Showing posts with label The Great Escape. Show all posts
Showing posts with label The Great Escape. Show all posts

The Great Escape Locations in Germany

Deining
After being contacted by Don J Whistance whose site thegreatescapelocations.com provides "inexhaustible" detailed knowledge of the making of the film, I was able to visit the location used in the opening of the film (although this is not the Dening north of Munich). Here a convoy of Germans are heading towards the town of Deinig with the Alps behind which, along with the town church, some buildings and topography provide continuity with today. I can't however share
Mr. Whistance's enthusiasm for Steve McQueen who was put up in a chalet in Deining, and whose incessant selfish behaviour and self-absorbed petulance sums up his personality for me, as related later by his former wife Neile McQueen Toffel in her book My Husband, My Friend: A Memoir (99-100):
To house Steve, me, and our children, the company had found us a beautiful chalet in Deining, Bavaria. The forty-minute drive to the Geiselgasteig Studios was good for Steve, for it provided him his "creative thinking time, but not so good for the farmers who used the narrow roads: Steve made up his own rules as it suited him. John Sturges and company spent half their time keeping him out of jail. Every time Steve came on the set the German police would be right behind him. John would quickly reprimand him with, “You cannot drive through a flock of chickens and you cannot drive into the woods and then come back onto the road to pass somebody. You cannot drive faster than makes sense or you will hurt yourself.” But when Steve was troubled, driving around was the answer. It helped to calm him.And troubled he was during the first three weeks of the picture....

As costar James Garner would relate, he and Steve Coburn would have to beg McQueen to cooperate after refusing to work until his part was rewritten, asking "What's your problem, Steve?" Apparently "after a few hours of tlakng, Steve wanted to be the hero but didn't want to do anything heroic." 

The convoy later continues just outside the next town, Egling, along a road that no longer exists. Whistance provides a 1954 map showing the original layout with its location today. Marc Eliot's biography references Deining, as well as relating the need for the studio to pay for a minder to try to stop him from driving over the (already liberal) speed limit around the area:

When Steve was told about the locale change, he was both excited—he had, since his merchant marine days, always loved to travel to new countries—and concerned. He enjoyed being overseas, but it meant he would be away from Hollywood for a solid year, except for the few weeks following the completion of The War Lover. He didn't want to become one of those American actors who only worked abroad. Sturges calmed his fears by reminding him he had top billing for the first time in his career and assuring him that he and the family would be put up in a beautiful chalet in Deining, Bavaria. Plus, Sturges pointed out, there were no speed limits in Germany. Technically that wasn't true-only the autobahn had no speed limit; limits on local roads were strictly enforced—but it was enough to get Steve to consent to the German shoot. To prevent Steve from speeding anywhere besides the autobahn, and potentially being arrested and delaying the production, Sturges hired a private escort to make sure he stayed within the legal limit when he drove.
 Füssen
Füssen of course provided the main location for the film The Great Escape. Here the town is first shown in the background behind the Lechhalde bridge as
Flight Lieutenants William Dickes (John Leyton) and Danny Velinski (Charles Bronson), having escaped from Stalag Luft III, attempt to row down the Rhine. For the filmmakers, Füssen and the surrounding area offered ideal filming locations: a small airfield that was important as a prerequisite for escaping by plane, an almost medieval-looking old town without war damage with narrow streets and roof landscapes, a varied nature in the Allgäu with the famous Neuschwanstein Castle, which was also known in America to be in Germany. The diverse landscape types near Füssen enabled the director to do numerous tricks: the village of Pfronten becomes the border town in front of Switzerland, in the swampy Schwansee Park two refugees cross the border to Spain, at the Theresienbrücke members of the Resistance work in a replica French café, et cet. Two of the fleeing allies escape on the Lech reach a ship in the port of Hamburg with their rowing boat. Hendley and the forger Blythe fly over Lake Constance to Switzerland with a stolen plane, in fact actually flying over Weißensee, past Neuschwanstein Castle and along the Hohen Straussberg. Because they don't understand the German air control system, they crash in the Miesbach district near Frauenried am Irschenberg near the Mariä-Geburt-Kirche. 
Meanwhile Flying Officer Louis Sedgwick (James Coburn), having escaped after making off with a bicycle in a scene shot at Markt Schwaben, has arrived in what is supposed to be a French town but which St. Mang unmistakably identifies as Füssen. Based loosely on a true story based on Paul Brickhill's 1950 book about the real-life mass escape by British Commonwealth PoWs from Stalag Luft III in Sagan (now Żagań, Poland). John Sturges wrote the screenplay and worked with Bavaria Film in Geiselgasteig, where 15,000 square metres of forest had to be cleared next to the studio premises in Perlacher Forst, so that a prison camp true to the original like in Sagan, Poland could be set up as a backdrop. In the fall of 1962, outdoor recordings took place in Füssen and the surrounding area The first part of the film focuses on the escape efforts within the camp and the process of secretly digging an escape tunnel. The second half of the film deals with the massive effort by the German Gestapo to track down the over seventy escaped prisoners individually attempting to make their way to England. 
St. Mang serving as the backdrop when Coburn is seen at Café Suzette (built for the film) before the assassination of these German officers. The cafe as seen here was in the area now holding flagpoles, and Coburn was sitting against the stone wall, now a metal railing. The bridge too has been replaced but otherwise the 1963 film location is easily recognisable on the south bank of the Lech. The black car above is actually a 1947 Citroën 11 Légère 'Traction' in a movie set in 1944.  Steve McQueen's motorcycle stunts and many other scenes in The Great Escape were filmed in and around the town. During six weeks of filming, Hollywood stars Steve McQueen, Charles Bronson and James Coburn stayed in hotels in Füssen, Hohenschwangau, Hopfen and Speiden as Füssen was transformed back to the time of the war with the train station, the narrow streets in the old town and the roof landscapes providing ideal backdrops for car chases. Many citizens acted as extras or watched the filming from the roofs of Spitalgasse. This ended up causing a sensation due to the props involving Nazi flags, weapons and uniforms.
  
 The German officers arriving with Coburn sitting behind.
The officers order from the waiter a Pernod, an anise-flavoured pastis apéritif. In fact the production of pastis was prohibited by the Vichy regime under the August 23, 1940
LoiContre L'Alcoolisme which prohibited the manufacture and sale of aperitifs based upon alcohol distilled from anything other than grapes. This was followed by a subsequent enactment in September 1941 that completely banned such alcohol being advertised. Even after the war the French banned the advertising of aniseed drinks in 1951.
What follows is a scene in which the officrs are then massacred that defies belief, immediately before the attack on the officers the waiter who is part of the plot lures Coburn away by claiming he has a phone call. Coburn is confused and knows nothing about what's going on- for all the waiter knows he could be a German agent or informant who is now going to be able to implicate the assassins. In fact, immediately after the three officers are machine-gunned to death in broad daylight in the centre of town, the cafe owners openly celebrate with cognac amidst the carnag
 
The poster used in the foreground is rather anachronistic as it dated from the very start of the German occupation with the legend "Abandoned populations, trust the German soldier !”
 The assassins' car drives down Lechhade bridge, turning on Tirolerstraße.

Bartlett and MacDonald attempting to board a bus at Brotmarkt whilst being checked by Gestapo agents. Do look out for the studio lamp on a scissor-lift in plain sight at the left side of the screen.


  MacDonald and Bartlett fleeing the Gestapo down Hintere Gasse upon being identified.
The same scene, looking from the very end of  Hintere Gasse 
MacDonald getting hit by a cyclist as he's chased down Drehergasse which follows the old city wall, with my own bike as reference
 
 As MacDonald is pursued, Bartlett- somehow seeing all this from Franziskanergasse- makes his own attempt at escape
Bartlett meanwhile trying to escape via Füssen's rooftops as he arrives at an der Stadtmauer...

... only to somehow manage to return to Drehergasse [!] before ending up at Brunnengasse...
...where he's finally caught on the corner of Hutergasse and Brunnengasse by Untersturmführer Steinach, played by Karl Otto Alberty. There is a continuity error in this scene as Attenborough's character Bartlett tries to walk nonchalantly along the pavement. When the German yells at Bartlett from his car to stop Bartlett does so, still on the pavement. However when cut to a different angle it appears that Bartlett has in fact stopped in the middle of the street. Such individual incidents in the film were mostly based on fact, but rearranged both chronologically and regarding the people involved as noted at the start of the film. In reality, of the 76 who escaped, three had managed to succeed whilst fifty were murdered in reprisal, but in small groups and not all at once. As one sadly expects from American films, the nationality of most of the prisoners were changed to emphasise the role of Americans at the expense of British Imperial heroes. Indeed, the real escape was by British and other allied personnel, none by Americans. Whilst Americans in the PoW camp did initially help to build the tunnels and work on the early escape plans, they were moved to their own compound seven months before the tunnels were completed. A large part had been played by Canadians, especially in the construction of the tunnels and in the escape itself. Of the 1,800 or so PoWs in the compound of whom 600 were involved in preparations for the escape, 150 of these were from the Dominion of Canada; Wally Floody, an RCAF pilot and mining engineer who was the real-life “tunnel king”, was engaged as a technical advisor for the film. Fourteen Germans were executed after the war for their roles, which ended up being among the charges at the Nuremberg War Crimes trial. Another actor, Donald Pleasence, had actually been an RAF pilot who had been shot down, held prisoner and tortured by the Germans. After offering advice to the film's director John Sturges, he was politely told to mind his own business. 
 
Later, when another star informed Sturges that Pleasence had actually been a RAF Officer in a Stalag camp, Sturges requested his technical advice and input on historical accuracy from that point forward. Other actors had been PoWs- Hannes Messemer in a Russian camp and Til Kiwe (playing the German guard "Frick" who discovers the escape) and Hans Reiser were prisoners of the Americans during the war. Kiwe had been a German paratrooper officer who was captured and held prisoner at a PoW camp in Colorado and himself had made several escape attempts, being captured in the St. Louis railway station during one such attempt. He won the Knight's Cross before his capture and was the cast member who had actually done many of the exploits shown in the film. Former PoWs in fact requested that the filmmakers exclude certain details about help they received to prevent the film jeopardising future escapes, a request which was honoured. 

The train station that appears in the film when David McCallum is killed on the tracks, enabling Attenborough to escape, was demolished recently in 2015 after having been purchased by the company "Hubert Schmid Bauunternehmen GmbH" for roughly 300,000 euros with the intention of replacing it with a modern convenience centre.
Captain Virgil Hilts (Steve McQueen) stringing a wire across what is actually the road between Füssen and Hopfen am See, the town clearly seen in the background; in fact, McQueen himself played the German motorcyclist who crashed into the wire. If one looks closely at the scene one can clearly see two shadows on the ground caused by the camera lights. In addition,  the motorcycle he makes off with is obviously a postwar British-made Triumph rather than the BMW or Zundapp which the Wehremacht would have used.
Serving in large part as a Steve McQueen vanity project, his character Hilts was based on an amalgamation of several real-life individuals including Major Dave Jones, a flight commander during Doolittle's Raid shot down and captured and Colonel Jerry Sage, who was an OSS agent in the North African desert when he was captured. Sage managed to don a flight jacket and pass as a flier otherwise he would have been executed as a spy. Another inspiration was probably Squadron Leader Eric Foster who escaped no less than seven times from German prisoner-of-war camps. In fact, during the filming the town's police had set up a speed trap near the set in which several members of the cast and crew were caught, including McQueen. Apparently the Chief of Police told McQueen "Herr McQueen, we have caught several of your comrades today, but you have won the prize [for the highest speeding]." McQueen was arrested and briefly gaoled. 
 
  Neuschwanstein
As seen in The Great Escape when Hendley (James Garner) and Blythe (Donald Pleasance) try to reach Switzerland escape by stealing a light aircraft, with Hohenschwangau castle on the lower right. In fact, the photo of Neuschwanstein indicates that they're actually flying straight in the wrong direction as I took it facing south with the plane travelling from right to left; this would mean that they are actually heading east away from the Swiss border which is about forty miles west of the castle.



Just outside Pullach is the former railway station located at Bahnhofsplatz 2 in the Großhesselohe district of Pullach which, as with Füssen and Markt Schwaben, provided scenes for The Great Escape, shown here as Gestapo and SD arrive to search for the missing prisoners.with the site today. It had been part of the Munich–Holzkirchen railway line, about an hundred metres west of the Großhesseloher bridge. About 400 metres west of the station there is still the old railway bridge, on which the Isar Valley Railway used to cross the tracks leading to the Großhesseloher Bridge. The station was built during the construction of the Bavarian Maximiliansbahn. The Munich – Großhesselohe section was put into operation in 1854. Since the continuation of the route was delayed by the necessary construction of the 300 metre long Großhesseloher bridge over the Isar, Großhesselohe was the end of the route for about 3 years. The next section, Großhesselohe – Rosenheim, was not opened until 1857, and Großhesselohe station became a through station. With the completion of the Braunau railway bridge in 1871, the Großhesselohe station lost its importance for long-distance traffic, as a large part of the long-distance connections were made over the shorter new route. It was here in 1962 that the train station was used as a backdrop for the film The Great Escape. For this purpose, the station building and the platform roof were provided with a sign "Neustadt." Here Flight Lieutenant Robert Hendley (James Garner) helping the almost blind Flight Lieutenant Colin Blythe (Donald Pleasence) onto the platform. Pleasence had actually been an RAF pilot who had been shot down, held prisoner and tortured by the Germans during the war. After offering advice to the film's director John Sturges, he was politely told to mind his own business. Later, when another star informed Sturges that Pleasence had actually been a RAF Officer in a Stalag camp, Sturges requested his technical advice and input on historical accuracy from that point forward. A number of individual incidents shown in the film were mostly based on fact, but rearranged both chronologically and regarding the people involved as noted at the start of the film. In reality, of the 76 who escaped, three had managed to succeed whilst fifty were murdered in reprisal, but in small groups and not all at once.  
After the escape and now masquerading as French businessmen, Flight Lieutenant Sandy MacDonald (Gordon Jackson) and Squadron Leader Roger Bartlett (Richard Attenborough) climb the stairs onto the platform at Neustadt station, now completely gone at the now closed Großhesselohe Staatsbahnhof. Whilst waiting to pass through a Gestapo checkpoint at a railway station, Bartlett is recognized by Kuhn, a Gestapo agent; Ashley-Pitt sacrifices himself by killing Kuhn, and is shot and killed. Bartlett and MacDonald slip away, but MacDonald blunders by replying in English to a suspicious Gestapo officer. MacDonald is quickly apprehended, and Bartlett is recognised and recaptured by Untersturmführer Steinach, an SS agent.
Based loosely on a true story based on Paul Brickhill's 1950 book about the real-life mass escape by British Commonwealth PoWs from Stalag Luft III in Sagan (now Żagań, Poland), the first part of the film focuses on the escape efforts within the camp and the process of secretly digging an escape tunnel. The second half of the film deals with the massive effort by the German Gestapo to track down the over seventy escaped prisoners individually attempting to make their way to England. As one sadly expects from American films, the nationality of most of the prisoners were changed to emphasise the role of Americans at the expense of British Imperial heroes.
Indeed, the real escape was by British and other allied personnel, none by Americans. Coburn actually plays an Australian. Whilst Americans in the PoW camp did initially help to build the tunnels and work on the early escape plans, they were moved to their own compound seven months before the tunnels were completed. A large part had been played by Canadians, especially in the construction of the tunnels and in the escape itself. Of the 1,800 or so PoWs in the compound of whom six hundred were involved in preparations for the escape, 150 of these were from the Dominion of Canada; Wally Floody, an RCAF pilot and mining engineer who was the real-life “tunnel king”, was engaged as a technical advisor for the film. Fourteen Germans were executed after the war for their roles, which ended up being among the charges at the Nuremberg War Crimes trial.


A couple of scenes from The Great Escape were shot here.  Flight Lieutenant Colin Blythe (Donald Pleasence) and Flight Lieutenant Robert Hendley (James Garner) hiding from the Germans during the Great Escape; the clock tower of the parish church St. Margaret in Markt Schwaben serving as a reference point. Pleasence had actually been an RAF pilot who had been shot down, held prisoner and tortured by the Germans during the war. After offering advice to the film's director John Sturges, he was politely told to mind his own business. Later, when another star informed Sturges that Pleasence had actually been a RAF Officer in a Stalag camp, Sturges requested his technical advice and input on historical accuracy from that point forward. A number of individual incidents shown in the film were mostly based on fact, but rearranged both chronologically and regarding the people involved as noted at the start of the film. In reality, of the 76 who escaped, three had managed to succeed whilst fifty were murdered in reprisal, but in small groups and not all at once.  Flying Officer Louis Sedgwick (James Coburn) stealing a bike on Ebersberger Straße in Markt Schwaben, named Neustadt in the film. The successful escape of  Coburn's Australian character, Sedgwick, via Spain was based on Dutchman Bram van der Stok. Coburn, an American, was cast in the role of Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) Flying Officer Louis Sedgwick who was an amalgamation of Flight Lieutenant Albert Hake, an Australian serving in the RAF, the camp's compass maker, and Johnny Travis, the real manufacturer.
Based loosely on a true story based on Paul Brickhill's 1950 book about the real-life mass escape by British Commonwealth PoWs from Stalag Luft III in Sagan (now Żagań, Poland), the first part of the film focuses on the escape efforts within the camp and the process of secretly digging an escape tunnel. The second half of the film deals with the massive effort by the German Gestapo to track down the over seventy escaped prisoners individually attempting to make their way to England.
As one sadly expects from American films, the nationality of most of the prisoners were changed to emphasise the role of Americans at the expense of British Imperial heroes.
Indeed, the real escape was by British and other allied personnel, none by Americans. Coburn actually plays an Australian. Whilst Americans in the PoW camp did initially help to build the tunnels and work on the early escape plans, they were moved to their own compound seven months before the tunnels were completed. A large part had been played by Canadians, especially in the construction of the tunnels and in the escape itself. Of the 1,800 or so PoWs in the compound of whom six hundred were involved in preparations for the escape, 150 of these were from the Dominion of Canada; Wally Floody, an RCAF pilot and mining engineer who was the real-life “tunnel king”, was engaged as a technical advisor for the film. Fourteen Germans were executed after the war for their roles, which ended up being among the charges at the Nuremberg War Crimes trial.

 
Coburn making his way down the other way, showing how much has changed since the film was shot. 
 

Nazi Housing Estates in Munich

Nazi Housing Development
The government of Chancellor Brüning in 1931 established the small settlement programme in order "to promote the population becoming settled in the country to reduce unemployment and to facilitate sufficient living conditions for the unemployed." The future settlers were to be involved in the establishment of their own homes and gardens and small animal husbandry to improve their supply in the economic crisis. The Nazis took over the model because it fit into their anti-modern and anti-urban ideology. 
According to Geoff Walden of Third Reich in Ruins, this first building at Kurfürstenplatz "was likely part of a Third Reich neighbourhood housing development (Siedlung) built in 1938. The Siedlung included a savings bank and a police office, and this building may have been one of those." friend_of_Obersalzberg, who contributed the photo on the left, confirms that it was built in 1938 by architect and graduate engineer Hans Atzenbeck.
At that time it was necessary to build new healthy and cheap apartments in Munich. It has five entrances and thus five living units. In the first floor (Erdgeschoß) were stores. In the courtyard was a fountain with a sculpture of a drumming Hitlerjunge. The swastikas and the fountain were removed after war.
Google Street view actually blocks the image of the entire building! Google isn't known for respecting privacy, so could this have been pushed by the authorities given the remaining Nazi-era reliefs?
The site on  February 26, 1938 when it was officially opened. 
It was reported at the time that
[t]he topping-out ceremony for the new residential buildings of the Städtische Sparkasse, which will also include new rooms for the Sparkasse branch and the northern police section, will take place on Kurfürstenplatz Mayor Fiehler then points out that a number of needs resulted in the need for the new building, such as the space requirements of the savings bank, the police, the creation of apartments and the necessary redesign of the square to create an appealing urban design.
Starting in 1938, the blocks of flats with 37 2½- to 3½-room flats, a savings bank branch, a police detachment with affiliated shops and a coffee house were built. After the Second World War, house number 5 was the location of the Municipal Police Office North of the then Munich City Police for a long time.
The coat of arms of Munich on the building with its form under the Nazis and today. On the right the Nazi version reappears on the clothing of a neo-Nazi in Munich.
Better photos of the building can be found on the the Munich thread at Axis History.
These siedlung on Klugstrasse all have bizarre Third Reich, astrological, masonic, and other obscure symbols over every door frame leading inside. To me, it's incredible that they continue to survive and form the entrances to people's homes:

The swastika is still faintly visible...

...whilst this one, dated 1933, is obscured by the shaking hands

Here the hakenkreuz has been erased, but the Nazi salutes allowed to remain!

Another excised swastika that completed the DAF symbol

And yet a couple have had their bizarre symbols completely removed.



The left image shows swords and a steel helmet whilst the one on the right reminds me of the lesson from the Disney wartime cartoon Education for Death...


Mustersiedlung Ramersdorf
 
The settlement at Ramersdorf was opened on June 9, 1934 to serve as a model for future settlement projects in Germany. Designed by Guido Habers, this siedlung on Stephanskirchener Straße provided 192 homes with 34 different building types and planned as an alternative to the multi-storey urban houses. The ensemble is self-contained and , pursuant to the garden city idea numerous green spaces.  As executive architects, among others, Friedrich Ferdinand Haindl, Sep Ruf, Franz Ruf, Lois Knidberger, Albert Heichlinger, Max Dellefant, Theo Pabst, Christoph Miller, Hanna Loev Delisle and Charles were responsible for the buildings. The hoped-for propaganda effect of the settlement did not materialise because, among other things, the generous living space for those days 56-129 m2 and individual modernist elements were criticised.  After the exhibition, the settlement houses were sold as homes. In 1935 a Protestant church building was opened with the Gustav Adolf Church in the settlement as shown in the then-and-now photos. A number of frescoes remain, barely, from 1934:
 
St. Christopher on Stephanskirchener Straße 20. When I last visited in February 2018, it appeared to have been removed.
Above a door on Schlechinger Weg 4 is this coat of arms; the former owner was Paerr and therefore he chose a play on words in the arms of a bear- Bärenwappen. Above one can still make out the inscription "G. P. 1934".

Further down at Schlechinger Weg 8 is this image of a German African colonial soldier. The original owner had served in Deutsch-Südwestafrika and designed the crest himself before giving it to the artist, Günther Graßmann.
 
Another by Günther Graßmann at Schlechinger Weg 10. The pointer of the sundial is at the centre of a sun, with the dial in the form of an harp. As can be seen in the 1934 photo, the bottom of the fresco depicts a sailing ship. Graßmann was involved in another sundial for the church of St. Raphael, München-Hartmannshofen; I think he was involved in its stained glass, as well: http://www.sankt-raphael-muenchen.de/sonstiges.html
 
Remarkably, the Adolf-Hitler-Brunnen still remains intact at Herrenchiemseestraße 44. 
On the base of the fountain a swastika with a lime leaf in raised relief was etched and at the back was the following inscription:
 DIESER·BRUNNEN·
WURDE·UNTER·DER HITLERLINDE·
UND·GLEICHZEITIG·MIT·DIESER·GESETZT·
ZUR·ERÖFFNUNG·DER·DEUTSCHEN·SIEDLUNGS·AUSSTELLUNG·
MÜNCHEN·1934
The blocks of stone with the swastika and lime leaf above the water spout were removed after 1945 as was the term " Hitler Linde". This fountain is one of the 75 drinking water wells in Munich.
Another water well at Törwanger Straße 2. In 1938 a small mosaic was set up as seen in the photo with a swastika by the painter Günther Grassmann. The mosaic has been coated with a thin layer of plaster and is left empty, the well no longer in operation.

Siedlung Am Hart
The Am Hart settlement goes back to the Reichskleinsiedlungsprogramm, which Reichskanzler Heinrich Brüning had initiated on October 6, 1931 by emergency order. The Reichsginsiedlungsprogramm was mainly for the unemployed and provided for the erection of simply equipped housing estates. All settlements were equipped with large gardening grounds for the cultivation of fruits and vegetables and for keeping small animals in order to allow for extensive self-sufficiency. After the end of the Weimar Republic the National Socialists continued the program, but put it into the service Their ideology. After two years of construction, the Reichskleinsiedlung Am Hart, which was adorned with swastikas, was officially handed over by Lord Mayor Karl Fiehler on September 8, 1935. The expansion of the Nazi regime was reflected in the naming of streets: Arnauer Strasse, Egerländerstrasse, Kaadener Strasse, Karlsbader Strasse, Marienbader Strasse and Sudetendeutsche Strasse were already in 1934 after cities in the west of the Czechoslovak Republic or the one living there German-speaking population, which Nazi propaganda wanted to bring "home to the Reich" by means of a territorial union.
The Volksschule at Rothpletzstraße 40 originally bore the inscription: "This school building was built between 1938 and 1939 at the time of the return of the Sudetenland to the German Reich." It remains unchanged apart from the Nazi eagle which has been removed.

Siedlung Neuherberge
 With the ϟϟ-Deutschland-Kaserne in the background seen December 1938.

In August 1936, west of Ingolstädter Strasse, the Neuherberge settlement consisting of 169 small houses was completed. Those chosen to live here were selected according to criteria of the Nazi ideology. The settlements enjoyed a large portion of the garden for self-sufficiency and were intended primarily for poor families with many aryan families. Many of the settled settlers were employed as civilian workers in the neighbouring barracks or in the armaments industry. The central square of the settlement, the Spengelplatz, was originally named after a young Hitler Youth member. After the Second World War it was rededicated to the landscape painter Johann Ferdinand Spengel.


Siedlung Kaltherberge
In 1936-1937, east of Ingolstädter Strasse, the Kleinsiedlung Kaltherberge, whose only direct access had ever been via Gundelkoferstraße, was founded as a self-employed settlement for needy workers' families. The Mettenleiterplatz is the centre of the settlement, which originally consisted of 221 settlements. The Nazi planners had originally named the square after one of the killed participants of the so-called "Hitler Putsch" whom Nazi propaganda worshipped as one of the "blood martyrs of the movement." After the war the place became after Johann Michael Mettenleiter, a copper cutter and lithographer. On December 4, 1945, the American Army confiscated all houses of the settlement, including the facility, to accommodate about 2,000 Displaced Persons under the care of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRR). Among those were numerous Jews from Eastern Europe who wanted to leave Munich to the USA or to British Palestine. The previous residents of the settlement had to leave their houses and were temporarily accommodated by the Munich housing office; by 1949 most were able to return to their homes.

Siedlung on Erich Kästner str.
This example of a siedlung consists of an huge building and on all four corners there are Third Reich reliefs.
The swastikas have been wiped out from the bottom of each relief
 
Similar decorative façade at the corner of Karl - Theodor and Mannheimer streets:
93 Winzererstr.
Another surviving building from the Nazi era with its iconography intact (with the colour still maintained) complete with reichsadler dating from 1936 found by odeon at Axis History Forum.



The Diana fountain on Kufsteiner Platz at the entrance to the Herzog Park in Bogenhausen. The Dianahaus in the background was destroyed during the war. It serves as a reminder that the area was formerly an almost impenetrable hunting area in Altwasssümpümpen within a meadow landscape with large deer. Thomas Mann recorded in his 1918 novella Herr und Hund his daily walks with his dog Bauschan in the immediate vicinity of his villa here.
 
From 1933 to 1937 the Nazis set up Reichskleinsiedlung here at Am Hart, Neuherberg and Kaltherberg after which time the housing policy increasingly turned back to the multi-storey, which could be accomplished more efficiently and cheaper.
This building at Mariahilfplatz 4, shown in 1934 and today where it now serves as an hotel, was originally used as an Hitlerjugend-Heim.


Pullach
From the time the "Reichssiedlung Rudolf Hess" was built nearly eighty years ago south of Munich over 68 hectares in size, the area above the Isar in the district of Pullach has been shrouded in mystery. A lifestyle and everyday life that was completely permeated by the Nazi ideology was to be realised here. "Sonnenwinkel" was the domicile of influential and high-ranking Nazis, above all Hitler's secretary and head of the Nazi party chancellery, Martin Bormann. Bormann noted Hitler's first appointment in Pullach in his pocket calendar on September 14, 1938: "Visit of the Führer in the Sonnenwinkel (long discussions with Ribbentropp in the Bormann house). Then drive to Obersalzberg." There, on September 15, Hitler received Neville Chamberlain; and also before the next meeting with the British Prime Minister, a week later, on his way to Bad Godesberg, Hitler scheduled another preliminary discussion on the Munich Agreement in the Sonnenwinkel House. These dates marked a new function of Bormann's staff leader villa: as a place of important political negotiations - admittedly without publicity and representative accessories. After the Munich Agreement, Bormann was able to make the facility, attractive to Hitler as a place for confidential meetings and discussions. However, the majority of the convivial receptions that Bormann gave for film stars and entertainers such as Marika Rökk or Hilde Krahl took place without any staged public attention - especially when Bormann entertained his lover, the film actress Manja Behrens.
Various Nazi locations around the Reichssiedlung Rudolf Hess (aka "Sonnenwinkel"), built from 1936 by Roderich Fick (and later Hermann Giesler). The inhabitants of the compound were mostly high-ranking members of the Stab Hess and Parteikanzlei, among them Gerhard Klopfer, Gottfried Neesse, Helmut Friedrichs, Herbert Reischauer, Edinger Ancker and others. But there were some other Party officials living there as well for instance Walter "Bubi" Schultze. Martin Bormann's house was later the living place of Reinhard Gehlen. From 1943 to 1944 on the property east of Heilmannstraße the Siegfried headquarters was built as one of the Todt organisation's sixteen headquarters. The Führer headquarters consisted of a central bunker, defence tower, administrative and crew buildings, and was connected by its own rail connection from the Isar Valley Railway. It was never used as a headquarters.


At the site today, allowing one to see, as far as the barbed wire-covered wall allows, the architect’s design concept providing for spacious grounds in a symmetrical layout that were to be conducive to producing a community spirit. The one- and two-family homes that were situated around a rectangular green,were lined up to face the central staff building and were made accessible from today’s Heilmannstrasse via a loop called Sonnenweg. There was a large gardener’s shop with greenhouses, a car yard with workshops and garages and various houses for drivers and domestics. Despite the fact that the estate, which had been completed in 1938 and had been in use since was openly accessible to everyone, the individual houses were shielded from the public roads by head-high walls so that the privacy desired was maintained. Irrespective of the different sizes of the building types, there were recurring design elements in all the houses. They were simple, well-proportioned structures with steep roofs, strictly sectionalised facades with lattice windows that were let in flush with the external rendering and had folding shutters inside. It was characteristic that a uniform selection of simple materials was joined with a high quality of craftsmanship in the buildings of the estate. In their architectural type, they referred to a well-known antecedent from 18th-century architecture, namely to Goethe’s Gartenhaus in Weimar. The Stabsleiterhaus (Residence of the Head of Staff) lay at the centre of the estate. It was a representative villa which, on the ground floor, sported conference rooms as well as a music room, a dining room and a library, whilst the living quarters of the Stabsleiter Martin Bormann and his family was on the first floor. Bronze statues of the artists Josef Thorak and Fritz Klimsch, whom the Nazi regime patronised, were set up in the garden parterre which adjoined the south of the house and could be accessed through the large fireplace hall. The wing that had been added to the main building served as a maintenance building. The design of the garden had come from the landscape architect Alwin Seifert, who was responsible for planning all the open spaces and gardens of the estate. In 1939, the newly appointed Generalbaurat (General Building Surveyor), Hermann Giesler, took over the responsibilities of the architect Roderich Fick who had been appointed Professor of Design at Munich Technical University in 1936 and who was to become Reichsbaurat (Building Surveyor for the Reich) for the city of Linz later on. In 1943, he built the nursery school on the northern side of the communal green to form a counterpart to the Stabsleiterhaus. It was a building that was bound to the “Heimatschutzstil“ (“Style of Homeland Protection“, an architectural style favoured by the Nazis) in its architectural characteristics. The basement of the building was already converted into a shelter for the families living on the estate.
The Sonnenwinkel settlement was spared the direct effects of war for a long time. To protect against possible bomb attacks, the houses were given a dark camouflage. Until May 1943, the dictator was here for several days at least once a year. The area in an arch of the Isar was the perfect stop between Hitler's private apartment on Munich's Prinzregentenplatz and the Berghof above Berchtesgaden. However, the air raid shelter in the basement of the old building erected in 1914 on the lively Prinzregentenplatz could only be insufficiently converted into a driver's bunker. Therefore, since the beginning of air raids on Germany's cities, it made sense for Hitler to spend the night in the Sonnenwinkel when he was in Munich. Bormann had set up a bunker there. Albert Speer noted in 1944 that the system in Pullach, called "Siegfried" or "Hagen", cost 13 million Reichsmarks. That was more than a third of the Wolfsschanze and almost ten times the size of the new Führerbunker in the garden of the Reich Chancellery in Berlin. Whilst it hasd been assumed that Bormann had this facility built without Hitler's knowledge, in May 1943, during the last documented visit by Hitler, the 70.5 by 20 metre open-plan bunker must have been visible. The facility was generously equipped, especially if one compares it with the Berlin bunker. The more than thirty rooms were partly wood-paneled. The installations ran under the floor and met the most modern requirements - in Berlin, on the other hand, there were only earthenware tiles on the solid concrete of the floor slab. The usable area in Hagen was more than 700 square metres; in Berlin it was only a third. The ceiling was three meters thick, reinforced by a layer of 24 centimetre thick steel girders - only here was the Führerbunker in the imperial capital a little better equipped: with a total of four meters thick ceiling. A branch from the Munich-Wolfratshausen line to the restricted area was specially made to make the guide's journey more convenient. Two special trains could be parked side by side.
Although Hitler never visited the Pullach Führerbunker, the facility was used: Field Marshal Erwin Rommel prepared here in the summer of 1943 for the German invasion of the renegade ally Italy. Despite the fact that the Führerhauptquartier had never been used as intended, it nevertheless remained “in operation“ until the end of the war. The communications centre in the bunker was operated by signal soldiers and operators delegated from the Reichspost.
At the end of March 1945, the families of the party leaders left the estate. The next month most of the inhabitants fled to South Tyrolia whilst the locals plundered the vacant houses. At the end of April, American soldiers occupied the area. The total damage caused to the compound by aerial warfare was limited. Thus, the bunker compound did not sustain any damage from the war, were however ravaged by looters. A fact-finding commission of the American Army that was there in May of 1945 rated the compound “modern and first class." At first, the undestroyed buildings were used as accommodations for troops passing through and as a prison camp, and for a short while also served for sheltering “displaced persons”. In the autumn of 1945, the Civil Censor Division was established, an institution for censoring letters. The division existed until 1947 and then made room for the “Organisation Gehlen“ in December. Because of the Control Council Directive No. 50 of April 29, 1947, the freehold property was retroactively transferred to the Free State of Bavaria in 1949, which in turn sold the entire property to the Federation in 1962. In December 1947 the Organisation Gehlen moved in.  Eventually the location of the Führer Headquarters became the headquarters of the intelligence agency of the German government, the Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND), shown on the right from this time in 1979 before the agency moved to Berlin in 2014. This made Pullach a metonym for the BND just as Langley is for the CIA. Some of the buildings in the Reichssiedlung can be seen from the Heilmannstraße via the BND wall although the site even today is not accessible to the general public and photography is prohibited in the area of the BND.
Heinrich Himmler's daughter Gudrun arranged Anton Malloth's stay at this nursing home in Pullach, a supervisor of Theresienstadt from 1988 to 2001, until he was sentenced to life in prison.
Just outside Pullach is the former railway station located at Bahnhofsplatz 2 in the Großhesselohe district of Pullach which, as with Füssen and Markt Schwaben, provided scenes for The Great Escape, shown here as Gestapo and SD arrive to search for the missing prisoners.with the site today. It had been part of the Munich–Holzkirchen railway line, about an hundred metres west of the Großhesseloher bridge. About 400 metres west of the station there is still the old railway bridge, on which the Isar Valley Railway used to cross the tracks leading to the Großhesseloher Bridge. The station was built during the construction of the Bavarian Maximiliansbahn. The Munich – Großhesselohe section was put into operation in 1854. Since the continuation of the route was delayed by the necessary construction of the 300 metre long Großhesseloher bridge over the Isar, Großhesselohe was the end of the route for about 3 years. The next section, Großhesselohe – Rosenheim, was not opened until 1857, and Großhesselohe station became a through station. With the completion of the Braunau railway bridge in 1871, the Großhesselohe station lost its importance for long-distance traffic, as a large part of the long-distance connections were made over the shorter new route. It was here in 1962 that the train station was used as a backdrop for the film The Great Escape. For this purpose, the station building and the platform roof were provided with a sign "Neustadt." Here Flight Lieutenant Robert Hendley (James Garner) helping the almost blind Flight Lieutenant Colin Blythe (Donald Pleasence) onto the platform. Pleasence had actually been an RAF pilot who had been shot down, held prisoner and tortured by the Germans during the war. After offering advice to the film's director John Sturges, he was politely told to mind his own business. Later, when another star informed Sturges that Pleasence had actually been a RAF Officer in a Stalag camp, Sturges requested his technical advice and input on historical accuracy from that point forward. A number of individual incidents shown in the film were mostly based on fact, but rearranged both chronologically and regarding the people involved as noted at the start of the film. In reality, of the 76 who escaped, three had managed to succeed whilst fifty were murdered in reprisal, but in small groups and not all at once.  
After the escape and now masquerading as French businessmen, Flight Lieutenant Sandy MacDonald (Gordon Jackson) and Squadron Leader Roger Bartlett (Richard Attenborough) climb the stairs onto the platform at Neustadt station, now completely gone at the now closed Großhesselohe Staatsbahnhof. Whilst waiting to pass through a Gestapo checkpoint at a railway station, Bartlett is recognized by Kuhn, a Gestapo agent; Ashley-Pitt sacrifices himself by killing Kuhn, and is shot and killed. Bartlett and MacDonald slip away, but MacDonald blunders by replying in English to a suspicious Gestapo officer. MacDonald is quickly apprehended, and Bartlett is recognised and recaptured by Untersturmführer Steinach, an SS agent.
Based loosely on a true story based on Paul Brickhill's 1950 book about the real-life mass escape by British Commonwealth PoWs from Stalag Luft III in Sagan (now Żagań, Poland), the first part of the film focuses on the escape efforts within the camp and the process of secretly digging an escape tunnel. The second half of the film deals with the massive effort by the German Gestapo to track down the over seventy escaped prisoners individually attempting to make their way to England. As one sadly expects from American films, the nationality of most of the prisoners were changed to emphasise the role of Americans at the expense of British Imperial heroes.
Indeed, the real escape was by British and other allied personnel, none by Americans. Coburn actually plays an Australian. Whilst Americans in the PoW camp did initially help to build the tunnels and work on the early escape plans, they were moved to their own compound seven months before the tunnels were completed. A large part had been played by Canadians, especially in the construction of the tunnels and in the escape itself. Of the 1,800 or so PoWs in the compound of whom six hundred were involved in preparations for the escape, 150 of these were from the Dominion of Canada; Wally Floody, an RCAF pilot and mining engineer who was the real-life “tunnel king”, was engaged as a technical advisor for the film. Fourteen Germans were executed after the war for their roles, which ended up being among the charges at the Nuremberg War Crimes trial.

 

The station in the summer of 1976. After the introduction of the S-Bahn to Wolfratshausen and the conversion of the Isartalbahnhof Großhesselohe into an S-Bahn station, the Großhesselohe station was shut down five years later. The buildings that have been preserved date from around 1870. These are the two main buildings of the station; the platform hall originally located in between has no longer been preserved. Both buildings are two-story brick buildings, one in a T-shape, the other in an L-shape. Parts of the upper floor are clad in wood. The buildings have flat gable roofs. Near the train station at Bahnhofsplatz 4 and 5 there are two similar two-story brick residential buildings with a gable roof which originally belonged to the train station and are now also listed buildings.