Remaining Nazi Sites around Munich (3)

Bavarian State Tax Office (Oberfinanzpräsidium)
Nazi EagleGIF: Oberfinanzpräsidium 
Victims of Hitlerism still have to endure this symbol when entering a government building. That this building served a key role in the unrestrained plundering of the Jews during the Nazi period, its continued existence is all the more striking. This building at Sophienstraße 6 was constructed between 1938 to 1942. During the Nazi era this building administered the expropriation of assets of political opponents and racial undesirables through public auctions of furnishings. Regarding the “Arisierung” of Jewish property, the fiscal authority located here played a key role. After 1945 it was found that 1,589 Munich properties had been confiscated by this office.
Nazi eagle with Bavarian arms
This less-offensive Eagle in the courtyard represents the Bavarian Free State. After the war this building served the American Military Authorities before hosting the America Haus (until it moved to the former Führerbau in 1948). This is also where the Bavarian State Parliament met from May 1947 until January 1949.
ReichsadlerPoster displaying the history of the eagle as used on the coats of arms of German cities and governments from the earliest times through 1939. When confronting Germans with this offensive symbol, most respond to me that without the swastika, it is simply a typical eagle that has always been the symbol of Germany. But as this chart shows, the Nazi eagle was entirely different from its previous (and current) incarnations. During the Third Reich, a stylised eagle combined with the Nazi swastika was made the national emblem (Hoheitszeichen) by order of Adolf Hitler in 1935 based on his own personal design. Despite its mediæval origin, the term "Reichsadler" in common English understanding is mostly associated with this specific Nazi era version. The Nazi Party had used a very similar symbol for itself, called the Parteiadler ("Party eagle"). These two insignia can be distinguished as the Reichsadler looks to its right shoulder whereas the Parteiadler looks to its left shoulder.
Hitler himself
spent hours poring over old art publications and books on heraldry to find a model for the eagle. Eventually he discovered what he wanted in an anti-Semitic lexicon where the fowl was characterised as the Aryan of the animal kingdom. He then asked a jeweller to design a model, but when this proved too feeble, he invented his own- a menacing eagle which appeared about to take flight.
Munich Main Station
Muenchen hauptbahnhof
The main railway station in 1923 and in a still from footage of the Day Of German Art held on the weekend of 14-16 July, 1939.  Hitler was assigned to guard the site upon his return from the Great War in 1919.
Probably in late January, as Schmidt hinted, Hitler returned to Munich. Then, for just over two weeks, beginning on 20 February, he was assigned to guard duty at the Hauptbahnhof, where a unit of his company was responsible for maintaining order, particularly among the many soldiers travelling to and from Munich. 
Kershaw (69) Hitler
Hitler and Mussolini at Munich, September 1938
Hitler and Mussolini at the Munich railway station, September 1938 for the Munich conference and Drake Winston today. The post building in front looks unchanged apart from the loss of one floor and is today an hotel. In 1938 Hermann Giesler set the station at a 45-degree angle to the road, planning a huge dome with a height of 136 metres and a diameter of 265 metres. In May 1942 the German Reichsbahn began on Hitler's orders with the plans of a broad-gauge railway which was to link all of Europe. In Munich, the broad-gauge tracks of Berlin-Munich and Paris-Wien would have been linked. In the summer timetable of 1939, the station had 112 arrivals and departures of regularly operated trains per day. It was thus the eleventh most significant node in the long-distance network of the German Reichsbahn. A sketch by Hitler dated March 22, 1939 served as the basis for the competition for the Munich Central Station: a flat dome rests on a ring of supporting buildings, a columnar portico emphasises the projecting entrance. A circular ribbon window and a lantern was to illuminate the giant cupola. Hitler very specifically wanted a distinction between the Munich Central Station as a “monument of our century’s technology” in contrast to the Halle des Volkes in Berlin, designed by Albert Speer as a massive dome.
Bavarian International School and Hitler with MussoliniMy students at the start of the annual trip to Berlin. During the air raids on Munich in the Second World War the station was heavily hit, but it was not until February 25, 1945 that train traffic had to be redirected after 112 bombings. Apart from service to Pasing, all long-haul trains had to either bypass the city or move to the Nordring in Munich. In total, the damage amounted to 7.1 million reichsmarks, as well as numerous deaths and injuries. On April 30, 1945 American troops entered Munich, and at first troops of the Wehrmacht continued to defend the station but, given that a counter-attack would have been pointless, it quickly ended. Already by May 6, 1945 reconstruction of the station was begun despite the lack of building materials and complicated approval procedures, so that after July 24, 1945, another 128 trains could be dispatched. From December 16 there were 235 trains daily. At the moment a new façade for the railway station and service hall are to be built according to a design by Auer+Weber+Assoziierte but, because of difficulties in financing, it is questionable when the project will actually be started

 Model of the main railway station and the former section of the Grosse Straße, 1939-40. Instead of the Friedenheimer bridge, the gigantic new main railway station was to be built according to the ideas of the Nazis. The dismantled track body was designed to be a boulevard with countless buildings in the monumental Nazi style, and the dome of the main railway station was supposed to be the highlight of this new axis. While some demolitions were made along the railway, there was no implementation of the new plans in the war.

Planning conceived of the redesign of the station through architect Paul Bonatz with a 136 metre high domed structure with a width of 300 metres and the establishment of a “monument of the movement” at its old site. It was to have served as the central nodal point for the planned Adolf-Hitlerstraße and would accommodate wide-gauge double-decker trains that would travel at speeds of 250 km/h across the Gross Deutsches Reich from Brest to Baku.
Advertising banner for the opening of the anti-Semitic exhibition Der ewige Jude being held at the Deutschen Museum at the entrance in November, 1937 and the site today.

What Hitler proposed and his war disposed; the Main Station after the war and today. Between June 1942 and February 1945 the hauptbahnhof was the starting point of the deportations of Munich Jews, Roma and Sinti to the extermination camps in the east of the reich.
Nearby at Arnulfstrasse 52  is the Augustiner-Keller where Hitler spoke at seven times between 1921 and 1931.

Schellingstraße during the wartime bombing and today. The street has a number of sites associated with the Nazi era
Schellingstraße  was described as the Einfallstor der NSDAP in die Maxvorstadt- the entrance gate of the Nazis to Maxvorstadt. Named after the philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling, it is the longest continuous street in Maxvorstadt at roughly 2000 metres. Soon after the founding of the NSDAP in 1925, Party members and supporters of Hitler imprinted their ideology and imagery within the university quarter. Heinrich Hoffmann, whose company had been in the rear building of No. 50 since 1924, left the NSDAP in 1925 as a business centre. Until the move to the Braune Haus in 1930, the nation-wide party was organised from here. One legacy is a prominent relief of a Nazi-era coat of arms of Munich, with the eagle and swastika excised:
From 1936 to 1945, the lion was replaced by the Nazi party eagle- the Reichsadler. Deemed the Hauptstadt der Bewegung, Munich was a significant place in terms of the Nazi ideology. The city was home to the NSDAP headquarters, the Beer Hall Putsch and also saw the establishment of Dachau, the first Nazi concentration camp. Post-war designs were not pursued until 1949 with the current arms shown for comparison at right.
Nazi Party offices Schellingstraße 50
This is where Hitler met Eva Braun for the first time as she worked in the new shop of Hoffmann, opened in 1913, on Schellingstraße 50. They first met in 1929, when he was 40 and she was 17. She worked in a Munich camera shop run by his official photographer, Heinrich Hoffmann. According to Hoffmann's daughter, Hitler's opening line was: "May I invite you to the opera with me, Fräulein Eva? You see, I'm surrounded by men and I know what a pleasure it is to enjoy female company." 
  Eva was the middle of the three daughters of Fritz Braun, a  master craftsman from Simbach on the Inn. She was a pretty, empty-headed blonde, with a round face and blue eyes, who  worked as a shop girl in Hoffmann's photographer's shop. Hitler met her there, paid her a few casual compliments, gave her flowers, and occasionally invited her to be one of his party on an outing. The initiative was all on Eva's side: she told her friends that Hitler was in love with her and that she would make him marry her.
Bullock (394)
Dates at the cinema and restaurants followed. From 1925 until 1931 the NSDAP-headquarters were here. The Reichsadler is still above the door even though, as can be seen in the 'then and now' photos above, the exterior has been changed completely.

Inside, with the Blutfahne flanked by two standards. The central photo shows Hitler conducting a meeting in the building 1928 during a leadership conference. Also present in the photo are Alfred Rosenberg, Gregor Strasser, Heinrich Himmler, Julius Streicher, and Robert Ley.
ϟϟ men distributing flyers on the corner of Schellingstraße and Barer Straße circa 1930, now a Tengelmann supermarket. Directly across the street is:
Schelling Salon
Having lunch at the Schelling Salon. I'm going to quote from my copy of the 'Past Finder Zik Zak' of Munich, which is based on Maik Kopelek's series of books, although the fold-out map hasn't any author mentioned:
"Family-owned since 1872... Hitler is said to have often left without paying; Lenin never did! Worth seeing: the stone urinals in the cellar."

Claimed to have been used by Lenin, Hitler and Franz Josef Strauss.
When banned from entering for refusal to pay his bills, Hitler then moved down the road to the
Osteria Bavaria
Now the Osteria Italiana, this was apparently Hitler's favourite restaurant where he would have his "Stammtisch" and where he wooed Eva Braun who worked, one block down the street, as a clerk and bookkeeper, at Heinrich Hoffmann's photography studio. Clearly little has changed. It was here that, according to Irving (100) in Hitler's War, that "Hitler himself had sketched the rough outlines for the House of Art, using the back of an Osteria menu, one day in 1931 – a gallery of stern Grecian lines which even today is mocked as Munich’s 'Athens Station.’"
Irving also quotes Goebbels's diary (in an excessively misleading way that Evans castigates in Lying About Hitler) wherein he records that it was here that he had reported to Hitler about the events of Reichskristallnacht:
[Hitler] is in agreement with everything. His views are quite radical and aggressive. The Aktion itself went off without a hitch. A hundred dead. But no German property damaged.’ Each of these five sentences was untrue, as will be seen. With minor alterations the Führer authorizes my decree re: breaking off the Aktionen. I issue it immediately through the press. The Führer wants to proceed to very harsh measures against the Jews. They must repair their shops themselves. The insurance companies will pay them nothing. Then the Führer wants Jewish businesses gradually expropriated and their owners compensated with paper which we can [word illegible: devalue?] at any time. Meanwhile people are starting with their own Aktionen. I issue appropriate secret decrees. We’re waiting to see the repercussions abroad. For the time being there is silence there. But the hullabaloo will come.
Henriette von Schirach described the restaurant as a “cool, small winery with a little courtyard painted in Pompeian red and a ‘temple,’ that is, an alcove with two columns in front of it,” which was kept reserved for Hitler. However, Hitler’s later secretary, Traudl Junge, said that the Nazi leader’s regular table was the “least comfortable table all the way in the back, in the corner.” Hitler rarely ate alone. His constant companions from the early 1920s on included not only Heinrich Hoffmann but also Ernst Hanfstaengl, a German‑American who was named head of the Party’s Foreign Press Bureau in 1931. Hitler’s Munich circle in the early years also included Adolf Wagner, the powerful Gauleiter of the Munich–Upper Bavaria region, called the “despot of Munich”; Julius Schaub, Hitler’s personal assistant; Christian Weber, a “potbellied former horse trader” (in Joachim Fest’s words) and good friend of Hitler’s; and Hermann Esser, a founding member of the NSDAP, whom Goebbels called “the little Hitler.” Later additions included Martin Bormann, Otto Dietrich, ϟϟ  General Joseph “Sepp” Dietrich, Max Amann, and Wilhelm Brückner (an SA‑Obergruppenführer and Hitler’s chief adjutant since 1930).

Hitler with Unity Mitford at the Osteria.Her sister Diane married Sir Oswald Mosley, leader of the British Fascist Party, made it her business to meet Hitler here. In 1934 she stalked him in Munich where he noticed her at the Osteria Bavaria. She was invited to his table and so began five years within Hitler’s inner circle. Lady Phipps, wife of the British ambassador to Berlin, observed that Hitler spoke only a few words of English and when speaking of Unity Mitford he had said falteringly: "Young lady, young English lady, Freeman, honourable lady. . . ." (David Pryce-Jones, Unity Mitford: A Quest, p. 100). When England declared war on Germany in 1939, she was mortified and attempted suicide (like many other women in Hitler’s life). The bullet lodged inoperably in her brain. Subsequently, Hitler arranged for her to return to England via Switzerland.

At the usual time, around half past two, I went to the Osteria Bavaria, a small artists' restaurant which rose to unexpected fame when it became Hitler's regular restaurant. In a place like this, one could more easily imagine a table of artists gathered around Lenbach or Stuck, with long hair and huge beards, than Hitler with his neatly dressed or uniformed retinue. But he felt at ease in the Osteria; as a "frustrated artist" he obviously liked the atmosphere he had once sought to attain to, and now had finally both lost and surpassed...
 One tacit agreement prevailed: No one must mention politics. The sole exception was Lady Mitford, who even in the later years of international tension persistently spoke up for her country and often actually pleaded with Hitler to make a deal with England. In spite of Hitler's discouraging reserve, she did not abandon her efforts through all those years. Then, in September 1939, on the day of England's declaration of war, she tried to shoot herself with a small pistol in Munich's Englischer Garten. Hitler had the best specialists in Munich care for her, and as soon as she could travel sent her home to England by a special railroad car through Switzerland. 
Speer (39-40) Inside the Third Reich
The non-descript address here at 94 Turkenstraße off Schellingstraße was where, in 1939, Georg Elser rented a room before attempting to blow up Hitler at the Bürgerbräukeller on November 8 1938, the day of Hitler's annual speech on the anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch. Given the demands of the war and forecast of fog preventing him from flying back to Berlin the next morning, Hitler decided to return to Berlin the same night by his private train. With the departure from Munich's main station set for 21:30, the start time of the event was brought forward by half an hour to 20:00 leaving Hitler to cut his speech from the planned two hours to a one-hour duration at 21:07, 13 minutes before Elser's bomb exploded at 21:20. By that time, Hitler and his entourage had left the Bürgerbräukeller. The bomb brought down part of the ceiling and roof and caused the gallery and an external wall to collapse, leaving a mountain of rubble. About 120 people were still in the hall at the time leaving seven killed. Another sixty-three were injured, sixteen seriously, with one dying later. Hitler did not learn of the attempt on his life until later that night on a stop in Nuremberg when told of the bombing by Joseph Goebbels. Hitler would later declare: "Now I am completely at peace! My leaving the Bürgerbräu earlier than usual is proof to me that Providence wants me to reach my goal."
Nearby a square is named in his honour and yet for a long time Elser was unacknowledged; nor was he himself commemorated. Starting in the late 1960s several attempts were made to have a street named after Elser. It was not until January 1997, however, that a small square off Türkenstraße that Elser had passed every day on his way to the Bürgerbräukeller was named Georg-Elser-Platz, chiefly thanks to the unflagging efforts of the Munich Georg Elser Initiative.
To mark the seventieth anniversary of the assassination attempt in 2009, moreover, a permanent art installation mounted on the façade of the school building on Türkenstraße adjacent to the square was also dedicated to Georg Elser. The neon lettering reading “8 November 1939” by Silke Wagner was the winning entry in a competition held by the city’s Department of Art and Culture. “Georg Elser,” says Silke Wagner, “earned himself a place in the history of resistance to the Nazi dictatorship. The object of the memorial can only be to remind people of this. The work directs the viewer’s gaze to the most important thing – the assassination attempt.” Each day at exactly 21.20, the time of the explosion, the red neon tubes light up one after another, writing the historic date 8 November 1939 in lights. Exactly a minute later the lights go out again and the work “disappears” from public view. The abstract monument thus confines itself to the central message and through this deliberate reduction interrupts our habitual view of the square, alerting us to that single moment when the history of the twentieth century might have taken a different course. An earlier memorial to Georg Elser was installed in the pavement in front of the building housing the GEMA – the fascistic music performing rights and copyright authority that prevents any form of music from being enjoyed in Germany unless being paid for the privilege first– in 1989.
Just across the street is Alter Simpl:
At #57 the name and bulldog logo of which provides a link to the Private Eye-type satirical magazine Simplissimus, banned in 1944 by the Nazis for being critical of them.

A Nazi relief remains on the façade of this building on the corner of Schellingstrasse and Türkenstraße
Nazis battling with police on the corner of Schellingstrasse and Amalienstrasse in 1931

The Nazis took over this building at Arcisstraße 19 in 1938 from the architecture office of Joseph Heldmann. Heldmann had worked for the party since 1930 as chief of party construction and supervisor of the Treasury for all construction matters of the NSDAP. It served as the headquarters of the NSDAP-Bauleitung.


Site of High Command of the SA (Oberste SA-Führung)
The site of the Supreme Storm Troopers' Leadership (Oberste SA-Führung) at München 33, Barerstraße 7-11. Today it has reverted to its original function as the Hotel Marienbad. On the right is Hitler with SA leader Ernst Röhm saluting SA troops in Munich, in 1933.
At a special party congress held 29 July 1921, Hitler was appointed chairman. He announced that the party would stay headquartered in Munich and that those who did not like his tactics or leadership should just leave; he would not entertain debate on such matters. The vote was 543 for Hitler, and 1 against him.
Toland (111) Adolf Hitler
Next to the SA headquarters at Barer Straße 13 was the Office for Telecommunications of the Reich Treasurer; on the ground floor was the book binding and printing plant of the "national leadership".
The Sturmabteilung ("Storm detachment" or "Assault detachment" or "Assault section", usually translated as "stormtroop(er)s") was the paramilitary organisation of the Nazi Party and played a key role in Hitler's rise to power. SA men were often called "brownshirts" for the colour of their uniforms which distinguished them from the Schutzstaffel (ϟϟ), who wore black and brown uniforms (in comparison to Mussolini's blackshirts). Brown-coloured shirts were chosen as the SA uniform because a large batch of them was cheaply available after the Great War, having originally been ordered for German troops serving in Africa. The SA was also the first Nazi paramilitary group to develop pseudo-military titles for bestowal upon its members later to be adopted by several other Nazi Party groups, chief among them the ϟϟ. The SA became largely irrelevant after he took control of Germany in 1933; it was effectively superseded by the ϟϟ after the Night of the Long Knives. 

Next door to the Reichspropagandaleitung der NSDAP at Karlstraße 20-22 is this building built in 1828 by the architect Rudolf Röschenauer for master locksmith Johann Schmitz. The Nazis acquired the property in 1934 to serve as the Reichsstudentenführung der NSDAP. The Reichsstudentenführer was created by Hitler's deputy, Rudolf Hess, on November 5, 1936, in order to end the ongoing power struggles between the National Socialist German Students' Union NSDStB as party affiliation on the one hand and the Deutsche Studentenschaft DSt as the umbrella organisation of the local student institutions on the other. With this measure, "the management of German students at all colleges and technical colleges, the leadership of the national socialist academics, the social care of the new students and the care for selection, professional guidance and professional training in the academic professions" were amalgamated at once.  Here the Reichsstudenten leadership had its headquarters. The first and only Reichstudentenführer was from 1936 to 1945 the former Heidelberger NSDStB leader Gustav Adolf Scheel.  With the Control Council Act No. 2 of October 10, 1945, the Reichsstudentenführung was banned by the Allied Control Council and its property confiscated. Today the property remains vacant. Beside the property at no. 22 was the Schiedsabteilung des Reichsschatzmeisters and, on the right, the  Reich Press Office (Reichspressestelle and Reichspropagandaleiter)"
This was the former office of Ernst Hanfstaengl, Head of the International Press Office, at Karlstraße 18. Gradually from 1933 the addresses at Karlstraße 6-20 and 22-29 held the offices of the Oberste SA-Führung, Reichsführung ϟϟ, NS-Dozentenverband, Reichsjugendführung and the NS-Studentenverbund. Ernst “Putzi” Hanfstaengl, who had studied in the US, served the NSDAP in various functions before losing favour and emigrating to London in 1937. An early backer of Hitler, he participated in the Beer Hall Putsch and hid Hitler in his home after it failed. He became acquainted with Hitler on the occasion of a NSDAP meeting in the Bürgerbräukeller. As its largest civil promoter he became part of Hitler's close circle of friends. From 1931-1937 he served as foreign press chief of the NSDAP. After the elimination of the SA and Ernst Röhm on 30 June 1934 he dissociated himself increasingly from the party, which made him suspicious in the eyes of the Gestapo. He fled in 1937 and eventually arrived in the USA, where in 1942 he became German advisor to Roosevelt; the only man to have worked directly under Hitler and FDR.

Widenmayerstr 18 bears the name in golden letters of Hanfstaengl through Munich photographer and founder of the eponymous publishing house Franz Hanfstaengl Verlag, which specialised in art publications. Ernst's brother Edgar was joint owner Munich of this publishing house, which since 1933 printed postcards and propaganda for the National Socialists and became the party's art advisor. Across the street is Bernhard Bleeker's Christophorus shown in a Nazi-era photo and today.
Further down at Widenmayerstraße 31 Hanfstaengl is shown in the foreground with Hitler, Hess, Röhm and Himmler on July 3, 1932; the building remains unchanged. Also on Widenmayerstraße at number 27 was the location of the Office of Aryanisation (Arisierungsstelle)
The verb ‘to Aryanize’ (Arisierung) means to make something Aryan by eliminating the influence of allegedly inferior races. Also used as an adjective when speaking of or pertaining to the so-called Aryan race (e.g. Aryan art or art produced by pure Aryans).
By January 1, 1938, German Jews were prohibited from operating businesses and trades, and from offering goods and services. In the Autumn of 1938, only 40,000 of the formerly 100,000 Jewish businesses were still in the hands of their original owners. Through its office here on Widenmayer Str. 27, Aryanisation was completed with the enactment of a regulation, the Verordnung zur Ausschaltung der Juden aus dem deutschen Wirtschaftsleben of November 12, 1938, through which the remaining businesses were transferred to non-Jewish owners and the proceeds taken by the state. Jewellery, stocks, real property and other valuables had to be sold below market value. Jewish employees were fired, and self-employed people were prohibited from working in their respective professions. By the end of 1939, almost all Munich companies in Jewish possession had been expropriated, followed by the “Arisierung” of houses, apartments and fortunes of the entire Jewish population. This was completed by June 1943.
Two accounts related to this address are presented at Memory Loops (both in German):

Park Cafe
Park Cafe
Park Cafe and the entrance to the Botanical gardens. The rear of the building has the same fascist busts that can be found on the façade of the nearby Zentrale which " housed some of the main Nazi administration offices for the Party" and was built the same time in 1934.
In 1936-37 the Nazis separated the General Conservatory of the Academy of Sciences, including the Museum of Ethnology, the State Zoological Collection, and the Botanical Garden, from the Academy proper. 1935-37, on the basis of a sketch by Paul Ludwig Troost (the architect of the Nazi buildings in Arcisstrasse), the architect Oswald E. Bieber redesigned Old Botanical Garden as a park. The conservatories were replaced by a Park Café with a beer garden. The Neptune Fountain in Elisenstrasse, allegedly in the "tradition of Baroque monumental fountains", but clearly far too large and ungainly, was executed by the sculptor Joseph Wackerle, as were the decorative figures on the newly created Art Pavilion(other smaller-scale works by him are the majolica figures in the ornamental courtyard (Schmuckhof) of the Botanical Garden in Nymphenburg in and the white figures in the Cafe Pavillion. The broad paving stones around the Neptune Fountain and leading to the Art Pavilion in the Old Botanic Garden are bordered by tuffstone masonry, in front of which are seats consisting of boards on a base of bricks.
The site in 1932 when it held the skating rink at the Glaspalastes and the 1937 redevelopment plan put forward by Professors Oswald Bieber and Josef Wackerle.
GIF: Wackerle's Neptune fountain
Within one can still find the Neptune fountain sculpted in 1937 by Nazi sculptor Josef Wackerle.
In 1938 Alexander Heilmeyer waxed eloquently purple over Josef Wackerle's sculptures as Gesamthunstwerke, the "synthesis of the arts" that Wagner saw as humanity's cultural salvation. Wackerle's sculptures were praised as "an organic structure in which the architectonically conceived action serves as a rhythmical counterpoint to the melody of the sculpted figures." Organic wholeness, it was alleged, could be conveyed in the nude more than in any other genre. Whether defending integrated sculpture as an embodiment of the community (Gemeinschaft) or arguing that art was only art when it created symbols for a people, the art critics of the Third Reich carefully disparaged those who set themselves apart from society or engaged in the decadent principle of art for art's sake. These passages echoed Wagner's exhortations to build a new art that the people would understand and that would elevate both the people and society as a whole. Only symbols with meaning for the entire people were worthy of creation. Here again we see the fascist desire to assign one specific meaning to images and to forbid any other interpretations.
Pursell (132) Journal of the History of Sexuality, Vol. 17, No. 1, Masculinity and Homosexuality in Germany and the German Colonies, 1880-1945
From the rear, looking towards the Palace of Justice (Justizpalast)
Palace of Justice (Justizpalast)
The Palace of Justice (Justizpalast)  during the National Socialist era flying the Nazi flag and today. This was the site of the Nazis' "People's Court." Members of the White Rose were tried here on February 22, 1943.
GIF: Justizpalast einst und jetzt
The building after the war and today.  The interior (which requires airport-type security to enter) has been tastefully rebuilt with something of the original style
Courtroom 216
Courtroom 216 (now 253) which today serves as a permanent exhibition with portraits of Willi Graf, Prof. Kurt Huber, Alexander Schmorell, Hans Scholl, Sophie Scholl and Christoph Probst.  It was in this courtroom on February 22, 1943 at 10.00 that the trial of Hans Scholl, Sophie Scholl and Christoph Probst began. At 13.00 Roland Freisler announced the death sentences. Four hours later, Sophie Scholl, Hans Scholl and Christoph Probst were beheaded in Munich-Stadelheim Prison. The second trial began on April 19 at 9:00 against the fourteen other defendants of the White Rose. This trial, again chaired by Roland Freisler, lasted 14 hours. At about 11.30 pm late in the evening Freisler announced the death sentences against Professor Kurt Huber, Alexander Schmorell and Willi Graf. Ten accused, Eugen Grimminger, Dr. Heinrich Bollinger, Helmut Bauer, Hans Hirzel, Franz J. Muller, Heinrich Guter, Susanne Hirzel, Gisela Schertling, Katharina Schueddekopf and Traute Lafrenz received imprisonment for either distributing the leaflets or failing to warn the authorities. Dr. Falk Harnack was surprisingly acquitted. Pardon requests for Schmorell and Graf were rejected by Adolf Hitler on June 25, 1943. Schmorell and Huber were executed on July 13, 1943. When this room was converted into an exhibition room, during the opening ceremony Munich’s former Mayor Hans-Jochen Vogel said the most important thing about it was not that it provided yet another memorial to the White Rose – ten years after the opening of the DenkStätte Weiße Rose at Munich University – but rather “that it is being staged in this room”. The documentation of the trial also signals an increasing willingness on the part of the German judiciary to critically examine its own past, including the fact that many members of the Nazi judiciary remained in their posts even after 1945.

American troops passing the building at the end of the war
GIF:  neues Justizgebaeude einst und jetzt
The neues Justizgebaeude seen from behind the Justizpalast during the Nazi era and today. In 1933, five judges were removed from service because of their Jewish origin due to the Law on the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service at the Higher Regional Court itself. Denny Joseph Reuß was murdered in 1944 in the concentration camp Theresienstadt , Emil Ulmann, Ernst Herrmann, Joseph Stein and August Frank went into exile. None of the survivors returned to office after 1945. Numerous judicial employees were also victims of the persecution measures at the lower courts. Court President Gerber, who in 1933 did not implement the so-called equalisation of the judiciary by the new Bavarian Minister of Justice Hans Frank with the desired emphasis, was replaced in the same year by Alfred Dürr. Judges Johann David Sauerländer and Hans Koeniger resisted such behaviour. In 1934 Sauerländer prepared in vain a plenary resolution by the Bavarian Supreme Regional Court against the Nazi law for the legalisation of the Röhm murders, which would have branded Nazi law-making a degradation of judicial activity. After the war the denazification proceedings against two of the three past 1933 OLG presidents were suspended, only the last had to suffer as a so-called "incriminated" the reduction of the pension by one level to that of a district court president. Sauerland was not reinstated. The historical reappraisal of the court was first under President Karl Huber. A headscarf ban issued to a female Muslim law clerk was found unlawful by the Augsburg Administrative Court in 2016 and repealed although Minister of Justice Winfried Bausback announced however revision.
GIF: NornenbrunnenGIF: Nornenbrunnen
Located east of Maximiliansplatz from where it was moved in 1966 from its original site at the Stachus, the Nornenbrunnen was completed in 1907 after a design by Hubert Netzer in the art nouveau style. Using Kirchheimer shell limestone, it shows the Nornen, the three Germanic fates: Urd (focussing on the past), Verdandi (present) and Skuld (future), who leans towards the large water bowl. Between the figures are three muzzles, from which the water pours in three flat basin at the ground.
In 1920 Arno Breker, who would become Hitler's official sculptor, moved into an artists’ dormitory and matriculated at the State Art Academy in Düsseldorf, where he spent five years studying sculpture with Netzer.
Nazis in front of Wittelsbacher-Brunnen at Lenbachplatz    GIF: Wittelsbacher-Brunnen einst und jetzt
Meanwhile, Adolf von Hildebrand's Wittelsbacher-Brunnen at Lenbachplatz can be seen in the photo on the left behind a marching band of SA and from a 1930s postcard. 
Like that of Hitler at Odeonsplatz at the start of the Great War, this is another photograph that purports to show Hitler at the end on February 8, 1920, among the crowd listening to Dr. Alois Dallmayer holding a speech atop the Lenbachplatz fountain speaking out against the delivery of German officers to the Allies as war criminals. Dallmayr, from the famous Dalmayr- Germany's best known coffee brands, had written the anti-Semitic Die Geldherrschaft und das Haus Rothschild and had spoken at one of the first Deutschen Arbeiterpartei meetings on November 26, 1919 at the Eberlbräukeller.
Hitler, Lenbachplatz
The Mercedes-Benz showroom at Lenbachplatz, April 1935 as shown in Kershaw's Hitler, and now replaced by BMW.
GIF: Bernheimer haus
Also at Lenbachplatz 9 was the Bernheimer home furnishings and art store, seen here on November 10, 1938 after being targeted during Reichskristallnacht and today. The building itself was built in 1888 by architect Friedrich von Thiersch with a neo-barouque style façade designed by his apprentice Martin Dülfer, making the building one of the first of its kind and later the most influential for all other buildings of its type in Munich and as such is protected as an example of cultural heritage. Starting in 1900, Lehmann Bernheimer sold antiques, tapestry, and valuable carpets and as his business grew, he found that the existing premises were insufficient and so Bernheimer-Haus was completed with the construction of a rearward building. In 1918 Lehmann Bernheimer's son Otto took over the business. During Nazi dictatorship, the company was initially protected because Otto Bernheimer was a Honorary Consul of Mexico. In 1938 and 1939 after destruction and threats, the company was aryanised and the Bernheimer family was initially detained in Dachau before being forced into exile.  During the Second World War the building was damaged, including the roof with the spire caving in. After the war, Otto Bernheimer, who had returned from Venezuela in 1946, received Bernheimer-Haus again as Wiedergutmachung- reparations Germany had to give to Jewish victims. He restored the roof by building it in a simplified form.
GIF: Künstlerhaus showing synagogue and today

Seen from across the Justizpalast the Künstlerhaus remains little changed but the main synagogue to its left is conspicuously missing. On its site even its memorial has suffered attack.
In addition to the coffee house and the Neptunbrunnen, this Ausstellungspavillon was built as an exhibition hall in 1936. It was originally intended as the state studio for Joseph Thorak to provide a space for his monumental sculpture which earned him a series of state contracts from the Nazis 1933; after their take over of power he divorced his Jewish wife Hilda who emigrated with her son Peter. Instead, Thorak received his massive studio in Baldham near Munich in which 17 metre high sculptures could be made in one piece. The following year he designed two groups of figures in front of the German Pavilion at the Paris World Fair, which Hitler proclaimed a "masterpiece" before appointing Thorak to head a masterclass at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich. The Munich Academy of Fine Arts had been the ‘Capital of German Art’ during the Nazi era and had been the domain of Hitler’s favourite artist Adolf Ziegler, the organiser of the ‘Degenerate Art’ exhibition and the president of the Reich Chamber of Fine Arts. It was Josef Wackerle who was again responsible for the simple neoclassical building's reliefs representing music, architecture, sculpture and painting. After the war Wackerle was able to become an honorary member of the Munich Academy of Fine Arts in 1951. Students at the Academy would eventually mount protests in the 1960s against Hermann Kaspar who had designed the interior of Hitler’s Reich Chancellery and had taught there unhindered since 1938 save for a short interruption in 1946. The pavilion itself  was badly damaged during the war and later rebuilt by self-help Munich artists. Today it's used for exhibitions of contemporary visual art.
Ironically, inside are the only examples of stolperstein allowed in Munich, in a building commissioned by Hitler and which is closed more often than not (as when I gave a tour for members of the Israeli consulate), whilst outside little Drake Winston plays with squirrels.

Hitler's Residences
GIF: Hitler's House in Munich
This was Hitler's first residence in Germany when he arrived in Munich on May 25, 1913, a bright Spring Sunday, when
Hitler followed up an advertisement for a small room rented by the family of the tailor Joseph Popp on the third floor of 34 Schleissheimerstr. in a poorish district to the north of the city, on the edge of Schwabing, the pulsating centre of Munich's artistic and bohemian life, and not far from the big barracks area.
Kershaw (48)  Hitler
Hitler shared the room until mid-February 1914 with Rudolf Häusler, 
a pal who had accompanied him from Vienna, [who was of] similar background and shared Hitler’s political views. Hitler offered to pay and Häusler readily agreed to accompany him, but first Hitler had to wait for his share of an inheritance from his father’s will. After a frustrating month in limbo, they finally left Vienna by overnight train. Years later Hitler told confidants that he came to Munich intending to study ‘for another three years . . . as a designer. I’d enter for the first competition, and I told myself that then I’d show what I could do!’ Nothing came of this, but Hitler seems hardly to have been disappointed. It was enough for him to be in the German city of his dreams, which seemed ‘as familiar . . . as if I had lived there for years within its walls’. Munich was a ‘German city. What a difference from Vienna! I grew sick to my stomach when I thought back on this Babylon of races.’ 
  Eventually Häusler found 
Hitler an exhausting room-mate. Hitler often left the ‘lamp burning until three or four in the morning’, or kept him awake with ‘agitated monologues all night’. Worn out by nocturnal diatribes, Häusler moved to another room. With no ill feeling it seems, since they remained in contact and Häusler later became a Nazi functionary in Vienna. 
Williams (21)
Hitler would then live there alone until the war broke out the following August. Hitler paid the rent by painting and selling architectural watercolours door-to-door and in the local beer halls. His landlady recalled that he had no visitors at all for the year and a half that he rented there. And yet, whilst she would claim that she had ‘never met a young man with such good manners,’ 
the Popps’ account of Hitler in Munich is filled with inconsistencies. While ‘a whole week’ might pass ‘without a sign of Hitler’, he was still and miraculously able to join them in ‘political discussions every evening’. When not painting in his room, the lodger, who was rarely present, spent ‘most of the time’ with his ‘nose buried in heavy books’. Circumstances and survival probably demanded that Hitler put his energy not into reading books, but into painting. From the moment he arrived in Munich, according to Anna Popp (in yet another contradiction): "Hitler began to paint immediately and remained working for hours. After a few days, I saw two beautiful pictures that he’d finished on his table, one of the cathedral and the other of the Theatiner church. Then early in the morning my lodger went out, a briefcase under his arm, looking for buyers."  
The plaque shown in the period photo declared that 
Adolf Hitler lived in this house from spring 1913 to the day he volunteered for the German army in August 1914. 
Hitler's room was the third from the left on the top floor according to Williams (20):
Shortly after their arrival, he and Häusler found a third-floor room in the house of master-tailor Popp, the main occupant of a terrace at 34 Schleissheimerstrasse. Popp’s wife immediately made this ‘Austrian charmer’ welcome. Her husband, who had worked in Paris and regarded himself as a man of the world, quickly saw in Hitler ‘a personality whose abilities entitled him to the highest hopes’. Hitler was not the first twentieth-century dictator to live in Schleissheimerstrasse. A few years earlier Lenin had lodged about a block away. Today the area appears much as it did in Hitler’s (or Lenin’s) time. A small playground, which Hitler sketched from his window, still lies opposite. While its 1930s’ Nazi-era plaque was pulled down in 1945 along with its ornate stucco façade, 34 Schleissheimerstrasse is still identifiable as Hitler’s first Munich home.
Remarkably, just down the same street at 106 lived Lenin a dozen years earlier:
Lenin's house in Munich     
"Lenin had lived at 106 Schleissheimer Strasse, and at number 34 on the same street, only a few blocks away, Adolf Hitler now took a room as a tenant in the apartment of a tailor named Popp." (Fest, 20, Hitler) Nearby at 142 Schleißheimer Straße is the Nordbad swimming pool:
Nazi Nordbad, Munich
 The topping out ceremony on 16 October 1937 in the presence of Mayor Karl Fiehler and various councilors, representatives of state and municipal authorities, the Armed Forces, the Police Headquarters, the Munich swimming clubs and the German Labour Front.
Nazi Schwabing hospital
Nazi propaganda at Schwabing hospital in 1936. Of all the professions requiring higher qualifications, the medical one had the highest proportion (45%) of Nazi Party members, and after the 'forced coordination' of the health system in 1933, these people proceeded to radically attack the 11% of their colleagues who were Jewish. The so-called 'Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service' provided for the dismissal of non-aryan doctors from the public health system, and in July 1938 they had lost their approbation.
There is hardly any profession more significant for the greatness and future of a nation than the medical one, and none is as Jewified as the medical profession. Jewish professors dominate university chairs in medicine. They have dehumanised the art of healing and have saturated generation upon generation of young doctors with their mechanical spirit. For that reason, we call upon the entire German medical profession to make the leadership and spirit of our guild once again German.
National Socialist League of German Physicians, 1933
Hitler's Residence from May 1 1920- October 5 1929
GIF: Hitler's Munich House

Gathering his meagre belongings which consisted of a cap, coat, jacket, trousers, underwear, shirt, socks, shoes and demobilisation pay of fifty marks, Hitler moved to a small room at Thierschstrasse 41 on March 31, 1920; "a poorish street near the river Isar." (Bullock, 83) which would be his home for the next nine years. He arrived at this room—sublet from a Jew—as an unknown person and left it as a national political figure. Ernst Hanfstaengl described the room in his 1957 work Unheard Witness:
Drab and dreary beyond belief, akin to a back bedroom of a decaying New York tenement. The room . . . was tiny. I doubt it was nine feet wide. The bed was too wide for its corner, and the head projected over a single narrow window. The floor was covered with cheap, worn linoleum with a couple of threadbare rugs, and on the wall opposite the bed there was a make- shift bookshelf, apart from the chair and rough table, the only other piece of furniture in the entire room.
It was also the house’s coldest room. Hitler’s landlady later said that he either paid the rent on time or in advance, and he kept his German shepherd dog, Wolf, as company. Today, the building still stands with a statue of the Virgin Mary staring down from an alcove on the second floor outer wall. The room itself, however, was known to make later tenants ill, and since no one would rent it anymore, today it is used as a storeroom.
From July 1936 a plaque was placed outside by the city council that read "Adolf Hitler lived in this house from 1 May 1920 to 5 October 1929." Nearby on Thierschstrasse 15 was the Nazis' third headquarters. His landlord is recorded in Germany's Hitler by Heinz A. Heinz as saying
I hadn't much to do with him myself, since ... his room was a sub-let. And since I am a Jew, I concerned myself as little as possible with the activities of my lodger.... I admit I liked Hitler well enough. I often encountered him on the stairway and at the door - he was generally scribbling something in a notebook.- when he would pass the time of day with me pleasantly enough. Often he
GIF: Hitler haus Muenchen
Showing the plaque from 1935-1945
had his dog with him, a lovely Wolfshund. He never made me feel he regarded me differently from other people.... He lodged in my house from ....1919 to 1929. First he took a little back room, and then an equally small one in the front to serve as a sort of office and study. The back room, in which he slept is only 8 by 15 feet. It is the coldest room in the house .... Some lodgers who've rented it since got ill. Now we only use it as a lumber room....The only 'comfort' Hitler treated himself to when he was here, was a hand basin with cold water laid on. The room to the front was a bit bigger, but the small high-set window left much to be desired. It was very scantily furnished. (pp. 276-277)
Hitler himself had described the scene when he had returned from his term at Landsberg:
I found them gathered at my door, in the Thierschstrasse, in Munich, men like Fuess, Gahr and the other old faithfuls. My apartment was decorated with flowers and laurel wreaths (I've kept one of them). In his exuberant joy, my dog almost knocked me down the stairs.
Former close associate (and only man to have worked directly under Hitler and FDR) Ernst Hanfstaengl revisited the flat after the war and wrote:
When by chance I found myself walking along Thierschstrasse, I couldn't resist the temptation to pay a visit to Hitler's former house at number 41. Nothing had changed; the façade was the same... and the bombs falling on Munich had failed to shake the porcelain Madonna from her alcove.

Eva Braun's House
Eva Braun Haus Muenchen
Hitler had Heinrich Hoffman buy this ordinary-looking villa for Eva Braun for the then fabulous sum of $30.000 to recompense her for the millions of marks Hoffman made from her photographs of Hitler on the Obersalzberg. The photo on the left dates from 1938; today the address is 12 Delpstrasse (formerly Wasserburgstrasse) near Hitler's own residence on Prinzregentenplatz. The third photo shows Eva Braun cycling from her house (photo from The Hitler Pages) and the site today.
Eva Braun haus, Muenchen
Footage from Eva Braun's home movies; a number of scenes show her at home here. The photo on the right shows her birthplace on Isabellastrasse 45 (behind the tree).

GIF: Theater am Gärtnerplatz einst und jetzt
On November 20 1937, Hitler embarked on a small tour through the Swabian region in Bavaria. In the evening, he attended the reopening of the rebuilt Theater am Gärtnerplatz where he saw a performance of the Johann Strauss operetta Die Fledermaus. On January 7 1938 at the Theater am Gärtnerplatz, Hitler once again saw the ballet Tanz um die Welt, a guest performance of the German Opera House of Berlin- Charlottenburg.
Hitler at Theater am Gärtnerplatz  
 Hitler in November, 1937. The National Socialists banned performances of Jewish writers, librettists, and composers, and determined the theatre would focus "exclusively on operetta performances, because operetta is a very essential means of bringing the people to the theater." Original plans for the demolition and subsequent new building of a theatre were not implemented; instead, a major renovation took place. The theatre was reopened on November 20, 1937 with a performance of Die Fledermaus, making it the first and only state operetta stage. Among the guests was Adolf Hitler. 
Former Café Viktoria
Former Café Viktoria
In 1938, Fritz Fischer became director of the theater, Peter Kreuder worked as a music director. A new style was created by Fischer, who was inspired by the Berlin revue role models and film operettas:
"This style was particularly encouraged by the ruling cultural leaders, although it was actually derived from sources that would have been unsympathetic to the rulers. But they stressed the importance of the operetta of this kind, for the recovery and increase of the vitality and joy of life, of the creative man, and even more of the wounded or on holiday in the home of the soldiers."
It is disputed whether in 1941 the ensemble (including Johannes Heesters) of the Gärtnerplatztheater had merely visited Dachau concentration camp or had appeared before ϟϟ guards. On April 21, 1945 the theatre was bombed during the last air attack on Munich with the portal torn down and the stage set on fire. The house remained unplayable for a long time with performances relocated to chornstraße. Today with only minor changes, the auditorium of 1937 remains as it was.
It had been after watching the Zigeunerbaron here in 1926 that Hitler went to the Café Viktoria to eat, renamed Café Roma until its closure in 2008. 

Nürnberger Bratwurst Glöckl
Nürnberger Bratwurst Glöckl
This was a restaurant frequented by top Nazis, including Hitler and SA chief Ernst Röhm. The owner, Karl Zehnte, was an homosexual associate of Röhm and Heines and was killed during the Night of the Long Knives in 1934.
At the door of the Bratwurstgloeckl, a tavern frequented by homosexual roughnecks and bully-boys, Roehm turned in and joined the handful of sexual deviants and occultists who were celebrating the success of a new campaign of terror. Their organization, once known as the German Worker's Party, was now called the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, The National Socialist German Worker's Party -- the Nazis.  
Yes, the Nazis met in a 'gay' bar.
According to Otto Strasser, never the most reliable of sources, Goebbels had a private tryst with Röhm in his ‘local’, the Munich Bratwurstglöckl tavern; Strasser’s only evidence was the liquidation of Karl Zehnter, the bar’s owner, in the coming purge.
Irving (333) Goebbels
According to Konrad Heiden, author of the 1944 book Der Fuehrer: Hitler's Rise To Power, in May 1927 Adolf Hitler called together the Munich S.A. and shouted, "The clique from the Bratwurstglöckl are all fairies: Heinz, Röhm, Zentner, and the rest. Am I supposed to take accusations from such people?" 
Heiden (294) 
Haus Neumayr
Now Berni's Pizzeria Nudelbrett, the Café Neumayr at Petersplatz 8, just south of St. Peter’s Church in Munich, was where Hitler went every Monday night to sound out his associates on various new political ideas in the early 1920s. The building itself is still called Haus Neumayr. Kershaw writes that
Hitler had a table booked every Monday evening at the old-fashioned Café Neumaier on the edge of the Viktualienmarkt. His regular accompaniment formed a motley crew – mostly lower-middle class, some unsavoury characters among them. Christian Weber, a former horse-dealer, who, like Hitler, invariably carried a dog-whip and relished the brawls with Communists, was one. Another was Hermann Esser, formerly Mayr’s press agent, himself an excellent agitator, and an even better gutter-journalist. Max Amann, another roughneck, Hitler’s former sergeant who became overlord of the Nazi press empire, was also usually there, as were Ulrich Graf, Hitler’s personal bodyguard, and, frequently, the ‘philosophers’ of the party, Gottfried Feder and Dietrich Eckart. In the long room, with its rows of benches and tables, often occupied by elderly couples, Hitler’s entourage would discuss politics, or listen to his monologues on art and architecture, while eating the snacks they had brought with them and drinking their litres of beer or cups of coffee. At the end of the evening, Weber, Amann, Graf, and Lieutenant Klintzsch, a paramilitary veteran of the Kapp Putsch, would act as a bodyguard, escorting Hitler – wearing the long black overcoat and trilby that ‘gave him the appearance of a conspirator’ – back to his apartment in Thierschstraße. 
Hitler (98)
Gasthaus Deutsche Eiche
GIF: Gasthaus Deutsche Eiche

In 1926 Hitler gave six speeches here, and another in 1929. A typical 1926 a closed general assembly of the NSDAP Section Neuhausen, started here at 20.30 in which, according to the police report, 56 persons participated, and was headed by Helmut Walter. Hitler "spoke for about 20 minutes, Anton Allwein spoke and Karl Ostberg on the question of race or the Jews.
Ironically, the Gasthaus Deutsche Eiche is now "one of the Munich gay scene's most popular meeting places" with its bathhouse that takes over four floors and almost 4,600 square feet complete with a Finnish sauna, a salt sauna, a whirlpool, a large steambath, shower area, massage rooms, a solarium, a rooftop garden, a Bistro & Bar, TV rooms, relaxation rooms, individual and exclusive booths etc... which explains the gay flags that flank the international ones in the centre.