DP History Extended Essays and Internal Assessments Relating to Dachau

Did United States Soldiers Commit War Crimes During the Liberation of Dachau Concentration Camp, April 29th, 1945?

Massacre of Guards during the liberation of Dachau by Allied soldiers
Upon liberation, a coal yard near the ϟϟ hospital was used to contain the ϟϟ POWs from the hospital, NCO school and finance centre.  Lieutenant Sparks, shown above trying to call an halt to the massacre, later described the area as enclosed by an “L-shaped masonry wall, about eight feet high, which had been used as a coal bin. The ground was covered with coal dust, and a narrow gauge railroad track, laid on top of the ground, led into the area.”  The prisoners were placed under the command of Lt. Walsh, the same man who had shot four ϟϟ guards on the so-called Death Train. The number of men present varies enormously between accounts, but according to the investigation carried out by the Assistant Inspector General of the 7th Army, Joseph M. Whitaker (known as the IG report); all estimates were in the range of 50-125, with the majority in the range of 50-75.  From this point, the accounts of what happened to these men diverge wildly. Walsh gave the order to the machine gunner identified in the IG report as “C” and the other soldiers present to shoot the POWs if they moved. An eyewitness, Karl Mann, remembered the I-Company officers deciding to shoot the ϟϟ men when Sparks was no longer in sight, although this also conflicts with the IG report.  According to the IG report, the ϟϟ men thought they were going to be executed when the machine gunner loaded his weapon, and lurched forward, triggering the shooting. However, other eyewitness reports, including the gunman himself, indicate that the trigger had rather been someone shouting “fire”. This incident, which took a matter of moments, was interrupted by an irate Colonel Sparks, who ran from where he had been stationed “about 100 to 200 meters on the other side of the wall”  To stop the shooting, Sparks shot his “.45 in the air while shouting 'Cease Fire!'”, before kicking the shooter away from the gun.
After the hospital shooting was stopped, some of the U.S. soldiers allegedly gave a number of handguns to the now-liberated inmates. It has been claimed by eyewitnesses that the freed inmates tortured and killed a number of captured German troops, in retaliation for their treatment in the camp. The same witnesses claim that many of the German soldiers killed by the inmates were beaten to death with shovels and other tools. A number of Kapo prisoner-guards were also killed, torn apart by the inmates.
ϟϟ guards being fished out of the canal, and as it appears today
After entry into the camp, personnel of the 42nd Division discovered the presence of guards, presumed to be SS men, in a tower to the left of the main gate of the inmate stockade. This tower was attacked by Tec 3 Henry J. Wells 39271327, Headquarters Military Intelligence Service, ETO, covered and aided by a party under Lt. Col. Walter J. Fellenz, 0-23055, 222 Infantry. No fire was delivered against them by the guards in the tower. A number of Germans were taken prisoner; after they were taken, and within a few feet of the tower, from which they were taken, they were shot and killed.
from the IG Report of the U.S. Seventh Army
Introduction: 800
In the wealth of historical knowledge regarding the liberation of the infamous Dachau concentration camp, there is an often neglected group of victims whose suffering has gone unnoticed until relatively recently. The perpetrators have gone unpunished in any meaningful sense, and their families have received little recognition or justice. We have read innumerable accounts of the horrors of the concentration camps, from the Jews, Poles, Slavs, Gypsies, Jehovah’s witnesses and political prisoners of the NSDAP regime. The story which has hardly been told is that of the guards murdered during the liberation of Dachau.
This topic is, of course, controversial. Used for many years by the right wing movement to propagate the idea that such “US-killers” were the norm of American combat, and thus in some way minimize the horrors of National Socialism[1] by comparison, many, including US government officials, were unwilling to deal with this issue. Indeed, the deaths of a handful of men, who by all accounts were implicated in the horrors of the concentration camps, surely pales in comparison with the million victims of the camp system, and war at large. As Churchill stated, History is written by the victors, and it is clearly an unpleasant aspect of the History for the Allies to address. A commonly understated fact of the end of the war, was the harshness with which the Allies imposed their occupations; as Eisenhower made unequivocally apparent, “they arrived not as liberators [towards the Germans], but as victors.”[2]
Despite these considerations, the issue of culpability for the US soldiers involved is nonetheless serious. In light of the products of the war, such as the United Nations and new Geneva protocols determining war crimes and crimes against humanity, it would seem important for the victors to hold themselves to the same standard they are expecting for everyone. While the loophole remains that these new criteria were created post facto, the US was still bound by ethical standards of treatment for prisoners of war.
However, in determining whether more appropriate should have been taken, a few issues remain. Was the mental duress experienced by the soldiers at the time an extenuating circumstance for further prosecution, or should the mistaken identity of the guards stationed at the camp be a factor?

What happened at liberation?
The liberation of Dachau concentration camp on the 29th April, 1945 occurred during an auspicious time for the Allies. That same day, SS General Karl Wolff signed an armistice for Italy, and the next day, Adolf Hitler committed suicide in his bunker. Merely a week earlier, on the 21st of April, Soviet soldiers under the command of General Zhukov rolled tanks into the Northern suburbs of Berlin, beginning a siege that would escalate to a final assault incorporating 464,000 troops, 12,700 guns and 1500 tanks.[3] However many soldiers, wearied after many years of fighting, and with constant refrains such as “End The War In Forty-Four” and “Stay Alive In Forty-Five” making their way through the ranks, had become disillusioned, with no clear idea of what they were fighting for.[4] Eisenhower himself, after having visited the concentration camp Ohrduf, ordered all the troops in the vicinity to show them what they were fighting for. It was this reality the troops would shortly be faced with, with no preparation for the fact. Short[5]
On orders to head towards Munich, after serving in Italy, France and Southern Germany, the soldiers of the United States Seventh army had no notion of the real terror mechanisms of the Nazi regime, either[6] They were to meet this reality at Dachau, and simultaneously find a reason for what they had suffered, and to Dachau, a small Bohemian town 12 miles north of Munich, housed the first Nazi concentration camp for political opponents of the Reich. Established in March 1933, merely 5 months after Hitler assumed the Chancellery, Dachau became the springboard for the growing Nazi terror throughout the Reich. SS guards, who were to run the fast opening concentration camps across the Reich, were trained in Dachau in the cruelty and sadism that were endemic throughout the camp system. While conditions in the camp were never humane, the last months saw an unthinkable deterioration of the situation. Originally built to house 5,000 inmates[7], Dachau had swollen to 32, 325[8] by liberation. This was due primarily to prisoner transports, sent to avoid the advancing Soviet troops, to hide the human evidence of the Nazi cruelty. The influx of these new inmates, already dead or dying from the inhumane transport- one such train from Buchenwald arrived with only 1,200 survivors out of 5,000[9]- stretched the facilities of the camp to breaking point. It was upon this scene of death and decay that the liberators stumbled on the 29th April, 1945.

Divisions Present
Among the many accounts of that day, a discrepancy arises as to which division actually arrived –and therefore liberated- Dachau first. While that debate is not the subject of this essay, the presence of two different divisions in the camp is nonetheless significant for this topic. The only division commemorated at the Dachau Gedenkstätte today, the 42nd Division’s 222nd Infantry Regiment of the United States Army, nicknamed the Rainbow division, and is the division most often associated with the liberation of Dachau. According to Lieutenant William J. Cowling III, the Rainbows were to meet 222nd Infantry division en route to Munich, when they intercepted two American reporters in search of the concentration camp in the area.[10] Having been ordered to subdue the camp on their way to capturing Munich, the Rainbows changed course for the camp. According to Linden’s official report, the group arrived at Command Post in the town of Dachau at around 1500 hours, before proceeding to the camp. Approaching the camp from the Southwest corner, Linden and Colonel Downward encountered a group intending to surrender the camp. After having accepted this offer, from the Red Cross representative Victor Mauerer and the Camp commander Lieutenant Wicker, “…there were several shots fired in the Northeast corner of the camp.”[11] The shooting, it transpired, had come from the other infantry division, who had arrived at nearly the same time, the Thunderbirds, or the 45th Division’s 157th Infantry Regiment, had fought in Sicily, Italy and France, and on the 29th of April, they were sent to Dachau on their way to Munich. [12] Expecting a long conflict[13] form the SS men remaining at the camp, Battalion Commander Felix S. Sparks diverted his troops to capture the “central military base for soldierly and ideological education of the SS-rank and file.”[14] To enter the camp, as the 45th did, from the Northeastern corner[15] where the SS barracks were, Sparks and his men had to walk past the infamous “Death Train”.[16] The significance of this sight on the troops cannot be overstated; they were unprepared in the slightest for the sights awaiting them in a concentration camp, let alone a freight train full of corpses. The train, which had 39 boxcars full with “2,300 bodies with only one still able to move and moan for help”[17] , travelled for 22 days from Buchenwald while its passengers died of exhaustion, exposure, disease and dehydration.[18] This overwhelming scene of death, dying and neglect, would colour the troops subsequent actions during the liberation of the camp, best expressed by this admission: “After seeing them, we didn’t feel too good towards the SS.”[19]

Violence against the guards
Endemic and Sporadic
These sights left many of the soldiers mixed emotions; disgust, confusion, disbelief, anger. The Pocket Guide issued to troops stationed in Germany, a thoroughly researched document containing in depth information about the culture, customs and attitudes to expect in Nazi-Germany, did not even mention the existence of the camps, despite detailed military and political knowledge of them.[20] In fact, Eisenhower deliberately downplayed “a lot of it [the conditions in the camps]” to avoid “men going nuts and reacting like assassins” up to that point, although as we have seen his policy drastically changed shortly after his own experiences. [21] . However, almost simultaneously, Eisenhower had first-hand experience of the concentration camp at Ohrduf; On April 12th, he toured the camp with General Patton and aides.[22] Shortly thereafter, he ordered all the troops in the vicinity to show them “what they were fighting for”. He also organized an official delegation from the US to visit the camps, because “all written statements up to now do not paint the full horrors.”[23]
Numerous first-hand accounts from liberation portray the anger and disbelief that the soldiers felt, coupled with the combat mindset they still held, was expressed with violence.[24] Letters home from soldiers also evidence this effect; in one of Lt. Cowling’s letters home (written three days earlier than his official report), he stated unequivocally that “I will never take another German prisoner armed or unarmed. How can they expect to do what they have done and simply say I quit and go scot free. They are not fit to live.”[25] This tendency had not gone unnoticed by the Army brass present. It had become apparent to Sparks early on in the day that the emotions of the troops were running high, and so he contacted headquarters for replacements to avoid an “explosion.”[26]
The violent reactions of the troops began early on in their exploration of the camp, which shows how natural the urge was on encountering the camp. Upon inspecting the Death Train, the Thunderbirds came across four Germans, bearing medical insignia, although at the time it was possible this was false decoration. Although they apparently attempted to surrender, Lieutenant William P. Walsh ordered the four into a boxcar and shot them. Private Albert C. Pruitt then “finished them off with his rifle”, after screaming at them about their medical negligence.[27] Other incidents were recorded with a less involved level of physical involvement. Accounts reference SS guards “shot in the legs so they couldn’t move”, allowing the prisoners to take their revenge against their captors.[28] Others handed over weapons to prisoners, or shoot guards pointed out to them by their victims,[29] or simply refused to intervene on the behalf of the SS soldiers, who were under their protection since the surrender of the camp.

Coal Yard Incident
More implicating than these sporadic and spontaneous acts of violence against the guards are the accusations of a premeditated massacre by US soldiers. It is this reported occurrence that must be considered within the context of war crime and the Geneva conventions, as the SS guards had surrendered. The so-called “Coal Yard Incident” is significant, in that it may have constituted a serious breach of international law regarding prisoners of war (POWs), as the surrendered SS men were at that point.
The area in question, a coal yard near the SS hospital used to power the camp, was used to contain the POWs from the hospital, NCO school and finance center. [30] Lieutenant Sparks later described the area as enclosed by an “L-shaped masonry wall, about eight feet high, which had been used as a coal bin. The ground was covered with coal dust, and a narrow gauge railroad track, laid on top of the ground, led into the area.”[31] The prisoners were placed under the command of Lt. Walsh, the same man who had shot the four SS guards on the Death Train. The number of men present varies enormously between accounts, but according to the investigation carried out by the Assistant Inspector General of the 7th Army, Joseph M. Whitaker (known as the IG report); all estimates were in the range of 50-125, with the majority in the range of 50-75.[32] From this point, the accounts of what happened to these men diverge wildly. Walsh gave the order to the machine gunner identified in the IG report as “C” and the other soldiers present to shoot the POWs if they moved. An eyewitness, Karl Mann, remembered the I-Company officers deciding to shoot the SS men when Sparks was no longer in sight, although this conflict the IG report as well.[33] According to that report, the SS men thought they were going to be executed when the machine gunner loaded his weapon, and lurched forward, triggering the shooting. However, other eyewitness reports, including the gunman himself, indicate that the trigger had rather been someone shouting “fire”. Further evidence is given to this statement of events by the confirmation by C that “Lieutenant W. had wanted to fire the machine gun himself, however, could not get to it on account of the movement of the SS-men.”[34] This premeditation points again to the fact that the I company men were raging, and their POWs at risk. Furthermore, indication was made that the soldiers intended to continue the shooting, past the initial three rounds fired[35], clearly acting as more than a warning against movement of the SS guards. In any case, the IG reported around 17 dead, a fact corroborated by photographic evidence of the event. This incident, which took a matter of moments, was interrupted by an irate Colonel Sparks, who ran from where he had been stationed “about 100 to 200 meters on the other side of the wall”[36] To stop the shooting, Sparks shot his “.45 in the air while shouting “Cease Fire!””, before kicking the shooter away from the gun.[37]
­
Before the IG report was available, the book published in 1980 by an eyewitness named Howard Buechner was popular account, and has since been the main fodder for neo-Nazi groups, hoping to discredit Holocaust history ever since. Even today this book has attracted attention among radical right wing circles, eliciting neo-Nazi praise in Amazon.com reader reviews, such as calling Elie Wiesel an “academic liar” and praising notorious Holocaust denier Robert Faurisson.[38] It is also worth mentioning that Howard Buechner has also authored a number of sensationalist conspiracy theories, including two books entitled Adolf Hitler and the Secrets of the Holy Lance and Emerald Cup Ark of Gold: Quest of SS Lieutenant Otto Rahn[39]. Despite these three books being published within 5 years of each other, his eyewitness account Dachau: The Hour of the Avenger was received more seriously. Not a Holocaust denier in the slightest, he himself wrote in the book “It finally occurred to me that the silence which has surrounded this episode for more than forty years should be broken and that the truth should be made known to the world. Those who survived the Holocaust, and the kinsmen of those who died in its flames, might draw some small comfort from the knowledge that the murderers of Dachau did not go unpunished”.
The claims Buechner makes in his book, such as the grossly inflated number given of 350 men killed in the coal yard incident, have been shown to be wildly inaccurate from other sources. For example, Buechner falsified in his book the time of the encounter, attributing it as happening much later in the liberation, rather than right after the encounter with the Death Train. He also described executions with 45 pistols, which was completely uncorroborated by the IG report into the issue.[40] Despite these problems, scholars such as Klaus Dietmar-Henke ascribed considerable validity to his account, as the IG report was unavailable at the time. It is from these misconstructions and their misplaced validity that the fuel for the right wing propaganda comes from.

What is a war crime?
Geneva Conventions for the Protection of War Victims
The various Geneva Conventions consist of the backbone of our modern interpretation of war crimes and human rights, and thus the foundation of any solid definition should begin with them. The specific Convention concerning POWs was created on 27 July 1929.[41] The purpose of the Convention was, in the eyes of the US Congress in 1955, “to improve the treatment to be given persons who become the victims of armed conflict and to relieve and reduce the suffering caused thereby.”[42] It is important to note, at this point, to note some specific clauses relevant to this issue.
Firstly, Article 2, under the General Provisions of Part I of that document, states that POWs are admitted directly into the power of the “hostile government”, rather than that of the individuals who captured them. Secondly, under the same Article, it was decided that “They shall at all times be humanely treated and protected, particularly against acts of violence, from insults and from public curiosity. Measures of reprisal against them are forbidden”[43] Furthermore, not only were POWs meant to be treated humanely, in the event of their deaths, their bodies were to be treated with respect and honorably buried, as assured by Article 76, Part V.[44] Thus we can see, that at the very fundamentals of a war crime, these events are already beginning to qualify.

Actions in Context
During this time of great upheaval, the definitions and criteria for war crimes were being scrutinized and refined, in the wake of the discoveries showing exactly what humans are capable of inflicting on one another. This context of the Nuremberg trials, therefore begs many questions: how these American soldiers should be treated, what jurisdiction would be responsible for the cases, whether they should they be tried under the same criteria, whether there was a precedent applied throughout the rest of the US Army, and whether the matter was even on a large enough scale for upper brass notice.
According to the “Declaration Regarding the Defeat of Germany and the Assumption of Supreme Authority by the Allied Powers, June 5, 1945”, Article 11, sub-clause b) “The same will apply in the case of any national of any of the United Nations who is alleged to have committed an offence against his national law, and who may at any time be named or designated by rank, office or employment by the Allied Representatives”. This refers to the previous sub-clause, a), Article 11 of the same document, which states “The Principle Nazi leaders as specified by the Allied Representatives, and all persons from time to time named or designated by rank, office or employment by the Allied representatives as being suspected of having committed, ordered or abetted war crimes or analogous offences, will be apprehended and surrendered to the Allied representatives”[45] Therefore the question of whether the same criteria should be applied to the liberating Army is clearly answered, as they were already in force.
The US Army had already started convicting their enemies of war crimes, which appeared very similar to the ones discussed here: On the 7th April, a military commission found a German officer guilty of the murder of two American POWs, during the Ardennes Offensive.[46] In June of the same year, a separate commission held a group of Germans responsible for the death of an American pilot, beaten to death in 1944. Those responsible, a Nazi Party leader and two civilians, were awarded death sentences.[47] This clearly indicates that scale is not an issue for the US Army when investigating war crimes.
More significantly related to this issue are the proceedings and definitions laid down in preparation for the Nuremberg trials. The Nuremberg trials were expanded to include offences committed before the Occupation, at the behest of General Eisenhower, on June 2. The Combined Chiefs of Staff “lifted all previous restrictions on war crimes trials, whether the offences were committed before or after the occupation...and regardless of the nationality of the victim.”[48] The categories under which a crime would qualify for the court, as decided by the London Agreement of the 8th of August between the Americans, British, French and Soviets, were fourfold: war crimes, crimes against humanity, crimes against peace and membership of criminal organizations.[49] These four criterion have become the central definitions in international law of war crimes ever since, and to set the precedent of retroactive justice, as well as the ability of International law to overrule State Sovereignty. Clearly, by these principles the timing and jurisdiction would not be a problem in this case.


Bibliography
Abzug, Robert H. Inside the Vicious Heart: Americans and the Liberation of Nazi Concentration Camps. Oxord: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Bessel, Richard. Germany 1945. New York: HarperCollins, 2009.
Buechner, Col. Howard. Amazon. June 1991. 1 August 2011 .
Committee on Foreign Relations, 86th Congress, 1st Session. Documents On Germany 1944-1959. Ed. J.W. Fulbright. Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1959.
"Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Geneva, 27 July 1929." International Humanitarian Law - Treaties & Documents. International Committee of the Red Cross, 27th July 1929.
Dann, Sam, ed. Dachau 19 April 1945: The Rainbow Liberation Memoirs. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 1998.
Goedde, Petra. GIs and Germans: Culture, Gender,and Foreign Relations, 1945-1949. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.
Hirsch, Michael. The Liberators. New York: The Random House Publishing Group, 2010.
Israel, David L. The Day the Thunderbird Cried. emek press, 2005.
Johannes Steinhoff, Peter Pechel, Dennis Showalter. Voices from the Third Reich: An Oral History. Washington D.C.: Regnery Gateway, 1989.
Keegan, John. The Second World War. London: Penguin Books, 1989.
Mansfield. Geneva Conventions for the Protection of War Victims: Report of the Committee on Foreign Relations on Executives D,E,F and G. Executive Report. Washington D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1955.
Mcnally, Patrick. Authored By Witness, Not Historian. 31 December 2006. 1 August 2011 .
Sparks, Brigadier General Felix L. "Liberation of Dachau." 15 June 1989. 45th Infantry Division. 1st August 2011 .
Zarusky, Jürgen. ""That is not the American Way of Fighting"." Dachau and the Nazi Terror 1933-1945. Ed. Barbara Distel Wolfgang Benz. Vol. II. Dachau: Verlag Dachauer hefte, 2002. 133-160.

Footnotes: 
[1] (Zarusky) pp.134 “Memoirs, Propaganda, Research”  [2] (Bessel)  [3] (Keegan) pp. 523-525  [4] (Israel)pp.131, “Why? Why? Part II“  [5] (Goedde) pp. 54  [6] (Dann)  [7] (Abzug) pp. 89  [8] (Zarusky) pp.148  [9] (Abzug) pp. 89  [10] (Dann) pp. 18, “Report of the Surrender of the Concentration Camp at Dachau” Lt: Cowling  [11] (Dann)pp.15, “Report of the Surrender of the Concentration Camp at Dachau” Brigadier General Henning Linden, Assistant Commander, 42nd Infantry Division  [12] (Israel) “The Thunderbird Story”  [13] (Abzug)pp. 90  [14] (Zarusky)pp. 141 “Shock and Irrational Reactions (Kurzschlussreaktionen)”  [15] (Dann)pp.15 “Report of the Surrender of the Concentration Camp at Dachau” Brigadier General Henning Linden, Assistant Commander, 42nd Infantry Division  [16] (Hirsch) pp.194  [17] (Israel) pp.132  [18] (Hirsch)pp. 194-195  [19] (Dann) pp.79  [20] (Goedde)  [21] (Hirsch) pp.192  [22] (Abzug) pp. 27  [23] (Goedde) pp. 54  [24] (Abzug)pp.92  [25] (Dann)pp.24  [26] (Hirsch)pp.203  [27] (Hirsch)pp.196  [28] (Abzug)pp. 94  [29] (Hirsch)pp.202  [30] (Hirsch)pp.203  [31] (Sparks)  [32] (Zarusky)pp. 143, “Shock and Irrational Reactions (Kurzschlussreaktionen)”  [33] (Hirsch)pp.203  [34] (Zarusky)pp.144, “Shock and Irrational Reactions (Kurzschlussreaktionen)  [35] (Zarusky) pp.144, “Shock and Irrational Reactions (Kurzschlussreaktionen)  [36] (Zarusky)pp.145,“Shock and Irrational Reactions (Kurzschlussreaktionen)  [37] (Hirsch)pp.203  [38] (Mcnally)  [39] (Buechner)  [40] (Buechner)pp. 146 “Howard Buechner’s Constructions”  [41] (Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Geneva, 27 July 1929.)  [42] (Mansfield)  [43] (Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Geneva, 27 July 1929.)  [44] (Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Geneva, 27 July 1929.)  [45] (Committee on Foreign Relations, 86th Congress, 1st Session)pp.13  [46] (Bessel)pp. 207  [47] (Bessel)pp. 207  [48] (Bessel)pp. 208  [49] (Bessel)pp. 208


Were Japanese-American Nisei Soldiers the first to Liberate Dachau Concentration Camp?


Section A – Plan of Investigation: (142 Words)

Were Japanese-American Nisei Soldiers the first to Liberate Dachau Concentration Camp? To answer this question, I will investigate the events leading up to the liberation of the camp, alongside the experiences recollected by the U.S. Seventh Army 42nd “Rainbow” and 45th “Thunderbird” Division, alongside those of the all Nisei 522nd Field Artillery Battalion of the 422nd Regimental Combat Team, on liberation day. Not only will I evaluate Dachau Liberated: The Official Report, an official U.S. military report complied by the U.S. Seventh Army Staff, Michael W. Perry and William W. Quinn for its origin, purpose, value and limitations, but also assess Dachau, Holocaust, and US Samurais: Nisei Soldiers First in Dachau? written by the renowned French historian Pierre Moulin, on whose claims this investigation in based on, to conclusively fathom the true involvement of the Japanese-American Nisei Soldiers at Dachau Concentration Camp.

Section B – Summary: (483 Words)

A day before Hitler committed suicide, as the Third Reich stood on the verge of military defeat, two divisions of the US Seventh Army, the 42nd “Rainbow” Division and the 45th “Thunderbird” Division, participated in the liberation of Dachau, 29th April 1945. Throughout the summer and fall of 1944, satellite camps under the administration of Dachau were established near armaments factories throughout southern Germany to increase war production.[1] Archives of Humanitas International show that the 45th “Thunderbird” Division arrived in the town of Dachau at 9:30 a.m. on April 29th.[2] The commander of the 157th Infantry Regiment of the 45th “Thunderbird” Division received orders at 10:15 a.m. to liberate the Dachau camp, arriving at the camp around 11 a.m. that morning.[3] Both liberating divisions, the 42nd “Rainbow” Division and the 45th “Thunderbird” Division, approached the camp by different routes. At 11:20 a.m. the first American soldiers reached the inner compound of the camp, where they discovered over 30,000 imprisoned inmates.
However, in almost all of the documents, accounts and sources relating to the liberation of the Dachau concentration camp, one US Army division is seemingly forgotten – the United States Army’s 522nd Field Artillery Battalion (522nd F.A.B.) of the 422nd Regimental Combat Team. Having visited the Dachau Concentration Camp myself, I realized that even the commemorative plates recognizing the liberators of Dachau do not mention the 522nd F.A.B. (Appendix A). In September 1942 the Selective Service prohibited the induction of Nisei into the Army and, even though they were American citizens, classified Japanese-American citizens as 4-C; the status of enemy aliens.[4] Many of the parents of the Nisei soldiers had been detained into U.S. internment camps. The soldiers of the 422nd Regimental Combat Team were discouraged to take pictures or write diaries relating to their experiences during combat. This all Nisei, Japanese-American unit had become detached from the 100th Field Artillery Battalion of the 422nd Regimental Combat Team in the final months of the war to be temporarily attached to the Seventh Army, and sent to fight in Germany.[5] As they moved quickly in and out of the Dachau area, this 522nd F.A.B. is recognized by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum to have liberated the Kaufering IV sub-camp of Dachau on April 27th, 1945 - 2 days before the 42nd “Rainbow” and 45th “Thunderbird” Division had liberated the main camp. [6] However, the recent discovery of a diary, written by 522nd F.A.B. Technician Fourth Grade, Ichiro Imamura, are said to describe the liberation of Dachau in great detail. In addition to this, according to Pierre Moulin, scouts of the 522nd F.A.B. were the first to reach Dachau’s concentration camp’s gate, while it is questionable whether or not the scouts were able to enter. Moulin argues that a top-secret silence was ordered with the threatening of court martial, if the scouts were to reveal that they had been the first to reach Dachau concentration camp.


Section C – Evaluation of Sources: (357 Words)

Dachau, Holocaust, and US Samurais: Nisei Soldiers First in Dachau? written by the French historian Pierre Moulin is an in-depth compilation of sources, including pictures, diaries and interviews with Nisei soldiers from the 522nd F.A.B. It is a recollection of the events that occurred on April 29th, 1945, in context with Dachau from 1933 until today. The book’s value lies in the fact that it is a detailed encapsulation of the role of the 522nd all Nisei Field Artillery battalion during the liberation of the Dachau concentration camp. The limitations of this source is that it was complied more than 60 years after the liberation of the camp, so it is doubtful that the recollections of the 522nd F.A.B. veterans have not been altered either subconsciously or for the purpose of conforming to political pressure. However, Pierre Moulin uses hindsight alongside the full collection of sources available to him (military records, pictures, diaries) from April 1945 to assess the role of the Nisei soldiers during the liberation of the Nazi’s first concentration camp.

Dachau Liberated: The Official Report, compiled by the U.S. Seventh Army Staff, Michael W. Perry and William W. Quinn is the official report released a few weeks after the liberation of Dachau, before it was published in August 2000 under the name “Dachau Liberated: The Official Report”. The value of this source is that it is an “official report” complied by the U.S. Seventh Army staff, shortly after the liberation. Moreover, it documents how the U.S. military perceived the liberation of the Dachau concentration camp at the time. The limitation of this source is that even though the title of the source is specifically about the liberation of Dachau, it is stated that the true purpose of the report was to investigate what the conditions in the Camp had actually been like, and how much the townspeople of Dachau knew about the “going-ons” in the camp during the twelve years of its existence.[7] However, the interviews used in this report were taken shortly after the liberation, including U.S. soldiers from the 42nd “Rainbow” and 45th “Thunderbird” Infantry Division and prisoners of the camp itself.

Section D – Analysis: (634 Words)

In a historical context, the involvement of the Nisei soldiers in Dachau is of great significance due to the profound impact it may have on how we perceive the liberation of the first concentration camp established in the Third Reich. It may even completely alter our understanding of the Holocaust, if we consider that the liberators of Dachau may have been Nisei soldiers, whose parents were imprisoned in Japanese-American internment camps.
According to the commanding officer of the 45th “Thunderbird” Division, Lieutenant Colonel Felix L. Sparks, his division had been ordered to liberate the Dachau concentration camp. Brig. General Henning Linden, of the 42nd “Rainbow” Division had accepted the official surrender of the concentration camp by SS-Untersturmführer Heinrich Wicker, an officer in the SS-Totenkopfverbände, on April 29, 1945, [8] as described in Dachau Liberated: The Official Report. However, according to the Go For Broke National Education Center, several scouts of the 522nd F.A.B. were east of Munich in the small Bavarian town of Lager Lechfield, “Elements of the 522nd F.A.B. were spread out over a 30-mile radius”.[9] Paul Moulin concurs by stating, “Scouts patrolling in a 30 mile range, reached Dachau the day before the main unit.”[10] It is therefore possible that the scouts were the first to reach Dachau’s concentration camp’s gate. However, Private First Class John Degro of the 45th “Thunderbird” Division recalls how he, “shot the lock off the gate and entered the compound”[11]. Therefore, even if the scouts of the 522nd F.A.B. had reached the camp’s gate first, they could not have entered the camp.
Accounts from Technician Fourth Grade Ichiro Imamura state that he “watched as one of the scouts used his carbine to shoot off the chain that held the prison gates shut. (…) It was cold and the snow was two feet deep in some places.”[12] Lager Lechfield is located approximately 9.5 km from one of the 169 subordinate slave labor camps of Dachau, Kaufering IV Hurlach. It had been abandoned by the German guards on April 25, 1945[13] according to the official Kaufering website. The photo in Appendix B, taken by Lt. Sus Ito, purportedly shows the liberation of Dachau by the 522nd F.A.B., 100th Division, 442nd Regimental Combat Team on the April 29, 1945. However, the Go For Broke National Education Center claims that judging by the amount of snow on the ground, the photo appears to have been taken after May 1, 1945 when it had snowed in the Dachau area. According to Sam Dann, author of the Rainbow liberation memoirs, “There was no snow in Dachau on the twenty-ninth of April 1945, but it did snow on the thirtieth”[14] This is complemented by Ted MacKechnie’s drawings of Dachau, included in Dachau Liberated: The Official Report. Military records of the 522nd Field Artillery Battalion indicate that the battalion had been patrolling near Waakirchen, which is most likely where the photograph in Appendix B was taken. This information proves that the diary entries of Ichiro Imamura are not only most likely details describing the liberation of Kaufering IV Hurlach, but that these recollections date back to May 1, 1945.
The U.S. Army defines a liberator of Dachau as a Division that arrived in the main camp within 48 hours of the 42nd “Rainbow” and 45th “Thunderbird” Infantry Divisions. Moreover, the 522nd F.A.B. had been attached to five different divisions during the war. As stated in the report conducted by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, as early as June 1944 in Italy the 100th Division had already become detached from the 34th Division and attached to the 42nd, and could therefore not be considered as a liberating Division. Therefore, the official credit for the liberation of a sub-camp of Dachau was given to the division that the 522nd F.A.B. was attached to, at the time.

Section E – Conclusion: (166 Words)

While many books have been written about the 100th Battalion, 422nd Regimental Combat Team, it is important to recognize that little interpretative or analytical work has been published on the Japanese-American soldiers.[15] The liberation of the Kaufering IV sub-camp, however, does not fall into what the U.S. Army define to be considered as a liberator of the Dachau concentration camp. Moreover, due to the fact that the 522nd Field Artillery Battalion had been attached to various divisions during the war and had been discouraged to document their experiences with pictures or diary entries, the 522nd battalion cannot be officially credited for the liberation of Dachau. Despite the threat of being court martialed, it seems that the 522nd F.A.B. scouts may have been the first to reach the concentration camp’s gate. It is, however, irrefutable that the 45th “Thunderbird” Division was the first to reach the Dachau SS camp, and that the 42nd “Rainbow” Division was the first to reach the inside of the Dachau concentration camp.

Bibliography:

Benz, Wolfgang. Dachau and the Nazi Terror: 1933 – 1945 (II). Dachau: Verl. Dachauer Hefte, 2002. Print.
Benz, Wolfgang, and Barbara Distel. Dachau and the Nazi Terror 1933-1945 (I). Dachau: Dachauer Hefte, 2002. Print.
"Central Europe Campaign - (522nd Field Artillery Battalion)." Go For Broke National Education Center - Preserving the Legacy of the Japanese American Veterans of World War II. Web. 4 Nov. 2011. .
"Dachau Concentration Camp - Liberation April 29,1945 Timeline Dachau." Humanitas International - Press Freedom - Media Censorship - Freedom of Expression - Free Press - Individual Liberty - Human Rights - Humanitarian Action. Web. 19 Apr. 2011. .
"Dachau Liberation, April 29, 1945, by US Seventh Army." 29 April 1945 - Liberation Day at Dachau. Web. 5 Aug. 2011. .
Dann, Sam. Dachau 29 April 1945: the Rainbow Liberation Memoirs. Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech UP, 1998. Print.
Distel, Barbara, Gabriele Hammermann, Stanislav Zamecnik, Jürgen Zarusky, and Zdenek Zofka, eds. The Dachau Concentration Camp, 1933 to 1945: Text and Photo Documents from the Exhibition, with CD. Dachau: Comité International De Dachau, 2005. Print.
Hitchcock, William I. The Bitter Road to Freedom: a New History of the Liberation of Europe. New York: Free, 2008. Print.
"Kaufering Death Camps - Overview." Kaufering.com - Holocaust History. Eleven Sub-camps of Dachau. Web. 28 Oct. 2011. .
"Liberation of Dachau by Japanese Americans 552nd Field Artillery Battalion 442nd RCT April 29th 1945." API Movement. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. .
"Liberation of Kaufering IV Sub-camp of Dachau near Hurlach." Liberation of Kaufering IV Dachau Sub-camp. Web. 9 Aug. 2011. .
Menton, Linda K. Research Report: Nisei Soldiers at Dachau, Spring 1945. Rep. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii, 1994. 260. Print.
Moulin, Pierre. Dachau, Holocaust, and US Samurais: Nisei Soldiers First in Dachau? Bloomington, IN: Author House, 2007. Print.
Perry, Michael W. Dachau Liberated: the Official Report by U.S. Seventh Army Released within Days of the Camp's Liberation by Elements of the 42nd and 45th Divisions. Seattle, WA: Inkling, 2000. Print.
Stein, Harry. Buchenwald Concentration Camp, 1937-1945: a Guide to the Permanent Historical Exhibition. Göttingen: Wallstein, 2004. Print.
Schwenke, Kerstin. Die Besatzer und die Öffnung der Konzentrationslager in Bayern am Beispiel des Lagers Dachau. Munich: GRIN Verlag, 2008. 11. Print.
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Historical Atlas of the Holocaust. London: MacMillan Publishers, 1996. 195. Print.
"Who entered Dachau first on April 29, 1945?" Who entered Dachau first on April 29, 1945? Web. 19 Aug. 2011. .

Footnotes
 [1] United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Historical Atlas of the Holocaust. London: MacMillan Publishers, 1996. 195. Print.  [2] "Dachau Concentration Camp - Liberation April 29,1945 Timeline Dachau." Humanitas International - Press Freedom - Media Censorship - Freedom of Expression - Free Press - Individual Liberty - Human Rights - Humanitarian Action. Web. 19 Apr. 2011. .  [3] "Dachau Liberation, April 29, 1945, by US Seventh Army." 29 April 1945 - Liberation Day at Dachau. Web. 5 Aug. 2011. .  [4] Menton, Linda K. Research Report: Nisei Soldiers at Dachau, Spring 1945. Rep. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii, 1994. 260. Print.  [5] Menton, Linda K. Research Report: Nisei Soldiers at Dachau, Spring 1945. Rep. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii, 1994. 258-274. Print.  [6] "Liberation of Kaufering IV Sub-camp of Dachau near Hurlach." Liberation of Kaufering IV Dachau Sub-camp. Web. 9 Aug. 2011. .  [7] Perry, Michael W. Dachau Liberated: the Official Report by U.S. Seventh Army Released within Days of the Camp's Liberation by Elements of the 42nd and 45th Divisions. Seattle, WA: Inkling, 2000. 31. Print.  [8] Schwenke, Kerstin. Die Besatzer und die Öffnung der Konzentrationslager in Bayern am Beispiel des Lagers Dachau. Munich: GRIN Verlag, 2008. 11. Print.  [9] "Liberation of Dachau by Japanese Americans 552nd Field Artillery Battalion 442nd RCT April 29th 1945." API Movement. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. .  [10] Moulin, Pierre. Dachau, Holocaust, and US Samurais: Nisei Soldiers First in Dachau? Bloomington, IN: Author House, 2007. 125. Print.  [11] Moulin, Pierre. Dachau, Holocaust, and US Samurais: Nisei Soldiers First in Dachau? Bloomington, IN: Author House, 2007. 99. Print.  [12] "Central Europe Campaign - (522nd Field Artillery Battalion)." Go For Broke National Education Center - Preserving the Legacy of the Japanese American Veterans of World War II. Web. 4 Nov. 2011. .  [13] "Kaufering Death Camps - Overview." Kaufering.com - Holocaust History. Eleven Sub-camps of Dachau. Web. 28 Oct. 2011. .  [14] Dann, Sam. Dachau 29 April 1945: the Rainbow Liberation Memoirs. Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech UP, 1998. 63. Print.  [15] Menton, Linda K. Research Report: Nisei Soldiers at Dachau, Spring 1945. Rep. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii, 1994. 260. Print.

Were the results of the high-altitude experiments at Dachau useful?

Section A – Plan of the Investigation
This investigation aims to answer the question: Were the results of the high-altitude experiments at Dachau useful? by focussing primarily on the experiments that were carried out by Dr Rascher and his associates from February to May 1942. A visit to the former site and access to its archives will enable me to obtain valuable source material from the time as well as the opportunity to seek the expertise of the staff. To understand the nature of the experiments, their results and possible application, sources from correspondence between Rascher and Himmler in 1942 to more recent scholarly works related to the research question will be enlisted. This investigation will not "indulge in the luxury of moral judgement”[1] and, despite their admittedly horrific nature, the worth of the experiments will be clarified without the consciousness of what is right and wrong.
Chief among the sources used will be the first-hand account of Stanislav Zámečníc, a survivor of the camp whose book That was Dachau provides an overview of the camp's history as well details of the experiments, and a report by the University of Göttingen published the year the camp was liberated and outlines dispassionately the experimental information and the treatment of the results after the war. These two sources will be evaluated in Section C.
Word Count: 215

Section B – Summary of Evidence
The first concentration camp built by the Nazis was opened on the 22nd March 1933[2] in Dachau[3]. Simultaneously, the Luftwaffe was developing new fighter airplanes that could operate at higher altitudes, but “German aeronautical medicine was lagging behind”[4], so could not prove that flying at such altitudes was safe. They carried out experiments on volunteers, but these did not provide the ‘desired’ results because, at high altitudes, the subjects experienced severe pain and the experiments were stopped[5]. This triggered complaints, which were used by Dr. Sigmund Rascher to initiate correspondence with Heinrich Himmler, leader of the SS, on the 15th May 1941, appealing for permission to be provided with “subjects for high-altitude tests, in which they could well die”[6].  Rascher was granted permission to carry out the experiments at Dachau along with Doctors Romberg and Ruff in an experimental station set up in infirmary block 5, where a mobile low-pressure chamber was provided.
The experiments lasted from February to May 1942. In these experiments, titled the ‘Versuche zur Rettung aus großen Höhen’, or ‘attempt to rescue from high altitudes”, the limits of human endurance and the existence at high altitudes were tested[7].
Rascher detailed the results of the experiments, in which 80 prisoners out of between 200 and 300 were killed[8] in a report dated the 11th May 1942:
“In parachute drop tests, survival proved possible from an altitude of 13km without oxygen, and from 18km with oxygen. In free-fall tests, survival was possible from 21km”
The side effects of these experiments were described by an eyewitness from the camp:
“The prisoner would stand in a vacuum until his lungs ruptured… they would go mad and pull out their hair to relieve the pressure. They would tear their heads and faces in an attempt to maim themselves in their madness. They would beat walls and scream in an effort to relieve pressure on their eardrums. These cases usually ended in death.”[9]
The experiments were ended in May 1942 when “the goal had been reached”[10]. After Dachau was liberated in April 1945[11], records of what happened there soon became clear. The Nuremberg Doctors Trials in 1947 charged 20 doctors with conspiracy to commit war crimes[12]. The scientific nature of the experiments and the subsequent reliability of the results were questioned. Dr Rascher went on to conduct hypothermia experiments before he was arrested and executed at Dachau concentration camp in April 1945. Dr Ruff went on to head the Institute of Aviation at Bad Gotesberg - he also taught a course at Bonn University – ‘Aviation Medical Experiments’[13].
Word Count: 434


Section C – Evaluation of Sources
That Was Dachau, 1933 – 1945 by Stanislav Zámečníc was published in 2004 and provides a comprehensive account of life at Dachau concentration camp during its operation. Using a variety of sources from the time period, Zámečníc, who was awarded the Dachau Prize for Civil Courage in 2011[14], uses his experiences from working in the camp’s infirmary to describe aspects of the camp, including the medical experiments that were carried out. Zámečníc himself was a prisoner at Dachau and is now a trained historian, which makes the process of analyzing and linking together sources much easier[15]. This book is also sold at the concentration camp, which shows that it is considered a valuable official account. It is also a good source to use as it puts the information into a chronological context[16]. Although this source is of value due to the author’s first-hand connection[17], the title itself illustrates the fact that this book provides a general overview of the camp, and is not specifically focused on the topic of investigation. Zámečníc himself warns against memoirs by prisoners that make up his work as being "marked by a narrow, subjective perspective" which he sought to avoid.[18], and, as he was not involved in the experiments, his account of them is only useful in providing indirect information.

German Aviation Medical Research at the Dachau Concentration Camp, obtained at the Dachau Memorial Site archives, is a report written in October 1945 by researchers at the University of Göttingen. Ostensibly, its purpose is to give details and results of the high altitude experiments that were carried out at Dachau, along with providing evidence regarding the use of the obtained results[19]. However are suggestions that the report is is a “hagiographic account of the Nazi doctors as heroic men who showed great scientific understanding and personal research”[20] due to the fact that it plays up the results and therefore doesn’t provide accurate details of the experiments, which provides a limitation to the source. This, however, makes it useful because it offers insight into the mind-set of the culture of the time here in Germany, a perspective not offered by other sources. Because it was written freshly after the war, it is valuable in the sense that it uses first-hand sources and shows that the results were immediately taken into consideration. Limitations arise in this source due to the fact that, because it was published in 1945, it is unable to recognise whether or not the test results were used in the long term after the war, so it cannot be used to detail the full long term extent of the use of the results that more contemporary sources may provide.
Word Count: 450

Section D – Analysis
In order to answer the research question, one must understand the issue in historical context – the results were expected to be used by the Luftwaffe to allow pilots to fly at the highest possible altitudes, where it is more economical[21], and the German army could gain power over their enemies. The experiments carried out at Dachau laid the foundations for further medical experiments at concentration camps such as Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen, and the manner in which all of these experiments were carried out has been remembered throughout history.
The two sources put forward for analysis support the argument that the high-altitude experiments carried out at Dachau were of minimal use.  In That Was Dachau, Zámečníc argues that the experiments were initiated and carried out not for the purpose of scientific discovery, but for career development – Dr Rascher believed that he should have been rewarded for his “criminal actions”[22]. The report from the University of Göttingen argues that the results of the experiments were useless as they had been previously attained through more humane experiments carried out by American research scientists– the results “disclosed little or nothing of value to aviation medicine that was not already known” and they “failed to solve many of the current medical problems relating to aviation”[23]. It can therefore be seen that the two sources analysed in Section C are significant in presenting two different arguments that, when combined, argue that the high altitude experiments at Dachau produced results of limited use.
The general interpretation of the results from the experiments is that they weren’t useful – “they remain unexplained even after half a century”[24]. Many believe that the experiments were invalid before they were even started[25]. There is evidence to suggest that the experiments weren’t scientifically justifiable – in Prosecution Exhibit 66 of the Nuremberg Trials it was declared by Rascher that “since the urgency of the solution was evident, it was necessary to forego for the time being the clearing up of scientific question”[26] – he knew that the experiments wouldn’t produce useful results – he also “lacked the qualifications to carry out the studies”[27]. It has been remarked that the investigators “failed to record basic subject variables such as age and level of nutrition” of the subjects (who were also malnourished and so unsuitable for experimentation) and that “these omissions severely limit the applicability and generalizability of the data”[28]. It has been added that the design and method of the experiments were “incomplete and reflect a disorganized approach”[29].  Although there is resounding evidence that the results were not of any value or use, this viewpoint could be negatively affected by the fact that now, with the benefit of hindsight, our opinions may be clouded because we know that the experiments were unethical – the viewpoint could therefore be affected by historical bias, despite the amount of evidence present to support it.
However, there are those who make the argument that the results were “integrated in complex research projects and widely discussed at scientific conferences of the aeromedical research community”[30] as justification that they were of some value. The majority of the use of the results was by the USA – they were “confiscated” by the US government after Dachau’s liberation and “used for the US Air Force”[31]. Dr. John Hayward at the University of British Columbia even admits to using the results in his research despite his discomfort, because there is no way of reproducing them in an “ethical world."[32]. Others, such as Katz, argue that they have studied the results obtained, consider them to “contain valuable information”[33]. There is also an argument that the results were of indirect use – the results “formed the foundation of post-war aviation medicine”[34]. After concluding their findings, Rascher and his team proposed to the Luftwaffe to implement “automatic catapult seats, barometrically controlled parachutes and a portable oxygen apparatus”[35] if consciousness was lost at high altitudes, although there is no evidence of these recommendations being pursued by the Luftwaffe. Although there has been some recorded use of the results obtained through the experiments, most of the evidence points towards the fact that the results of the high-altitude experiments at Dachau were of little or no scientific value and use – “they contained all the ingredients of scientific fraud and should be rejected on purely scientific grounds”[36].
Word Count: 724

Section E - Conclusion
Based on the evidence presented, it can be seen that the results of the high-altitude experiments at Dachau were of very little to no use whatsoever. Rather than being based on scientific fact, they were initiated in the pursuit of career development and, due to the lack of science behind the experiments, the results cannot be classified as useful – they were carried out immorally and with no factual justification. Although there is some evidence that suggests that the results were used by the USA and influenced post-war aviation medicine, this evidence is very few and far between and is outweighed by the overwhelming amount of evidence that suggests that the high-altitude experiments did not produce useful results – as Evans notes, “none of this research ever brought any benefit to the airmen that it was intended to help – it had no defensible medical application”[37]. In summary, therefore, after analyzing a number of sources related to the research question, it a clear answer – the results obtained in the high-altitude experiments were not useful.
                                    Word Count: 172

Section F – List of Sources
1)    Bastian, Till. Furchtbare Ärzte: Medizinische Verbrechen im Dritten Reich. Munich: C. H. Beck oHG, 1995.
2)    Berger, Robert L., M.D. "Nazi Science - The Dachau Hypothermia Experiments." The New England Journal of Medicine 322 (1990): 1435-440. Print.
3)    Black, Peter. "Das War Dachau Review." Holocaust and Genocide Studies 23.1 (2009): 104-07. Project MUSE. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Web. 7 Nov. 2012. .
4)    Dixon, Bernard. "Citations of Shame." New Scientist 28 Feb. 1985: 31. Print.
5)    Ebbinghaus, Angelina and Klaus Dörner. Vernichten und Heilen: Der Nürnberger Ärtzteprozeβ und seine Folgen. Berlin: Aufbau-Verlag, 2001.
6)    Eckart, Wolfgang Uwe. Man, Medicine and the State: The Human Body as an Object of Government. Munich: Printservice Decker & Bokor, 2006.
7)    Evans, Richard J. "Preface." Preface. The Coming of the Third Reich. New York: Penguin Group USA, 2003. Print.
8)    Evans, Richard J. The Third Reich at War. London: Penguin Books Ltd, 2009.
9)    “German Aviation Medical Research at the Dachau Concentration Camp” – Secret report by the University of Göttingen, 1945. Accessed at the Dachau Archives (File 36.205) on the 14th September 2012.
10) "German Dachau Awards Czech Historian Zámečník." Prague Daily Monitor. The Czech News Agency (ČTK), 10 June 2011. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. .
11) Hunt, Linda. Secret Agenda: The United States Government, Nazi Scientists, and Project Paperclip, 1945 to 1990. New York: St Martins, 1991. Print.
12) "Introduction." Visitor Information - Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site. KZ-Gedenkstätte Dachau, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. .
13) Katz, J. “Abuse of human beings for the sake of science.” (1992) In A.R. Caplan, When
Medicine Went Mad (pp. 233-270). Totowana, NJ: Humana Press.
14) Lifton, Robert Jay. The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide. New York: BasicBooks, 1986.
15) Marcuse, Harold. "Reviews of Books." Rev. of That Was Dachau by Stanislav Zámečníc. American Historical Review 113 (2008): n. pag. USCB Department of History. The Regents of the University of California. Web. 5 Nov. 2012.
16) "Medical Experiments at Dachau." Scrapbookpages.com. N.p., 27 Feb. 2009. Web. 28 Oct. 2012.
17) Meskil, Paul. Hitler’s Heirs – Where are they Now?. New York: Pyramid Books, 1961.
18) "Nazi Horrors: Medical Monsters." Hitler's Third Reich 1 (1998): 22. Print.
19) Smith, Marcus J. Dachau: The Harrowing of Hell. New York: State University of New York, 1995.
20) Spitz, Vivien. Doctors From Hell: The Horrific Account of Nazi Experiments on Humans. New York: First Sentiment Publications, 2005.
21) Zámečníc, Stanislav. That was Dachau, 1933 – 1945. Paris: Le Cherche Midi, 2004.

Footnotes:
[1] Evans, Richard J. Preface. The Coming of the Third Reich. New York: Penguin Group USA, 2003.Print.  [2] Lifton, Robert Jay. The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide. New York: BasicBooks, 1986. Page 152.  [3] It was situated in a “swampy, forested area to the left of the Schleissheim road” Zámečníc, Stanislav. That was Dachau, 1933 – 1945. Paris: Le Cherche Midi, 2004. Page 27.  [4] Zámečníc 257  [5] Bastian, Till. Furchtbare Ärzte: Medizinische Verbrechen im Dritten Reich. Munich: C. H. Beck oHG, 1995. Page 75.  [6] Zámečníc 258  [7] Zámečníc 65. This was seen as necessary after the German army had suffered numerous losses of parachute troops in Crete in 1941 due to ‘altitude complications’ (found in the secret report by the University of Göttingen, accessed in the Dachau Archives as file 36.205)  [8] Evans, Richard J. The Third Reich at War. London: Penguin Books Ltd, 2009. Page 602.  [9] Meskil, Paul. Hitler’s Heirs – Where are they Now?. New York: Pyramid Books, 1961. Page 49  [10] Ebbinghaus, Angelina and Klaus Dörner. Vernichten und Heilen: Der Nürnberger Ärtzteprozeβ und seine Folgen. Berlin: Aufbau-Verlag, 2001. Page 129  [11] "Introduction." Visitor Information - Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site. KZ-Gedenkstätte Dachau, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2012.  [12] Bastian 76.  [13] Meskil 49  [14] "German Dachau Awards Czech Historian Zámečník." Prague Daily Monitor. The Czech News Agency (ČTK), 10 June 2011. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.  [15] In his words, “the linking of the position of the historian and the witness may enrich the work, and, particularly today, be useful” (Zámečníc 13) He also states that “one cannot get an idea of conditions inside the camp without comparing archive records with the testimony of a witness. (Ibid 13).  [16] Zámečníc’s account “represents the cutting edge of research on the Dachau camp’s history, masterfully assessing the source material on such questions” about topics such as the “medical experiments”.  Marcuse, Harold. "Reviews of Books." Rev. of That Was Dachau by Stanislav Zámečníc. American Historical Review 113 (2008): n. pag. USCB Department of History. The Regents of the University of California. Web. 5 Nov. 2012.  [17] In the Preface of the Book, Paul Kerstenne, President of the ‘Internationale Stiftung von Dachau’ (International foundation of Dachau) stated that the “victims could have found no one who would have researched their story in a fairer way than themselves” (Zámečníc 11.)  [18] Black, Peter. "Das War Dachau Review." Holocaust and Genocide Studies 23.1 (2009): 104-107. Project MUSE. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Web. 7 Nov. 2012.  [19] It uses the results to conclude that apparatus should be designed to automatically rescue pilots if they lose consciousness at high altitudes.  [20] Hunt, Linda. Secret Agenda: The United States Government, Nazi Scientists, and Project Paperclip, 1945 to 1990. New York: St Martins, 1991. Print.  [21] At higher altitudes, there is less wind resistance, which means that planes can fly faster using less fuel, making it financially beneficial whilst also allowing for an increased range of attack.  [22] Rascher wanted to bribe Himmler for a promotion in the SS, claiming that the experiments “whereby the experimentees could die” were a ‘job-crime’, and would not normally be allowed to be carried out. (Zámečníc 258.) Zámečníc also describes how Rascher demonstrated the “attractive results” to a number of senior officers in the SS and Luftwaffe in the hopes of being recognized for his work (Ibid 261.)  [23] Page 3, “German Aviation Medical Research at the Dachau Concentration Camp”  [24] Ebbinghaus and Dörner 222  [25] Historians have shown that many of the doctors, including Rascher, “were motivated by their desire for status and material gains, such as promotion in the SS” (Smith, Marcus J. Dachau: The Harrowing of Hell. New York: State University of New York, 1995. Page 264.)  [26] Spitz, Vivien. Doctors From Hell: The Horrific Account of Nazi Experiments on Humans. New York: First Sentiment Publications, 2005. Page 65.  [27] Berger, Robert L., M.D. "Nazi Science - The Dachau Hypothermia Experiments." The New England Journal of Medicine 322 (1990): Print. Page 1440.  [28] Berger 1440  [29] Berger 1436  [30] Eckart, Wolfgang Uwe. Man, Medicine and the State: The Human Body as an Object of Government. Munich: Printservice Decker & Bokor, 2006. Page 112.  [31] It was reported that the Americans, namely Charles Lindbergh and six colleagues, under the supervision of Dr Walter Boothby (Chair of the Aviation Medicine Research Unit at the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota), carried out similar high altitude experiments in 1942 for the US Air Force. ("Medical Experiments at Dachau." Scrapbookpages.com. N.p., 27 Feb. 2009. Web. 28 Oct. 2012. )  [32] Dixon, Bernard. "Citations of Shame." New Scientist 28 Feb. 1985: 31. Print.  [33] Katz, J. “Abuse of human beings for the sake of science.” (1992). Page 264.  [34] "Nazi Horrors: Medical Monsters." Hitler's Third Reich 1 (1998): 22. Print. Page 22.  [35] Ebbinghaus and Dörner, 157  [36] Berger 1440  [37] Evans 612

IBDP Extended Essay

To what extent was Nazi medical research the consequence of Nazi racial ideology?

Abstract

This essay investigates the question “To what extent was Nazi medical research the consequence of Nazi racial ideology?”



This investigation makes use of a variety of sources: My first primary source is Voices of Memory 2, Medical Crimes- The Experiments in Auschwitz by Irena Strzelecka. This book translates the documents surrounding the experiments of 12 German doctors at the Auschwitz Birkenau camps. It includes testimonies from the Nuremberg Trials, letters between doctors and SS officers and scanned copies of their observations. That Was Dachau 1933-1945 by Stanislav Zámečník describes in great detail what happened at Dachau Concentration Camp and includes a very thorough section on the medical investigations performed there. For the second part of the investigation, I primarily used the essay written François Haas, German science and black racism—roots of the Nazi Holocaust. This essay provides a very compelling argument of the true origins of Nazi racial ideology. In preparation for this essay I visited Auschwitz Concentration Camp (where I was able to do some research in their archives) and Dachau Concentration Camp. This investigation also utilizes several other books and websites.



The investigation will be broken down into two parts. The first part contains the analysis of three experiments completed at Auschwitz and Dachau concentration camps (two from Auschwitz Birkenau and one from Dachau). In the second part, we will investigate the origins of the Nazi’s racial ideology which will help us find out if the experiments were a consequence of the Nazis or of past history.



The main conclusion reached in this investigation was that Nazi medical research was certainly founded on Nazi racial ideologies however, the experiments were one of the final consequences of a history of racial discrimination and prejudice that began in German in the late 1800s/early 1900s.



Word count: 297 words





Introduction

In this essay, we will discuss “To what extent was Nazi medical research the consequence of Nazi racial ideology”.  Eva Kor, a survivor of Nazi Human Experimentation remarked, “Medical science can only benefit mankind when the researchers respect the wishes of their human subjects and treat them with dignity”_.  Her use of the words “respect” and “dignity” are surprising as they are two words which are far from the description of the terrible afflictions Nazi doctors put their victims through. Throughout 1939-1945 German doctors performed a variety of tests on concentration camp prisoners of varying ages, nationalities, sexes, and degrees of health. These experiments were barbaric and usually left the prisoner with life long handicaps.  Although human experimentation and mass genocide were performed in the later years of the Nazi regime it’s hard to pin down where its origins lay. On one hand, the medical research could be one of the final products of the NSDAP’s harsh racial ideology. On the other hand, its roots could lay far before the Nationalist Socialist Party had any influence. 

         This topic remains relevant as we still strive to understand Nazi ideology and the reasoning behind it. As Nazism continues to be a topic that we study and teach to students, it is important that we study the significant medical events that were going on during World War Two. By investigating the experiments conducted at concentration camps and racism during Germany’s colonial history, we can learn whether medical research was conducted due to the influence of Nazi racial ideology or whether there was already hate in the German population and NSDAP power only awakened it.

         This question has great personal interest to me as I’m surrounded by it. Living in Munich has allowed me to see sites like Auschwitz and Dachau Concentration Camps first hand. This has really helped me gain a better grasp on what I’m studying and will give me a unique opinion on the subject.





Methodology

 We will start our investigation by giving some context about the racial ideology of the NSDAP and the Nuremberg Trials that took place from December 9th, 1946 to the 20th of August 1947. Afterwards, I will give a short analysis of the primary sources I am using for this investigation. For the first half of our investigation, we will analyze how Nazi racial ideology influenced three prominent experiments conducted in Auschwitz Birkenau and Dachau Concentration Camps. During our analysis we will look at the doctors’ background, the experiments they performed, the purpose of their experiments, and the outcome they achieved. Presently, I would argue that these experiments were strongly influenced by Nazi racial ideology however, for the second part of the investigation we will look into whether this claim ignores context and greater history (specifically whether it ignores the influence of policies developed by German physicians and scientists in the late 19th Century during the German colonial period in Africa).



Analysis of Sources

Source 1// Voices of Memory 2, Medical Crimes- The Experiments in Auschwitz by Irena Strzelecka

Voices of Memory 2, Medical Crimes- The Experiments in Auschwitz is a part of a series published by the International Centre for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust. I was recommended this book after leaving the archives at Auschwitz as it contains original German sources like letters and testimonies translated into English. Being translated is one of its greatest values as it allows historians who don’t speak German to know what was written in these sources about Nazi Doctors and their practices. Since the sources range from letters between members of the NSDAP and doctors to testimonies from victims and prisoner doctors, we receive both point of views which is valuable as we can learn what the intentions were compared to what actually happened. In my opinion, this piece provides all the necessary information you need when writing about the doctors of Auschwitz Birkenau. The only limitation I can find is that since the sources in the book were originally written in German (and in many cases, handwritten German), the translations are not completely reliable.

Source 2// That Was Dachau 1933-1945 by Stanislav Zámečník

My primary source for information on the experiments performed at Dachau Concentration Camp is That Was Dachau 1933-1945._ Unlike other historians, Zámečník’s purpose for



writing this book was to “compare archive records with the testimony of witnesses”_. This work covers several aspects of Dachau Concentration Camp however, there is chapter on the medical experiments done on prisoners there. This chapter is valuable as it breaks down every experiment completed and talks about their origins, the doctors involved, the method(s), and the results thereof. Compared to Source 1, it focusses a lot less on the victims of the experiments and more on the doctors who performed them- this is both beneficial and hurtful as it’s important that we know about the doctors intentions however, we also need to know about the effects of the experiments on the prisoners as it shows how far against the Hippocratic Oath the doctors were willing to go.



Source 3//  German science and black racism—roots of the Nazi Holocaust by François Haas

Unlike Sources 1 and 2, Source 3 is an essay published in the FASEB journal. The purpose of this essay is to argue how the Nazi’s policy on racial hygiene was developed by German scientists during Germany’s colonial time. It focusses on how the mass genocide and racial discrimination in Germany’s African colonies was a precursor of what happened during the Nazi regime. This source is valuable as the the argument is not spread out over a whole book but rather compact in a six page piece. It is also valuable as it covers all of the important time periods and presents several quotes, figures, and tables. As an essay, it is limited to further development of the claims made and is limited to only one case study.



Theory

It is common knowledge that Hitler had a strong belief in the “master” or Aryan race. His ideology was rooted in what he called “the basic principle of blood”. This principle is that the blood of every person and race contains their soul. Hitler believed that the Germanic (or as he called Aryan) race had the purist blood and therefore was the highest race. After Hitler gained power, he started instilling this belief in the German people. As this ideology became more popular among the ‘pure Germans’, the discrimination against those of other races, religions, political affiliations and sexual orientations increased. From 1941 to 1945, these people who were considered a threat to German society were sent to concentration camps around Europe. At extermination camps like Auschwitz-Birkenau, it was doctors who chose who went to



work, who went to the gas chambers, and which were the select few to be apart of their experiments.

Fast forward to after the war and we have the Nuremberg Trials that were held from the 9th of  December 1946 to the 20th of August 1947. During these specific trials, 23 German physicians were tried for their war crimes and their crimes against humanity. After almost 140 days, the testimonies of 85 witnesses, and the submission of almost 1,500 documents, the judges pronounced their verdict. Of the 23 doctors, 16 were found guilty, 9 were sentenced to time in prison, and 7 were sentenced to death.

         Through the Nuremberg “Doctor Trials”, it became clear that unethical human experimentation might surface as problem again. Thus, it seemed important to Dr. Leo Alexander and the United States Counsel of War Crimes that “a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation” _ be declared. What resulted was the Nuremberg Code. “The Nuremberg Code includes 10 principles to guide physician-investigators in experiments involving human subjects.”_ These principles cover consent, legitimacy of the experiment, the degree of risk that experimenters should take and many other seemingly obvious points. It seems clear that when performing an experiment on other human beings, one would do it in the best, and least harmful way. This begs the question, what did the German doctors do for such a code to be written? As a part of this investigation, I will explore how each doctor’s experiments broke the Nuremberg Code as well as the purpose each doctor had for performing their experiment and the supposed benefit it would have.



Investigation

Part 1// Doctor Analysis

Auschwitz Birkenau Doctors

Carl Clauberg

Carl Clauberg was born in Wuppertal, Germany on September 18, 1898. He was an MD with a specialty in gynecology and was a professor at the Königsberg University. During the war, Clauberg was the director of Women’s Disease Clinic at St. Hedwig’s Hospital in Königshütte.

Clauberg worked at Block 10 of Auschwitz and Barrack no. 30 at the women’s camp. There, he performed sterilization experiments on approximately 700 Jewish  female prisoners._ Through these experiments, Clauberg developed a method of non-surgical sterilization where he injected a chemical substance into a prisoner’s Fallopian tubes. This substance caused the adhesion of the Fallopian tubes and thus their obstruction._ Once the method had been perfected, it was still used on female prisoners though less for experimental purposes but more for it’s actual purpose- to take away a woman’s ability to have children. According to one witness_, the procedure “was carried out brutally, and often caused complications in the form of peritonitis, inflammation of the ovaries, and high fever.”_ Other accounts included that victims suffered from weakness_, “delusions”_, severe pain, and in some instances, death_.  Being a doctor and having the ability to cause



that much pain and suffering to healthy people truly shows how far Clauberg was willing to go in order to further his exploration. This begs the question of what influenced Carl Clauberg to run these inhumane trials.

         There is one reason that leads me to believe that Clauberg’s Nazi medical research was the direct consequence of Nazi racial ideology. This reason involves the origins of Clauberg’s work and is one of the reasons why I chose to focus on Clauberg rather than other doctors. Unlike other doctors, Dr. Clauberg was specifically asked by a member of the NSDAP to complete his investigation. In May 1942, Heinrich Himmler_, who had heard of Clauberg  from an SS officer whose wife’s infertility had been treated by him_, approached Clauberg with the question of how possible it would be to perform mass sterilization of non-Aryans_ (specifically 1,000 women a day_). Being non-surgical was important to Himmler because it allowed women to be able to go back to work and it could be applied inconspicuously._

         The investigation on different methods of sterilization was not only researched by Clauberg but also through other doctors (such as Horst Schumann who investigated sterilization through the use of X-Rays_). The NSDAP’s interest in sterilization seems clear- their belief in the “basic principle of blood” suggests that anyone who is not of Aryan descent has “dirty” blood. Although the “Final Solution” was underway, mass sterilization would guarantee a stop to Jewish repopulation. Rudolf Brandt explains the NSDAP’s interest in sterilization more thoroughly in his affidavit:



Himmler was extremely interested in the development of a cheap and rapid sterilization method which could be used against enemies of Germany, such as Russians, Poles and Jews, One hoped thereby not only to defeat the enemy but also to exterminate him. The capacity for work of the sterilized persons could be exploited by Germany, while the danger of propagation would be eliminated. As

this mass sterilization was apart of Himmler’s racial theory, particular time and care was devoted to these sterilization experiments. Surgical sterilization was of

course known in Germany and applied; this included castration. For mass application, however, this procedure was considered as too slow and too expensive. It was further desired that a procedure be found which would result in sterilization that was not immediately noticeable._



Clearly Nazi medical research on sterilization methods was not solely due to Clauberg’s interest. In fact,  his method of sterilization was inspired by his practice of doing the opposite with seemingly infertile women._ The affidavit above as well as letters between Clauberg and Himmler prove that these experiments were started with Nazi racial ideology in mind. In Hitler’s eyes, the Jews were “the personification of the devil as the symbol of all evil”_ and it is clear that the Nazi’s wanted to eradicate any blood that might poison the Aryan.



Josef Mengele

Josef Mengele was born in Günzburg, Germany on March 16, 1911._ He was a doctor of philosophy and medicine, a member of the NSDAP and was inducted into the Waffen-SS from February to May 1943._ According to Irena Strzelecka’s book Medical Crimes, The Experiments in Auschwitz, Mengele was transferred to Auschwitz at his own request to carry out medical and anthropological research. For the three years he was there, he held several leadership roles across the different camps.

         Mengele’s experiments at the Auschwitz Birkenau camps were primarily centered on the inherited traits in twins, dwarfs, and noma_. For this investigation, we will focus on Mengele’s “favorite pastime”_, the twin experiments.



Unlike other doctors, Mengele’s experiments were quite secretive. Former prisoner Dr. Alfred Fiderkiewicz quoted that “What the results of these experiments were, none of the doctors seemed to know.”_ Thus, we have to rely on the testimonies of former prisoners who were subjected to his experiments and of those who worked for Mengele for our information. According to former prisoner Elżbieta Piekut-Warszawska,, Mengele’s twins underwent three kinds of examinations- anthropological, x-ray, and morphological._ These were done in preparation for “further experimental operations”._ The anthropological  examinations included striping the children naked and measuring their bodies for hours with the help of protractors, compasses, and calipers. This was done to verify whether the twins were identical and copious notes were taken. Afterwards, they were x-rayed from head to toe. The most drastic examinations were the morphological ones. “Samples of blood were collected first from the fingers and then from the arteries, two or three times from the same victims in some cases”._ Doctors also put drops into the children’s eyes in order to observe how the children’s eyes would react- whether they would swell, get red, or cause pain. There are many more accounts where Mengele would take ‘interesting cases’ (twins who, for example, had different colour irises) with him to examine however little is known about what happened to these children._

         The twin experiments almost always resulted in severe pain and death of at least one of the twins. In one example, a set of Hungarian twins we put through several days of torturous examination_ until they received lethal injections of to the heart_. To be able to inflict that kind of agony on children who called him “Onkel”_ is truly baffling. Learning Mengele’s justifications and intentions will never make him more honorable but it may help us understand if the experiments we done with an actual purpose in mind or if they were simply to torture.



With the research I have conducted, I have found two points that suggest to me that Mengele’s medical research was the consequence of Nazi racial ideology. Firstly, Mengele is described to be a respected member of the SS. From his letter of reference by Edward Wirths_, he is described as being “absolutely trustworthy, frank and straightforward”_ with a “spiritual and physical predisposition that must be defined as simply exceptional.”_ In relation to his research as an anthropologist, Wirths emphasized that Mengele’s research would make a “significant contribution to anthropological knowledge.”_ To be so universally liked and respected implies that not only was he an active member in the NSDAP but that he was a zealous one.

         My second point lies in the aim of Mengele’s twin experiments. According to Dr. Miklos Zyiszli_, ‘the great aim of this research [was] to increase the birth rate of the “higher race” which had been summoned to rule. More precisely, to ensure that every German mother gives birth to twins in the future...The idea [was] to propagate the German race, and the final goal [was] enough Germans to populate the territories defined as Lebensraum of the Third Reich__. With an aim such as this, it’s obvious that these experiments were founded out of Nazi racial ideology.



Dachau Experiments

High-Altitude Experiments

The experiments I will focus on from Dachau Concentration Camp are the high-altitude experiments run by Sigmund Rascher. These experiments are different to the experiments we analyzed earlier as they are not specifically related to Nazi racial ideology. In 1941, Germany was in the process of developing high-altitude missions for the Luftwaffe. During this time, questions arose how a pilot would react to the conditions and what his chances of survival were during decompression and parachute jumps._ Upon hearing these conversations, Rascher offered to take on this problem and perform tests for it using “professional criminals”_. Soon after, Himmler supplied Rascher with an experimental chamber at Block 5 and number or prisoners_.



Rascher’s experiments followed an “officially sanctioned program”_- pressure chambers were set to emulate an altitude of 21km and prisoners we sent inside in order to observe “at what altitude the oxygen supply is sufficient without pressurized cabins and the reaction of the human body to decompression and parachute-jumping.” As time went on, the experiments became more radical and resulted in Rascher and Hans-Wolfgang Romberg_ performing extreme craniotomies and open heart surgery on living prisoners. The results of these extreme experiments thrilled Himmler however quite surprisingly he asked that if they succeeded in resuscitating a prisoner from an altitude of 10.5km (the height they had been testing), “the death sentences could thus be commuted, as an act of clemency.”_ According to Romberg, between 200 and 300 experiments were performed. Of these, approximately 80_ died immediately while others suffered injuries from the extreme exposure_.



As we mentioned earlier, these experiments don’t relate to Nazi racial ideology as closely as the sterilization and twin experiments do. One pattern that appeared through the the period of Nazi medical research was that as the war progressed, doctors started being asked to perform investigations on problems seen at the front. For example, in 1944 Emil Kaschub was sent to Auschwitz to perform experiments that exposed the various methods of malingering used among the German troops_. In this experiment, the Nazi Party needed aeronautical medicine to be developed in order to advance their warfare. Still, there are ways we can relate these high-altitude experiments to the Nazi’s racial ideology. Firstly, these tests would have been impossible to complete if the Nazi’s didn’t have racial ideology they infamously had. If there hadn’t been a “basic principle of blood”, there wouldn’t have been any concentration camps and thus, no people to perform tests on. Additionally, since this experiment originated from a need to develop Luftwaffe missions, it can be linked to racial ideology through the war itself. Seeing as the war was announced on Germany when Hitler attempted to obtain all of Czechoslovakia, we can link this to racial ideology since Hitler’s purpose for gaining Czechoslovakia was for German Lebensraum. If there wouldn’t have been this conflict, there wouldn’t have been this need for aeronautical medicine.



Part 2// Greater History

In the first part of this investigation, we have been suggesting that all of the doctors involved in Nazi medical research only became firm believers in racial hygiene when the NSDAP started gaining popularity and power. What we have failed to question is whether or not the German doctors already had this belief before World War One, when Germany settled parts of Africa.

         With the popularization of Social Darwinism in the late 1800s, the proposition that races were in a struggle for survival of the fittest became a belief. “German Darwinists [including doctors] argued that innate racial inequalities gave each individual life a different value and the extermination of inferior races was not only appropriate but unavoidable.” _ During this time, German doctors had strong political leverage. With this leverage they essentially authored Germany’s racial policies. They created a program with a series of discrete steps that resulted in ethnic cleansing. As a consequence of this, when Germany occupied colonies in Africa, the native peoples there were forced into hard labor. Things escalated in Namibia when the 80,000 Hereros rebelled against their German overlords in 1905. The Germans sent troops to combat the conflict however, Lorthar von Trotha proclaimed that no war would be conducted on “non humans” and instead announced an “annihilation order”. Of the 80,000 Hereros, an estimated 65,000 were murdered while the remaining 15,000 were instated in the first Konzentrationslager. Similar to the concentration camps we are familiar with, these camps were established to “extract economic benefits...under conditions that would lead to mass fatalities”_. With hindsight, we can see how the events that occurred during this genocide set a template for Nazi extermination in later years.

         Interestingly, the African concentration camps also became a location for anthropological studies. Similar to what happened in Auschwitz, autopsies were performed on dead prisoners and their bodies were preserved and sent to Berlin for study. Once in Germany, the body parts were dissected and carefully measured (this relates again to what doctors did at Auschwitz). 



It’s obvious that the Nazis modeled their plan for ethnic cleansing after the Herero and Namaqua Genocide however, did German doctors maintain a belief in the ideal race after World War One? Their early involvement with the NSDAP suggests that they did. Professor Robert Procter remarked: “The National Socialist Physicians’ League proved its political reliability to the Nazi cause long before the Nazis seizure of power, and with an enthusiasm, and an energy, unlike that of any other professional group.”_ Statistics back up Procter’s statement as even before the NSDAP gained power, 11,000 MDs had already joined the Nazi Party, by the war’s end, 48% of psychiatrists and neurologists had joined the NSDAP and, more than 7% of male MDs belonged to the SS_.  Later, when Hitler asked the medical profession to lead the race issue_, it was taken on by the doctors and they started working the issues immediately._ As Bavarian Cabinet Minister Hans Schemm said, “National Socialism is nothing but applied biology”. Combining all of our evidence, I believe we can say that the science behind the racial ideology the Nazi’s supported interested the doctors in Germany and they didn’t realize/care about the implications it would have.



Conclusion

This investigation has sought to answer the question To what extent was Nazi medical research the consequence of Nazi racial ideology?” The evidence and arguments considered have led me to the conclusion that Nazi medical research was influenced by Nazi racial ideologies however were the overall consequence of a longer history of prejudice and hate that started in Colonial Germany. The experiments we investigated are all related to an aspect of racial ideology in one way or another however, when we look at the origins of the ideology itself, we realize that it is not unique to the Nazis and that the ideas were carried over from one time period to another.



Nevertheless, my studies demonstrate that there are clearly problems with reaching a final answer. The main limitation of this essay was the word count provided which meant that I was restricted to investigating three experiments. If this investigation was to be rewritten with the same word limit, I would have maybe focused on the medicine itself and less on the doctors so I could a developing my ideas more in depth. Another limitation is a lack of reliable sourcing. I already hinted to this in my essay but in many cases I had to rely on testimonies of ex-prisoners which isn’t the most reliable. If I were to write another essay on this topic, I would be interested in analyzing the ethics behind Nazi medicine and how right it is for us to profit off of the results of the horrific experiments.



Translations and Abbreviations

NSDAP- Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei

MD- Doctor of Medicine



Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei- National Socialist German Workers Party (Official name for Nazi Party)

Waffen SS- Armed Protective Squadron

Onkel- Uncle

SS Standortarzt- SS Stationed Physician

Luftwaffe- German Air force

Konzentrationlager- Concentration Camps



Bibliography

Books

Benedict, Susan, and Jane M. Georges. "Nurses and the sterilization experiments of Auschwitz: a postmodernist perspective." Nursing inquiry 13.4 (2006): 277-288.

Burleigh, Michael, and Wolfgang Wippermann. The Racial State: Germany, 1933-1945. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1991. Print.

Hitler, Adolf, and Ralph Manheim. Mein Kampf. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1943. Print.

Katz, Jay. "The Nuremberg code and the Nuremberg trial: A reappraisal." Jama 276.20 (1996): 1662-1666.

Lifton, Robert Jay "The Nazi doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide", Basic Books, 2000

Smith, Larry. "A brief history of medicine's Hippocratic Oath, or how times have changed." Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery 139.1 (2008): 1-4.

Spitz, Vivien. Doctors from hell: The horrific account of Nazi experiments on humans. Sentient Publications, 2005.

Strezelecka, Irena. Voices of Memory 2, Medical Crimes : The Experiments in Auschwitz. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print

Zámečník, Stanislav. That Was Dachau: 1933-1945. Paris: Fondation Internationale De Dachau, 2004. Print.



Websites

"Carl Clauberg." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 20 June 2014. Web. 26 Nov. 2014. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007061>.

"Dachau: High Altitude Experiments." High Altitude Experiments. Jewish Virtual Library, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2014. <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/altexp.html>.

“Human Subjects Research After the Holocaust” Conference.The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX. December 5. 2012. Web. 10. Nov. 2014 <http://www.houstonmethodist.org/body.cfm?id=495&action=detail&ref=977>

"Medical Experiments of the Holocaust and Nazi Medicine." Medical Experiments of the Holocaust and Nazi Medicine. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2014. <http://remember.org/educate/medexp.html>.

"Nuremberg Code." Princeton University. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2014. <http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Nuremberg_Code.html>.

Tyson, Peter. "The Experiments." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2014. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/holocaust/experiside.html>.



Essays

•Haas, François. "German Science and Black Racism- Roots of the Nazi Holocaust." FASEB Journal (n.d.): 332-37. Web. 28 Nov. 2014.



Images

Figure 1- Picture taken of Block 10. Digital image. Out and About in Europe. N.p., 30 June 2014. Web. 28 Sept. 2014. <http://outandaboutineurope.blogspot.de/2014/06/historic-locations-arent-always-fun-but.html>.

Figure 2- Strezelecka, Irena. Voices of Memory 2, Medical Crimes : The Experiments in Auschwitz. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print pg. 23

Figure 3- Strezelecka, Irena. Voices of Memory 2, Medical Crimes : The Experiments in Auschwitz. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print pg. 88


Why Were the Human Hypothermia Experiments Conducted in Dachau Concentration Camp?


h i s t o r y    i n t e r n a l     a s s e s s m e n t

A.
The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the reasons that resulted in conducting the human hypothermia experiments in Dachau Concentration Camp between the years 1942-1943. A thorough study shall be conducted, while establishing what the hypothermia experiments were and why they were carried out, to arrive at an answer to the research question: “Why Were the Human Hypothermia Experiments Conducted in Dachau Concentration Camp?” It is worthy of investigation as the topic is usually discussed in regards of its ethics or scientific validity, but the reasons behind the horrific experiments are rarely considered.
Information will be gathered from multiple primary and secondary sources, varying in historical views, focusing on “Doctors from Hell” by Vivien Spitz, who was the first to document in detail all medical cases in the Nuremberg trials, and “That was Dachau” by Dr. Zámečnik, a trained historian who is also a survivor of the horrors of Dachau. Finally, the former Concentration Camp will be visited, both to investigate the site as well as its archives, and to collect first-hand information regarding the topic not available elsewhere, ensuring a wide variety of sources. The investigation will not however, assess the ethics of the experiments nor their validity or reliability.

Word count: 202

B.
The hypothermia project, often described as ‘freezing experiments’[1], took place in Dachau Concentration Camp between August 15th, 1942 to approximately May 1943.[2] It was issued by Air Force Field Marshal Erhard Milch, and the deputy of the Aviation Medicine department, Becker- Freyseng[3], and approved by Heinrich Himmler, the Reichsführer[4], due to the need for further research.[5]

A three-men team was initially set up, called “Seenot”[6], which was led by Professor Ernst Holzlöhner and the other two being Sigmund Rascher and Dr. Finke. Their primary aims were[7]:
to discover the most appropriate ways of saving lives, and particularly to test the theory of the early nineteenth-century Russian scientist, Lepinsky, who argued that rapid warming was the most effective.
to determine which body organs first become paralyzed by cold, and the exact cause of death.
to test the best options for preventive life-saving in a cold war.
The descriptions in the ‘Dachau Comprehensive Report’ of the design, materials, and methods of the experiments are incomplete and reflect a disorganized approach.[8] However, it is believed that the experiments were conducted in Block 5 of the Concentration Camp, where a 2x2 meters tank was built.[9] The tank was filled with 8,000 litters of water, and ice was added until it measured three degrees or less.[10] The subjects were to wear a fully equipped flying suit or were placed into the tank naked, while the length of the experiments varied. Once the subject’s body temperature was lowered to 27-25ºC, they were thrown into a boiling bath to re-regulate their temperature.[11] At least six other methods of rewarming the subjects after immersion were documented.[12]
On October 10th, Holzlöhner and Finke believed that they had achieved satisfying results after using 50 to 60 subjects, of whom between 15 to 18 died.[13] They concluded the experiments with a lengthy report, reviewed by the Reichsführer himself, titled ‘Prevention and Treatment of Freezing’.[14] The results were also presented at a medical conference in Nuremberg in October 1942. It included the average survival time in cold water, the effect of clothing on the rate of cooling and came to the conclusion that the currently used life jackets required modifications.[15]
Rascher, however, continued performing lethal experiments from October onwards to collect sufficient data for his postdoctoral thesis. Witness prisoner-nurse Walter Neff recalls in his testimony of December 1946 (during the Nuremberg war-crime trials), that the methods “were different when Rascher personally took over the experiments”.[16] Rascher started his own program, investigating animal heat as a mean to revive subjects. Rascher was more brutal, “keeping persons in the water until they were dead”.[17] Throughout the seven months he conducted the experiments, 250 more experimental subjects were used, 90 of whom died. He publicized his results at the 1942 medical conference entitled “Medical Problems Arising from Sea and Winter”.[18]

Word count: 472


C.
Source A:  Spitz, Vivien. "Freezing Experiments." Doctors from Hell: The Horrific Account of Nazi Experiments on Humans. Boulder, CO: Sentient Publications, 2005. Print.
Spitz provides a mixture of court transcripts from the Nuremberg war-crime trials, clinical descriptions of doctors’ reports and multiple testimonies of survivors. Spitz was sent by the American war department as a court reporter to the 1946 trials, whilst documenting in detail the 20 human medical experiment cases. Spitz published her documentations from 1946 in a vivid account, including previously unpublished photographs used as evidence in the trials.[19] The primary purpose of the book is “to expose the horrors of the past and to ensure they are not repeated in the future”.[20]
Although neither an historian nor a doctor, Spitz provides an objective and valuable report as an eyewitness and was honored for her work numerous times by the state of Israel and Bill Clinton.[21] While putting extra emphasis on the human medical experiments by citing accurate testimonies of inmates and other court transcripts, she does not focus on particular Concentration Camps, resulting in a rather underwhelming retelling of the facts. Both Dachau and the hypothermia experiments are mentioned numerous times, but are not the primary focus of the book. Additionally, Spitz incorporates her own experiences in post-war Germany, which hinders from its reliability as a source, due to her degree of subjectivity. However, she maintains a dispassionate and critical perspective when discussing the medical crimes. Although gathering all the information and sources for the book in 1946, Spitz published her work only in 2005. The passage of time allows emotional detachment that otherwise may have hindered the accuracy of her work if would have been published as early as 1946. “Doctors from Hell” is crucial to the success of this IA as it provides not only with transcripts that have not been easily available to the general public, but also testimonies and primary reports that describe the nature of the hypothermia experiments and their results to a great extent.

Word count: 310

Source B:  Zámečník, Stanislav. That Was Dachau: 1933-1945. Paris: Fondation Internationale De Dachau, 2004. Print.

Published in 2004, it is the first book to “compare and cross-reference many sources and eyewitnesses accounts”, aiming to refute common myths and provide new information about the death statistics and methods used in the Dachau Concentration Camp.[22] Zámečnik, who not only was an inmate in the camp and thus provides a valuable first hand account, but also a trained historian. Although this combination may enrich the work and ultimately be useful when contextualizing information, it also holds emotional bias that affects the retelling of facts and thus, hinders the accuracy of his work. Zámečnik himself states that “personal collections and subjective points of views” will be linked to “the historical sources”[23] throughout the book, which, at times, enriches his stories but also hinders their reliability. Using a large variety of sources and the help of Dr. Barbara Distel, the director of the Dachau Memorial Site, Zámečnik provides a reliable and comprehensive account, chronologically ordered, focusing on Dachau as a whole, as well as the medical experiments. The source is also believed to be of a high value as it is one of the very few recommended pieces of literature by the Dachau Memorial Site. As the focus of the book is primarily on Dachau Concentration Camp, it includes a well-researched account of the hypothermia experiments as well as the personal details about the doctors who conducted them. Zámečnik's knowledge as a survivor, as well as a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of Dachau and as an historian, contribute to its reliability as a source, which is arguably one of the most insightful book about Dachau Concentration Camp and therefore make it crucial for the success of the investigation.[24]

Word count: 280





D.
Germany had arguably the most “advanced medical technologies” prior to World War Two.[25] However, statistics obtained in 1943 from the front lines,[26] show that hypothermia was “accounting for more injuries to heavy bomber crews in World War Two than all other causes combined”[27], and thus, sufficient data regarding hypothermia was urgently needed. The wehrmacht and the Luftwaffe had therefore ordered freezing experiments to be conducted on humans at the concentration camp of Dachau. They were approved by the Reichsführer, Heinrich Himmler, in 1942,[28] suggesting a genuine need for hypothermia research was indeed necessary. ‘Seenot’, the team of Doctors Holzlöhner, Finke and Rascher, set up three main purposes for their work; to discover the most effective and rapid way to save lives of hypothermic subjects, to determine which body organs become paralyzed first and the exact cause of death and lastly, to test the best life- saving options during a cold war.
Professor Michalczyk argues that the main reason for conducting the experiments was the lack of research regarding hypothermia. He states that the hypothermia experiments in Dachau “gathered data unavailable elsewhere”[29], thus proving its necessity on the grounds of unavailability of data. However, numerous researchers at the University of Göttingen claimed in their 1945 report that hypothermia results “had been previously attained through more humane experiments carried out by American research scientists”.[30] Additionally, the Medical Department of the US Army states in its recent work that the results of the two countries’ experiments regarding hypothermia were “considerably similar”.[31] Zámečnik also reveals in his book, that “analogous experiments on large animals were conducted for the Luftwaffe in Munich”.[32] Lack of data regarding hypothermia was therefore not the main reason for conducting the experiments and so this argument is refuted.
Both sources analyzed in section C are significant in presenting compelling, yet opposing, arguments. Zámečnik argues that the experiments were not necessary for the survival of Nazi troops in the front lines, but rather for personal career development of the doctors. On February 24th, ‘Seenot’ and Erich Hippke, the Chief Medical Officer of Luftwaffe, felt that “enough satisfactory information concerning immersion hypothermia experiments had been collected”, and Dr. Holzlöhner and Finke withdrew from the project.[33] Dr. Rascher, who was an “ambitious experimentalist”[34], continued operating on camp inmates much for his own use, while employing the camp’s ‘equipment and resources to pursue his “far more radical research”[35], particularly for his postdoctoral thesis he was simultaneously working on. Although regularly reporting back to the Reichsführer and presenting his findings in the “Medical Problems Arising from Sea and Winter” conference, there are no evidence that suggest that his findings were in direct use for the Luftwaffe.
Spitz presents another compelling argument, based on numerous testimonies and transcripts, showing that intent for future use by both the wehrmacht and, in particular, the Luftwaffe, was clearly demonstrated through a lengthy exchange of letters between Rascher and Himmler. Bioethics Professor at the University of Boston, George J. Annas, supports this argument, arguing that the hypothermia experiments were an “integral part of the total Nazi war effort”. Neff Walter’s testimony, an inmate nurse who witnessed both ‘Seenot’ and Rascher’s experiments, incorporates both arguments presented and claims that until October the experiments were conducted purely to benefit the wehrmacht and the war effort.[36] However, once Holzlöhner and Finke withdrew the hypothermia case, Rascher was using the camp's resources for his own personal career development. Although a valuable eyewitness, Walter’s testimony should be taken with a degree of skepticism as memory as well as emotions may hinder the reliability of his account, evident through multiple inaccuracies, such as confusion of dates.[37]
Word count: 604





E.

Based on the evidence and arguments presented, it can be concluded that the human hypothermia experiments at Dachau were initially conducted for future use by the Luftwaffe and wehrmacht. However, following October 10th and the withdrawal of doctors Holzlöhner and Finke (who, together with the Chief Medical Officer, believed that enough sufficient data was collected), the experiments were conducted purely towards Rascher’s own postdoctoral thesis. It is also clear that hypothermia research and collection of data by the Nazis was needed, evident through the statistics compiled by the German High Command and presented in Overmans’ book, even though the argument claiming that unavailability of data was the main purpose of the hypothermia experiments, remains untrue; given that multiple studies with similar results were conducted prior to the start of ‘freezing experiments’.
Word count: 131

Total Word count: 1999



F.
BOOKS:
Annas, George J., and Michael A. Grodin. The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human                Rights in Human Experimentation. New York: Oxford UP, 1992. Print.
Berger, Robert L. "Nazi Science - the Dachau Hypothermia Experiments". New England Journal   of Medicine, 1990. 1435–40. Print. 
Michalczyk, John J. "The Dachau Human Hypothermia Experiments." Medicine, Ethics, and the             Third Reich: Historical and Contemporary Issues. Kansas City, MO: Sheed & Ward, 1994.        Print.
Military Medical Ethics Volume 2 - U.S. Department of Defence. 2003. N.p.: n.p., 2004. Print. 
Overmans, Rüdiger. Deutsche Militärische Verluste Im Zweiten Weltkrieg. München: R.               Oldenbourg, 1999. Print.
Pozos, Robert S., PHD. "NAZI HYPOTHERMIA RESEARCH: Should the Data Be Used?"                   Military Medical Ethics 2 (n.d.): Print. 
Spitz, Vivien. "Freezing Experiments." Doctors from Hell: The Horrific Account of Nazi              Experiments on Humans. Boulder, CO: Sentient Publications, 2005. Print.
Stephens, Martha. The Treatment: The Story of Those Who Died in the Cincinnati Radiation                   Tests. Durham: Duke UP, 2002. Print. 
Weindling, Paul. Victims and Survivors of Nazi Human Experiments: Science and Suffering in the             Holocaust. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print
Zámečnik, Stanislav. "Medical Experiments on Prisoners." That Was Dachau: 1933-1945. Paris:               Fondation Internationale De Dachau, 2004. Print.

Websites:
Bekier, Manny, M.S. "The Ethical Considerations of Medical Experimentation on Human                        Subjects." The Ethical Considerations of Medical Experimentation on Human Subjects. N.p., 18        Nov. 2010. Web. 06 Aug. 2015.
Benedict, Professor Susan. "VIII: ROLES OF PHYSICIANS AND NURSES IN THE       “MEDICAL” EXPERIMENTS FOR MILITARY." UT Health Science Center (n.d.): n. pag.      Web
"Doctors From Hell." Sentient Publications. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Sept. 2015.
Hammermann, Gabriele. "Stanislav Zámečnik Died." Dachau Concentration Camp: Memorial Site.                       N.p., 2011. Web. 23 Oct. 2015.
O’Connell, James J., MD, Denise A. Petrella, RN, CS, ANP, and Richard F. Regan, PA-C.           "Hypothermia and Cold-Related Injuries." Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia (2005): n.        pag. Web.
"ON SCIENCE: Medicine and Murder in the Third Reich." N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Sept. 2015. 
Williams, Dion. "Medical Experiments of the Holocaust." Remember. Holocaust Medical              Experiments, n.d. Web. 10 Aug. 2015.

REPORTS & TESTIMONIES:
“Aviation Medicine, General Medicine, Veterinary Medicine and Chemical Warfare”. Rep.           N.p.: U of Göttingen, 1945. Print.
“German Aviation Medical Research at the Dachau Concentration Camp”. Tech. no. 331-45. N.p.:          Harvard Medical Library in the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, 1945. Print.                  U.S Naval Technical Mission in Europe.           
Nuremberg Trials, Medical Cases (1945) (testimony of Neff Walter). Print.
  [1] Williams, Dion. "Medical Experiments of the Holocaust." Remember. Holocaust Medical Experiments, n.d. Web. 10 Aug. 2015.  [2] Zámečnik, Stanislav. That Was Dachau: 1933-1945. Paris: Fondation Internationale De Dachau, 2004. 253. Print.  [3] Spitz, Vivien. "Freezing Experiments." Doctors from Hell: The Horrific Account of Nazi Experiments on Humans. Boulder, CO: Sentient Publications, 2005. 85. Print.  [4] Michalczyk, John J. "The Dachau Human Hypothermia Experiments." Medicine, Ethics, and the Third Reich: Historical and Contemporary Issues. Kansas City, MO: Sheed & Ward, 1994. 87-88. Print.  [5] Overmans, Rüdiger. Deutsche Militärische Verluste Im Zweiten Weltkrieg. München: R. Oldenbourg, 1999. Print.  [6] “Sea Distress”  [7] Zámečnik, Stanislav. That Was Dachau: 1933-1945. Paris: Fondation Internationale De Dachau, 2004. 276. Print.  [8] Berger, Robert L. "Nazi Science - the Dachau Hypothermia Experiments". New England Journal of Medicine, 1990. 1435–40. Print.  [9] Benedict, Professor Susan. "VIII: ROLES OF PHYSICIANS AND NURSES IN THE “MEDICAL” EXPERIMENTS FOR MILITARY." UT Health Science Center (n.d.): n. pag. Web.  [10] Nuremberg Trials, Medical Cases (1945) (testimony of Neff Walter). Print.  [11] Berger, Robert L. "Nazi Science - the Dachau Hypothermia Experiments". New England Journal of Medicine, 1990. 1435–40. 435. Print.  [12] Ibid.  [13] Pozos, Robert S., PHD. "NAZI HYPOTHERMIA RESEARCH: Should the Data Be Used?" Military Medical Ethics 2 (n.d.): 447. Print.  [14] Stephens, Martha. The Treatment: The Story of Those Who Died in the Cincinnati Radiation Tests. Durham: Duke UP, 2002. 251. Print.  [15] Benedict, Professor Susan. "VIII: ROLES OF PHYSICIANS AND NURSES IN THE “MEDICAL” EXPERIMENTS FOR MILITARY." UT Health Science Center (n.d.): n. pag. Web.  [16] Nuremberg Trials, Medical Cases (1945) (testimony of Neff Walter). Print.  [17] Ibid.  [18] Bekier, Manny, M.S. "The Ethical Considerations of Medical Experimentation on Human Subjects." The Ethical Considerations of Medical Experimentation on Human Subjects. N.p., 18 Nov. 2010. Web. 06 Aug. 2015.  [19] Spitz, Vivien. "Freezing Experiments." Doctors from Hell: The Horrific Account of Nazi Experiments on Humans. Boulder, CO: Sentient Publications, 2005. Print.  [20] Yuval Rotem, Consul General of Israel.  [21] "Doctors From Hell." Sentient Publications. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Sept. 2015.  [22] Ibid. 1-2.  [23] Zámečnik, Stanislav. "Medical Experiments on Prisoners." That Was Dachau: 1933-1945. Paris: Fondation Internationale De Dachau, 2004. 13. Print.  [24] Hammermann, Gabriele. "Stanislav Zámečnik Died." Dachau Concentration Camp: Memorial Site. N.p., 2011. Web. 23 Oct. 2015.  [25] "ON SCIENCE: Medicine and Murder in the Third Reich.” N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Sept. 2015.  [26] Overmans, Rüdiger. Deutsche Militärische Verluste Im Zweiten Weltkrieg. München: R. Oldenbourg, 1999. Print.  [27] O’Connell, James J., MD, Denise A. Petrella, RN, CS, ANP, and Richard F. Regan, PA-C. "Hypothermia and Cold-Related Injuries." Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia (2005): n. pag. Web.  [28] Michalczyk, John J. "The Dachau Human Hypothermia Experiments." Medicine, Ethics, and the Third Reich: Historical and Contemporary Issues. Kansas City, MO: Sheed & Ward, 1994. 87-88. Print.  [29] Michalczyk, John J. "The Dachau Human Hypothermia Experiments." Medicine, Ethics, and the Third Reich: Historical and Contemporary Issues. Kansas City, MO: Sheed & Ward, 1994. 88. Print.  [30] “German Aviation Medical Research at the Dachau Concentration Camp”. Tech. no. 331-45. N.p.: Harvard Medical Library in the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, 1945. Print. U.S Naval Technical Mission in Europe.  [31] Military Medical Ethics Volume 2 - U.S. Department of Defence. 2003. N.p.: n.p., 2004. Print.  [32] Zámečnik, Stanislav. "Medical Experiments on Prisoners." That Was Dachau: 1933-1945. Paris: Fondation Internationale De Dachau, 2004. 271. Print.  [33] Pozos, Robert S., PHD. "NAZI HYPOTHERMIA RESEARCH: Should the Data Be Used?" Military Medical Ethics 2 (n.d.): 447. Print.  [34] Weindling, Paul. Victims and Survivors of Nazi Human Experiments: Science and Suffering in the Holocaust. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.  [35] Zámečnik, Stanislav. "Medical Experiments on Prisoners." That Was Dachau: 1933-1945. Paris: Fondation Internationale De Dachau, 2004. 270. Print.  [36] Nuremberg Trials, Medical Cases (1945) (testimony of Neff Walter). Print.  [37] “I think it was the end of October”  Nuremberg Trials, Medical Cases (1945) (testimony of Neff Walter). Print. Dachau concentration camp American troops guarding the main entrance to Dachau just after liberation, 1945 Dachau concentration camp is located in Germany Dachau concentration camp Location of Dachau in Upper Bavaria Coordinates     48°16′08″N 11°28′07″ECoordinates: 48°16′08″N 11°28′07″E Location     Upper Bavaria, Southern Germany Operated by     German Schutzstaffel (SS), U.S. Army (after World War II) Original use     Political prison Operational     1933–1945 Inmates     Poles, Jews, Russians, Ukrainians, French, Yugoslavs, Czechs, Germans, Austrians, Lithuanians Killed     31,951 (reported) Liberated by     United States, 29 April 1945 Website     Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site  Dachau concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau, IPA: [ˈdaxaʊ]) was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in Germany, intended to hold political prisoners. It is located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory southeast of the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km (10 mi) northwest of Munich in the state of Bavaria, in southern Germany.[1] Opened in 1933 by Heinrich Himmler, its purpose was enlarged to include forced labor, and eventually, the imprisonment of Jews, ordinary German and Austrian criminals, and eventually foreign nationals from countries that Germany occupied or invaded. The Dachau camp system grew to include nearly 100 sub-camps, which were mostly work camps or "Arbeits Kommandos," and were located throughout southern Germany and Austria.[2] The camps were liberated by U.S. forces in the spring of 1945.  Prisoners lived in constant fear of brutal treatment and terror detention including standing cells, floggings, the so-called tree or pole hanging, and standing at attention for extremely long periods.[3] There were 32,000 documented deaths at the camp, and thousands that are undocumented.[4]  On April 14, 1945, Himmler ordered the evacuation of the camp and the extermination of all inmates at Dachau, writing, "No prisoners shall be allowed to fall into the hands of the enemy alive."[5] Approximately 10,000 of the 30,000 prisoners were sick at the time of liberation.[6]  In the postwar years the Dachau facility served to hold SS soldiers awaiting trial. After 1948, it held ethnic Germans who had been expelled from eastern Europe and were awaiting resettlement, and also was used for a time as a United States military base during the occupation. It was finally closed for use in 1960.  There are several religious memorials within the Memorial Site,[7] and there is no charge to visit.[8]  In 2014, the camp's gate, reading Arbeit macht frei, was stolen.[9]  Contents      1 History     2 General overview     3 Main camp         3.1 Purpose         3.2 Organization         3.3 Demographics             3.3.1 Clergy             3.3.2 Staff     4 Satellite camps and sub-camps     5 Liberation         5.1 Main camp         5.2 Satellite camps         5.3 Killing of camp guards         5.4 Post-liberation Easter         5.5 Deportation of persons of Eastern origin     6 After liberation     7 In popular culture         7.1 Literature         7.2 Onscreen         7.3 In music         7.4 In theatre     8 KZ-Gedenkstätte Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site     9 List of personnel         9.1 Commanders         9.2 Other staff         9.3 SS and civilian doctors     10 List of notable prisoners         10.1 Clergy         10.2 Communists         10.3 Jewish         10.4 Politicians         10.5 Resistance fighters         10.6 Royalty         10.7 Scientists         10.8 Writers         10.9 Military         10.10 Others     11 Gallery     12 See also     13 References     14 Bibliography     15 External links  History  After the takeover of Bavaria on 9 March 1933, Heinrich Himmler, then Chief of Police in Munich, began to speak with the administration of an unused gunpowder and munitions factory. He toured the site to see if it could be used for quartering protective-custody prisoners. The Concentration Camp at Dachau was opened 22 March 1933, with the arrival of about 200 prisoners from Stadelheim Prison in Munich and the Landsberg fortress (where Hitler had written Mein Kampf during his imprisonment).[10] Himmler announced in the Münchner Neuesten Nachrichten newspaper that the camp could hold up to 5,000 people, and described it as "the first concentration camp for political prisoners"[1] to be used to restore calm to Germany.[11] It became the first regular concentration camp established by the coalition government of the National Socialist German Worker's Party (Nazi Party) and the German National People's Party (dissolved on 6 July 1933).  Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, and emigrants were sent to Dachau after the 1935 passage of the Nuremberg Laws which institutionalized racial discrimination.[12] In early 1937, the SS, using prisoner labor, initiated construction of a large complex capable of holding 6,000 prisoners. The construction was officially completed in mid-August 1938.[13] More political opponents, and over 11,000 German and Austrian Jews were sent to the camp after the annexation of Austria and the Sudetenland in 1938. Sinti and Roma in the hundreds were sent to the camp in 1939, and over 13,000 prisoners were sent to the camp from Poland in 1940.[12][14] The gate at the Jourhaus building through which the prisoner's camp was entered contains the slogan, Arbeit macht frei, or 'Work will make you free.'  The prisoners of Dachau concentration camp originally were to serve as forced labor for a munition factory, and to expand the camp. It was used as a training center for SS guards and was a model for other concentration camps[15] The camp was about 300 m × 600 m (1,000 ft × 2,000 ft) in rectangular shape. The prisoner's entrance was secured by an iron gate with the motto “Arbeit macht frei” (“Work will make you free”). This reflected Nazi propaganda which trivialized concentration camps as labor and re-education camps, when in fact forced labor was used as a method of torture.[16]  As of 1938, the procedure for new arrivals occurred at the Schubraum, where prisoners were to hand over their clothing and possessions.[17] "There we were stripped of all our clothes. Everything had to be handed over: money, rings, watches. One was now stark naked."[18]  The camp included an administration building that contained offices for the Gestapo trial commissioner, SS authorities, the camp leader and his deputies; administration offices that consisted of large storage rooms for the personal belongings of prisoners; the bunker; roll-call square where guards would also inflict punishment on prisoners, especially those who tried to escape; the canteen, where prisoners served SS men with cigarettes and food; the museum containing plaster images of prisoners who suffered from bodily defects; the camp office; the library; the barracks; and the infirmary, which was staffed by prisoners who had previously held occupations such as physicians or army surgeons.[19]  Over 4,000 Soviet prisoners of war were murdered by the Dachau commandant's guard at the SS shooting range located two kilometers from the main camp in the years 1942/1943.[20][21][22] These murders were a clear violation of the provisions laid down in the Geneva Convention for prisoners of war. The SS used the cynical term "special treatment" for these criminal executions. The first executions of the Soviet prisoners of war at the Hebertshausen shooting range took place on November 25 1941.[23]  After 1942, the number of prisoners regularly held at the camp continued to exceed 12,000.[24] Dachau originally held Communists, leading Socialists and other “enemies of the state” in 1933, but over time the Nazis began to send German Jews to the camp. In the early years of imprisonment, Jews were offered permission to emigrate overseas if they “voluntarily” gave their property to enhance Hitler’s public treasury.[24] Once Austria was annexed and Czechoslovakia was defeated, the citizens of both countries became the next prisoners at Dachau. In 1940, Dachau became filled with Polish prisoners, who constituted the majority of the prisoner population until Dachau was officially liberated.[25]  Prisoners were divided into categories. At first, they were classified by the nature of the crime for which they were accused, but eventually were classified by the specific authority-type under whose command a person was sent to camp.[26] Political prisoners who had been arrested by the Gestapo wore a red badge, "professional" criminals sent by the Criminal Courts wore a green badge, Cri-Po prisoners arrested by the criminal police wore a brown badge, "work-shy and asocial" people sent by the welfare authorities or the Gestapo wore a black badge, Jehovah’s Witnesses arrested by the Gestapo wore a violet badge, homosexuals sent by the criminal courts wore a pink badge, emigrants arrested by the Gestapo wore a blue badge, "race polluters" arrested by the criminal court or Gestapo wore badges with a black outline, second-termers arrested by the Gestapo wore a bar matching the color of their badge, "idiots" wore a white armband with the label Blöd (idiot), and Jews, whose incarceration in the Dachau concentration camp dramatically increased after Kristallnacht, wore a yellow badge, combined with another color.[27]  The prisoner enclosure at the camp was heavily guarded to ensure that no prisoners escaped. A ten-foot-wide (3 m) no-man's land was the first marker of confinement for prisoners; an area which, upon entry would elicit lethal gunfire from guard towers. Guards are known to have tossed inmates' caps into this area, resulting in the death of the prisoners when they attempted to retrieve the caps. Despondent prisoners committed suicide by entering the zone. A four-foot-deep and eight-foot-broad (1.2 × 2.4 m) creek, connected with the river Amper, lay on the west side between the “neutral-zone” and the electrically charged, and barbed wire fence which surrounded the entire prisoner enclosure.[28]  Hundreds of prisoners suffered and died, or were executed in medical experiments conducted at KZ Dachau. Some of these experiments involved exposure to vats of icy water or being strapped down naked outdoors in freezing temperatures. Victims writhed in pain, foamed at the mouth, and lost consciousness. Attempts at reviving the subjects included scalding baths, and forcing naked women to copulate with the unconscious victim. Nearly 100 prisoners died during these experiments.[29] The original records of the experiments were destroyed "in an attempt to conceal the atrocities." Extensive communication between the investigators and Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS, was discovered providing documentation of the experiments.[30] High altitude experiments were conducted during 1942. Victims were subjected to rapid decompression to pressures found at 14,000 feet inducing spasmodic convulsions, agonal breathing, and eventual death.[31]  Prisoners were sent to KZ Dachau as late as April 19, 1945; on that date a freight train from Buchenwald with nearly 4,500 was diverted to Nammering. SS troops and police stole food and water local townspeople tried to give to the prisoners. Nearly three hundred dead bodies were ordered removed from the train and carried to a ravine over a quarter of a mile away. The 524 prisoners who had been forced to carry the dead to this site were then shot by the guards, and buried along with those who had died on the train. Nearly 800 bodies went into this mass grave. The train continued on to KZ Dachau.[32]  As U.S. troops drove deeper into Bavaria during April 1945, the commander of KZ Dachau suggested to Gestapo Chief Heinrich Himmler that the camp be turned over to the Allies. Himmler, in signed correspondence, prohibited such a move, adding that "No prisoners shall be allowed to fall into the hands of the enemy alive."[33] Just days before the U.S. troops arrived at the camp the commandant and a strong guard forced between 6,000 and 7,000 inmates on a death march from Dachau south to Tegernsee. Any prisoners who could not keep up on the six day march were shot. Many others died of exhaustion, hunger and exposure.[34] Months later a mass grave containing 1,071 prisoners was found along the route.[35] General overview  Dachau served as a prototype and model for the other Nazi concentration camps that followed. Almost every community in Germany had members taken away to these camps. Newspapers continually reported "the removal of the enemies of the Reich to concentration camps." As early as 1935, a jingle went around: "Dear God, make me dumb, That I may not to Dachau come" ("Lieber Herr Gott, mach mich stumm, Das ich nicht nach Dachau komm'").[36]  The camp's layout and building plans were developed by Kommandant Theodor Eicke and were applied to all later camps. He had a separate secure camp near the command center, which consisted of living quarters, administration, and army camps. Eicke became the chief inspector for all concentration camps, responsible for organizing others according to his model.[37] Aerial photo of the Dachau complex with the actual concentration camp on the left  The Dachau complex included the prisoners' camp, which occupied approximately 5 acres, and the much larger area of SS training school including barracks, factories, plus other facilities of around 20 acres.[38]  The entrance gate used by prisoners carries the phrase "Arbeit macht frei" (literal English translation: "Work makes free" (or "Work makes [one] free"; Contextual English translation: "Work shall set you free"). This phrase was also used in Terezín, near Prague, and Auschwitz I. The camp commander gives a speech to prisoners about to be released as part of a pardoning action near Christmas 1933.  Dachau was the concentration camp that was in operation the longest from March 1933 to April 1945; nearly all twelve years of the Nazi regime. Dachau's close proximity to Munich, where Hitler came to power and where the Nazi Party had its official headquarters, made Dachau a convenient location. From 1933 to 1938, the prisoners were mainly German nationals detained for political reasons. After the Reichspogromnacht or Kristallnacht, 30,000 male Jewish citizens were deported to concentration camps. More than 10,000 of them were interned in Dachau alone. As the German military occupied other European states, citizens from across Europe were sent to concentration camps. Subsequently, the camp was used for prisoners of all sorts, from every nation occupied by the forces of the Third Reich.[39]  In the postwar years, the camp continued in use. From 1945 through 1948, the camp was used by the Allies as a prison for SS officers awaiting trial. After 1948, when hundreds of thousands of ethnic Germans were expelled from eastern Europe, it held Germans from Czechoslovakia until they could be resettled. It also served as a military base for the United States, which maintained forces in the country. It was closed in 1960. At the insistence of survivors, various memorials have been constructed and installed here.[40]  Demographic statistics vary but they are in the same general range. History will likely never know how many people were interned or died there, due to periods of disruption. One source gives a general estimate of over 200,000 prisoners from more than 30 countries for the Third Reich's years, of whom two-thirds were political prisoners, including many Catholic priests, and nearly one-third were Jews. 25,613 prisoners are believed to have died in the camp and almost another 10,000 in its subcamps,[41] primarily from disease, malnutrition and suicide. In early 1945, a typhus epidemic occurred in the camp caused by poor sanitation and overcrowding, followed by an evacuation, in which large numbers of the prisoners died. Toward the end of the war, death marches to and from the camp caused the deaths of numerous unrecorded prisoners. After liberation, prisoners weakened beyond recovery by the starvation conditions continued to die.[citation needed] Survivors of KZ Dachau demonstrate the operation of the crematorium by pushing a corpse into one of the ovens.[42]  Over the 12 years of use as a concentration camp, the Dachau administration recorded the intake of 206,206 prisoners and deaths of 31,951. Crematoria were constructed to dispose of the deceased. Visitors may now walk through the buildings and view the ovens used to cremate bodies, which hid the evidence of many deaths. It is claimed that in 1942, more than 3,166 prisoners in weakened condition were transported to Hartheim Castle near Linz, and were executed by poison gas because they were unfit.[39] Between January and April 1945 11,560 detainees died at KZ Dachau.[43]  Together with the much larger Auschwitz concentration camp, Dachau has come to symbolize the Nazi concentration camps. Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau lives in public memory as the second camp to be liberated by British or American Allied forces. It was one of the first places that firsthand journalist accounts and newsreels revealed to the rest of the world.[citation needed] Main camp Purpose Roll-call of Jewish prisoners (wearing Star of David badges), 20 July 1938  Dachau was opened in March 1933.[1] The press statement given at the opening stated:      On Wednesday the first concentration camp is to be opened in Dachau with an accommodation for 5000 people. 'All Communists and—where necessary—Reichsbanner and Social Democratic functionaries who endanger state security are to be concentrated here, as in the long run it is not possible to keep individual functionaries in the state prisons without overburdening these prisons, and on the other hand these people cannot be released because attempts have shown that they persist in their efforts to agitate and organize as soon as they are released.[1]  Inspection by the Nazi party and Himmler at Dachau on 8 May 1936.  Between the years 1933 and 1946, more than 3.5 million Germans were imprisoned in such concentration camps or prison for political reasons,[44][45][46] Approximately 77,000 Germans were killed for one or another form of resistance by Special Courts, courts-martial, and the civil justice system. Many of these Germans had served in government, the military, or in civil positions, which were considered to enable them to engage in subversion and conspiracy against the Nazis.[47] Organization Prisoners' barracks in 1945  The camp was divided into two sections: the camp area and the crematorium. The camp area consisted of 32 barracks, including one for clergy imprisoned for opposing the Nazi regime and one reserved for medical experiments. The courtyard between the prison and the central kitchen was used for the summary execution of prisoners. The camp was surrounded by an electrified barbed-wire gate, a ditch, and a wall with seven guard towers.[37]  In early 1937, the SS, using prisoner labor, initiated construction of a large complex of buildings on the grounds of the original camp. The construction was officially completed in mid-August 1938 and the camp remained essentially unchanged and in operation until 1945. A crematorium that was next to, but not directly accessible from within the camp, was erected in 1942. KZ Dachau was therefore the longest running concentration camp of the Third Reich. The Dachau complex included other SS facilities beside the concentration camp—a leader school of the economic and civil service, the medical school of the SS, etc. The camp at that time was called a "protective custody camp," and occupied less than half of the area of the entire complex.[37] Demographics Polish prisoners in Dachau toast their liberation from the camp. Poles constituted the largest ethnic group in the camp during the war, followed by Russians, French, Yugoslavs, Jews, and Czechs.  The camp was originally designed for holding German and Austrian political prisoners and Jews, but in 1935 it began to be used also for ordinary criminals. Inside the camp there was a sharp division between the two groups of prisoners; those who were there for political reasons and therefore wore a red tag, and the criminals, who wore a green tag.[48] The political prisoners who were there because they disagreed with Nazi Party policies, or with Hitler, naturally didn't consider themselves criminals.  Dachau was used as the chief camp for Christian (mainly Catholic) clergy who were imprisoned for not conforming with the Nazi Party line.  During the war, other nationals were transferred to it, including French, in 1940 Poles, in 1941 people from the Balkans, Czechs, Yugoslavs, and in 1942, Russians.[48][48]  The average number of Germans in the camp during the war was 3000. Just before the liberation many German prisoners were evacuated, but 2000 of these Germans died during the evacuation transport. Evacuated prisoners included such prominent political and religious figures as Martin Niemöller, Kurt von Schuschnigg, Édouard Daladier, Léon Blum, Franz Halder and Hjalmar Schacht.[48]  In August 1944 a women's camp opened inside Dachau. In the last months of the war, the conditions at Dachau deteriorated. As Allied forces advanced toward Germany, the Germans began to move prisoners from concentration camps near the front to more centrally located camps. They hoped to prevent the liberation of large numbers of prisoners. Transports from the evacuated camps arrived continuously at Dachau. After days of travel with little or no food or water, the prisoners arrived weak and exhausted, often near death. Typhus epidemics became a serious problem as a result of overcrowding, poor sanitary conditions, insufficient provisions, and the weakened state of the prisoners.  Owing to repeated transports from the front, the camp was constantly overcrowded and the hygiene conditions were beneath human dignity. Starting from the end of 1944 up to the day of liberation, 15,000 people died, about half of all the prisoners held at KZ Dachau. Five hundred Soviet POWs were executed by firing squad. The first shipment of women came from Auschwitz-Birkenau.  Though at the time of liberation the death rate had peaked at 200 per day, after the liberation by U.S. forces the rate eventually fell to between 50 and 80 deaths per day. In addition to the direct abuse of the SS and the harsh conditions, people died from typhus epidemics and starvation. The number of inmates had peaked in 1944 with transports from evacuated camps in the east (such as Auschwitz), and the resulting overcrowding led to an increase in the death rate.[48] Clergy Main article: Priest Barracks of Dachau Concentration Camp Friedrich Hoffman, a Czech priest, testifies at the trial of former camp personnel and prisoners from Dachau. In his hand he holds records showing that hundreds of priests died at the camp after being exposed to malaria during Nazi medical experiments.  In effort to counter the strength and influence of spiritual resistance, Nazi security services monitored clergy very closely.[49] Priests were frequently denounced, arrested and sent to concentration camps, often simply on the basis of being "suspected of activities hostile to the State" or that there was reason to "suppose that his dealings might harm society".[50] Despite SS hostility to religious observance, the Vatican and German bishops successfully lobbied the regime to concentrate clergy at one camp and obtained permission to build a chapel, for the priests to live communally and for time to be allotted to them for the religious and intellectual activity. Priests Barracks at Dachau were established in Blocks 26, 28 and 30, though only temporarily. 26 became the international block and 28 was reserved for Poles – the most numerous group.[51]  Of a total of 2,720 clergy recorded as imprisoned at Dachau, the overwhelming majority, some 2,579 (or 94.88%) were Catholic. Among the other denominations, there were 109 Protestants, 22 Greek Orthodox, 8 Old Catholics and Mariavites and 2 Muslims. In his Dachau: The Official History 1933–1945, Paul Berben noted that R. Schnabel's 1966 investigation, Die Frommen in der Hölle ("The Pious Ones in Hell") found an alternative total of 2,771 and included the fate all the clergy listed, with 692 noted as deceased and 336 sent out on "invalid trainloads" and therefore presumed dead.[52] Over 400 German priests were sent to Dachau.[53] Total numbers incarcerated are nonetheless difficult to assert, for some clergy were not recognised as such by the camp authorities, and some—particularly Poles—did not wish to be identified as such, fearing they would be mistreated.[54]  The Nazis introduced a racial hierarchy—keeping Poles in harsh conditions, while favouring German priests.[55] 697 Poles arrived in December 1941, and a further 500 of mainly elderly clergy were brought in October the following year. Inadequately clothed for the bitter cold, of this group only 82 survived. A large number of Polish priests were chosen for Nazi medical experiments. In November 1942, 20 were given phlegmons. 120 were used by Dr Schilling for malaria experiments between July 1942 and May 1944. Several Poles met their deaths with the "invalid trains" sent out from the camp, others were liquidated in the camp and given bogus death certificates. Some died of cruel punishment for misdemeanors—beaten to death or run to exhaustion.[56] The Clergy Barracks of Dachau : Clergy by nationality[52] Nationality     Total number     Released     Transferred elsewhere     Liberated 29/4/45     Deceased Poland     1780     78     4     830     868 Germany     447     208     100     45     94 France     156     5     4     137     10 Czechoslovakia     109     1     10     74     24 Netherlands     63     10     0     36     17 Yugoslavia     50     2     6     38     4 Belgium     46     1     3     33     9 Italy     28     0     1     26     1 Luxembourg     16     2     0     8     6 Denmark     5     5     0     0     0 Lithuania     3     0     0     3     0 Hungary     3     0     0     3     0 Stateless     3     0     1     2     0 Switzerland     2     1     0     0     1 Greece     2     0     0     2     0 Britain     2     0     1     1     0 Albania     2     0     2     0     0 Norway     1     1     0     0     0 Romania     1     0     0     1     0 Spain     1     0     0     1     0 Total     2,720     314     132     1,240     1,034 Staff  Among the staff, mostly SS males, 19 female guards served at Dachau, most of them until liberation.[57] Sixteen have been identified as Fanny Baur, Leopoldine Bittermann, Ernestine Brenner, Anna Buck, Rosa Dolaschko, Maria Eder, Rosa Grassmann, Betty Hanneschaleger, Ruth Elfriede Hildner, Josefa Keller, Berta Kimplinger, Lieselotte Klaudat, Theresia Kopp, Rosalie Leimboeck, and Thea Miesl.[58] Women guards also were assigned to the Augsburg Michelwerke, Burgau, Kaufering, Mühldorf, and Munich Agfa Camera Werke subcamps. In mid-April 1945, many female subcamps at Kaufering, Augsburg and Munich were closed, and the SS stationed the women at Dachau. It is reported that female SS guards gave prisoners guns before liberation to save them from postwar prosecution.[citation needed] Wilhelm Ruppert was charged with killing several prisoners.  Several Norwegians worked as guards at the Dachau camp.[59] Satellite camps and sub-camps  Satellite camps under the authority of Dachau were established in the summer and fall of 1944 near armaments factories throughout southern Germany to increase war production. Dachau alone had more than 30 large subcamps in which over 30,000 prisoners worked almost exclusively on armaments.[60]  Overall, the Dachau concentration camp system included 123 sub-camps and Kommandos which were set up in 1943 when factories were built near the main camp to make use of forced labor of the Dachau prisoners. The sub-camps were liberated by various divisions of the American army—including at least one ethnically segregated artillery battalion of the U.S. Army, many of whose own relatives were themselves interned during the war on American soil—that unexpectedly came across them during the American advance to capture Munich. American soldiers in the 63rd Infantry Division liberated seven of the eleven Kaufering sub-camps on 29 and 30 April 1945. The 63rd Infantry Division was recognized as a liberating unit by the U.S. Army’s Center of Military History and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2000.[61][unreliable source?]  Out of the 123 sub-camps, eleven of them were called Kaufering, distinguished by a number at the end of each. All Kaufering sub-camps were set up to specifically build three underground factories (Allied bombing raids made it necessary for them to be underground) for a project called Ringeltaube (wood pigeon), which planned to be the location in which the German jet fighter plane, Messerschmitt Me 262, was to be built. In the last days of war, in April 1945, the Kaufering camps were evacuated and around 15,000 prisoners were sent up to the main Dachau camp. Approximately 14,500 prisoners in the eleven Kaufering camps died of hunger, cold weather, overwork, and typhus.[61]  As U.S. Army troops neared the Dachau sub-camp at Landsberg on April 27, 1945, the SS officer in charge ordered that 4,000 prisoners be destroyed. Windows and doors of their huts were nailed shut. The buildings were then doused with gasoline and set afire. Prisoners, who were naked or nearly so, were burned to death, while some managed to crawl out of the buildings before dying. Earlier that day, as Wehrmacht troops withdrew from Lansberg-am-Lech, towns people hung white sheets from their windows. Infuriated SS troops dragged German civilians from their homes and hung them from trees. [62][63] Liberation Main camp Female prisoners at Dachau wave to their liberators.  As the opposition began to advance on Nazi Germany, the SS began to evacuate the first concentration camps in summer 1944.[64] Thousands of prisoners were murdered before the evacuation due to being ill or unable to walk. At the end of 1944, the overcrowding of camps began to take its toll on the prisoners. The hygienic conditions and the supplies of food rations became disastrous. In November a typhus fever epidemic broke out that took thousands of lives.[65]  In the second phase of the evacuation, in April 1945, Himmler gave direct evacuation routes for remaining camps. Prisoners that were from the northern part of Germany were to be directed to the Baltic and North Sea coasts to be drowned. The prisoners from the southern part were to be gathered in the Alps, which was the location in which the SS wanted to resist the Allies (p. 196). On 28 April 1945, an armed revolt took place in the town of Dachau. Both former and escaped concentration camp prisoners, and a renegade Volkssturm (civilian militia) company took part. At about 8:30 AM the rebels occupied the Town Hall. The advanced forces of the SS gruesomely suppressed the revolt within a few hours.[66] Bodies in the Dachau death train  Being fully aware that Germany was about to be defeated in World War II, the SS invested its time in removing evidence of the crimes they committed in the concentration camps. The SS began destroying incriminating evidence in April 1945 and planned on murdering the prisoners using codenames “Wolke A I” (Cloud A I) and “Wolkenbrand” (Cloud fire). However, these plans never ended up being carried out. In mid-April, plans to evacuate the camp started by sending prisoners toward Tyrol. On April 26, over 10,000 prisoners were forced to leave the Dachau concentration camp on foot, in trains, or in trucks. The largest group of some 7,000 prisoners was driven southward on a foot-march lasting several days. More than 1,000 prisoners did not survive this march. The evacuation transports cost many thousands of prisoners their lives.[67] On 26 April 1945 prisoner Karl Riemer fled the Dachau concentration camp to get help from American troops and on April 28 Victor Maurer, a representative of the International Red Cross, negotiated an agreement to surrender the camp to U.S. troops. That night a secretly formed International Prisoners Committee took over the control of the camp. On 29 April 1945, 1st Lt. William Cowling encountered several civilians and two reporters including Marguerite Higgins and Peter Furst who informed Lt. Cowling about the camp and escorted him to the location, where the German camp commander SS 2nd Lt. Heinrich Wicker, waving a white flag, surrendered the camp to him. Lt. Cowling reported the incident to Brigadier General Henning Linden, who then led a detachment of the 42nd (Rainbow) Infantry Division to further secure the camp, generating international headlines by freeing more than 30,000 Jews and political prisoners.[68][69][70][71][72] Satellite camps  During the liberation of the sub-camps surrounding Dachau (which happened on the same day as the main camp's surrender on 29 April) the advance scouts of the US Army's 522nd Field Artillery Battalion, a Nisei-manned segregated Japanese-American Allied military unit, liberated the 3,000 prisoners of the "Kaufering IV Hurlach"[73] slave labor camp.[74] Perisco describes an Office of Strategic Services (OSS) team (code name LUXE) leading Army Intelligence to a "Camp IV" on 29 April. "they found the camp afire and a stack of some four hundred bodies burning... American soldiers then went into Landsberg and rounded up all the male civilians they could find and marched them out to the camp. The former commandant was forced to lie amidst a pile of corpses. The male population of Landsberg was then ordered to walk by, and ordered to spit on the commandant as they passed. The commandant was then turned over to a group of liberated camp survivors."[75] Killing of camp guards Main article: Dachau liberation reprisals Photograph allegedly showing execution of SS troops in a coal yard in the area of the Dachau concentration camp during its liberation. April 29, 1945 (U.S Army photograph)[Note 1]  American troops killed some of the camp guards after they had surrendered. The number is disputed as some were killed in combat, some while attempting to surrender, and others after their surrender was accepted. In 1989 Brigadier General Felix L. Sparks, the Colonel in command of a battalion that captured the camp in 1945, stated:      The total number of German guards killed at Dachau during that day most certainly does not exceed fifty, with thirty probably being a more accurate figure. The regimental records of the 157th Infantry Regiment (United States) for that date indicate that over a thousand German prisoners were brought to the regimental collecting point. Since my task force was leading the regimental attack, almost all the prisoners were taken by the task force, including several hundred from Dachau.[76]  An Inspector General report resulting from a US Army investigation conducted between May 3 and May 8, 1945 and titled, "American Army Investigation of Alleged Mistreatment of German Guards at Dachau," found that 21 plus "a number" of presumed SS men were killed with others being wounded after their surrender had been accepted.[77][78]  As a result of the American Army investigation court-martial, charges were drawn up against Sparks and several other men under his command but, as General George S. Patton (the then recently appointed military governor of Bavaria) chose to dismiss the charges, the witnesses to the killings were never cross-examined in court and no one was found guilty.[76] Many guards were also killed by the liberated prisoners, which made the issue more complex. Lee Miller visited the camp just after liberation, and photographed several guards who died at the prisoners' hands.  Colonel Charles L. Decker, an acting deputy judge advocate, concluded in late 1945 that, while war crimes had been committed at Dachau by Germany, "Certainly, there was no such systematic criminality among United States forces as pervaded the Nazi groups in Germany.[79]  American troops also forced local citizens to the camp to see for themselves the conditions there and to help clean the facilities. Many local residents were shocked about the experience and claimed no knowledge of the activities at the camp.[80] Post-liberation Easter Liberated Dachau camp prisoners cheer U.S. troops  May 6 (23 April on the Orthodox calendar) was the day of Pascha, Orthodox Easter. In a cell block used by Catholic priests to say daily Mass, several Greek, Serbian and Russian priests and one Serbian deacon, wearing makeshift vestments made from towels of the SS guard, gathered with several hundred Greek, Serbian and Russian prisoners to celebrate the Paschal Vigil. A prisoner named Rahr described the scene:[81]      In the entire history of the Orthodox Church there has probably never been an Easter service like the one at Dachau in 1945. Greek and Serbian priests together with a Serbian deacon adorned the make-shift 'vestments' over their blue and gray-striped prisoners' uniforms. Then they began to chant, changing from Greek to Slavic, and then back again to Greek. The Easter Canon, the Easter Sticheras—everything was recited from memory. The Gospel—In the beginning was the Word—also from memory. And finally, the Homily of Saint John—also from memory. A young Greek monk from the Holy Mountain stood up in front of us and recited it with such infectious enthusiasm that we shall never forget him as long as we live. Saint John Chrysostomos himself seemed to speak through him to us and to the rest of the world as well!  Cheering crowds of liberated survivors  There is a Russian Orthodox chapel at the camp today, and it is well known for its icon of Christ leading the prisoners out of the camp gates.  The U.S. 7th Army's version of the events of the Dachau Liberation is available in Report of Operations of the Seventh United States Army, Vol. 3, page 382. Deportation of persons of Eastern origin  In Operation Keelhaul and related programs, persons born in the area under the dominion of the Soviet Union were to be given over to the Soviets for imprisonment or death. The existence of this program had been vehemently denied in Allied propaganda before the end of the war.  As part of the liquidation of Dachau, persons of Eastern origin who had been brought to Germany under the Ostarbeiter program were forcibly deported to the Soviet Union. Despite being handcuffed and beaten by American soldiers, many still managed to resist—whether hanging themselves, smashing window panes and cutting their throats on the shards of glass, or throwing themselves into the flames of their burning barracks. At Dachau, there were 275 cases of suicide or attempted suicide. Many deportees begged American soldiers to shoot them.[82] After liberation  After liberation, the camp was used by the US Army as an internment camp. It was also the site of the Dachau Trials for German war criminals, a site chosen for its symbolism. In 1948 the Bavarian government established housing for refugees on the site, and this remained for many years.[83]  The Kaserne quarters and other buildings used by the guards and trainee guards were converted and served as the Eastman Barracks, an American military post, for many years. It had its own elementary school: Dachau American Elementary School, a part of the Department of Defense dependent school system.  After the closure of the Eastman Barracks, these areas are now occupied by the Bavarian Bereitschaftspolizei (rapid response police unit).[84] In popular culture Literature      In his 2013 autobiography, Moose: Chapters from My Life, in the chapter entitled, "Dachau", author Robert B. Sherman chronicles his experiences as an American Army serviceman during the initial hours of Dachau's liberation.[85]      In "The Book Thief", Max Vandenburg - along with many other Jews - are led through the street toward Dachau in front of all the German onlookers, including the protagonist, Liesel.  In the short novel, "Down the Highway" by Michael Corrigan, two young American men traveling through Europe in 1962 visit Dachau. Onscreen      Dachau is depicted as the setting for The Twilight Zone episode "Deaths-Head Revisited" (1961), in which a former SS captain revisits the place he once worked in and the ghosts of the men who died there.     Frontline: "Memory of the Camps" (May 7, 1985, Season 3, Episode 18), is a 56 minute television documentary that addresses Dachau and other Nazi concentration camps[86][87]     The Dachau Massacre figures prominently in the back story of Teddy Daniels, the protagonist of Dennis Lehane's psychological mystery-thriller Shutter Island, (2003) (later adapted into a 2010 film by Martin Scorsese, starring Leonardo DiCaprio). Among other memories, Daniels is haunted by his own recollections of the massacre and taking part in the executions after seeing piles of prisoners' bodies.  In music      "Dachau Blues", a song by psychedelic blues singer Captain Beefheart from the album Trout Mask Replica (1969), contains several references to the camp and to the Holocaust.     The British band The Style Council released a song called "Ghosts of Dachau" (1984) in memory of those who died at Dachau, after a visit by lead singer Paul Weller to a concentration camp.[citation needed]  In theatre      Dachau is the concentration camp in which two homosexual prisoners desperately try to hold on to their humanity in the play Bent (1979) by Martin Sherman.  KZ-Gedenkstätte Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site Memorial sculpture erected in 1968 Aerial photo of the memorial in 2010  Between 1945 and 1948 when the camp was handed over to the Bavarian authorities, many accused war criminals and members of the SS were imprisoned at the camp.  Owing to the severe refugee crisis mainly caused by the expulsions of ethnic Germans, the camp was from late 1948 used to house 2000 Germans from Czechoslovakia (mainly from the Sudetenland). This settlement was called Dachau-East, and remained until the mid-1960s.[88] During this time, former prisoners banded together to erect a memorial on the site of the camp, finding it unbelievable that there were still people (refugees) living in the former camp.  The display, which was reworked in 2003, takes the visitor through the path of new arrivals to the camp. Special presentations of some of the notable prisoners are also provided. Two of the barracks have been rebuilt and one shows a cross-section of the entire history of the camp, since the original barracks had to be torn down due to their poor condition when the memorial was built. The other 32 barracks are indicated by concrete foundations.  The memorial includes four chapels for the various religions represented among the prisoners. List of personnel Commanders      SS-Standartenführer Hilmar Wäckerle (22 March 1933 – 26 June 1933)     SS-Gruppenführer Theodor Eicke (26 June 1933 – 4 July 1934)     SS-Oberführer Alexander Reiner (de) (4 July 1934 – 22 October 1934)     SS-Brigadeführer Berthold Maack (22 October 1934 – 12 January 1935)     SS-Oberführer Heinrich Deubel (12 January 1935 – 31 March 1936)     SS-Oberführer Hans Loritz (31 March 1936 – 7 January 1939)     SS-Hauptsturmführer Alex Piorkowski (7 January 1939 – 2 January 1942)     SS-Obersturmbannführer Martin Weiß (3 January 1942 – 30 September 1943)     SS-Hauptsturmführer Eduard Weiter (30 September 1943 – 26 April 1945)     SS-Obersturmbannführer Martin Weiß (26 April 1945 – 28 April 1945)     SS-Untersturmführer Johannes Otto (28 April 1945)     SS-Untersturmführer Heinrich Wicker (28 April 1945 – 29 April 1945)  Other staff Adolf Eichmann on trial in 1961      Adolf Eichmann (29 January 1934 – October 1934)[89] (Eichmann claimed that his unit had nothing to do with the concentration camp)[90]     Rudolf Höss (1934–1938)[91]     Max Kögel (1937–1938)     Gerhard Freiherr von Almey, a SS-Obergruppenführer, half-brother of Ludolf von Alvensleben. Executed in 1955, in Moscow.     Johannes Heesters[92] (visited the camp and entertained the SS-officers, was also given/giving tours)[93]  SS and civilian doctors Dr. Hans Eisele in American internment      SS-Untersturmführer – Dr. Hans Eisele – (13 March 1912 – 1967) – Escaped to Egypt     SS-Obersturmführer – Dr. Fritz Hintermayer – (28 Oct 1911 – 29 May 1946) – Executed by the Allies     Dr. Ernst Holzlöhner – (Committed suicide)     SS-Hauptsturmführer – Dr. Fridolin Karl Puhr – (30 April 1913 – ?) – Sentenced to death, later commuted to 10-years imprisonment     SS-Untersturmführer Dr. Sigmund Rascher – (12 February 1909 – 26 April 1945) – Executed by the SS     Dr. Claus Schilling – (25 July 1871 – 28 May 1946) – Executed by the Allies     SS Sturmbannführer – Dr. Horst Schumann – (11 May 1906 – 5 May 1983) – Escaped to Ghana, later extradited to West Germany     SS Obersturmführer – Dr. Helmuth Vetter – (21 March 1910 – 2 February 1949) – Executed by the Allies     SS Sturmbannführer – Dr. Wilhelm Witteler – (20 April 1909 – ?) – Sentenced to death, later commuted to 20-years imprisonment     SS Sturmbannführer – Dr. Waldemar Wolter – (19 May 1908 – 28 May 1947) – Executed by the Allies  List of notable prisoners The commemorative mass grave dedicated to the unknown dead at Dachau Clergy Main article: Priest Barracks of Dachau Concentration Camp  Dachau had a special "priest block." Of the 2720 priests (among them 2579 Catholic) held in Dachau, 1034 did not survive the camp. The majority were Polish (1780), of whom 868 died in Dachau.      Patriarch Gavrilo V of the Serbian Orthodox Church, imprisoned in Dachau from September to December 1944     a number of the Polish 108 Martyrs of World War II:     Father Jean Bernard (1907–1994), Roman Catholic priest from Luxembourg who was imprisoned from May 1941 to August 1942. He wrote the book Pfarrerblock 25487 about his experiences in Dachau     Blessed Titus Brandsma, Dutch Carmelite priest and professor of philosophy, died 26 July 1942     Norbert Čapek (1870–1942) founder of the Unitarian Church in the Czech Republic     Blessed Stefan Wincenty Frelichowski, Polish Roman Catholic priest, died 23 February 1945     August Froehlich, German Roman Catholic priest, he protected the rights of the German Catholics and the maltreatment of Polish forced labourers     Hilary Paweł Januszewski     Ignacy Jeż Catholic Bishop     Joseph Kentenich, founder of the Schoenstatt Movement, spent three and a half years in Dachau     Bishop Jan Maria Michał Kowalski, the first Minister Generalis (Minister General) of the order of the Mariavites. He perished on 18 May 1942, in a gas chamber in Schloss Hartheim.     Adam Kozlowiecki, Polish Cardinal     Max Lackmann, Lutheran pastor and founder of League for Evangelical-Catholic Reunion.     Blessed Karl Leisner, in Dachau since 14 December 1941, freed 4 May 1945, but died on 12 August from tuberculosis contracted in the camp     Josef Lenzel, German Roman Catholic priest, he helped the Polish forced labourers     Bernhard Lichtenberg – German Roman Catholic priest, was sent to Dachau but died on his way there in 1943     Martin Niemöller, imprisoned in 1941, freed 4 May 1945     Nikolai Velimirović, bishop of the Serbian Orthodox Church and an influential theological writer, venerated as saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church.     Lawrence Wnuk     Nanne Zwiep, Pastor of the Dutch Reformed Church in Enschede, spoke out from the pulpit against Nazis and their treatment of Dutch Citizens and anti-Semitism, arrested 20 April 1942, died in Dachau of exhaustion and malnutrition 24 November 1942  More than two dozen members of the Religious Society of Friends (known as Quakers) were interned at Dachau. They may or may not have been considered clergy by the Nazis, as all Quakers perform services which in other Protestant denominations are considered the province of clergy. Over a dozen of them were murdered there. Communists      Alfred Andersch, held 6 months in 1933     Hans Beimler, imprisoned but escaped. Died in the Spanish Civil War.     Emil Carlebach (Jewish), in Dachau since 1937, sent to Buchenwald concentration camp in 1938     Alfred Haag, In Dachau from 1935 to 1939, when moved to Mauthausen     Adolf Maislinger     Oskar Müller, in Dachau from 1939, freed 1945     Walter Vielhauer     Nikolaos Zachariadis (Greek), from November 1941 to May 1945  Jewish      Hinko Bauer, notable Croatian architect     Bruno Bettelheim, imprisoned in 1938, freed in 1939; left Germany     Jakob Ehrlich, Member of Vienna's City Council (Rat der Stadt Wien), died in Dachau 17 May 1938     Viktor Frankl, neurologist and psychiatrist from Vienna, Austria     Henry P. Glass, Austrian Architect and Industrial Designer, transferred to Buchenwald in September 1938.     Zvi Griliches – Notable American economist     Yanek (Jack) Gruener, a Polish boy whose story is told in Prisoner B-3087[94]     Ludwig Kahn, German World War I Veteran and Entrepreneur from 29 Karls Street, Weilheim, Bavaria imprisoned 10 November 1938, freed 19 December 1938     Hans Litten, anti-Nazi lawyer, died in 1938 by apparent suicide     George Maduro, Dutch law student and cavalry officer posthumously awarded the medal of Knight 4th-class of the Military Order of William.     Aaron Miller, rabbi, chazzan, mohel     Henry Morgentaler, also survived the Łódź Ghetto, later emigrated to Canada and became central to the abortion-rights movement there     Alfred Müller, known Croatian entrepreneur from Zagreb     Benzion Miller, born at the camp, son of Aaron Miller     Sol Rosenberg, participated in the Warsaw Ghetto uprising; sent to Dachau; liberated from the camp in 1945; relocated to the United States     Moshe Sanbar, Governor of the Bank of Israel     Vladek Spiegelman, a survivor whose story was portrayed in the book Maus by son Art Spiegelman  Politicians A memorial at the camp with Never again written in several languages      Léon Blum – briefly, having been evacuated from Buchenwald concentration camp     Jan Buzek, murdered in November 1940     Theodor Duesterberg, briefly imprisoned in 1934     Leopold Figl, arrested 1938, released 8 May 1943     Andrej Gosar, Slovenian politician and political theorist, arrested in 1944     Karl Haushofer     Miklós Horthy, Jr.     Alois Hundhammer, arrested 21 June 1933, freed 6 July 1933     Miklós Kállay     Franz Olah, arrested in 1938 and transported on the first train to bring Austrian prisoners to Dachau.[95]     Hjalmar Schacht, arrested 1944, released April 1945     Richard Schmitz     Kurt Schumacher, in Dachau since July 1935, sent to Flossenbürg concentration camp in 1939, returned to Dachau in 1940, released due to extreme illness 16 March 1943     Kurt Schuschnigg, the last fascist chancellor of Austria before the Austrian Nazi Party was installed by Hitler, shortly before the Anschluss     Stefan Starzyński, the Mayor of Warsaw, probably murdered in Dachau in 1943     Petr Zenkl, Czech national socialist politician  Resistance fighters      Yolande Beekman, Special Operations Executive Agent, murdered 13 September 1944     Georges Charpak, who in 1992 received the Nobel Prize in Physics     Madeleine Damerment, Special Operations Executive Agent, murdered 13 September 1944     Charles Delestraint, French General and leader of French resistance; executed by Gestapo in 1945     Georg Elser, who tried to assassinate Hitler in 1939, murdered 9 April 1945     Arthur Haulot     Noor Inayat Khan, the George's Cross awardee of Indian origin who served as a clandestine radio operator for the Special Operations Executive in Paris, murdered 13 September 1944 when she and her SOE colleagues were shot in the back of the head and cremated     Kurt Nehrling, murdered in 1943     Eliane Plewman, Special Operations Executive Agent, murdered 13 September 1944     Enzo Sereni, Jewish, son of King Victor Emmanuele's personal physician. Kibbutz Netzer Sereni in Israel is named after him. Parachuted into Nazi-occupied Italy, captured by the Germans and executed in November 1944     Jean ("Johnny") Voste, the one documented black prisoner, was a Belgian resistance fighter from the Belgian Congo; he was arrested in 1942 for alleged sabotage and was one of the survivors of Dachau[96][97][98]  Royalty      Antonia, Crown Princess of Bavaria     Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria     Princess Irmingard of Bavaria     Franz, Duke of Bavaria     Grand Duchess Kira Kirillovna of Russia     Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia     Prince Max, Duke in Bavaria     Philipp, Landgrave of Hesse     Franz Wittelsbach, Prinz von Bayern     Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg     Prince Ernst von Hohenberg     Princess Sophie of Hohenberg  Scientists  Among many others, 183 professors and lower university staff from Kraków universities, arrested on 6 November 1939 during Sonderaktion Krakau. Writers      Fran Albreht, Slovenian poet     Robert Antelme, French writer     Raoul Auernheimer, writer, in Dachau 4 months     Tadeusz Borowski, writer, survived, but committed suicide in 1951     Adolf Fierla, Polish poet     Viktor Frankl, an Austrian psychiatrist and writer     Fritz Gerlich, a German journalist     Stanisław Grzesiuk, Polish writer, poet and singer, in Dachau from 4 April 1940, later transferred to Mauthausen-Gusen complex     Heinrich Eduard Jacob, German writer, in Dachau 6 months in 1938, transferred to Buchenwald     Stefan Kieniewicz, Polish historian     Juš Kozak, Slovenian playwright     Friedrich Bernhard Marby, German occult writer     Gustaw Morcinek, Polish writer     Boris Pahor, Slovenian writer     Karol Piegza, Polish writer, teacher and folklorist     Gustaw Przeczek, Polish writer and teacher     Friedrich Reck-Malleczewen, German writer[citation needed]     Franz Roh, German art critic and art historian, for a few months in 1933     Jura Soyfer, writer, in Dachau 6 months in 1938, transferred to Buchenwald     Adam Wawrosz, Polish poet and writer     Stanislaw Wygodzki, Polish writer     Stevo Žigon (number: 61185), Serbian actor, theatre director, and writer, in Dachau from December 1943 to May 1945  Military      Konstantinos Bakopoulos, Greek general     Bogislaw von Bonin, Wehrmacht officer, opponent     Panagiotis Dedes, Greek general     Franz Halder, former Chief of German Army General Staff     Georgios Kosmas, Greek general     Alexander Papagos, commander-in-chief of the Greek Army in 1940–41, future Prime Minister of Greece     Ernest Peterlin, Slovenian military officer     Ioannis Pitsikas, Greek general  Others      Titus Brandsma, Dutch priest, philosopher and former rector of Nimwegen University     Jan Ertmański, Polish boxer who competed in the 1924 Summer Olympics     Alexander von Falkenhausen, German general who resisted Hitler     Brother Theodore, comedian     Bruno Franz Kaulbach, Austrian lawyer     Zoran Mušič, Slovenian painter     Ona Šimaitė, Lithuanian librarian     Tullio Tamburini, Italian police chief     Fritz Thyssen, businessman and early supporter of Hitler, later an opponent     Morris Weinrib, father of Rush singer, bassist, keyboardist Geddy Lee     Władysław Dworaczek, Polish educator  Gallery      The camp courtyard      Memorial to the victims of Dachau      The Crematorium      New crematorium      Original crematorium      The sign outside the building Crematorium says in German: "Think about how we died here"      Protestant Church of Reconciliation      Catholic Mortal Agony of Christ chapel      Jewish Memorial      Tower      The Perimeter Fence      View of roll-call area      Prisoner bunks      Prisoner toilets      The entrance and the northern part of the "Bunker"      The east wing of the "Bunker" (camp prison), normally closed to visitors  See also Portal icon     Germany portal Portal icon     World War II portal      Karl von Eberstein     List of Nazi concentration camps     List of subcamps of Dachau  References      The caption for the photograph in the U.S. National Archives reads, "SC208765, Soldiers of the 42nd Infantry Division, U.S. Seventh Army, order SS men to come forward when one of their number tried to escape from the Dachau, Germany, concentration camp after it was captured by U.S. forces. Men on the ground in background feign death by falling as the guards fired a volley at the fleeing SS men. (157th Regt. 4/29/45)."      "Ein Konzentrationslager für politische Gefangene In der Nähe von Dachau". Münchner Neueste Nachrichten ("The Munich Latest News") (in German) (The Holocaust History Project). 21 March 1933. "The Munich Chief of Police, Himmler, has issued the following press announcement: On Wednesday the first concentration camp is to be opened in Dachau with an accommodation for 5000 persons. 'All Communists and—where necessary—Reichsbanner and Social Democratic functionaries who endanger state security are to be concentrated here, as in the long run it is not possible to keep individual functionaries in the state prisons without overburdening these prisons, and on the other hand these people cannot be released because attempts have shown that they persist in their efforts to agitate and organise as soon as they are released.'"[dead link]     Concentration Camp Dachau Entry Registers (Zugangsbuecher) 1933-1945. http://www.archives.gov/research/captured-german-records/microfilm/m1938.pdf retrieved 11.13.2014     "Station 7: Courtyard and Bunker – Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site". Kz-gedenkstaette-dachau.de. Retrieved 2013-09-20.     "Station 11: Crematorium – Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site". Kz-gedenkstaette-dachau.de. Retrieved 2013-09-20.     Slaying of All at Dachau Was Ordered by Nazis. New York Times May 7, 1945. pg. 5     investigation of alleged mistreatment of German guards at the Concentration Camp at Dachau, Germany, by elements of the XV Corps http://abraham.cs.uml.edu/secretwar/GlobeSecretHistory/index5_transcript_4.shtml retrieved 11.1.2014     "Station 12: Religious Memorials – Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site". Kz-gedenkstaette-dachau.de. Retrieved 2013-09-20.     "How much does it cost to visit the memorial site? – Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site". Kz-gedenkstaette-dachau.de. 2011-10-27. Retrieved 2013-09-20.     Smith-Spark, Laura (4 November 2014). "Gate with 'Arbeit macht frei' slogan stolen from former Nazi camp at Dachau". CNN. Retrieved 4 November 2014.     Marcuse, Harold. Legacies of Dachau: The Uses and Abuses of a Concentration Camp, 1933–2001, Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001. p. 21     Neuhäusler, Johann. What Was It Like in the Concentration Camp at Dachau?: An Attempt to Come Closer to the Truth, Munich: Manz A.G., 1960. p. 7     retrieved 9.2013 http://www.kz-gedenkstaette-dachau.de/1945.html     name="ushmm1"/     A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust retrieved 9.2013http://fcit.usf.edu/holocaust/people/ushmmrom.htm     ="Dachau Liberated." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 27 March 2013.     "Station 2: Jourhouse – Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site". Kz-gedenkstaette-dachau.de. 1945-04-29. Retrieved 2013-09-20.     The Dachau Concentration Camp, 1933 to 1945: Text and Photo Documents from the Exhibition, with CD. Dachau: Comité International De Dachau, 2005. p. 61     "Station 5: Shunt Room – Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site". Kz-gedenkstaette-dachau.de. Retrieved 2013-09-20.     Neuhäusler (1960), What Was It Like..., pp. 9–11     http://www.kz-gedenkstaette-dachau.de/news-hebertshausen.html retrieved 11.1.2014     http://www.ushmm.org/online/film/display/detail.php?file_num=5483 United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, retrieved 11.12014     http://www.kz-gedenkstaette-dachau.de/vicinity_hebertshausen.html retrieved 11.1.2014     http://wikimapia.org/22774181/Memorial-to-the-murdered-Soviet-soldiers retrieved 11.1.2014     Neuhäusler (1960), What Was It like..., p. 13     Neuhäusler (1960), What Was It like..., p. 14     Neurath, Paul Martin, Christian Fleck, and Nico Stehr. The Society of Terror: Inside the Dachau and Buchenwald Concentration Camps, Boulder, CO: Paradigm, 2005. Print. p. 53     Neurath et al. (2005), The Society of Terror, pp. 54-69     name="Neuhäusler, Johann 1960. Page 11"     Nova OnLine. Holocaust on Trial The experiments by Peter Tyson. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/holocaust/experiside.html#tube retrieved 11.7.2014     Nazi Science — The Dachau Hypothermia Experiments. Robert L. Berger, M.D. N Engl J Med 1990; 322:1435-1440May 17, 1990DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199005173222006     The Nazi medical experiments. Andrew Korda. Australian ADF Health April 2006 - vol 7 no. 1 http://www.defence.gov.au/health/infocentre/journals/adfhj_apr06/adfhealth_7_1_33-37.html retrieved 11.8.2014     United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. A sign outside of the town of Nammering marks the site of a mass shooting by the SS. retrieved 11.5.2014     Slaying of All at Dachau Was Ordered by Nazis. New York Times May 7, 1945. pg. 5     http://www.ushmm.org/outreach/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007734 retrieved 11.2.2014     1,071 More Dachau Dead Found. New York Times Aug 18, 1945. pg . 5     Janowitz, Morris (September 1946). "German Reactions to Nazi Atrocities". The American Journal of Sociology (The University of Chicago Press) 52 (2): 141–146. doi:10.1086/219961. JSTOR 2770938.     "Dachau". Holocaust Encyclopedia. Washington, D.C.: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 2009.     The Liberator : One World War II Soldier's 500-Day Odyssey from the Beaches of Sicily to the Gates of Dachau. Alex Kershaw. 2012. Crown. New York. page 270     Edkins 2003, p. 137     Edkins 2003, p. 138     Zámečník, Stanislav; Paton, Derek B. (Translator) (2004). That Was Dachau 1933–1945. Paris: Fondation internationale de Dachau; Cherche Midi. pp. 377, 379.     http://collections.ushmm.org/search/catalog/pa5282 United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. retrieved 11.1.2011     ]ETO, War Crimes and Punishment of War Crimes. http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/eto/eto-086.pdf page 2 retrieved 11.1.2014     Henry Maitles "NEVER AGAIN!: A review of David Goldhagen, 'Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust'", Socialist Review, further referenced to G. Almond, "The German Resistance Movement", Current History 10 (1946), pp. 409–527.     David Clay, Contending with Hitler: Varieties of German Resistance in the Third Reich, p. 122 (1994) ISBN 0-521-41459-8     Otis C. Mitchell, Hitler's Nazi State: The Years of Dictatorial Rule, 1934-1945 (1988), p. 217     Peter Hoffmann, The History of the German Resistance, 1933–1945, p. xiii     7th Army, U.S. (1945). Dachau. University of Wisconsin Digital Collection.     Paul Berben; Dachau: The Official History 1933–1945; Norfolk Press; London; 1975; ISBN 0-85211-009-X; pp. 141–2     Paul Berben; Dachau: The Official History 1933–1945; Norfolk Press; London; 1975; ISBN 0-85211-009-X; pp. 142     Paul Berben; Dachau: The Official History 1933–1945; Norfolk Press; London; 1975; ISBN 0-85211-009-X; pp. 145–6.     Paul Berben; Dachau: The Official History 1933–1945; Norfolk Press; London; 1975; ISBN 0-85211-009-X; pp. 276–277     Ian Kershaw; The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation; 4th Edn; Oxford University Press; New York; 2000; pp. 210-11     Paul Berben; Dachau: The Official History 1933–1945; Norfolk Press; London; 1975; ISBN 0-85211-009-X; p. 157     Paul Berben; Dachau: The Official History 1933–1945; Norfolk Press; London; 1975; ISBN 0-85211-009-X; p. 148.     Paul Berben; Dachau: The Official History 1933–1945; Norfolk Press; London; 1975; ISBN 0-85211-009-X; pp. 148–9.     Daniel Patrick Brown, THE CAMP WOMEN, The Female Auxiliaries who Assisted the SS in Running the Nazi Concentration Camp System     Brown, THE CAMP WOMEN,     "(translation of title: Norwegian guards worked in Hitler's concentration camps)" – Norske vakter jobbet i Hitlers konsentrasjonsleire"". Vg.no. 2010-01-01. Retrieved 2012-07-06.     "Dachau". Ushmm.org. Retrieved 2013-07-29.     "Liberation of Kaufering IV Sub-camp of Dachau near Hurlach. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 March 2013". Scrapbookpages.com. Retrieved 2013-09-20.     http://collections.ushmm.org/search/catalog/pa1167593 United States Holocaust Memorial Museum retrieved 11.1.2014     Citizen Soldiers. Stephen Ambrose. 1997. pages 463, 464. ISBN 0-684-81525-7     =The Dachau Concentration Camp, 1933 to 1945: Text and Photo Documents from the Exhibition, with CD. Dachau: Comité International De Dachau, 2005. Print. Page 194     The Dachau Concentration Camp, 1933 to 1945: Text and Photo Documents from the Exhibition, with CD. Dachau: Comité International De Dachau, 2005. Print. Page 197     The Dachau Concentration Camp, 1933 to 1945: Text and Photo Documents from the Exhibition, with CD. Dachau: Comité International De Dachau, 2005. Print. Page 199     The Dachau Concentration Camp, 1933 to 1945: Text and Photo Documents from the Exhibition, with CD. Dachau: Comité International De Dachau, 2005. Print. Page 200     The Dachau Concentration Camp, 1933 to 1945: Text and Photo Documents from the Exhibition, with CD. Dachau: Comité International De Dachau, 2005. Print. Page 201     Alex Kershaw, The Liberator: One World War II Soldier's 500-Day Odyssey from the Beaches of Sicily to the Gates of Dachau, 2012, page 283     James Stuart Olson, Historical Dictionary of the 1950s, 2000, page 125     Joe Wilson, The 761st "Black Panther" Tank Battalion in World War II, 1999, page 185     Sam Dann, Dachau 29 April 1945: the Rainbow Liberation Memoirs, 1998, page 6     "Kaufering IV – Hurlach – Schwabmunchen". Kaufering.com. 2008-01-19. Retrieved 2012-07-06.     "Central Europe Campaign – 522nd Field Artillery Battalion". Retrieved 2009-03-17.     Joseph E Persico (1979). Piercing the Reich. Viking Press. p. 306. ISBN 0-670-55490-1.     Albert Panebianco (ed). Dachau its liberation 157th Infantry Association, Felix L. Sparks, Secretary 15 June 1989. (backup site)     "Col. Howard A. Buechner's account of German Soldiers executed at Dachau by I Company, 157th Regiment, 45th Thunderbird Div". Scrapbookpages.com. Retrieved 2013-09-20.[unreliable source?]     The Nuremberg Trials: International Criminal Law Since 1945 / Die Nürnberger ... By Lawrence Raful. 60th Anniversary International Conference / Internationale Konferenz zum 60. Jahrestag (Google eBook).page 314     ]ETO, War Crimes and Punishment of War Crimes. http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/eto/eto-086.pdf page 6 retrieved 11.1.2014     The Liberator : One World War II Soldier's 500-Day Odyssey from the Beaches of Sicily to the Gates of Dachau. Alex Kershaw. 2012. Crown. New York. page 292     "Gleb Alexandrovitch Rahr – Prisoner R (Russian) – Pascha (Easter) in Dachau". Orthodoxytoday.org. Retrieved 2012-07-06.     Jeffrey Rogers Hummel (1974), "Operation Keelhaul Exposed", Reason: 7     Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site (pedagogical information) (German)     Sven Felix Kellerhoff (2002-10-21). "Neue Museumskonzepte für die Konzentrationslager". WELT ONLINE (in German) (Axel Springer AG). Retrieved 2008-06-02. ". . . die SS-Kasernen neben dem KZ Dachau wurden zuerst (bis 1974) von der US-Armee bezogen. Seither nutzt sie die VI. Bayerische Bereitschaftspolizei. (. . . the SS barracks adjacent to the Dachau concentration camp were at first occupied by the US Army (until 1974) . Since then they have been used by the Sixth Rapid Response Unit of the Bavarian Police.)"     Sherman, Robert B. "Dachau" in Moose: Chapters From My Life; AuthorHouse Publishers; Bloomington IN; 2013; ISBN 978-1-491-88366-2     "Memory of the Camps". IMDb. 1985.     "Memory of the Camps". TopDocumentaries.com. 1985.     Legacies of Dachau: The Uses and Abuses of a Concentration Camp, 1933–2001 Harold Marcuse     "The Nizkor Project". transcript from the 1961 Eichmann trial. Shofar FTP archive and the Nizkor project. Retrieved 2009-02-02.     "people/e/eichmann.adolf/transcripts/Sessions/Session-075-05". transcript from the 1961 Eichmann trial. Shofar FTP archive and the Nizkor project. Retrieved 2009-02-02.     "The Trial of German Major War Criminals Sitting at Nuremberg, Germany 4th April to 15th April, 1946: One Hundred and Eighth Day: Monday, 15th April, 1946 (Part 1 of 10)". the Nizkor Project. 1991–2009. Retrieved 5 March 2010.     Klee, Kulturlexikon, S. 227.     Klee, Kulturlexikon, S. 232.     Alan Gratz, "Prisoner B-3087", pp. 1240–245 (2013) ISBN 978-0-545-45901-3     Green, William (2009-09-04). "Franz Olah dies aged 99". austriantimes.at. Canterbury, Kent, U.K.: AN News and Pictures. Retrieved 5 March 2010.     "The Only Black Prisoner at Dachau Prepares Food With Another Survivor". Jewish Virtual Library. May 1945. Retrieved 26 September 2012.     "Photograph: "Two survivors prepare food outside the barracks. The man on the right, presumably, is Jean (Johnny) Voste, born in Belgian Congo, who was the only black prisoner in Dachau. Dachau, Germany, May 1945."". US Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 26 September 2012.     "Blacks During the Holocaust". Holocaust Encyclopedia (US Holocaust Memorial Museum). Retrieved 26 September 2012.  Bibliography      Bishop, Lt. Col. Leo V.; Glasgow, Maj. Frank J.; Fisher, Maj. George A., eds. (1946). The Fighting Forty-Fifth: the Combat Report of an Infantry Division. Baton Rouge, Louisiana.: 45th Infantry Division [Army & Navy Publishing Co.] OCLC 4249021.     Buechner, Howard A. (1986). Dachau—The Hour of the Avenger. Thunderbird Press. ISBN 0-913159-04-2.     Edkins, Jenny (2003). Trauma and the memory of politics. Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-53420-8.     Kozal, Czesli W.; Ischler, Paul (Translator) (2004). Memoir of Fr. Czesli W. (Chester) Kozal, O.M.I. Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate. OCLC 57253860.     Marcuse, Harold (2001). Legacies of Dachau: The Uses and Abuses of a Concentration Camp, 1933–2001. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-55204-2.     Roberts, Donald R. ; edited by Heather R. Biola (2008). The other war, a World War II journal. Elkins, W.V.: McClain Printing Co. ISBN 978-0-87012-775-5. Includes report written for: United States. Army. Infantry Division, 9th. Office of the Surgeon. Interrogation of SS Officers and Men at Dachau.  External links     Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dachau concentration camp.      7th Army, U.S. (1945). Dachau. University of Wisconsin Digital Collection.     Anderson, Stuart (2008–2010). "Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial". Destination Munich.     Video Footage showing the Liberation of Dachau     The short film A GERMAN IS TRIED FOR MURDER [ETC. (1945)] is available for free download at the Internet Archive     "Communists to be interned in Dachau". The Guardian. 21 March 1933.     Cramer, Douglas. "Dachau 1945: The Souls of All Are Aflame". Orthodoxy Today.org.     "Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site". Stiftung Bayerische Gedenkstätten, German. Retrieved 2 March 2010.     "Dachau Memorial Site, UCSB Department of History". Professor Harold Marcuse, PhD. Retrieved 6 June 2010.     Doyle, Chris (2009). "Dachau (Konzentrationslager Dachau): An Overview". Never Again! Online Holocaust Memorial.     "Eleven Subcamps of Dachau Online Memorial". Kaufering.com.     "Interior and exterior images of the Dachau camp". Retrieved 6 June 2010.     Perez, R.H. (2002). "Dachau Concentration Camp – Liberation: A Documentary – U. S. Massacre of Waffen SS – April 29, 1945". Humanitas International. Retrieved 28 February 2010.[dead link]     "The European Holocaust Memorial". Landsberg im 20. Jahrhundert.     Watson, Simon (Fall 2007). "Dachau Awakening". Queen's Quarterly 114/3.     Dachau camp prisoner testimonies page, 041940.pl  [show]     The Holocaust Categories:      Buildings and structures in Bavaria     Dachau concentration camp     Visitor attractions in Munich     1933 establishments in Germany     Visitor attractions in Bavaria     World War II museums in Germany     World War II sites in Germany     World War II memorials in Germany     Museums in Bavaria  rintable version  Languages      Aragonés     Azərbaycanca     Български     Català     Čeština     Dansk     Deutsch     Ελληνικά     Español     فارسی     Français     Galego     한국어     Հայերեն     Hrvatski     Bahasa Indonesia     Italiano     עברית     Къарачай-малкъар     ქართული     Lietuvių     Lumbaart     Magyar     Македонски     मराठी     Nederlands     日本語     Norsk bokmål     Norsk nynorsk     Polski     Português     Română     Русский     Shqip     Slovenčina     Slovenščina     Српски / srpski     Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски     Suomi     Svenska     தமிழ்     ไทย     Türkçe     Українська     Tiếng Việt     中文