Showing posts with label Canada. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Canada. Show all posts

Winnipeg in its glory and today

 Residence on Bannatyne 1903 and today
 The J.H. Ashdown Hardware Company Ltd. warehouse at the corner of Rorie Street and Bannatyne Avenue with its own connection to the railway main line through which its own train, the Ashdown Special, ran.
At McDermot, looking South. 
Looking from the other direction from the corner of Ross Ave.
Bannatyne Avenue looking West from Isabel
The Union Bank (next to the lost Leland Hotel) and City Hall in 1912 and the site today.
The two periods mashed
 James Street looking west from Main St. showing the Campbell block on the corner 
Main and McDermott
The police courts and station at the corner of King and James on 223 James Street, built in 1903. It was demolished in 1988 and replaced with this reproduction, now referred to as the Mandarin building. 
Princess Street with the Exchange Building built at 160 Princess Street in 1898 as an annex to the Grain Exchange building at 164 Princess, now being used as a library by Red River Community College.
The Exchange Building, 160 Princess Street, built 1898 
The Winnipeg Hotel, at left, and the Macdonald Block and Fortune Block on the far right in 1926 and today. At the time, the Macdonald block was the Commercial Hotel. The Winnipeg Hotel and the smaller building in the middle is the former Dominion Hotel (later the Blue Note Café).  
Senator William Sanford’s Warehouse at the corner of Princess Street and Bannatyne Avenue; built in 1891, it was reduced to a single floor in a 1942 fire. 
The Bedford Building then and now, serving Reiss Furs. 

The Massey Block (1885)
Located at 70 Albert Street, the Telegram Building was the largest newspaper office west of Toronto and was taken over by the Winnipeg Tribune in 1920.
Mariaggi's Hotel at 86 Albert Street and 227-237 McDermot, formerly part of the Alexandra Block and the basement Grotto restaurant
   Carscaden and Peck Warehouse at the corner of Notre Dame Avenue and Princess Street from 1893
 Maw's Garage dating from 1906, home to one of the city's first car dealerships and described as "beyond doubt, the largest automobile floor on the continent in which there are no posts" and capable of holding one hundred and forty cars.
J. F. Galt Wholesale Grocer from 1887 at 92-104 Arthur Street

 The King Building (or Ryan Block) at 104 King St., originally built for former mayor Thomas Ryan in 1895, was left derelict after a massive fire caused by arson in 1991. It had served as a location for films like the Oscar-winning “Capote” and now its facade is being used as cover for 186 parking stalls.
The Birks Building on the corner of Portage Avenue and Smith Street, completed in 1901 for the YMCA which had purchased the land in June 1890. Designed by local architect George Browne, the building cost $88,500 and was officially opened January 18, 1901 and included a rotunda, reading rooms, parlour, a 150-seat lecture hall, 600-seat auditorium, running track, gymnasium, recreation room, boys' quarters, two meeting halls, classrooms, a library, boardroom and furnished bedrooms, showers, lockers and two bowling alleys. It also featured Winnipeg's first indoor pool. Birks acquired the building in September 1912 and had it significantly reworked to accommodate the jewellery store, adding distinctive Renaissance Revival palace façades designed by Percy Nobbs, featuring terracotta, granite, bronze and Tyndall stone. Above the third-floor openings are six terracotta medallions depicting the sources of the materials used by jewellers, with a seventh medallion on the north façade. These medallions depict turquoise (representing semi-precious stones), an elephant (representing ivory), a Kimberley Negro searching for diamonds, a man diving for pearls, an oceanic wave delivering the riches of the sea (mother-of-pearl, coral and a tortoise shell), a precious metal-smelting gnome, and a silversmith surrounded by the tools of his trade. Above the medallions is a frieze depicting such characters and places as King Solomon, the Queen of Sheba, gates of Jerusalem, Hiram, king of Tyre, Negroes and an Indian, and the three wise men giving and receiving gifts. $150,000 of alterations to the ground-floor show-window area in 1951 included a granite base and Tyndall stone facings surrounding the solid bronze show windows, as well as corner columns and vestibule walls lined with Travertine marble. The building was the Winnipeg showpiece for Birks for nearly eighty years. By 1991, the basement, first, second and third floors had all been substantially altered by the Birks Company, leaving only the fourth floor of dormitories unaltered from the YMCA era. Birks continued in this building until the 1987 when it moved to Portage Place.
Broadway, seen from the Union Station on Main Street
Dominion Bank, at the southwest corner of Main Street and McDermot Avenue around 1912 and the remaining British North American Bank.
Officially opening in October, 1912, visitors to the Canadian Bank of Commerce entered through huge bronze doors, and were treated to a lobby with a 14-foot high semi-circular ceiling. Marble walls rose to ceiling height and marble floors graced the foyer. From 1912 to 1969 the well-constructed facility required minimal renovations and remains one of the best examples on the prairies of Beaux-Arts classicism.
Portage Avenue at Garry looking West 
Garry Street then and now
Normal School, 1911. 
The Manitoba Club, Western Canada's oldest private club
 1st Baptist Church 1903 and today- Calvary Temple
Hargrave Street at Qu’Appelle Avenue
Main Street
Main Street north of City Hall, near present location of the Manitoba Museum. The McLaren Hotel stands at right.
 The Palace Livery & Boarding Stables at Smith Street and Graham Avenue. Built in 1882 and now demolished.
 Bank of Montreal at the corner of Portage and Main in 1915, where it's been since 1913.
Main Street underpass at Canadian Pacific Railway crossing, near the site of the Royal Alexandra Hotel at left (now demolished). When the Canadian Pacific Railway opened the Royal Alexandra Hotel on July 19, 1906, it was one of the finest in Canada. It cost a million dollars to build and was designed with the sophisticated business traveller and lavish Winnipeg party host in mind. With 450 rooms, including many luxury suites, it was a dramatic testament to Winnipeg’s self-proclaimed reputation as the fastest growing city in the Dominion. In a story about the opening, The Winnipeg Tribune called the impressive hotel a “guarantee in brick and stone that the future growth of Winnipeg is assured.” That lasted until the hotel closed its doors in 1967 and was demolished in 1971. The interior of its dining room was carefully disassembled, then reassembled at the Canadian Museum of Rail Travel at Cranbrook, British Columbia.

Winnipeg's Skid Row-  West side of Main, looking north toward Logan Ave in 1921 and today- only the McKerchar block remains. The Columbia movie theatre next to it, and the long, rambling Montreal House both burned down in a huge blaze in 1986. The Empire Block at far right, under the flagpole, was demolished in the 1950s.
Main Street south of Portage Avenue at York Avenue, near the Empire Hotel, which had been built in 1883 for Joseph-Edouard Cauchon, Manitoba’s first francophone Lieutenant Governor. It had been intended to be a commercial building but an economic slowdown made it difficult for Cauchon to rent out space, and he was eventually forced to sell it to a new owner, who converted the Empire into the city’s first apartment block. In 1896, after a fire, the building was extensively renovated to become the Assiniboine Block, Winnipeg’s first apartment block. It was again transformed in 1904-05, under the supervision of architect Alexander D. Melville, into its longest-standing incarnation, the Empire Hotel, after the Canadian Northern Railway’s main line and yards were established at the rear of the site.  In 1974, Great West Life Assurance Company purchased the building and an adjoining lot. After a feasibility study found the building too costly to renovate and was demolished in 1982.
Osborne Village, looking south from River Avenue where I had my first flat.
Wesley College, now the University of Winnipeg. Wesley College had been established in 1888 by Reverend George Young, a Methodist minister and named after John Wesley, one of the founders of Methodism. Wesley College was originally affiliated with the University of Manitoba. The first year of its program was taught to seven students in the premises of Grace Church and its first instructor and principal was Dr. J.W. Sparling. In 1895 construction of Wesley Hall, designed by George Brown and S. Frank Peters and located on Portage Avenue in Winnipeg, was completed and the building officially opened on June 3, 1896. In 1912, an annex containing classrooms and a dormitory, designed by architect John Hamilton Gordon Russell, was built. This was later named Sparling Hall in honour of Dr. J.W. Sparling. Until the 1960s, this annex served as a women's residence. In 1913, Wesley College entered into an experimental partnership with Manitoba College called the United Colleges. After the colleges returned to being independent in 1914, Wesley College continued to teach both arts and theology independently of the University of Manitoba. In 1917, Dr. J.H. Riddell became president of Wesley College. In 1931, Manitoba College sold its building to the Roman Catholic Church and the building became St. Paul's College. At this time, Manitoba College joined with Wesley College in the teaching of Theology. In 1938, Manitoba College formally joined with Wesley College, both part of the United Church of Canada since 1924, to form United College, which eventually received its own independent charter in 1967 as the University of Winnipeg.  In 2001, Wesley Hall was formally recognised as a historic place by the Canadian Registry of Historic Places. The archival records of Wesley College are housed in the University of Winnipeg Archives.
Constructed in 1902, at a cost of $21,000 by the Grand Orange Lodge "in memory of the late Brother Thomas Scott, who was executed by the rebel Riel for his loyalty to Queen and country,” this building measured 50 ft. by 90 ft. with a full basement, mezzanine, third floor dance hall and lodge meeting rooms on the second floor. A major fire in 1943 destroyed the original interior and resulted in extensive alterations at a cost of $19,584.22 and was completed by September, 1943. After the fire, the dance hall was moved to the first floor and rest and cloakrooms were constructed in the basement. A two room caretaker’s suite was added on to the third floor.     
 The Grand Trunk Pacific, joined its east and west lines in Winnipeg in 1911 at Union Station and shortly after announced plans for a large hotel nearby. The new hotel was to be named "The Selkirk" but became the Fort Garry after the Upper Fort Garry fort, which had been located east of the hotel.
Built in 1881, the Vaughan Street gaol is the oldest and last remaining public building in the city from that year still standing. 
Louis Riel house at 330 River Road, St. Vital. He himself never actually resided in this house. He visited only briefly in the summer of 1883, but it was here that Riel's body lay in state for two days in December of 1885 following his execution for his involvement in treason during the North-West Rebellion. It was also in this house that his young wife, Marguerite, died in May of 1886.
Since 1883, the stately three-storey mansion located at 10 Kennedy Street in the heart of downtown Winnipeg, has been known as Government House and has been the residence of Manitoba's lieutenant-governors.  The photo on the left shows the visit of the Prince of Wales in 1919 followed by another eleven years later.

Upper Fort Garry Gate circa 1885 and today.
Located at the intersection of three major thoroughfares in downtown Winnipeg, the Lindsay Building is one of a handful of terracotta office towers erected during the city’s pre-Great War development boom.
The Royal Bank of Canada Building at 460 Main Street back in 1907 when it served as The Imperial Dry Goods Block and today. Unlike its competitors on the so-called Bankers' Row on Main between Portage and William avenues with their neoclassical façades, the Royal chose to build Winnipeg's only Italian Renaissance palazzo-style bank through the prestigious American firm of Carrère and Hastings.
The Woodbine Hotel at 466 Main St., built in 1899, in 1907 and today
Baker Block (Birt Saddlery) in 1903 and today

 The Crocus Building, formerly the J.H. Ashdown Hardware Store at 476 Main Street just before it burned down in 1904 and today. Two replacement storeys were built so that Ashdown would not miss the Christmas season. In 1905, an additional four storeys were built at a cost of $110,000.  Architects Moody and Moore added a one-storey northern addition and substantial changes to the face of the old building in 1959. The buildings solid red brick walls were plastered over and the windows covered on the front half of the Bannatyne elevation. Front windows were reworked into broad, horizontal frames and most other windows were painted over. The cornice was removed. In 2001 the building's exterior was restored with a $6 million transformation that incorporated as much of its old interior layout as was possible.
 East Kildonan City Hall in 1953 flying the proper Canadian flags and displaying loyalty and today, about to be demolished.
St. Boniface City Hall in 1907 with the original tower and 1911, flying the holy Union Flag from the
new tower. Construction of the City Hall began in 1905. It was completed in 1906 but the architect had 'cut corners' on tower as money ran out resulting in a squat, plain tower that was completely closed in. The tower so offended people that by 1908 the City Council insisted that the architect rebuild the tower and dome closer to the original plans, with the existing tower as the result. 
St. Boniface Normal School in 1909 and what's left of it today 
La Maison Gabrielle-Roy House at 375 Rue Deschambault in 1910 and today
 The Assiniboine Park Foot Bridge in 1915 and today
St. Matthews Church (Now the West End Cultural Centre)

 The Winnipeg Tribune's special edition of If Day, a simulated Nazi German invasion and occupation of Winnipeg and surrounding areas (in Neepawa 'Nazi' soldiers confronted citizens in the streets, Virden was renamed "Virdenberg" and a mock attack was planned for strategic targets in Brandon)  during the Second World War. It was organised by the Greater Winnipeg Victory Loan organization, which was led by prominent Winnipeg businessman J. D. Perrin. The event was the largest military exercise in Winnipeg to that point.  If Day included a staged firefight between Canadian troops and volunteers dressed as German soldiers, the internment of prominent politicians, the imposition of Nazi rule, and a parade. The event was a fundraiser for the war effort: over $3 million was collected in Winnipeg on that day. It was the subject of a 2006 documentary, and was included in Guy Maddin's film My Winnipeg.
1. This territory is now a part of the Greater Reich and under the jurisdiction of Col. Erich Von Neuremburg, Gauleiter of the Fuehrer.
2. No civilians will be permitted on the streets between 9:30 p.m. and daybreak.
3. All public places are out of bounds to civilians, and not more than 8 persons can gather at one time in any place.
4. Every householder must provide billeting for 5 soldiers.
5. All organizations of a military, semi-military or fraternal nature are hereby disbanded and banned. Girl Guide, Boy Scout and similar youth organizations will remain in existence but under direction of the Gauleiter and Storm troops.
6. All owners of motor cars, trucks and buses must register same at Occupation Headquarters where they will be taken over by the Army of Occupation.
7. Each farmer must immediately report all stocks of grain and livestock and no farm produce may be sold except through the office of the Kommandant of supplies in Winnipeg. He may not keep any for his own consumption but must buy it back through the Central Authority in Winnipeg.
8. All national emblems excluding the Swastika must be immediately destroyed.
9. Each inhabitant will be furnished with a ration card, and food and clothing may only be purchased on presentation of this card.
10. The following offences will result in death without trial
a) Attempting to organise resistance against the Army of Occupation
b) Entering or leaving the province without permission.
c) Failure to report all goods possessed when ordered to do so.
d) Possession of firearms.
published and ordered by the Authority of (signed) Erich Von Neuremburg
'Nazis' burning books outside the Carnegie Library, now serving as the City of Winnipeg Archives building at 380 William Avenue
'Nazis' driving tanks down Main Street
During the Second World War, Winnipeg emerged as a pivotal site for military training and industrial production in Canada. The city's strategic location and infrastructure facilitated its transformation into a hub for military and logistical operations. This essay examines Winnipeg's role in three key areas: military training and establishment, industrial production and contribution to the war effort, and the social and economic impacts on the city.

Winnipeg's military significance during World War II is exemplified by the establishment of several training schools and military bases. The most notable was the No. 3 Wireless School, part of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP). This initiative, crucial to the Allied war effort, saw the training of thousands of aircrew from across the Commonwealth. The school, located in Winnipeg, was instrumental in providing specialised training in wireless operations, a critical skill for aircrew members. Additionally, the city hosted the No. 10 Repair Depot, one of the largest of its kind in Canada. This facility was responsible for the repair and maintenance of aircraft, playing a vital role in ensuring the operational readiness of the air force. The depot not only serviced aircraft from across Canada but also from other Commonwealth countries, underlining Winnipeg's importance in the BCATP.

The presence of these military establishments had a profound impact on Winnipeg's infrastructure and economy. The influx of military personnel and the need for accommodation and services led to significant urban development. Areas such as Fort Osborne Barracks expanded rapidly, providing necessary facilities for the stationed troops.

Winnipeg's industrial landscape underwent a significant transformation during the Second World War, pivoting towards the demands of the conflict. This shift was not merely a change in production but represented a deeper realignment of the city's economic and social fabric.  The industrial sector of Winnipeg, traditionally focused on agricultural processing and light manufacturing, adapted swiftly to the needs of wartime production. One of the most notable examples was the MacDonald Brothers Aircraft Ltd. This company, originally a small-scale manufacturer, expanded its operations to become a key player in the production of aircraft parts. Their work included components for the Avro Anson, a British aircraft extensively used for training by the Royal Canadian Air Force. The MacDonald Brothers' factory became a symbol of Winnipeg's industrial contribution to the war effort, showcasing the city's capacity to support complex manufacturing processes required in aircraft production.  Another significant aspect of Winnipeg's industrial contribution was the role played by the Canadian National Railways' workshops. These facilities, already a cornerstone of the city's industrial sector, were repurposed to focus on the repair and maintenance of military vehicles and equipment. Given Winnipeg's strategic location at the nexus of Canada's rail network, these workshops played a crucial role in ensuring the efficient movement and upkeep of military materiel. The workshops not only serviced Canadian needs but also contributed to the broader Allied effort, underlining Winnipeg's importance in the logistics of the war.  The shift in industrial focus also had profound implications for the workforce in Winnipeg. The war effort necessitated a rapid expansion in labour, leading to significant employment opportunities. This demand was met, in part, by women entering the workforce in unprecedented numbers. Women in Winnipeg took on roles in factories, workshops, and other traditionally male-dominated sectors, challenging and transforming pre-existing gender norms. This change was not merely a temporary adjustment but marked the beginning of a long-term shift in the role of women in the workforce.  Moreover, the war-induced industrial boom contributed to a burgeoning of Winnipeg's economy. The city saw an influx of workers and their families, leading to increased demand for housing, services, and amenities. This economic growth, however, was not without its challenges. The rapid expansion led to issues such as housing shortages and inflation, which impacted the daily lives of Winnipeg's residents.  In summary, Winnipeg's industrial sector played a pivotal role in Canada's war effort during the Second World War. The transformation of its industries, the expansion of its workforce, and the resultant economic growth were emblematic of the city's adaptability and resilience. The legacy of this period is evident in the lasting changes it brought about in Winnipeg's industrial landscape and societal norms. 

$2.00 ~\I.'3d An Illustrated Guide to C '- h .nipeg's Historic Commercial District By M. Ross Waddell 'oduced by: Heritage Winnipeg Corporation - ,~I~m~l~nm "~ ~~,,~,,_ _~~ ~'" _ _ _~~w~~~~~Wi§. of THE EXCHANGE DISTRICT Monday to Saturday II am & 1:30 pm Wednesday & Thursday 7 pm Sunday I pm & 3 pm (DURING JULY &AUGUST) Departing from the foyer of the Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature (Main St. & Rupert Ave.) For further information call 774-3514 TOURS MADE POSSIBLE THROUGH THE CO"OPERATION OF: The Museum of Man and Nature: The City of Winnipeg, Department of Environmental Planning. Department of Parks & Recreation (City Centre! Fort Rouge): Heritage Winnipeg " Welcome to the Exchange District William Norrie, O.c. Mayor City of Winnipeg Every modern city had its beginning somewhere within what is now its downtown area. This was the heart of the new city, the central pulse, a vibrant core which contained the first hotels, saloons, stores and newspapers. Its buildings reflected the unique taste and character of the times. If any district in Winnipeg has claim to this status, it is certainly the area designated as "The Exchange District", north of the corner of Portage and Main. The revitalization of this area has retained the unique character of its buildings and transformed it once again into a vital part of downtown Winnipeg. Further enhancing the attractiveness of the area is the Stephen Juba Park which will connect it to a major redevelopment known as "The Forks", at the junction of our Red and Assiniboine Rivers. As a visitor to Winnipeg and The Exchange District. I am sure you will enjoy this living urban museum with its many shops, wide variety of businesses, entertainment and cultural facilities set against a background of ornamental lighting, decorative paving, trees and benches. Bonnie Mitchelson Minister of Culture Heritage and Recreation Province of Manitoba As Minister of Manitoba Culture, Heritage and Recreation, I take pleasure in welcoming you to Historic Winnipeg, a place which • has been a focus of human activity for many generations. As far back as 3,000 years ago, Native people hunted and fished in the locality now known as Winnipeg. The area also served as a focus for festive occasions and important meetings. With the arrival of Europeans in Manitoba, Winnipeg became an important trade and administrative centre. Winnipeg was also the first significant commercial centre in western Canada, a distinction which arrived with the railroad. Known as the "Gateway to the West". the city's economic base grew after the I 880s. The city's prosperity was reflected in the substantial number of commercial bUildings erected in the Exchange District. By 1920, Winnipeg possessed what is considered to be the finest warehouse district in North America. Today, Winnipeg's Exchange District is being rediscovered and enhanced. The treasures of our past and present are well worth exploring. I hope all who receive this guide will take the opportunity to do so. 2 3 William McKay President Heritage Winnipeg Corporation The publication of the second edition of this Illustrated Guide also marks the tenth anniversary of Heritage Winnipeg's partici- pation in this unique and historic district where Winnipeg's commercial and wholesale area began. We hope that the users of this gUide will share our enthusiasm and appreciation of the very distinguished historic structures contained in the pages follOWing. Heritage Winnipeg is an independent non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation of Winnipeg's historic bUildings. Heritage Winnipeg plays an advocacy role in the challenge brought about by the constant modernization of the city. It also provides educational programs, produces publications, and offers facilities for research and promotion of Winnipeg's historic resources. On behalf of the Board of Directors I would like to express our appreciation for the assistance provided by the Winnipeg Core Area Initiative, and also to the Manitoba Heritage Federation for their financial and other assistance in the completion of this all new revised edition. We wish you a pleasant walk through our historic past and please come back again. The Board of Directors of Heritage Winnipeg Corporation Mr. Wm. G. McKay, President, Member-at-Large: Mrs. Christine Singh, Vice-President, Member-at-Large, (Armstrong's Point Association): Mr. David J. McDowell. Past President, (Manitoba Historical Society): Mr. Robert Roehle, Treasurer, Member-at-Large, (Heritage St. Norbert): Mr. W. Douglas Harper, (Canadian Parks Service): Professor Wm. P. Thompson, Member-at-Large: Councillor Magnus Eliason: Councillor Helen Promislow: Councillor Donovan Timmers: Mr. Ken Kelly, (Manitoba Governor, Heritage Canada Foundation): Mr. Bernie Wolfe, Member-at-Large: Mr. R. Thomas Dixon, Member-at-Large, (Exi;hange District Association): Mrs. Elly Heber, Member-at-Large, (Point Douglas Historical Society): Mr. John White, Member-at-Ltion concentration in one city of any province in Canada.[89][90] Apart from the city of Winnipeg, the Winnipeg CMA includes the rural municipalities of Springfield, St. Clements, Taché, East St. Paul, Macdonald, Ritchot, West St. Paul, Headingley, the Brokenhead 4 reserve, and Rosser and St. François Xavier.[91] Statistics Canada's estimate of the Winnipeg CMA population as of 1 July 2014 is 782,640.[92] Ethnic origins, 2006[93] Population % English 137,075 21.1 Scottish 113,465 17.4 Canadian 108,955 16.76 German 105,910 16.2 Ukrainian 98,860 15.2 Irish 85,800 13.2 French 85,025 13.1 Aboriginal 76,055 11.7 Filipino 58,255 9.0 Polish 50,385 7.8 As of the 2006 census, 48.3 percent of residents were male and 51.7 percent were female. 24.3 percent were 19 years old or younger, 27.4 percent were between 20 and 30 years old, and 34.0 percent were between 40 and 64 years old. The average age of a Winnipegger in May 2006 was 38.7, compared to an average of 39.5 for Canada as a whole.[94] Between the censuses of 2006 and 2011, Winnipeg's population increased by 4.8 percent, compared to 5.2 percent for Manitoba as a whole. The population density of the city of Winnipeg averaged 1,430 people per km2, compared with 2.2 for Manitoba.[95] Winnipeg has a significant and increasing Aboriginal population, with both the highest percentage of Aboriginal peoples (11.7%) for any major Canadian city, and the highest total number of Aboriginals (76,055) for any single non-reserve municipality.[93] The Aboriginal population grew by 22% between 2001 and 2006, compared to an increase of 3% for the city as a whole; this population tends to be younger and less wealthy than non-Aboriginal residents.[96] Winnipeg also has the highest Métis population in both percentage (6.3%) and numbers (41,005); the growth rate for this population between 2001 and 2006 was 30%.[93][96] The city has the greatest percentage of Filipino residents (8.7%) of any major Canadian city, although Toronto has more Filipinos by total population. In 2006, Winnipeg ranked seventh of the Canadian cities for percentage of residents of a visible minority.[93][97] The population is 67.5% white as of 2011 (down from 73.5% in 2006), while non-aboriginal visible minorities represent 21.4% as of 2011 (up from 16.3% in 2006).[93][94] The city receives over 10,000 net international immigrants per year.[98] More than a hundred languages are spoken in Winnipeg, of which the most common is English: 99 percent of Winnipeggers are fluent English speakers, 88 percent speak only English, and 0.1 percent speak only French (Canada's other official language). 10 percent speak both English and French, while 1.3 percent speak neither. Other languages spoken as a mother tongue in Winnipeg include Tagalog (5.0%), German (2.5%), and Punjabi and Ukrainian (both 1.4%). Several Aboriginal languages are also spoken, such as Ojibwe (0.3%) and Cree (0.2%).[95] The 2011 National Household Survey reported the religious make-up of Winnipeg as: 63.7% Christian, including 29.7% Catholic, 8.1% United Church, and 4.6% Anglican; 1.7% Muslim; 1.6% Jewish; 1.5% Sikh; 1.0% Hindu; 1.0% Buddhist; 0.3% traditional (aboriginal) spirituality; 0.4% other; and 28.7% no religious affiliation.[93] [show]Population growth since 1871 Winnipeg skyline as of 12 May 2013 Economy Royal Canadian Mint See also: List of corporations based in Winnipeg Winnipeg is an economic base and regional centre. It has one of the country's most diversified economies,[107] with major employment in the trade (15.2%), manufacturing (9.8%), educational (7.7%), and health care and social assistance (15.2%) sectors.[107] There were approximately 21,000 employers in the city as of 2012.[107] In 2013, The CIBC Metropolitan Economic Activity Index rated Winnipeg's economy as fourth in a national survey of 25 city economies, behind Toronto, Calgary, and Regina.[108] According to the Conference Board of Canada, Winnipeg is projected to experience a real GDP growth of 2 percent in 2014.[109] Unlike most of Canada, the city experienced a decrease in unemployment in 2013, ending the year at a rate of 5.8 percent.[110] As of 2010, median household income in the city was $72,050.[107] As of January 2014, approximately 416,700 people are employed in Winnipeg and the surrounding area.[111] Some of Winnipeg's largest employers are government and government-funded institutions, including: the Province of Manitoba, the City of Winnipeg, the University of Manitoba, the Health Sciences Centre, and Manitoba Hydro.[112] Approximately 54,000 people (14% of the work force) are employed in the public sector as of 2008.[113] Large private sector employers include Shaw Communications, Manitoba Telecom Services, Ipsos-Reid, Palliser Furniture, Great-West Life Assurance, Motor Coach Industries, New Flyer Industries, Boeing Canada Technology, Magellan Aerospace, Nygård International, Canad Inns and Investors Group.[114] The Royal Canadian Mint, established in 1976, is where all circulating coinage in Canada is produced.[115] The plant, located in southeastern Winnipeg, also produces coins for many other countries.[116] In 2012, Winnipeg was ranked by KPMG as the least expensive location to do business in western Canada.[117] Like many prairie cities, Winnipeg has a relatively low cost of living.[118] According to the Canadian Real Estate Association, the average house price in Winnipeg was $260,000 as of 2013.[119] As of May 2014, the Consumer Price Index was 125.8 relative to 2002 prices, reflecting consumer costs at the Canadian average.[120][121] Culture Main article: Winnipeg arts and culture See also: List of people from Winnipeg, Category:Museums in Winnipeg, Category:Theatre companies in Manitoba, List of TV and films shot in Winnipeg, List of Winnipeg musicians and Category:Festivals in Manitoba The Esplanade Riel, a pedestrian-only side-spar cable-stayed bridge, is home to the Winnipeg-based restaurant Chez Sophie. Winnipeg was named the Cultural Capital of Canada in 2010 by Canadian Heritage.[122] As of 2012, there are 26 National Historic Sites of Canada in Winnipeg.[123] One of these, The Forks, attracts four million visitors a year.[124] It is home to the City television studio, Manitoba Theatre for Young People, the Winnipeg International Children's Festival, and the Manitoba Children's Museum. It also features a 30,000-square-foot (2,800 m2) skate plaza, a 8,500-square-foot (790 m2) bowl complex, the Esplanade Riel bridge,[125] a river walkway, Shaw Park, and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights.[124] The Winnipeg Public Library is a public library network with 20 branches throughout the city, including the main Millennium Library.[126] Winnipeg the Bear, which would later become the inspiration for part of the name of Winnie-the-Pooh, was purchased in Ontario by Lieutenant Harry Colebourn of the Fort Garry Horse. He named the bear after the regiment's home town of Winnipeg.[127] A. A. Milne later wrote a series of books featuring the fictional Winnie-the-Pooh. The series' illustrator, Ernest H. Shepard, created the only known oil painting of Winnipeg's adopted fictional bear, displayed in Assiniboine Park.[128] The city has developed many distinct dishes and cooking styles, notably in the areas of confectionery and hot-smoked fish. Both the First Nations and more recent Eastern Canadian, European, and Asian immigrants have helped shape Winnipeg's dining scene, giving birth to dishes such as the desserts schmoo torte and wafer pie.[129][130] Winnipeg's three largest performing arts venues, the Centennial Concert Hall, Manitoba Theatre Centre (MTC) and the Pantages Playhouse Theatre, are located downtown. MTC is Canada's oldest English-language regional theatre, with over 250 performances yearly.[131] The Pantages Playhouse Theatre opened as a vaudeville house in 1913.[132] Other city theatres include the Burton Cummings Theatre (a National Historic Site of Canada built in 1906[133]) and Prairie Theatre Exchange. Le Cercle Molière, based in St Boniface, is the oldest theatre company in Canada; it was founded in 1925.[134] Rainbow Stage is a musical theatre production company based in Kildonan Park which produces professional, live Broadway musical shows and is Canada's longest-surviving outdoor theatre.[17][135] The Manitoba Theatre for Young People at The Forks is one of only two Theatres for Young Audiences in Canada with a permanent residence, and is the only Theatre for Young Audiences that offers a full season of plays for teenagers.[136] The Winnipeg Jewish Theatre is the only professional theatre in Canada dedicated to Jewish themes.[137] Shakespeare in the Ruins (SIR) presents adaptations of Shakespeare plays.[138] Winnipeg has hosted a number of Hollywood productions: Shall We Dance? (2004), Capote (2005), The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford (2007), and Goon (2011) among others had parts filmed in the city.[139] The Winnipeg Film Group has produced numerous award-winning films.[140] There are several TV and film production companies in Winnipeg: the most prominent are Farpoint Films, Frantic Films, Buffalo Gal Pictures, and Les Productions Rivard.[141] Guy Maddin's My Winnipeg, an independent film released in 2008, is a comedic rumination on the city's history.[142] The Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra is the largest and oldest professional musical ensemble in Winnipeg.[143] The Manitoba Chamber Orchestra runs a series of chamber orchestral concerts each year.[144] Manitoba Opera is Manitoba's only full-time professional opera company.[145] Among the most notable musical acts associated with Winnipeg are Bachman–Turner Overdrive,[146] the Crash Test Dummies,[147] The Guess Who,[148] Neil Young,[149] The Wailin' Jennys, and The Weakerthans.[146] The Canadian Museum for Human Rights under construction (2012) The Royal Winnipeg Ballet (RWB) is Canada's oldest ballet company and the longest continuously operating ballet company in North America. It was the first organization to be granted a royal title by Queen Elizabeth II, and has included notable dancers such as Evelyn Hart and Mikhail Baryshnikov. The RWB also runs a full-time classical dance school.[150] The Manitoba Museum is the largest museum in the city, and depicts the history of the city and province. The full-size replica of the ship Nonsuch is the museum's showcase piece.[151] The Manitoba Children's Museum is a nonprofit children's museum located at The Forks that features twelve permanent galleries.[152][153] The Winnipeg Art Gallery is Western Canada's oldest public art gallery, founded in 1912. It is the sixth-largest in the country[154] and includes the world's largest public collection of contemporary Inuit art.[17][155] The Canadian Museum for Human Rights will be the second Canadian national museum for human rights.[156] The federal government has contributed $100 million towards the estimated $311-million project.[157] Construction of the museum began on 1 April 2008,[158] and the museum opened to the public September 27, 2014.[159] Folklorama is a popular summer festival. The Western Canada Aviation Museum, located in a hangar at Winnipeg's James Richardson International Airport, features military jets, commercial aircraft, Canada's first helicopter, the "flying saucer" Avrocar, flight simulators, and a Black Brant rocket built in Manitoba by Bristol Aerospace.[160] The Winnipeg Railway Museum is located at Via Rail Station and contains various locomotives, notably the Countess of Dufferin, the first steam locomotive in Western Canada.[161] Festival du Voyageur, Western Canada's largest winter festival, celebrates the early French explorers of the Red River Valley.[162] Folklorama is the largest and longest-running cultural celebration festival in the world.[163] The Jazz Winnipeg Festival and the Winnipeg Folk Festival both celebrate Winnipeg's music community. The Winnipeg Music Festival offers a competition venue to amateur musicians. The Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival is the second-largest alternative theatre festival in North America.[164] The Winnipeg International Writers Festival (also called THIN AIR) brings writers to Winnipeg for workshops and readings.[165] The LGBT community in the city is served by Pride Winnipeg, an annual gay pride festival and parade, and Reel Pride, a film festival of LGBT-themed films.[166] Sports Main article: Sport in Winnipeg MTS Centre, home arena of the Winnipeg Jets Winnipeg has been home to several professional hockey teams. The Winnipeg Jets of the National Hockey League (NHL) have called the city home since 2011.[167] The original Winnipeg Jets, the city's former NHL team, left for Phoenix, Arizona after the 1995–96 season due to mounting financial troubles, despite a campaign effort to "Save the Jets".[168] The Jets play at MTS Centre, which is currently ranked the world's 19th-busiest arena among non-sporting touring events, 13th-busiest among facilities in North America, and 3rd-busiest in Canada as of 2009.[169] Past professional hockey teams based in Winnipeg include the Winnipeg Maroons, Winnipeg Warriors, and the Manitoba Moose.[170][171] In amateur hockey, the Winnipeg Blues of the Manitoba Junior Hockey League play out of the MTS Iceplex.[172] On the international stage, Winnipeg has hosted national and world hockey championships on a number of occasions, most notably the 1999 World Junior Hockey Championship and 2007 Women's World Hockey Championship.[173][174] The Winnipeg Blue Bombers play in the Canadian Football League. The Blue Bombers are ten-time Grey Cup champions, their last championship in 1990.[175] From 1953 to 2012, the Blue Bombers called Canad Inns Stadium home; they have since moved to Investors Group Field. Due to construction delays and cost overruns, the stadium was not ready in time for the 2012 CFL season, instead opening in 2013. The $200-million facility is also the home to the CIS' University of Manitoba Bisons and the Winnipeg Rifles of the Canadian Junior Football League.[176][177] The University of Manitoba Bisons and the University of Winnipeg Wesmen represent the city in interuniversity sport.[178] In soccer, it is represented by the Winnipeg Alliance FC in the Canadian Major Indoor Soccer League and the WSA Winnipeg in the USL Premier Development League.[179] Winnipeg has been home to a number of professional baseball teams, most recently the Winnipeg Goldeyes since 1994. The Goldeyes play at Shaw Park, which was completed in 1999. The team had led the Northern League for ten straight years in average attendance through 2010, with more than 300,000 annual fan visits, until the league collapsed and merged into the American Association of Independent Professional Baseball.[180] Winnipeg was the first Canadian city to ever host the Pan American Games, and the second city to host the event twice, in 1967 and again in 1999.[181] The Pan Am Pool, built for the 1967 Pan Am Games, hosts aquatic events, including diving, speed swimming, synchronized swimming and water polo.[182] Winnipeg will co-host the FIFA Women's World Cup in 2015.[183] The city has been selected to host the 2017 Canada Summer Games.[184] Professional sports teams Club Sport League Venue Established Championships Winnipeg Blue Bombers Football CFL Investors Group Field 1930 10 Winnipeg Jets Hockey NHL MTS Centre Original: 1972–1996; Present-day: since 2011 3 (WHA Avco Cup) Winnipeg Goldeyes Baseball American Association Shaw Park 1994 2 Local media Main article: Media in Winnipeg Historic Free Press building Winnipeg has three daily newspapers: the Winnipeg Free Press, the Winnipeg Sun, and the Metro Winnipeg.[185] There are five weekly newspapers delivered free to most Winnipeg households by region. There are also several ethnic weekly newspapers.[186] Television broadcasting in Winnipeg started in 1954. The federal government refused to license any private broadcaster until the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation had created a national network. In May 1954, CBWT went on the air with four hours of broadcasting per day.[187] There are now five English-language stations and one French-language station based in Winnipeg. Additionally, some American network affiliates are available over-the-air.[188] Winnipeg is home to 33 AM and FM radio stations, two of which are French-language stations.[189] CBC Radio One and CBC Radio 2 broadcast local and national programming in the city.[190] NCI is devoted to Aboriginal programming.[191] Law and government Main article: Law, government, and crime in Winnipeg Winnipeg City Hall Since 1992, the city of Winnipeg has been represented by 15 city councillors and a mayor, both elected every four years.[192] The present mayor, Brian Bowman, was elected to office in 2014.[17] The city is a single-tier municipality, governed by a mayor-council system.[17] The structure of the municipal government is set by the provincial legislature in the City of Winnipeg Charter Act, which replaced the old City of Winnipeg Act in 2003.[193] The mayor is elected by direct popular vote to serve as the chief executive of the city.[194] At Council meetings, the mayor has one of 16 votes. The City Council is a unicameral legislative body, representing geographical wards throughout the city.[193] Manitoba Legislative Building In provincial politics, Winnipeg is represented by 31 of the 57 provincial Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs). As of 2014, 25 Winnipeg districts are represented by members of the New Democratic Party (NDP), 4 by members of the Progressive Conservative Party, one by the Liberal Party, and one by an Independent. All three leaders of the provincial parties represent Winnipeg districts in the legislature.[195] In federal politics, as of 2013 Winnipeg is represented by eight Members of Parliament: six Conservatives, one New Democrat and one Liberal.[196] There are six Senators representing Manitoba in Ottawa: three Liberals, two Conservatives, and one Independent.[197] Crime Main article: Crime in Winnipeg From 2007 to 2011, Winnipeg was the "murder capital" of Canada, with the highest per-capita rate of homicides; it fell to second place in 2012, behind Thunder Bay.[198][199] Winnipeg has had the highest violent crime index since 2009. The robbery rate in 2012 was between 250.1 and 272.9.[200][201] Despite high overall violent crime rates, crime in Winnipeg is mostly concentrated in the inner city, which makes up only 19% of the population[202] but was the site of 86.4% of the city's shootings, 66.5% of the robberies, 63.3% of the homicides and 59.5% of the sexual assaults in 2012.[200] From the early 1990s to the mid-2000s, Winnipeg had a significant auto-theft problem, with the rate peaking at 2,165.0 per 100,000 residents in 2006[203] compared to 487 auto-thefts per 100,000 residents for Canada as a whole.[204] To combat auto theft, Manitoba Public Insurance established financial incentives for motor vehicle owners to install ignition immobilizers in their vehicles, and now requires owners of high-risk vehicles to install immobilizers.[205] The auto-theft rate has been on a constant drop since 2006. Other types of property crime have also decreased, but rates are still fairly high.[201][206] Winnipeg is protected by the Winnipeg Police Service, which in 2012 had 1,442 police officers.[206] In November 2013, the national police union reviewed the Winnipeg Police Force and found high average response times for several categories of calls.[207][208] Education See also: List of schools of Winnipeg University of Manitoba's Administration Building There are seven school divisions in Winnipeg: Winnipeg School Division, St. James-Assiniboia School Division, Pembina Trails School Division, Seven Oaks School Division, Division Scolaire Franco-Manitobaine, River East Transcona School Division, and Louis Riel School Division.[209] Winnipeg also has a number of religious and secular private schools.[210][211] The University of Manitoba is the largest university in Manitoba.[212] It was founded in 1877, making it Western Canada's first university.[212] In a typical year, the university has an enrolment of 24,500 undergraduate students and 4,000 graduate students.[213] Université de Saint-Boniface is the city's only French Canadian university.[214] The University of Winnipeg received its charter in 1967.[215] Until 2007, it was an undergraduate institution that offered some joint graduate studies programs; it now offers independent graduate programs.[215] The Canadian Mennonite University is a private Mennonite undergraduate university established in 1999.[216] Red River College's Roblin Centre in the Exchange District campus Winnipeg also has two independent colleges: Red River College and Booth University College. Red River College offers diploma, certificate, and apprenticeship programs and, starting in 2009, began offering some degree programs.[217] Booth University College is a private Christian Salvation Army university college established in 1982. It offers mostly arts and seminary training.[218][219] Infrastructure Transportation Main article: Transport in Winnipeg Winnipeg has had public transit since 1882, starting with horse-drawn streetcars.[220] They were replaced by electric trolley cars. The trolley cars ran from 1892 to 1955, supplemented by motor buses after 1918, and electric trolleybuses from 1938 to 1970.[220] Winnipeg Transit now runs diesel buses on its routes.[221] Winnipeg is a railway hub and is served by Via Rail, Canadian National Railway, Canadian Pacific Railway, Burlington Northern Santa Fe Manitoba, and the Central Manitoba Railway. It is the only city between Vancouver and Thunder Bay with direct US connections by rail.[222] Winnipeg is the largest and best connected city within Manitoba, and has highways leading in all directions from the city. To the south, Winnipeg is connected to the United States via Provincial Trunk Highway 75 (PTH 75) (a continuation of I-29 and US 75, known as Pembina Highway or Route 42 within Winnipeg). The highway runs 107 km (66 mi) to Emerson, Manitoba, and is the busiest Canada – United States border crossing on the Prairies.[223] The four-lane Perimeter Highway, built in 1969, serves as a Ring Road, with at-grade intersections and a few interchanges. It allows travellers on the Trans-Canada Highway to bypass the city. A recent study cited dangerous intersections and low efficiency as its primary shortfalls.[224] The Trans-Canada Highway runs east to west through the city (city route), or circles around the city on the Perimeter Highway (beltway). Some of the city's major arterial roads include Route 80 (Waverley St.), Route 155 (McGillivray Blvd), Route 165 (Bishop Grandin Blvd.), Route 17 (Chief Peguis Trail), and Route 90 (Brookside Blvd., Oak Point Hwy., King Edward St., Century St., Kenaston Blvd.).[225] Winnipeg International Airport arrivals hall The Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport completed a $585-million redevelopment in October 2011. The development includes a new terminal, a four-level parking facility, and other infrastructure improvements.[226] Winnipeg Bus Terminal, located at Winnipeg International Airport, offers domestic and international service by Greyhound Canada, Grey Goose Bus Lines, Winnipeg Shuttle Service and Brandon Air Shuttle.[227] Approximately 20,000 acres (81 km2) of land to the north and west of the airport has been designated as an inland port, CentrePort Canada, and is Canada's first Foreign Trade Zone. It is a private sector initiative to develop the infrastructure for Manitoba's trucking, air, rail and sea industries.[228] In 2009, construction began on a $212-million four-lane freeway that would eventually connect CentrePort with the Perimeter Highway.[229] Named CentrePort Canada Way, it was opened in November 2013.[230] Winnipeg is served by several taxi companies, the three largest being Unicity, Duffy's Taxi and Spring Taxi. Fifty percent of Winnipeg residents use a taxi at least once during the year.[231] Cycling is popular in Winnipeg, and there are many bicycle trails and lanes around the city. Winnipeg holds an annual Bike-to-Work Day[232] and Cyclovia,[233] and bicycle commuters may be seen year-round, even in the winter. Active living infrastructure in Winnipeg encourages bicycling through the inclusion of bike lanes[234] and sharrows.[235] Medical centres and hospitals See also: List of hospitals in Manitoba Winnipeg's major hospitals include Health Sciences Centre, Concordia Hospital, Deer Lodge Centre, Grace Hospital, Misericordia Health Centre, Riverview Health Centre, Saint Boniface General Hospital, Seven Oaks General Hospital, Victoria General Hospital, and The Children's Hospital of Winnipeg.[236] The National Microbiology Laboratory in Winnipeg is one of only a handful of biosafety level 4 microbiology laboratories in the world.[237] There are also research facilities operated through hospitals and private biotechnology companies.[238][239] Utilities Water and sewage services are provided by the city.[240] The city draws its water via an aqueduct from Shoal Lake, treating and fluoridating it at the Deacon Reservoir just outside the city prior to pumping it into the Winnipeg system.[241] The city's system comprises over 2,500 kilometres (1,600 mi) of underground water mains, which are subject to breakage during extreme weather conditions.[242] Electricity and natural gas are provided by Manitoba Hydro, a provincial crown corporation headquartered in the city; it uses primarily hydroelectric power.[243] The primary telecommunications carrier is MTS,[244] although a number of other corporations offer telephone, cellular, television and internet services in the city. Winnipeg contracts out several services to private companies, including garbage and recycling collection and street plowing and snow removal. This practice represents a significant budget expenditure and is more expansive than in comparable communities. The services have faced numerous complaints from residents in 2013–14 about missed service.[245][246][247] Military See also: CFB Winnipeg Canadian Forces Base Winnipeg, co-located at the airport, is home to many flight operations support divisions and several training schools. It is also the headquarters of 1 Canadian Air Division and the Canadian North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) Region,[248] as well as the home base of 17 Wing of the Canadian Forces. The Wing comprises three squadrons and six schools; it also provides support to the Central Flying School.[249] Excluding the three levels of government, 17 Wing is the fourth largest employer in the city.[250] The Wing supports 113 units, stretching from Thunder Bay to the Saskatchewan–Alberta border, and from the 49th parallel to the high Arctic.[249] 17 Wing also acts as a deployed operating base for CF-18 Hornet fighter-bombers assigned to the Canadian NORAD Region.[249] There are two squadrons based in the city. The 402 "City of Winnipeg" Squadron flies the Canadian-designed and produced de Havilland CT-142 Dash 8 navigation trainer.[251] The 435 "Chinthe" Transport and Rescue Squadron flies the Lockheed CC-130 Hercules in airlift search and rescue roles.[252] In addition, 435 Squadron is the only Royal Canadian Air Force squadron equipped and trained to conduct tactical air-to-air refueling of fighter aircraft.[252] For many years, Winnipeg was the home of the Second Battalion of Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry. Initially, the battalion was based at the Fort Osborne Barracks, the location of which now houses the Rady Jewish Community Centre.[253] They eventually moved to the Kapyong Barracks located between River Heights and Tuxedo. Since 2004, the battalion has operated out of CFB Shilo near Brandon. Between 1983 and 199I $13 million is being spent in the revitalization of the historic Exchange District. This money is stimulating further expenditures by the private and public sector to create an enhanced district as an attraction for all to work, live, shop, dine and relax. We trust this publication will encourage interest in the area's buildings and in the forces that made the district grow at the tum of the century. The Board of Directors of Heritage Winnipeg Corporation would like to thank the following individuals and organizations for making this publication possible. Ross Waddell for writing of copy and overall assistance with design and photo selections. Kip Park for the original 1983 edition of this publication. Department of Environmental Planning, City of Winnipeg for the original historical research and Giles Bugailiskis. Historic Resources Branch, of Manitoba Culture, Heritage and Recreation, and Randy Rostecki. Ken Kelly, Stephanie Van Nest and Randy Van Vliet for proofing & comments. George Siamandas for contemporary photographs, editing, and overall coordination of this publication. Heritage Winnipeg September I 5, 1989 60 c==]tvIHHHp·==c MANITOBA HERITAGE FEDERATION INC. Canada Manitoba~ Winnipeg@ 131 Letinsky Place (Albert Stl Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B IG6 " -... WINNIPEG CORE AREA INITIATIVE OPERATION CENTRE·VILLE DEWBNNIPEG HERITAGE WINNIPEG (204) 942-2663 Lombard Avenue, Looking west