenko on October 18, 1945, in Berlin when 24 former Nazi leaders were charged with war crimes, and various groups (including the Gestapo) were charged as being criminal in character. After this first session, all others, beginning on November 20, 1945, were held in Nuremberg under the presidency of Lord Justice Geoffrey Lawrence, the British member.
On the left is the bench where the accused sat. It was expanded during the trial, so it looks a bit smaller now. The video shows the October 17, 1946 U.S. Newsreel of the Nuremberg Trials Sentencing when, at the conclusion of 216 court sessions, the verdicts on 22 of the original 24 defendants were handed down. One defendant, Robert Ley, had committed suicide whilst in gaol, and the aged Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, the great German arms manufacturer, was judged mentally and physically unfit to stand trial. Of the 22 tried, three, Hjalmar Schacht, Franz von Papen, and Hans Fritzsche, were acquitted; four, Karl Dönitz, Baldur von Schirach, Albert Speer, and Konstantin von Neurath, were sentenced to 10 to 20 years in prison; three, Rudolf Hess, Walther Funk, and Erich Raeder, were sentenced to life imprisonment; and 12 were sentenced to be hanged. Of these, ten—Hans Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Julius Streicher, Alfred Rosenberg, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Fritz Sauckel, Alfred Jodl, Wilhelm Keitel, and Arthur Seyss-Inquart—were executed on October 16, 1946. Martin Bormann was tried and condemned to death in absentia, and Hermann Göring committed suicide before sentence could be carried out.
Courtroom 600 in 1945 and today

The judges and the accused; the seats the latter sat on today. Defendants had the right to receive a copy of the indictment, to offer an explanation or defence, to be represented by legal counsel, and to confront and cross-examine all witnesses brought against them.
The tribunal established certain enduring principles of international law, including those embodied in the rejection of the chief defences offered by the defendants. The tribunal rejected the contention that only a state, and not individuals, could be found guilty of war crimes. The court concluded that only by holding individuals to account for committing such crimes could international law be enforced. The tribunal also rejected the defence that the trial as well as its adjudication were ex post facto. All acts of which the defendants were found guilty, the tribunal held, had been universally regarded as criminal prior to World War II which created a precedent for subsequent war crimes trials relating to World War II as well as subsequent conflicts.


Arabella Sheraton Hotel (Fränkischer Hof)
 
The Fränkischer Hof had originally mostly accommodated the press during Party Rallies.
 
This Nazi shield with its swastika somewhat intact was reinstalled in the front of this hotel, having originally come from the Fränkischer Hof shown below which shows it and the three other shields high above the entrance.
CLASSICAL MUSIC Nuremberg’s magnificent Städtische Bühnen (Municipal Theatres; Richard-Wagner-Platz 2; www.staats theater-nuernberg.de) serves up an impressive mix of dramatic arts. The renovated Art Nouveau opera house presents opera, ballet and read- ings, while the Kammerspiele offers a varied programme of classical and contemporary plays. Tickets are available at the box office or by calling %231 3808. The Nürnberger Philharmoniker also performs here. Getting There & Away Nuremberg airport (%937 00), 7km north of the centre, is served by regional and international carriers, including Lufthansa, Air Berlin and Air France. Trains run hourly to/from Frankfurt (€39, 21⁄2 hours) and Munich (€41, 11⁄2 to two hours). There are direct connections several times daily to Berlin (€77, five to 61⁄2 hours) and Vienna (€96, 51⁄2 hours), while a few slow trains also go to Prague (€42, six hours). BerlinLinien buses leave for Berlin daily at 12.10pm (standard one-way €39, four hours). They leave from the Hauptbahnhof. There’s a ride-share service CityToCity Mit- fahrzentrale (%194 40; www.citytocity.de;  
Its various incarnations after the war.

High Bunker Worhd
CULTURAL CENTRES Amerika Haus (%230 690; Gleissbühlstrasse 13) Impressive range of cultural and artistic programmes each month. EMERGENCY Ambulance (%192 22) INTERNET ACCESS Netzkultur (%211 0782; Färberstrasse 11, 3rd fl; per hr €3; h10am-1am Mon-Sat) LAUNDRY Schnell und Sauber (%180 9400; per load €4; h6am-midnight) East (Sulzbacher Strasse 86; tram 8 to Deichslerstrasse); South (Allersberger Strasse 89; tram 4, 7 or 9 to Schweiggerstrasse); West (Schwabacher Strasse 86; U2 to St Leonhard) MEDICAL SERVICES Full-service hospitals close to the Altstadt: Poliklinik (%192 92; Kesslerplatz 5) Unfallklinik Dr Erler (%272 80; Kontumazgarten 4-18) MONEY Commerzbank (Königstrasse 21) Hypovereinsbank (Königstrasse 3) Reisebank (Hauptbahnhof ) POST Main post office (Bahnhofplatz 1) TOURIST INFORMATION Tourist offices (%233 60; www.tourismus.nuernberg .de) Königstrasse (Königstrasse 93; h9am-7pm Mon- Sat); Hauptmarkt (Hauptmarkt 18; h9am-6pm Mon-Fri, 10am-4pm Sun May-Sep, 9am-7pm Mon-Sat & 10am- 7pm during Christkindlesmarkt) Staff sell the Nürnberg + Fürth Card (€18), good for two days of unlimited public transport and admission to most museums and attractions in both cities. TRAVEL AGENCIES Plärrer Reisen (%929 760; Gostenhofer Hauptstrasse 27) Good all-round travel agency with a last-minute ticket desk at the airport. 
One of the largest air raid shelters during the war, holding 678 people; part now used by organisation to simulate blindness. The photo on the extreme right shows an example of an air-tight door used in Nuremberg air raid shelters.


Reichsbahndirektion
 
The Nazi eagle still adorns the main administrative building for the railway.

Nearby is the
Monument at Essenweinstrasse, serving as a reminder of the destruction of another synagogue during Reichkristallnacht.:

The Hauptbahnhof is just outside the old city walls to the southeast. From here, pedestrian Königstrasse runs to the city centre, where the shallow Pegnitz River flows from east to west. About 4km southeast of the centre is the enormous Reichsparteitagsgelände, the Nazi rally grounds also known as Luitpoldhain. The courthouse where the Nuremberg Trials were held is just off the Altstadt. Information BOOKSHOPS Buchhandlung Edelmann (%992 060; Kornmarkt 8) Travel section upstairs and some English-language novels downstairs. Schmitt & Hahn (%2146 711; Hauptbahnhof; h5.30am-11pm) Full selection of international press and a decent section of current paperbacks for those travelling light.
Images of the destruction


The Synagogue on Hans-Sachs-Platz was the main synagogue and was inaugurated on September 8, 1874 with a speech by the mayor Otto Stromer von Reichenbach. The building was often admired as the "pearl in the silhouette and adornment of the city". In the 1920s however, hostile voices were formed and attacks on Nuremberg Jews took place. On the other hand, police officers still protected the building in 1934, when SA men tried to storm the synagogue after the Nazi Party Day. On June 15, 1938, the Jewish community in Nuremberg held an extraordinary meeting of the members, in which it was announced that the synagogue was to be demolished "in the course of the law on the reorganisation of German cities." On August 10, 1938 Julius Streicher gave the signal to demolish the  synagogue. Shortly before the demolition of the synagogue, the Jews secretly removed from the synagogue a 5-Z-heavy stone with an inscription in memory of the first synagogue burnt down 500 years ago in Nuremberg. The removal of the stone was procured by the Nuremberg master builder Fritz Frisch, who had been admitted to the NSDAP only in 1937. Frisch was immediately expelled from the party.



Another memorial stone is at Spital Bridge commemorating the destruction of Nuremberg's main synagogue located on Hans Sachs Platz. The main synagogue, which has been erased is only remembered by this memorial stone which dates from 1988.
A reconstruction of the synagogue never took place, although the property would have been available after 1945. The winning design of the architects' competition for the reconstruction of Nuremberg in 1947 did not foresee that. In the award-winning work of Heinz Schmeißner and William Schlegtendal the plot of the demolished nine years earlier synagogue was otherwise over-planned, the city plan was at this point overmoulded. A partial area was later acquired by Eduard Kappler (an architect of the reconstruction period) and built with an office and residential building. On the southern part of the plot (to Pegnitz), a new riverside path was created. In the entrance hall of the Jewish Community of Nuremberg is the model of the main synagogue of Nuremberg, which was destroyed in 1938. Through the windows you can look at finely crafted interior with lighting.

Aufsessplatz

The photo on the left shows a crowd outside the Schocken department store in Nuremberg on October 11, 1925. During the Third Reich Salman Schocken was politically forced to sell his department stores to the Merkur AG through the policy of Aryanisation) After the war Schocken sold his regained share of the company (51%) to Helmut Horten GmbH, which later became part of Kaufhof and is currently owned by Metro.