Past IBDP History Paper 3 Questions and Responses

History Exam Questions


Specimen Paper III
  1. Why were there two revolutions in Russia in 1917?
  2. How and why did the First World War bring about social and economic changes in any one European country?
  3. What were the main criticisms of the League of Nations and to what extent were they justified?
  4. How far is it true to say that the Weimar Republic was a complete failure?
  5. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of Hitler and Mussolini up to 1939.
  6. What were the main causes and results of the Spanish Civil War?
  7. What do you understand by the term appeasement? How far was appeasement responsible for the outbreak of war in 1939?
  8. Evaluate the domestic and foreign policies of Khrushchev.
  9. Examine the impact of the Cold War on Western Europe between 1945 and 1965.
  10. Compare and contrast the policies and importance to their countries of Adenauer and De Gaulle.
  11. Analyze the main developments in education in any one European country in the twentieth century.
  12. What were the main economic problems faced by the Soviet bloc (excluding the USSR) between 1950 and 1990?
1998
  1. Evaluate the relative importance of imperialism, the arms race and the failure of diplomacy in causing the First World War.
  2. Compare and contrast the roles of Lenin and Trotsky in establishing the USSR up to 1924.
  3. How far is it true to say that the Weimar Republic was doomed from its foundation?
  4. “Its frown will soon be more dreaded than a nation’s arms.” Why did this comment on the League of Nations, made in 1929 prove to be incorrect?
  5. Compare and contrast the foreign policies up to the outbreak of the Second World War of Mussolini and Hitler.
  6. Analyse the causes and results of the Spanish Civil War.
  7. Assess the impact of Hitler, and the Second World War on one Scandinavian country.
  8. How and why did the Second World War bring about the social and economic changes in one European country excluding Scandinavia?
  9. Why and with what results for Europe did the USSR become involved in the Cold War up to the death of Stalin?
  10. Explain whom you consider was more successful in his own country, Adenauer or de Gaulle?
  11. Analyze the internal history of one East European country, excluding the USSR, from 1953 to 1990.
  12. How has twentieth century Europe been affected by two of the following: increased leisure opportunities; pressure groups; peace movements?
1999
  1. Analyze the part played by the failure of Tsardom in causing the February/March Revolution in Russia in 1917.
  2. “In 1914 Europe arrived at a point when every country was afraid of the present and Germany was afraid of the future.” What do you understand by this comment and how far do you agree with it?
  3. Compare and contrast the economic aims and policies of Lenin (1917 to 1924) and Stalin (1928 to 1941).
  4. How and why was Hitler able to become dictator of Germany?
  5. Why was the League of Nations ignored in the pre-war crises of 1938 to 1939?
  6. With what justification can the term “total war” be applied to the Second World War?
  7. Compare and contrast political and economic developments under Adenauer in Germany and de Gaulle in France.
  8. How, why, and with what success, did Tito follow independent policies in Yugoslavia between 1945 and 1980?
  9. “Politically Khrushchev brought new hope to the USSR and to Europe, economically he was a disaster.” How justified is this comment of Khrushchev as leader of the Soviet Union 1953 to 1964?
  10. Explain in what ways and to what extent either Spain or Portugal moved away from dictatorship in the 1970s.
  11. Assess the importance of the changes in either the media or working conditions and patterns, in twentieth century Europe.
May 2000
1. To what extent were weaknesses of the French Monarchy responsible for the outbreak of revolution in France in 1789?
2. What part did Napoleon I’s policies play in his fall from power in 1814?
3. Evaluate the extent to which Metternich achieved his aims for Austria and for Europe.
4. How far is it true to say that, ‘Louis XVIII’s policies proved that the Bourbon restoration in France could work, but that the policies of Charles X ensured it would fail’?
5. Account for the outbreak of any two revolutions in 1848 and assess their results.
6. Analyse the aims, motives and policies of Cavour between 1852 and 1861.
7. Compare and contrast Bismarck’s policies towards Austria and France between 1862 and 1871.
8. In what ways did the domestic and foreign policies of Disraeli benefit Britain?
9. How far is it true to say that Russia was transformed into a modern country between 1855
and 1900?
10. How important was the search for raw materials and new markets as a reason for European imperialism?
11. To what extent, and with what results, did Napoleon III liberalise the Second Empire in France?
12. Discuss the changing relations between either Sweden and Norway or Finland and Russia in the nineteenth century.
13. Account for the popularity of the novel in nineteenth century Europe.
14. In what ways did the crises and political scandals in France both weaken and strengthen the Third Republic between 1880 and 1905?
15. Compare and contrast the causes of the 1905 and February/March 1917 revolutions in Russia.
16. ‘The Versailles Treaty was criticised by both winners and losers’. How justified was this criticism?
17. What were the political and economic successes and failures of the Weimar Republic?
18. Why did the history of Italy from 1900 to 1922 lead to the rise of Mussolini and the establishment of a Fascist Regime?
19. What was the impact of the Wall Street crash upon any one European country (excluding Germany) up to 1939?
20. Explain why Franco’s forces won the Spanish Civil War, and why the Republican forces lost.
21. Why, and with what results, was the policy of appeasement adopted by Britain and France inthe 1930s?
22. Compare the Cold War policies of Stalin and Khrushchev from 1945 to 1964.
23. Explain how any one western European state recovered from the devastation of the Second World War.
24. What factors led to the collapse of Communist domination in Eastern Europe by 1990?
25. ‘A revolution.’ How accurately does this describe changes in transport in twentieth century
Europe?


 November 2000
1. Assess the importance of the Third Estate on the outbreak and development of the French Revolution between 1789 and 1795.
2. Evaluate the foreign and domestic achievements of Napoleon I as Emperor of France (1804-1815).
3. How far do you agree with the statement that ‘security not revenge’ was the main objective of the statesmen at the Congress of Vienna in 1815?
4. How far can it be argued that “Gladstone pursued a more successful foreign policy than Disraeli”?
5. How serious an obstacle to Italian unification was the Papacy between 1815 and 1870?
6. Why was it that Prussia, rather than Austria, had achieved the dominant position in Germany
by 1866?
7. “The establishment of the Dual Monarchy in 1867 delayed, but could not prevent, the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.” How justified is this view?
8. What factors led to the increase of opposition to the ruling Romanov dynasty in Russia between 1855 and 1905?
9. Explain the impact of developments in transportation in the nineteenth century on industrial expansion in Europe. You may choose to limit your answer to one country.
10. What factors contributed to the demand for the reform and extension of education in the nineteenth century?
11. How stable was the Third French Republic in the years before and after the First World War?
12. By referring to any one Scandinavian country explain the processes which led to the
development of constitutional government in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
13. “The fact that Stalin became the dominant leader of Russia by 1929 indicates that he was a more skilful politician than Trotsky.” How far do you agree with this statement?
14. “Of all the factors that led to the outbreak of World War One in 1914, imperialism was by far the most important.” How far do you agree with this statement?
15. What was the significance of the Locarno Agreement (1925) for European affairs between 1919 and 1939?
16. Critically evaluate the successes and failures of Mussolini’s domestic policies in Italy between 1922 and 1939.
17. Why did the Constitutional Monarchy in Spain collapse in 1931?
18. “In reality Hitler and the Nazi Party were far less totalitarian than is commonly believed.” By referring to events in Germany between 1933 and 1945 comment on the truth of this statement.
19. Analyse the factors which enabled the USSR to survive the German invasion of 1941.
20. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of Khrushchev and Brezhnev.
21. How far did the Marshall Plan succeed in fulfilling its objectives for Western Europe by 1955?
22. To what extent did the establishment of the communist bloc between 1945 and 1950 represent the failure of democracy in Eastern Europe?
23. Examine how and why the position of women in European society has changed since 1945.
24. By referring to any one European country after 1945 analyse how developments in domestic
politics were affected by the Second World War.
25. Why did so many countries in Eastern Europe turn away from communism in the 1980s?


May 2001

 1. In what ways and for what reasons was the French Revolution, between 1789 and 1795, a period of constitutional and legal changes?
2. In 1810 Napoleon I wrote “My principle is France before everything.”To what extent did the career of Napoleon I from 1799 to 1815 follow this principle?
3. “The success of the Congress of Vienna has been much exaggerated.”How valid is this assessment of the short-term and long-term results of the Congress?
4. Compare and contrast the aims and policies of Louis XVIII and Charles X.
5. Why has it been claimed that Italian unification needed both a Cavour and a Garibaldi?
6. Analyse the successes and failures of one British Prime Minister between 1837 and 1901.
7. How far is it true to say that Austria lost control of Germany rather than Prussia gained it?
8. Evaluate the aims and results of Russian foreign policy between 1850 and 1900.
9. “Bismarck’s policies both at home and abroad, between the years 1871 and1890, merely stored up problems for the future, both for Germany and Europe.”Towhat extent do you agree with this verdict?
10. In what ways did developments in transport and industry increase the prosperity of one European country in the nineteenth century?
11. What were the important trends of intellectual and cultural developments in Europe in the nineteenth century?
12. Analyse the successes and failures of Napoleon III’s domestic policies.
13. Examine the impact during the nineteenth century of (a) one Scandinavian country on Europe, and (b) Europe on one Scandinavian country.
14. Account for the weakness and decline of Austria-Hungary between 1867 and 1914.
15.
"Much of Lenin’s success was no doubt explained by his towering domination over his [Bolshevik] party.” To what extent does this explanation account for his rise to power and rule, 1917 to 1924? 
18. Evaluate Mussolini’s rule in Italy between 1922 and 1940.
19. Assess the impact of political and constitutional developments in either Spain between 1930
and 1939, or Portugal between 1968 and 1976.
20. Examine the effects of Nazi Germany on either one Scandinavian or on one east or central
European country (excluding USSR and Germany).
21. Account for the defeat of Germany and her allies in the Second World War.
22. F
or what reasons, and with what results, was Western Europe affected by the Cold War after 1945?
23. Compare and contrast the policies of Khrushchev and Gorbachev.
24. Analyse political and economic changes since 1953 in either one central or east European
country (excluding USSR).
25. Examine the impact on one European country of, either educational reforms or artistic movements.

November 2001
1. Explain why the assembling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the overthrow of Louis XVI.
2. To what extent were Napoleon’s domestic policies based upon the principles of the French Revolution?
3. How far did the Congress System succeed in achieving the aims of its members between 1815 and 1822?
4. How far is it true to say that Peel’s foreign policies were more effective than his domestic policies?
5. Assess the relative importance of the roles played by Mazzini and Cavour in the unification of Italy.
6. “While the Crimean War was essentially an unimportant conflict in an insignificant place its results were irreversible.” How far do you agree with this statement?
7. How successful was Bismarck as Chancellor in his foreign policies between 1862 and 1890?
8. “The key change in industrial development was the replacement of competitive industrial capitalism by monopoly capitalism.” Discuss the truth of this statement by referring to two specific examples from Europe in the last quarter of the nineteenth century.
9. By referring to two specific examples, discuss the effects of the increase in democratic representation in Europe (excluding Scandinavia) between 1850 and 1900.
10. Why did the French Republic, which appeared so unstable, survive between 1875 and 1914?
11. Assess the effect of the development of constitutional government on the inhabitants of any one Scandinavian country in the nineteenth or twentieth centuries.
12. How far did the achievements of Alexander II, between 1855 and 1881, justify his claim to be the “Tsar Liberator”?
13. “Economically advanced, but politically backward.” How far do you agree with this assessment of Germany under Wilhelm II between 1890 and 1914?
14. Why did World War One start in 1914 and not earlier?
15. Why did the Reds win the Russian Civil War (1918 to 1921)?
16. Why did the League of Nations fail to achieve its aim of disarmament between 1920 and 1939?
17. “The key factor was their control of the media.” How far does this statement explain the success of Mussolini and Hitler in retaining power in Italy and Germany respectively?
18. What consequences did Franco’s victory in the Spanish Civil War have for Spain up to his death in 1975?
19. How significant was the year 1941 for the course of the Second World War?
20. How successful was Soviet foreign policy under Khrushchev?
21. Why, after dominating the political life of France after 1958, did Charles de Gaulle resign in 1969?
22. How important for Europe and for Yugoslavia was Tito’ s refusal to allow Yugoslavia to be part of the Soviet bloc after 1945?
23. To what extent do you agree with the view that “terrorism is a justifiable weapon in the arsenal of European politics if it is the only means through which success may be achieved”?
24. What were the most important effects of Salazar’s domestic policies in Portugal between 1932 and 1968?
25. What factors led to the reunification of Germany in 1990?

 May 2002
1. To what extent were both poverty and prosperity causes of the 1789 French Revolution?
2. Why did Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I) become ruler of France and what were the results of his period in power?
3. Evaluate the successes and failures of the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) in the period that followed, until 1850.
4. Why, and to what extent, had Prussia replaced Austria as the leading power in the German Confederation by 1862?
5. "A popular patriot." How far do you agree with this judgement of Garibaldi's contribution to Italian unification?
6. Compare and contrast the foreign and imperial policies (excluding Ireland) of Disraeli and Gladstone from 1868 to 1886.
7. Assess the aims and achievements of Bismarck's foreign and domestic policies between 1871 and 1890.
8. To what extent did Alexander II succeed in reforming Russian life and institutions?
9. "Success abroad and failure at home." To what extent do you agree with this judgement of the
policies of Napoleon III?
10. Analyse the social and political effects of the developments during the nineteenth century in one or more European countries, of two of the following: agriculture; social legislation; transport.
11. Assess the political and economic development of one Scandinavian country in the nineteenth century.
12. Evaluate the importance of Austria-Hungary on European developments between 1867 and 1918.
13. In what ways, and for what reasons, had the quality of education improved and the number of people educated increased, in one European country by 1900?

16. Lenin succeeded in convincing the Russian people that the path to happiness lay through lawlessness, arbitrary rule and violence.” To what extent does Lenin’s position in, and rule of, the USSR between 1918 and his death in 1924 support this statement?

18. Assess the successes and failures of Mussolini's domestic policies.
19. Analyse the causes and results of either the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), or the
Portuguese Revolution of 1974.
20. For what reasons could it be argued that the Second World War in Europe was 'total war'?
21.
Evaluate the impact of Stalin’s policies between 1941 and 1953 on the USSR, and on Europe. 
22. "In spite of the ravages of the Second World War and the anxiety of the Cold War, the period 1945 to 1990 was one of reconstruction and development in western Europe." To what extent do you agree with this statement?
23. Compare and contrast the career and importance of two of the following: Adenauer; De Gaulle; Khrushchev.
24. How and why were conditions and patterns of work affected and changed by gender issues during the twentieth century?
25. Analyse economic and political developments in one eastern European country, excluding the USSR, in the second half of the twentieth century.

November 2002
1. Why was Louis XVI executed in 1793?
2. “When one thinks of Napoleon, one thinks of war.” Discuss Napoleon’s use of war as a
means of achieving his goals outside France between 1800 and 1815.
3. Why did the Congress System collapse after 1822?
4. How successful were the foreign policies followed by Palmerston both as Foreign Secretary and Prime Minister?
5. How united was Italy by 1871?
6. Analyse the effects of the 1848 Revolution in Prussia on the eventual unification of Germanyin 1871.
7. “The most dangerous moment for a bad government is usually when it begins to reform itself.” How far do you agree with this assessment of Russia under Alexander II?
8. In what ways can the 1878 Congress of Berlin be seen as a turning point in the Eastern Question?
9. Assess the impact upon Germany and Europe, between 1888 and 1914, of Kaiser Wilhelm II’s accession to power.
10. How successful, economically and politically, was European imperialism between 1885 and 1910?
11. Assess the effects of any one of the following on nineteenth-century social and political thought: romanticism; the arts; scientific development.
12. “He was out of touch with reality.” How far do you agree with this assessment of Louis Napoleon?
13. Assess the political and economic developments in any one Scandinavian country in either
the nineteenth or the twentieth century.
14. Assess the effects of the creation of the Bolshevik Party on Russia up to 1921.
15. How effectively did Stalin deal with domestic opposition between 1924 and 1953?
16. “The Treaty of Versailles was fatally flawed.” To what extent do you agree with this
statement?
17. How far do you agree that the principles upon which the League of Nations was based were unsuitable for the political and economic realities of the 1920s?
18. How far do you agree that the Spanish Civil War was really an ideological struggle between fascism and communism?
19. In what ways did Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany differ ideologically?
20. Why, and with what effects on Europe, was the Nazi-Soviet Pact signed in August 1939?
21. Assess the impact of Nikita Khrushchev on both the Soviet Union and Europe between 1953 and 1964.
22. Why did it take so long for Great Britain to become a member of the European Economic Community?
23. Why was the relationship between western and eastern Europe so hostile between 1946 and 1961?
24. Assess the influence of Tito on internal Yugoslav affairs between 1946 and 1970.
25. “The impetus behind the movement for social and political equality between men and women has gone.” How far do you agree with this statement when analysing the role of the feminist movement in Europe between 1975 and 1990?


May 2003
1. To what extent was an outdated monarchy the cause of the 1789 French Revolution?
2. Evaluate the results for France, and for Europe, of Napoleon Bonaparte’s foreign policy.
3. For what reasons, and with what results, did the Congress of Vienna and the various meetings of the Congress System, take place?
4. Why did Louis Philippe become King of France in 1830, but lose his throne in 1848?
5. Compare and contrast Peel and Palmerston as statesmen and politicians of Victorian Britain.
6. “Cavour united Italy not because he intended or wanted to, but because circumstances forced him to.” To what extent do you agree with this judgement?
7. In what ways, and with what results, did economic developments and the 1848 revolutions affect the changing balance of power between Austria and Prussia between 1815 and 1862?
8. “Alexander II tried to reform Russian institutions only because the Crimean War showed that Russia was no longer a great military power.” Use specific examples of Alexander’s reforms to show to what extent you agree with this assertion.
9. In what ways, and with what results between 1862 and 1871, was Germany unified under Prussia?
10. In what ways, and with what results, did the daily life and status of women change during the nineteenth century? Specific evidence should be given from one or more European countries.
11. Explain and evaluate the demands for, and the extension of, the franchise in one European country during the nineteenth century.
12. Why and with what effects on both countries, was Norway ceded to Sweden in 1814, and the union between the two countries dissolved in 1905?
13. Analyse the main political developments in either France or Spain between 1848 and 1914.
14. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the First World War lead to economic and social changes? Specific examples should be given from one or more European countries for the period 1914 to 1930.
15. Compare and contrast the nature and results of the two 1917 Russian Revolutions.
16. Analyse the political developments and external relations of either Weimar Germany between 1919 and 1933 or Great Britain between 1918 and 1935.
17. Why had Stalin become ruler of the USSR by 1929?
18. For what reasons, and with what results, did Mussolini abandon his Stresa Front allies, France and Great Britain, and ally with Hitler in 1936?
19. Evaluate Hitler’s social, economic and religious policies between 1933 and 1939.
20. To what extent was the failure and collapse of the League of Nations the cause of the Second World War?
21. Assess the rule of either Franco in Spain or Caetano in Portugal.
22. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the Soviet Union’s Cold War policies affect Germany between 1945 and 1961?
23. Assess the strengths and weaknesses of France under de Gaulle.
24. Account for and assess the rise and fall of a Communist regime in either one Eastern or one Central European state excluding the USSR.
25. For what reasons, and with what effects, did leisure activities and the media become more widespread and important in one or more European countries during the twentieth century?


November 2003
1. What factors made it difficult to establish a limited monarchy in France between 1789 and 1792?
2. To what extent did Napoleon apply the principles of the French Revolution in France and in the territories which he occupied?
3. Assess the influence of Metternich on Austria–Hungary and Europe between 1815 and 1848.
4. Evaluate the success of the Chartist Movement in Britain between 1838 and 1848.
5. Why was Mazzini disappointed by the united Italy that emerged after 1871?
6. What common factors caused the 1848/9 revolutions in Europe to fail?
7. “Alexander II had no one to blame but himself for his assassination in 1881.” How far do you agree with this statement?
8. To what extent were Bismarck’s difficulties inside Germany between 1871 and 1890 caused by his own views and policies?
9. Why was the Eastern Question so important to Europe in the latter half of the nineteenth century?
10. What impact did emigration have on any one European country in the nineteenth century?
11. Compare and contrast the impact of nationalism on any two European countries in the
nineteenth century.
12. For what reasons did political change occur either in Spain or in France between 1848 and 1914?
13. Assess the importance of either any one Scandinavian country or Finland in Europe in the first half of the twentieth century.
14. Why did Germany sign an armistice with the Allies in November 1918?
15. What was the impact of the First World War on Russia between 1914 and 1921?
16. What were the main factors that enabled Mussolini to rise to power, and consolidate his position in Italy, between 1918 and 1926?
17. What were the aims and achievements of Stalin’s foreign policy between 1928 and 1941?
18. “Hitler’s control and organization of the Nazi State was less effective than is commonly
believed.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
19. Why did the policy of “collective security”, established by the League of Nations, fail to prevent the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939?
20. To what extent was the involvement of foreign powers decisive in securing a Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939)?
21. Why, and with what consequences for Europe, was the Warsaw Pact signed in 1955?
22. “Although his contribution to France was significant, its importance has been exaggerated.”
How far do you agree with this assessment of the role of de Gaulle between 1945 and 1969?
23. Evaluate the relative achievements of the governments of Salazar and Caetano in Portugal.
24. What were the causes and consequences (to 1995) of the 1991 conflict in the Balkans?
25. What economic and political impact did the movement towards worldwide globalization have on Europe between 1985 and 1995?


May 2004
1. To what extent did the actions and policies of Louis XVI cause the outbreak, and affect the course, of the French Revolution until 1793?
2. Analyse the effects of the policies upon France, of either Napoleon I between 1800 and 1815, or Charles X between 1824 and 1830.
3. Assess the main weaknesses up to 1848 of the Vienna Settlement and the Congress System.
4. “Victorian Britain’s most successful prime minister.” To what extent do you agree with this
assessment of Gladstone?
5. Compare and contrast the contributions made by Cavour and Garibaldi to Italian unification.
6. Why was Germany unified under Prussia and not under Austria?
7. Why did Napoleon III become Emperor of France in 1852 and lose his empire in 1870?
8. “The emancipation of the serfs in Russia was the only genuine reform introduced by Alexander II.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
9. Analyse the successes and failures of Bismarck’s domestic policies between 1871 and 1890.
10. Assess the impact on nineteenth century Europe of two of the following: imperialism;
industrialization; urbanization.
11. Examine the main political and economic developments in Spain in the second half of the nineteenth century.
12. Why was the dual monarchy of Austria–Hungary formed in 1867, and dissolved after the First World War?
13. To what extent, and with what results, did educational reforms take place in one European country in either the nineteenth or the twentieth century?
14. Why did Germany and her allies lose the First World War?
15. Assess the part played by Lenin in the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution and in the new Soviet State until his death in 1924.
16. Compare and contrast the economic problems faced by two European countries between 1919 and 1939.
17. Analyse the impact of Hitler either on Finland or on one Scandinavian country between 1933 and 1945.
18. To what extent were the aims of Mussolini’s domestic and foreign policies achieved between 1923 and 1939?
19. In what ways, and to what extent, did foreign aid to both the Nationalists and the Republicans between 1936 and 1939 contribute to the outcome of the Spanish Civil War?
20. How important were appeasement and the collapse of the League of Nations as causes of the Second World War?
21. Assess the impact of the foreign policy of either Stalin between 1941 and 1953, or Khrushchev between 1956 and 1964, on the USSR and Europe.
22. In what ways, and with what results, did one western European country recover from post-war problems between 1945 and 1970?
23. What were the main political and economic problems faced by one central or eastern European country (excluding USSR) between 1945 and 1990?
24. “Considering the difficulties he faced, the success achieved by Gorbachev was remarkable.” To what extent do you agree with this judgement?
25. Why did twentieth century Europe experience an increase in the availability and popularity of sport and other leisure activities?


November 2004
1. “A ruthless dictator”; “a true social and political democrat”. With reference to the French revolutionary leader, Robespierre, explain which statement you consider to be more appropriate.
2. To what extent has Napoleon’s impact on France between 1800 and 1815 been exaggerated?
3. How successful were the members of the Congress of Vienna in achieving their aims by
1830?
4. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of Disraeli and Gladstone between 1868 and 1886.
6. “The resolution of the question of Rome was the key to Italian unification.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
9. Why was there such an increase in membership of trade unions in Europe between 1875 and 1900?
10. Analyse the factors that led to the increase of educational opportunity in many European countries between 1850 and 1900.
11. How successfully did the governments of either France or Spain deal with domestic problems in the period 1848 to 1914?
13. Compare and contrast the political and constitutional development of any two of the following countries in the twentieth century: Denmark, Sweden, Norway, or Finland.
14. Compare and contrast the contributions of Lenin and Trotsky to the establishment and consolidation of a communist state in Russia between 1917 and 1924.
15. Analyse the key factors that led to the break-up of the Austro-Hungarian Empire by 1919.
19. For what reasons, and with what results, did Britain and France pursue a policy of appeasement in the 1930s?
20. To what extent did the states of Central and Eastern Europe benefit economically from Soviet control between 1949 and 1989?
21. Analyse the effects of technological development on the arts after the Second World War.
Assess the significance of Adenauer’s achievements in West Germany between 1945 and
1963.
23. How successfully did Spain make the transition to a constitutional monarchy after the death of Franco?
24. “Gorbachev has been hailed as a great statesman and politician but in reality his domestic and foreign achievements were far less significant than has been claimed.” Discuss.
25. Compare and contrast the social and economic consequences of the Second World War on two European countries.

May 2005
1. For what reasons, and with what results, was the French Revolution so violent between 1789 and 1794?
2. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of Napoleon I and Louis Philippe.
3. "It restored peace and stability after a turbulent and revolutionary era." To what extent do you
agree with this judgement of the Vienna settlement (1814-1815)?
4. Assess the successes and failures of Peel as prime minister of Britain 1834-1835 and 1841-1846.
5. Analyse the aims and achievements of Cavour for Piedmont-Sardinia and Italy.
6. To what extent was Germany's unification under Prussia due to the weakness of Austria?
7. "A period of consolidation at home and abroad." To what extent does this statement explain Bismarck's policies between 1871 and 1890?
8. For what reasons, and with what results, did Alexander II try to reform Russian institutions?
9. Evaluate the importance of imperialism for, and its effects on, one European country during
the nineteenth century.
10. Assess the importance of either nineteenth or twentieth century cultural movements in one or more European countries.
11. Analyse the political aims of Louis Napoleon's (later Napoleon III) policies and assess their results on France and on Europe between 1848 and 1871.
12. In what ways, and to what extent, was Spain weak between 1848 and 1914?
13. "Scandinavia ignored Europe, and Europe ignored Scandinavia." To what extent does this statement reflect Scandinavian developments in either the nineteenth or the twentieth century?
14.
To what extent was the Revolution of February/March 1917, in Russia, due to the nature of Tsarism and the policies of Nicholas II (1894-1917)? 
15. Analyse the social and economic changes caused by the First World War, in one European country, up to 1929.
16.
Lenin wrote, “One step forward two steps back; it happens in the lives of individuals, and in the history of nations.” To what extent can this quotation be applied to Lenin’s revolutionary career and his rule of the USSR 1918 to 1924? 
17. Assess the strength and weakness of Weimar Germany between 1919 and 1932.
18. Compare and contrast totalitarian rule in Hitler's Germany and Mussolini's Italy, up to 1939.
19. What were the results of the Spanish Civil War for Spain and for Europe?
20. Why did international diplomacy play an important part in Europe in the inter war years?
21. Analyse the effects of the Second World War on the USSR between 1941 and 1948.
22. To what extent was Adenauer responsible for the recovery of Germany in the post Second World War period?
23. Assess the view that Khrushchev's policies were a failure both at home and abroad between 1955 and 1963.
24. Why was Tito able to achieve power in Yugoslavia in 1945, and maintain control until 1980?
25. Evaluate the changes in the lives of women in Europe during the twentieth century.


November 2005
1. To what extent were the main demands of revolutionaries in France met between 1789 and 1794?
2. "Napoleon I's domestic policies successfully reformed and modernized France." To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
3. How successful was the Congress of Vienna in achieving peace and stability in Europe between 1815 and 1848?
4. In what ways, and for what reasons, was the period 1815 to 1866 one of change for Austria?
5. Assess the role of Piedmont-Sardinia in Italian unification between 1850 and 1861.
6. For what reasons, and with what results, did Disraeli play an important part in British politics between 1846 and 1880?
7. Analyse the reasons for, and the nature of, opposition to tsardom in Russia between 1855 and 1894.
8. Evaluate the successes and failures of Bismarck's foreign policy between 1871 and 1890.
9. Analyse the development and importance of the trade union movement in one European
country in the nineteenth century.
10. Assess the impact of either Marxism or nationalism in Europe, in the second half of the nineteenth century.
11. "A period of economic stagnation and political decline." To what extent is this a fair assessment of Spain between 1848 and 1914?
12. Assess the successes and failures of the domestic policies of Napoleon III.
13. Why did Nicholas II survive the 1905 revolution, but lose his throne in the February/March
1917 revolution?
14. In what ways, and to what extent, were German and Austrian policies responsible for the outbreak of the First World War?
15. Compare and contrast the part played by Lenin and Trotsky in the development of the USSR between 1918 and 1924.
16. To what extent did collective security become a victim of economic problems in the inter-war years?
17. "A century of peace and prosperity." To what extent is this a valid assessment of either Finland, or one Scandinavian country, in the twentieth century?
18. Analyse the main factors which contributed to Hitler's rise to power in January 1933.
19. Evaluate the domestic policies of Mussolini between 1922 and 1939.
20. To what extent was the Spanish Civil War caused by divisions in Spain and in Spanish society?
21. Account for the successes of Nazi Germany in Europe between 1938 and 1942.
22. Compare and contrast the parts played in the Cold War by two of the following: Khrushchev;
Brezhnev; Gorbachev.
23. Examine the impact of the EU (European Union) between 1955 and 1995.
24. For what reasons, and with what results, did communist regimes in Eastern Europe (excluding USSR) collapse (1989-90)?
25. Assess the successes and failures of educational policies in one European country in the twentieth century.

May 2006
1. In what ways and for what reasons did the French Revolution a) benefit France and b) harm France?
2. “The overall effect of Napoleon I’s foreign policy was to bring glory to France.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
3. In what ways, and to what extent, did the aims and policies of the Great Powers in the Vienna settlement shape Europe until 1852?
4. Compare and contrast the reasons for the fall from power in France, of Charles X in 1830 and Louis Philippe in 1848.
5. Assess the main features of foreign and imperial policy (excluding Ireland) in Victorian Britain in the second half of the nineteenth century.
6. Analyse the weaknesses of Austria in the period 1815 to 1866.
7. Why was Italy united under Piedmont-Sardinia and not under Rome?
8. In 1862 Bismarck said: “The great questions of the day will not be settled by speeches and majority decisions.” What were “the great questions of the day” for Bismarck, and how did he settle them up to 1871?
9. Compare and contrast the policies of Alexander II (1855-81) and Alexander III (1881-94) of Russia. 
10. For what reasons, and with what results, was social legislation an important feature of one nineteenth century European government?
11. Evaluate the nature and importance of cultural developments in one European country during the nineteenth century.
12. Analyse the effects of Napoleon III’s domestic policies.
13. Why and with what results did Spain fail to modernise in the second half of the nineteenth century?
14. Examine the main economic and political developments in one Scandinavian country, or in Finland, in either the nineteenth or the twentieth century.
15. Analyse the long term and short term causes of the 1917 February/March Russian Revolution.
16. Assess the effects between 1914 and 1921, of the First World War on the civilian population of one European country.
17. For what reasons, and in what ways, was a Marxist/Communist state set up in Russia between 1918 and 1928?
18. Account for the foundation of the League of Nations, and assess its success between 1920 and 1935. 
19. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of Hitler and Mussolini up to the outbreak of the Second World War.
20. Analyse the reasons for the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War.
21. Assess the political consequences of the Second World War in two European countries between 1939 and 1950.
22. In what ways, and with what success, did Brezhnev direct domestic and foreign policies in the Soviet Union between 1964 and 1982?
23. “The Cold War both helped and hindered the recovery of post Second World War western Europe.” To what extent do you agree with this judgement?
24. Examine the successes and failures of Tito in Yugoslavia. 
25. In what ways, and with what results, have twentieth century transport developments changed European work and leisure patterns?

 November 2006
1. To what extent did the outbreak of war in April 1792 change the nature and the course of the French Revolution?
2. “The success of Napoleon’s domestic policies in France between 1802 and 1815 has been greatly exaggerated.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
3. Why were revolutionary activities so widespread in Europe between 1848 and 1849?
4. Assess the influence of Robert Peel on British politics during the nineteenth century.
5. Compare and contrast the contributions of Mazzini and Garibaldi to Italian unification.
6. “The unification of Germany by 1871 was the result of Bismarck’s foresight and careful planning.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
7. Assess the importance of the Eastern Question for Europe between 1850 and 1880.
8. To what extent did Alexander II’s reforms cause more problems than they solved?
9. To what extent did developments in transport affect the economic development of one European country in the nineteenth century?
10. What effects did the demand for, and the development of, the franchise have in one European country in the nineteenth century?
11. How important was the Paris commune (1871) for France and for Europe?
12. Assess the effects of the Napoleonic Wars and the congress of Vienna on Scandinavia and Finland.
13. compare and contrast the causes and consequences of the 1905 and February/March 1917 Russian Revolutions.
14. Analyse the factors which led to the defeat of Germany and Austria-Hungary during the First World War.
15. How important was Trotsky’s role in the establishment and development of the Soviet state between 1917 and 1929?
16. Assess the effects of two of the Paris Peace Settlements.
17. Analyse the effect of the Wall Street crash on two European countries (excluding Germany) between
1929 and 1935.
18. Analyse the reasons for the collapse of the Weimar Republic and the establishment of a Nazi dictatorship in the period 1929 to 1934.
19. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of Hitler and Stalin up to the outbreak of the Second World War.
20. Why did internal tensions in Spain in the 1920s and 1930s lead to a civil war in 1936?
21. Analyse the importance of one of the following to the eventual outcome of the Second World War
in Europe: war in the air; war at sea; war on land.
22. compare and contrast the foreign policies of Khrushchev and Brezhnev.
23. “The history of European cooperation between 1957 and 1975 was harmonious and successful.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
24. Analyse the reasons for the decline and fall of one communist regime in eastern Europe (excluding the USSR).
25. Analyse the importance of developments in either education or the arts in two European states between 1960 and 1995.


May 2007
1. Assess the importance of two causes of the French Revolution of 1789.
2. Why, and with what results for France, did Napoleon I become emperor in 1804, and Louis XVIII king in 1814?
3. Analyse the impact of the Vienna Settlement (1814–1815) on Europe until 1848.
4. “Economic problems rather than political grievances were responsible for revolutionary outbreaks in Europe in 1848.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
5. Explain and evaluate the view that the unification of Italy was helped not hindered by the disputes, differences and suspicions between leading Italian patriots.
6. To what extent was German unification under Prussia due to Prussian economic superiority between 1814 and 1866?
7. Assess the impact of rivalry between Whigs (Liberals) and Tories (conservatives) on British politics in the second half of the nineteenth century.
8. “Considering the difficulties he inherited, Alexander II of Russia should be praised not criticised for his reforms.” To what extent do you agree with this judgement?
9. In what ways, and to what extent, did the internal and external policies of Austria-Hungary after 1867 lead to the First World War?
10. Analyse the political changes in France between 1848 and 1871.
11. For what reasons, and with what results, was the second half of the nineteenth century a period of
social and economic change?
12. compare and contrast the development of the arts in two European countries during the nineteenth century.
13. Evaluate the successes and failures of German domestic policy between 1871 and 1914.

14.Analyse political and social developments in one Scandinavian country or in Finland during the twentieth century.
19. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of Hitler and Stalin in Europe, up to the invasion of Russia in 1941.
21. In what ways, and with what results for Europe between 1939 and 1949, was the Second World War a “total war ”?

November 2007
1. To what extent was the bankruptcy of the French monarchy the main cause of revolution in France in 1789?
2. “Napoleon’s foreign policies were not nearly as successful as his domestic policies.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
3. For what reasons, and with what results, did the Vienna Settlement of 1815 ignore liberalism and nationalism?
4. Assess the influence of William Gladstone on British politics in the nineteenth century.
5. Why, despite the opposition of the Republican movement, was Italy unified under the
Piedmont-Sardinia monarchy?
6. “The revolutions of 1848 in Austria and Prussia ended in total failure.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
7. Evaluate Bismarck’s use of war as an instrument of policy between 1862 and 1890.
8. “Despite his apparently liberal policies, Alexander II was just as conservative as Alexander III.”To what extent do you agree with this statement?
9. What effect did advances in industrialization have on the economic development of any one European country in the nineteenth century?
10. Assess the contribution of music in promoting nationalist movements in two European countries in the nineteenth or twentieth centuries.
11. Analyse the successes and failures of Napoleon III at home and abroad between 1852 and 1870.
12. compare and contrast the effects of Sweden’s policy of neutrality in the nineteenth century with that of the twentieth century.
13. Why was the Provisional Government in Russia unable to consolidate and maintain its power in 1917?
14. Assess the relative importance of the long-term and short-term causes of the First World War.
15. What were the main factors that led to the foundation of the League of Nations in 1920?
16. Why did international diplomacy fail to prevent the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939?
17. “Foreign policy is the area which especially preoccupies us.” To what extent do Mussolini’s actions and policies between 1922 and 1939 reflect this statement?
18. Assess the importance of indoctrination and propaganda in maintaining control in Germany under the Third Reich between 1933 and 1945.
19. In what ways, and to what extent, did social and religious divisions lead to civil war in Spain in 1936?
20. compare and contrast the political and economic consequences of the Second World War on any two European countries (excluding Germany).
21. Analyse the successes and failures of Soviet policies towards Germany and the eastern European satellite states during the regimes of Khrushchev and Brezhnev.
22. compare and contrast the policies of Salazar and Caetano in Portugal between 1933 and 1974.
23. Evaluate de Gaulle’s contribution to France.
24. Analyse the impact of the ending of the cold War on one European state (excluding the USSR) between 1990 and 1995.
25. Assess the success of movements for the emancipation of women in one European country during the twentieth century.


May 2008
 1. To what extent was the French monarchy both the main cause and the main victim of the 1789 French Revolution?
2. Assess the domestic policies of Napoleon I between 1799 and 1814.
3. “The Congress System was a genuine attempt by the Great Powers to produce a unified policy, but their interests were too diverse for it to succeed.” To what extent do you agree with this judgment?
4. Analyse the main reasons why Louis Philippe became King of France in 1830, but lost his throne in 1848.
5. Compare and contrast the roles of Cavour and Garibaldi in Italian unification between 1852 and 1861.
6. What were the main areas of industrial growth in Victorian Britain, and how did they affect the social and economic conditions of the people?
7. For what reasons, and with what results up to 1871, did Prussia replace Austria as the leading Germanic power in the German Confederation?
8. Analyse the strengths and weaknesses of Russia in the second half of the nineteenth century.
9. “Bismarck pursued a successful foreign policy between 1871 and 1890, but was often defeated ondomestic issues.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
10. Assess the impact of developments in either transport or agriculture on one European country in the second half of the nineteenth century.
11. Analyse the impact of either nationalism or socialism on nineteenth century Europe.
12. Why, in spite of crises, was the Third French Republic still in power in 1905?
13. Compare and contrast political developments in either the nineteenth or twentieth century, in two of the following: Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden.
14. Why were the Central Powers defeated in the First World War?
15. Analyse the reasons for the success of the Bolsheviks in the second (October/November) 1917 Russian Revolution.
16. Compare and contrast political and economic problems, between 1919 and 1939, in two of the following: France, Germany, Great Britain.
17. Mussolini wrote “war alone drives men to make their greatest efforts”. In what ways, and with what success, did Mussolini seek to put this belief into practice?
18. Analyse the ideologies of two twentieth century European totalitarian states.
19. Compare and contrast the impact of the Spanish Civil War on Spain and on one other European state between 1936 and 1939.
20. Why did the Second World War break out in 1939?
21. “I am not an adventurer, but we must aid national liberation movements.” To what extent does Khrushchev’s assertion explain his foreign policy between 1953 and 1964?
22. What were the main problems faced by post-war western Europe in 1945, and to what extent were they overcome by 1970 ?
23. Examine the impact of economic problems between 1939 and 1995 on two communist eastern or central European states (excluding the USSR).
24. Assess the role of the media in one twentieth century European state.
25. Analyse the successes and failures of one of the following European heads of state: Franco,
Gorbachev, Salazar.


November 2008
 1. Why, and with what consequences for France, was Louis XVI executed?
2. To what extent can it be said that Napoleon I was “the child of the French Revolution”?
3. “Of the four congresses held between 1818 and 18 the Congress of Troppau was the most
significant for the Congress System.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
4. Assess the influence of Benjamin Disraeli on British politics in the nineteenth century.
5. Evaluate the importance of Cavour’s contribution to the unification of Italy.
6. Why had Prussia, rather than Austria, emerged as the dominant German power by 1871?
7. “Bismarck’s domestic policies in Germany between 1871 and 1890 were, in reality, a failure.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
8. Assess the importance of the Crimean War (1854–1856) for Europe in the second half of the nineteenth century.
9. To what extent did changes in agriculture affect the economic development of one European country in the nineteenth century?
10. Compare and contrast the impact of Marxism on two European countries in the second half of the nineteenth century.
11. Assess the effect of political changes in either Spain or France between 1848 and 1914.
12. Analyse the impact of war in either the nineteenth or twentieth century on one of the following
countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden.
13. Assess the successes and failures of Nicholas II between 1894 and 1917.
14. “The Bolshevik state under Lenin between 1918 and 1924 was a ruthless dictatorship, caring little for the Russian people.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
15. Why did the Central Powers lose the First World War?
16. Compare and contrast the political and economic impact of the First World War on two European powers.
17. Compare and contrast the social and economic policies of Hitler and Mussolini.
18. Analyse the effects of the Wall Street Crash and the Great Depression on two European countries
(excluding Germany and Italy).
19. To what extent do you agree that Stalin’s foreign policy between 1928 and 1953 was inconsistent and unfocused?
20. Assess the impact of Franco on Spain between 1936 and 1975.
21. To what extent was the Second World War caused by Hitler’s policies?
22. “The Marshall Plan promised much but achieved little for Western Europe.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
23. To what extent did the states of central and eastern Europe benefit from Soviet control after 1945?
24. Assess the effects of Gorbachev’s policies of perestroika and glasnost on the Soviet Union and Europe up to 1995.
25. Analyse the importance of leisure and sport on European society after the Second World War.

May 2009
 1. In what ways, and to what extent, was the French Revolution responsible for the rise of Napoleon I?
2. Compare and contrast the policies of two of the following: Louis XVIII (1814–1824); Charles X (1824–1830); Louis Philippe (1830–1848).
3. Analyse the causes and results of two 1848 revolutions.
4. “A great era for industrialization and social legislation.” To what extent do you agree with this judgement of Britain in the second half of the nineteenth century?
5. Assess the positive and negative contributions of the following to Italian unification: separatism, republicanism, foreign involvement.
6. Why was Germany unified by Prussia and not Austria?
7. Analyse Bismarck’s impact on Germany between 1871 and 1890.
8. “What happened in Russia during the reign of Alexander II (1855–1881) was more of a revolution than many that went by that name elsewhere.” To what extent do you agree with the assertion that Alexander II’s policies were revolutionary?
9. Discuss the importance of either imperialism or emigration for nineteenth century Europe. 10. For what reasons, and in what ways, did education develop in one European country during the nineteenth century.
11. In what ways, and to what extent, were Napoleon III’s policies responsible for his downfall and the establishment of the Third French Republic?
12. Assess the effects of outside events on either one Scandinavian country or Finland during the twentieth century.
13. Why did the First World War break out in 1914?
14. Analyse the causes of the 1917 February/March Russian Revolution.
15. Analyse the causes and results of economic problems in one European country between 1919 and 1939.
16. Compare and contrast the repressive policies of Hitler and Stalin.
17. Evaluate the impact on Italy of Mussolini’s domestic and foreign policies between 1922 and 1939.
18. “The Spanish Civil War was a disaster not only for Spain, but also for Europe.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
19. Compare and contrast the governments of Salazar (1932–1968) and Caetano (1968–1974) in Portugal.
20. With reference to the Second World War in Europe, explain the main features and effects of “total war”.
21. “A natural development of the Second World War.” To what extent does this assertion explain the causes of the Cold War?
22. Assess the policies of either Adenauer in Germany or de Gaulle in France.
23. Explain the reasons for, and results of, the Sovietization of one Soviet satellite state in Europe,
between 1945 and 1990.
24. In what ways, and to what extent, was Gorbachev responsible for the break up of the USSR?
25. Analyse gender issues in one European country during the twentieth century.

November 2009 
 1. To what extent were economic rather than political factors responsible for the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789?
2. In what ways did France benefit from the rule of Napoleon I between 1799 and 1814?
3. “The Congress of Vienna resolved nothing that was important, but merely laid the foundations for
future conflicts.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
4. Assess the importance of Gladstone’s policies for Britain and Ireland in the second half of the nineteenth century.
5. “Garibaldi’s contributions to the unification of Italy in 1871 have been greatly overestimated.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
6. Why did revolutions break out in both Prussia and the Austrian Empire in 1848?
7. To what extent did Alexander II’s policies succeed in fulfilling his aims?
8. “There is little doubt that Bismarck’s policies between 1862 and 1890 were far less successful than Bismarck himself claimed.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
9. Assess the impact on any one European country of either urbanization, or population growth, in the second half of the nineteenth century.
10. Analyse the importance of developments in science for nineteenth century Europe.
11. How successfully did the Third French Republic overcome the problems it faced before the outbreak of the First World War in 1914?
12. Assess the impact of political developments, in either the nineteenth or twentieth century, on one of the following countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, or Sweden.
13. To what extent was nationalism the major factor behind the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914?
14. Analyse the causes and immediate consequences (up to 1921) of the October 1917 Russian Revolution.
15. Analyse the impact of any two post-First World War settlements (excluding Versailles) on new and successor states in central and eastern Europe.
16. “The organization of the League of Nations, as laid out in its Covenant, was the main reason for its failure.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
17. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of Hitler and Mussolini between 1933 and 1943.
18. Compare and contrast the role that propaganda played in the establishment of any two single-party states in Europe between 1919 and 1939.
19. “The contribution of foreign powers to Franco’s victory in the Spanish Civil War has been greatly exaggerated.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
20. Analyse the political and economic consequences of the Cold War on two European countries (excluding West Germany).
21. How successful were Tito’s policies in Yugoslavia between 1945 and 1980?
22. “Stalin’s domestic and foreign policies between 1945 and 1953 lacked consistent aims.” To what
extent do you agree with this statement?
23. “Ultimately the Warsaw Pact was unable to fulfil the expectations that the Soviet Union had for it when it was created in 1955.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
24. Compare and contrast the relative success of Chancellor Adenauer’s policies in West Germany with those of President de Gaulle in France.
25. How has twentieth century Europe been affected by either terrorism or peace movements since the Second World War?


May 2010
1. To what extent was Louis XVI responsible for the outbreak of revolution in France in 1789?
2. “Napoleon will trample underfoot [destroy] the rights of man, put himself above them and become a tyrant.” To what extent was this prediction correct?
3. Analyse the political factors involved in the unification of Italy up to 1861.
4. Discuss the relative importance of the decline of Austria and the policies of Bismarck as causes of German unification.
5. Why was the Ottoman Empire regarded as an empire in decline in the nineteenth century?
6. Analyse the causes and results of civil war in Lebanon in 1860.
7. Examine the nature and development of political parties in Britain between 1867 and 1914.
8. Why did the Second French Empire, ruled by Napoleon III, collapse in 1870?
9. “His measures of reform did not disguise his belief in the need to maintain autocratic rule.” To what extent do you agree with this view of Alexander II?
10. Compare and contrast the causes and nature of the two 1917 Russian Revolutions.
11. Evaluate continuity and change in German foreign policy between 1871 and 1914.
20. Analyse Franco’s regime and explain why Spain became a democratic nation after his death in 1975.
21. Compare and contrast the economic policies of Nasser and Sadat in Egypt.
22. Account for the uneasy relations between Israel and the Arab world between 1950 and 1993.
23. In what ways, and with what results, was there an “industrial revolution” in one country of the region in the fifty years you have studied?
24. With reference to one country of the region, either in the nineteenth century or the twentieth century, analyse the importance of two of the following: health reforms; gender issues; immigration; emigration.

 November 2010
1. To what extent were financial problems the most significant cause of the French Revolution?
2. “Napoleon Bonaparte failed to maintain the ideals of the French Revolution in his domestic policies.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
3. Compare and contrast the roles of Cavour and Garibaldi in the unification of Italy between 1850 and 1871.
4. Analyse the successes and failures of Bismarck’s domestic policies after 1871.
5. Assess the reasons why Greece had gained independence from the Ottoman Empire by 1831.
6. Examine the impact of the major European powers on the Ottoman Empire between 1850 and 1880.
7. “The Republic is the form of government which divides France the least.” To what extent do you agree with this statement with reference to the period 1870–1914?
8. Analyse the impact of the extension of the franchise on the development of British political parties between 1867 and 1914.
9. Assess the strengths and weaknesses of Alexander II’s reforms.
10. “Lenin abandoned ideology in order to gain and consolidate power.” To what extent do you agree
with this statement?
11. In what ways, and with what results, did German foreign and colonial policies change after 1890?
12. Compare and contrast the political and economic effects of the Paris Peace Settlements on Germany and Italy up to 1923.
13. Analyse the major causes of instability in Palestine between 1917 and 1939.
14. How successful was Reza Khan in modernizing Iran between 1924 and 1941?
15. Analyse the reasons for the weaknesses and collapse of democracy between 1918 and 1939 in either Italy or Spain.
16. For what reasons, and with what results, were appeasement policies followed in the 1930s?
17. In what ways, and with what results, had Stalin developed the Soviet Union into a major industrial power by 1941?
18. Analyse the extent of Soviet political and economic dominance in one Eastern European state between 1945 and 1968.
19. Assess the impact of Cold War tensions on Western Europe between 1945 and 1955.
20. To what extent did the European Community (Union) affect the rights of its individual member states between 1950 and 2000?
21. “Arab disunity was the main cause of Arab failure in conflicts with Israel from 1948 to 1973.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
22. Assess the political and social developments in Egypt under either Nasser or Mubarak.
23. Analyse the social and economic impact of industrialization on one country of the region in the fifty year period you have studied.
24. With reference to one country of the region, analyse the developments in two of the following in the fifty year period you have studied: health; education; gender issues.


May 2011
1. Analyse the reasons for the violent nature of the French Revolution in the years 1789–1794.
2. “Napoleon’s ambitious imperial policy was the main reason for his ultimate failure.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
3. Why had Prussia emerged as the leading German state by 1862?
4. Compare and contrast the unification of Germany and Italy in the nineteenth century.
5. Assess the impact of the Tanzimat reforms on the Ottoman Empire.
6. “The Lebanese Civil War (1860) was caused by religious tensions rather than economic differences.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
7. Why had the republic, established in France in 1848, become an empire by 1852?
8. Analyse Disraeli’s imperial and foreign policies in the years 1874–1880.
9. To what extent were Stolypin’s political and economic policies successful in the years 1906–1911?
10. “There were two revolutions in Russia because of the weakness of the Provisional Government.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
11. Analyse the impact of the new German Empire on European affairs in the years 1871–1910.
12. Discuss the impact of the First World War on domestic affairs in any one country of the region.
13. “Allied diplomacy during the First World War in the Middle East was contradictory and caused instability in the region.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
14. In what ways was Ibn Saud able to extend his power and establish the kingdom of Saudi Arabia by 1932?
15. Analyse the consequences of the Great Depression on any one country in Europe.
16. Evaluate the success of Hitler’s domestic policies between 1933 and 1939.
17. To what extent was Stalin’s foreign policy dominated by the desire for security up until 1941?
18. Analyse the causes and consequences of the policies of glasnost and perestroika up until 2000.
19. Why was the Federal Republic of Germany able to experience an “economic miracle” in the post-Second World War years?
20. Assess the political stability of one Western European state (excluding Germany and Spain) in the years between 1945 and 2000.
21. How important were religious, political and external factors in causing the outbreak of the Lebanese Civil War in 1975?
22. Compare and contrast the causes and consequences of two conflicts between Israel and her neighbours in the years 1948–1980.
23. “The microchip was the single most revolutionary invention of the late twentieth century.” With specific reference to one country in the region, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
24. Assess the impact of the welfare state on the lives of citizens of any one country in the region.


November 2011

  1. “A new France emerged out of the revolution; Napoleon Bonaparte’s achievement was to organize it.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
  2. Analyse the successes and failures of the Congress of Vienna (1814–1815).
  3. Assess the contribution to Italian unification of either Cavour or Garibaldi.
  4. Why was Germany unified under Prussia in 1871?
  5. Assess the success of either Muhammad Ali in modernizing Egypt or Abdul Hamid in strengthening the Ottoman Empire.
  6. Analyse the causes and consequences of the Crimean War (1854–1856).
  7. Compare and contrast two of the crises faced by the Third French Republic between 1875 and 1914.
  8. In 1867 Disraeli said: “Change is inevitable in a progressive country.” What changes did Disraeli introduce in Britain up until 1880?
  9. In what ways, and with what success, did Alexander II attempt to modernize Russia and preserve imperial power?
  10. Analyse the impact of the First World War on Russia between 1914 and 1924.
  11. Discuss the importance of two of the following in European diplomacy between 1870 and 1914: the Alliance System; global colonial rivalry; changing balance of power; nationalism.
  12. Assess the factors that led to the defeat of the Central Powers in the First World War.
  13. Analyse the role of religion in Saudi Arabia between 1932 and 1949.
  14. For what reasons, and with what success, were attempts made to modernize either Turkey or Iran in the first half of the twentieth century?
  15. Why did attempts at cooperation in Europe between 1919 and 1939 end in failure?
  16. “The Spanish Civil War was essentially a domestic matter that rapidly became an international issue.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
  17. To what extent did the cult of personality contribute to Stalin’s maintenance of power?
  18. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of Khrushchev and Brezhnev.
  19. Compare and contrast post-Second World War problems and recovery in two Western European states.
  20. Why was Germany divided in 1945 but reunited in 1990?
  21. Analyse the changing relations between Israel and the Arab world between 1967 and 2000.
  22. Assess the successes and failures of Nasser in Egypt between 1954 and 1970.
  23. In what ways, and to what extent, did gender issues change in the fifty year period you have studied?
  24. Analyse the impact of technology on one society in the fifty year period you have studied.
May 2012
The French Revolution and Napoleon — mid eighteenth century to 1815

1. “The revolutionary wars of 1792–1796 were to defend France and not spread revolution.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?

2. How successful was the Congress of Vienna in achieving the aims of the peacemakers?

Unification and consolidation of Germany and Italy 1815–1890


4. Assess the contribution made by other powers to the unification of Italy (1848–1871).

Ottoman Empire from the early nineteenth to the early twentieth century

5. Assess the importance of the Eastern Question for major European powers between 1850 and 1880.

6. Analyse the impact of the Committee of Union and Progress on the Ottoman Empire between 1908 and 1914.

Western and Northern Europe 1848–1914

7. Assess the successes and failures of Gladstone’s Irish policies.

8. Analyse the major political developments in any one country you have studied between 1848 and 1914.
Imperial Russia, revolutions, emergence of Soviet State 1853–1924
European diplomacy and the First World War 1870–1923
War and change in the Middle East 1914–1949
14. For what reasons, and with what consequences, was Reza Khan able to gain power in Iran in 1924?
Interwar years: conflict and cooperation 1919–1939

The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 1924–2000
18. “The main aim of Brezhnev’s policies was to maintain the Soviet System.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
The Second World War and post-war Western Europe 1939–2000
20. Assess the extent of economic integration in Europe by the 1990s.

Post-war developments in the Middle East 1945–2000

21. “The impact of the White Revolution was a major factor in the overthrow of the Shah in 1979.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?

22. Analyse the nature of political developments between 1945 and 2000 in any one Middle Eastern state you have studied (excluding Egypt).

Social and economic developments in Europe and the Middle East in the nineteenth or twentieth century

23. Assess the impact of educational change on society over a fifty year period in any one country you have studied up to the year 2000.

24. Examine the impact of religion on society in any one county you have studied up to the year 2000. 

November 2012
The French Revolution and Napoleon — mid eighteenth century to 1815
1. Assess the contribution made by the ideas of the Enlightenment to the outbreak of the
French Revolution.
2. Analyse the factors which allowed Napoleon Bonaparte to gain and retain power in France in the years 1795–1804.
Unification and consolidation of Germany and Italy 1815–1890
3. Explain the reasons for the decline of Austria in European affairs by 1870.
Ottoman Empire from the early nineteenth to the early twentieth century
5. Assess the effectiveness of the settlement of 1861 in reducing the tensions which had led to civil war in Lebanon.
6. “Abdul Hamid II is best described as an enlightened despot.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
Western and Northern Europe 1848–1914
7. “The 1848 revolution in France established the Second Republic almost by accident.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
8. Examine the domestic policies of Napoleon III.
Imperial Russia, revolutions, emergence of Soviet State 1853–1924
9. Analyse the causes and consequences of the 1905 revolution in Russia.
10. Compare and contrast the roles of Lenin and Trotsky in the Bolshevik seizure of power in October 1917.
European diplomacy and the First World War 1870–1923
11. Assess the impact of the First World War on the civilian population of any one country you
have studied.
12. “The Paris Peace Treaties caused political problems for both the victorious and defeated nations in the early 1920s.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
War and change in the Middle East 1914–1949
13. Why, and with what consequences, did the Arab Revolt of 1916 take place?
14. Assess the reasons for the British decision to hand over the Palestine Mandate to the United Nations by 1948.
Interwar years: conflict and cooperation 1919–1939
16. Analyse the political impact of the Great Depression on either Britain or Germany.
The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 1924–2000
17. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of Stalin’s foreign policy in the 1930s and the
post-war years.
18. Analyse the successes and failures of Khrushchev’s domestic policies in the years 1955–1964.
The Second World War and post-war Western Europe 1939–2000
19. Assess the changing nature of the Franco regime in Spain in the years 1939–1975.
20. “Governments in post-war Europe were committed to full social welfare provision.” With reference to one country you have studied, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
Post-war developments in the Middle East 1945–2000

21. Assess the reasons for the establishment and collapse of the United Arab Republic in the years 1958–1961.
22. Analyse the main obstacles to a peace settlement in the Middle East in the years 1978–1995.
Social and economic developments in Europe and the Middle East in the nineteenth or twentieth century
23. Analyse the reasons for the growth of the popular music industry in the years 1950–2000.
24. With reference to one fifty year period you have studied, discuss the impact of urbanization on society. 

May 2013
The French Revolution and Napoleon — mid eighteenth century to 1815
1. “The poor judgement of Louis XVI was responsible for the destruction of the monarchy in France by 1793.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
2. Assess the impact of the domestic policies of Napoleon in France in the years 1799–1814.
Unification and consolidation of Germany and Italy 1815–1890
3. Why was the Italian nationalist movement so ineffective in the years 1815–1848?
4. How successful were Bismarck’s domestic policies in the years 1871–1890?
Ottoman Empire from the early nineteenth to the early twentieth century
5. How and why did the major powers intervene against Muhammad Ali in the 1830s?
6. Assess the Ottoman Empire’s role in the outbreak of the Crimean War (1854–1856).
Western and Northern Europe 1848–1914
7. “In spite of frequent crises the Third French Republic was stable up until 1905.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
8. Assess the impact of social reform legislation in Britain in the years 1850–1900.
Imperial Russia, revolutions, emergence of Soviet State 1853–1924
9. To what extent do you agree that Alexander II transformed Russian society?
10. Assess the impact of the Russo–Japanese War on the reign of Nicholas II up to 1914.

European diplomacy and the First World War 1870–1923
11. Discuss the significance of the Alliance System on European affairs in the years 1871–1914.
12. Examine the reasons for, and the consequences of, the United States’ entry into the First World War in 1917.
War and change in the Middle East 1914–1949
13. “Atatürk transformed the political, economic and social structure of Turkey.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
14. Analyse the reasons for Israeli success in the Arab–Israeli conflict (1948–1949).
Interwar years: conflict and cooperation 1919–1939
15. Evaluate the methods used by Mussolini to gain and retain power in the years 1919–1926.
16. “Hitler had clear foreign policy aims but no plan of how to achieve them.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 1924–2000
17. Assess Stalin’s role in the collapse of the wartime alliance.
18. Examine the extent of political change in Russia in the years 1991–2000.
The Second World War and post-war Western Europe 1939–2000
19. Why were the Axis powers defeated in Europe in the Second World War (1939–1945)?
20. Analyse the reasons for Spain’s relatively peaceful transition from dictatorship to democracy in the years 1975–1977.
Post-war developments in the Middle East 1945–2000

21. Examine the causes and consequences of the Intifada 1987–1993.
22. Analyse the reasons for the limited success of the Pan-Arab Movement in the years 1950–2000.
Social and economic developments in Europe and the Middle East in the nineteenth or twentieth century
23. With reference to one country of the region and one fifty year period, examine the social and political impact of immigration.
24. With reference to one country of the region, examine the consequences of changes in the media on society up until 2000.

November 2013
The French Revolution and Napoleon – mid eighteenth century to 1815
1. Assess the extent to which the demands of the French revolutionaries had been satisfied by 1794.
2. “The restoration of legitimate rulers was the main objective of the Congress of Vienna.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?

Unification and consolidation of Germany and Italy 1815–1890
3. “Economic weakness was the main reason for Austria’s decline in the years 1815–1866.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?

4. “Bismarck was first and foremost a Prussian nationalist.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
Ottoman Empire from the early nineteenth to the early twentieth century
5. Analyse the reasons for the view that the Ottoman Empire was the “sick man of Europe” in the second half of the nineteenth century.
6. Discuss the role of the Great Powers in Greece’s struggle for independence.

Western and Northern Europe 1848–1914
7. Analyse the successes and failures of Napoleon III’s foreign policy.
8. Assess the extent of political and economic change in any one country of Western or Northern Europe between 1848 and 1914 (excluding Germany).

Imperial Russia, revolutions, emergence of Soviet State 1853–1924
9. “Alexander III was a political reactionary but an economic modernizer.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
10. Compare and contrast the role of the Soviets in the February and October revolutions of 1917 in Russia.
European diplomacy and the First World War 1870–1923

 11. To what extent were the policies of Germany responsible for the outbreak of war in 1914?
12. Assess the successes and failures of the Paris Peace Settlement at the end of the First World War.
War and change in the Middle East 1914–1949
13. How successful was the mandate system in the Middle East? Refer to specific examples to support your answer (excluding Palestine).
14. Examine the reasons for changing British policy in Palestine in the years 1917–1939.
Interwar years: conflict and cooperation 1919–1939
15. Compare and contrast the economic and political problems facing Germany in the years 1919–1923 and 1929–1933.
16. “The Spanish Civil War was caused by divisions in Spanish society, not ideology.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 1924–2000
17. To what extent is it possible to argue that Stalin’s political, economic and social policies transformed the Soviet Union?
18. Examine the extent of Soviet dominance in the years 1945–1991 in one European satellite state (excluding Germany) you have studied.
The Second World War and post-war Western Europe 1939–2000
19. What were the main problems facing post-war Western Europe, and to what extent were they overcome by 1949?
20. Why was Britain’s membership of the European Economic Community (EEC) delayed until 1973?
Post-war developments in the Middle East 1945–2000
21. “The 1979 Revolution in Iran was largely caused by social and economic tensions.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
22. Explain the changing causes of tension between Israel and its neighbours from 1948 to 2000.

Social and economic developments in Europe and the Middle East in the nineteenth or twentieth century
23. Examine the reasons for, and the impact of, health reforms over a fifty year period in any one country of the region you have studied.
24. Assess the extent of change in the social structure of any one country in the region you have studied in the years 1950–2000.


May 2014
The French Revolution and Napoleon — mid 18th century to 1815      
1.    Evaluate the causes of the Reign of Terror of 1793–1794.     
2.    Analyse the reasons for the fall of the Directory in 1799.  
Unification and consolidation of Germany and Italy 1815–1890      
3.    Analyse the reasons for Piedmont–Sardinia’s growth in power between 1815 and 1861.     
Ottoman Empire from the early 19th to the early 20th century      
5.    How strong was Ottoman control over Lebanon in the years 1861–1914?     
6.    Assess the importance of the Tanzimat reforms to the Ottoman Empire.  
Western and Northern Europe 1848–1914      
7.    Compare and contrast the reasons for the collapse of the Second French Republic in 1851 and the 1871 Paris Commune.
8.    How successful was Gladstone as prime minister?  
Imperial Russia, revolutions, emergence of Soviet State 1853–1924      
European diplomacy and the First World War 1870–1923      
11.    Analyse the main objectives of German foreign policy between 1890 and 1914.  
War and change in the Middle East 1914–1949      
14.    Examine the methods used by Ibn Saud to gain and consolidate power in Saudi Arabia.  
Interwar years: conflict and cooperation 1919–1939      
16.    Analyse the political impact of the Great Depression on any one country of the region.  
The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 1924–2000      
17.    Analyse the effects of the Great Patriotic War on the Soviet Union in the years 1941–1945.     
18.    Evaluate the success of Khrushchev’s foreign policy.  
The Second World War and post-war Western Europe 1939–2000      
19.    What were the main factors in the consolidation and maintenance of Franco’s regime (1939–1975)?     
Post-war developments in the Middle East 1945–2000      
21.    Analyse the political and economic impact of Nasser’s domestic policies.     
22.    Assess the reasons for the failure of the Arab–Israeli peace process in the years 1978–2000.  
Social and economic developments in Europe and the Middle East in the 19th or 20th century
23.    Analyse developments in the arts in any one country of the region over a fifty year period.     
24.    Analyse the reasons for industrialization in any one country of the region over a fifty year period.


November 2014 PAPER 3
The French Revolution and Napoleon — mid 18th century to 1815
    1.    Discuss the reasons for the Thermidorean Reaction (1794–1795).
    2.    Examine the reasons for the collapse of the Napoleonic Empire (1812–1815).

Unification and consolidation of Germany and Italy 1815–1890
    3.    “By 1862 the necessary conditions for German unification under Prussian leadership were in place.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
    4.    Discuss which Italian leader played the most important role in the unification of Italy.
Ottoman Empire from the early 19th to the early 20th century
    5.    Examine the reasons why the European Powers intervened in the campaigns of Muhammad Ali between 1827 and 1841.
    6.    Examine the importance of the Balkan Wars (1912–1913) in the decline of the Ottoman Empire.

Western and Northern Europe 1848–1914
    7.    “The Boulanger affair showed the weakness of the Third French Republic.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
    8.    Examine the effects of the Second and Third Reform Acts on British political parties.
Imperial Russia, revolutions, emergence of Soviet State 1853–1924

    9.    To what extent did Alexander II’s reforms improve the lives of the Russian peasantry?
    10.    Evaluate the factors that enabled Lenin to ensure the survival of the Soviet State.
European diplomacy and the First World War 1870–1923
    11.    Examine the importance of global colonial rivalry as a cause of the outbreak of the First World War in 1914.
    12.    “German military and diplomatic errors were responsible for the defeat of the Central Powers in 1918.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
War and change in the Middle East 1914–1949
    13.    Evaluate the impact of actions by European Powers on the problems in Palestine in the years 1914 to 1939.
    14.    “Reza Khan’s modernization policies had limited success up to 1941.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
Interwar years: conflict and cooperation 1919–1939
    15.    “Collective security failed because of the weakness of the League of Nations.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
    16.    Evaluate the impact of Hitler’s social and economic policies in Germany up to 1939.
The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 1924–2000
17. Examine the ways and the extent to which two countries in Eastern Europe (excluding East Germany) experienced liberation between 1944 and 1948.
18. Examine the role played by the Cold War in shaping Brezhnev’s foreign policy.
The Second World War and post-war Western Europe 1939–2000
    19.    Evaluate the reasons why the Allies were victorious in Europe in 1945.
    20.    Examine the factors that led to German reunification in 1990.

Post-war developments in the Middle East 1945–2000
    21.    Examine the role played by the confessional state in the outbreak of the civil war in Lebanon in 1975.
    22.    Compare and contrast the nature and consequences of the 1967 and 1973 Arab–Israeli conflicts.

Social and economic developments in Europe and the Middle East in the 19th or 20th century
    23.    Evaluate the reasons for changes to the suffrage in any one country you have studied.
    24.    Examine the reasons for changes in social welfare policy over a fifty year period in any one country you have studied.


May 2015

The French Revolution and Napoleon — mid 18th century to 1815
1. “Economic problems were the main cause of the French Revolution.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
2. Examine the reasons for the restoration of the Bourbons in France.
Unification and consolidation of Germany and Italy 1815–1890
3. Evaluate the reasons for the 1848 revolutions in Italy.
4. Examine the factors that contributed to Bismarck’s achievement of German unification between 1862 and 1871.
Ottoman Empire from the early 19th to the early 20th century
5. Examine the problems facing the Ottoman Empire c1800–1839.
6. Evaluate the reasons for the growth of the Committee of Union and Progress up to 1908.
Western and Northern Europe 1848–1914
7. Discuss the reasons for the establishment of a secular state during the Third French Republic.
8. Compare and contrast the imperial policies of Gladstone and Disraeli between 1868 and 1885.
Imperial Russia, revolutions, emergence of Soviet State 1853–1924
9. Examine the reasons for the growth of opposition movements in Russia between 1881 and 1914.
10. “Strong political and military leaders were the main factors in Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
European diplomacy and the First World War 1870–1923
11. To what extent did the European balance of power change between 1871 and 1900?
12. Evaluate the causes of the First World War.
War and change in the Middle East 1914–1949
13. Examine the reasons for, and consequences of, Allied diplomatic activity in the Middle East during the First World War.
14. With reference to the years 1940 to 1948, discuss the factors that led to the British withdrawal from Palestine.
Interwar years: conflict and cooperation 1919–1939
15. Examine the reasons why the democratic government in Germany was able to survive the various crises it faced in the years 1919 to 1924.
16. “The Republicans lost the Spanish Civil War because they lacked international support.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 1924–2000
17. “The most important reason for Stalin’s rise to power was the weakness of his opponents.”
To what extent do you agree with this statement?
18. With reference to any one Sovietized/satellite state, examine the strength of opposition and dissent during the years 1945 to 1989.
The Second World War and post-war Western Europe 1939–2000
19. Evaluate the reasons for the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany by 1949.
20. With reference to any one Western European country (excluding Germany and Spain), examine the reasons for opposition and dissent.
Post-war developments in the Middle East 1945–2000
21. “The PLO was the main reason for the breakdown of the confessional state in Lebanon by 1975.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
22. Examine the impact of domestic policies on any one country in the Middle East (excluding Egypt) in the years 1945 to 2000.
Social and economic developments in Europe and the Middle East in the 19th or 20th century
23. Examine the impact of the expansion of education in any one country of the region over a 50-year period.
24. Evaluate the reasons for emigration from any one country of the region over a 50-year period.


November 2015

The French Revolution and Napoleon — mid 18th century to 1815
1. “... the Revolution devours [destroys] its children” (Jacques Mallet du Pan). To what extent does this statement describe the career of Robespierre?
2. To what extent were the Napoleonic wars caused by the desire to spread revolutionary ideals?
Unification and consolidation of Germany and Italy 1815–1890
3. “Foreign powers were far more in uential in the uni cation of Italy than they were in the unification
of Germany.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
4. Evaluate the reasons for the establishment of the Dual Monarchy of Austria Hungary in 1867.
Ottoman Empire from the early 19th to the early 20th century
5. Examine the consequences of the Crimean War for the Ottoman Empire.
6. Evaluate the short-term and long-term reasons for the overthrow of Abdul Hamid in 1909.
Western and Northern Europe 1848–1914
7. “The Empire of Napoleon III was politically stable – it was military defeat that caused its downfall.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
8. “Continuity was the dominant theme in 19th-century politics.” Discuss with reference to any one Western European or Northern European state.
Imperial Russia, revolutions, emergence of Soviet State 1853–1924
9. “The reigns of Alexander II and Alexander III had more similarities than differences.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
10. Evaluate the successes and failures of Lenin’s foreign policy between 1917 and 1924.
European diplomacy and the First World War 1870–1923
11. To what extent was the decline of the Ottoman Empire the main cause of the First World War?
12. With reference to any two European countries, compare and contrast the impact on women of the First World War.
War and change in the Middle East 1914–1949
13. To what extent was Jewish immigration the main contributor to instability in Palestine in the years 1917 to 1939?
14. To what extent was religion the most important in uence on the establishment and consolidation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia?
Interwar years: con ict and cooperation 1919–1939
15. “In the years 1922 to 1939 Mussolini’s foreign policy was a disaster for Italy.” Discuss.
16. To what extent was Germany economically and politically stable by 1929?
The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 1924–2000
17. “Collectivization in the Soviet Union was carried out for political reasons.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
18. Examine the view that Brezhnev’s domestic policies had a very limited impact on the Soviet Union.
The Second World War and post-war Western Europe 1939–2000
19. With reference to one Western European state in the period 1945 to 1949, to what extent do you agree that national debt was the greatest problem it faced following the end of the Second World War?
20. With reference to the period 1945 to 1955, examine the consequences for Germany of Cold War tensions.
Post-war developments in the Middle East 1945–2000
21. Examine the nature of the Egyptian state under Nasser.
22. To what extent did Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi modernize and westernize Iran?
Social and economic developments in Europe and the Middle East in the 19th or 20th century
23. With reference to a period of approximately  fty years, to what extent has there been continuity in the status of women in one country of the region?
24. With reference to a period of approximately  fty years, evaluate the reasons for demographic change in one country of the region.

May 2016

The French Revolution and Napoleon—mid 18th century to 1815
1. To what extent did social problems contribute to the outbreak of the French Revolution?
2. Examine the reasons for the failure of the Constitution of 1791.
Unification and consolidation of Germany and Italy 1815–1890
3. “The Austrian Empire maintained the dominant position among the German states between 1815 and 1848.” Discuss.
4. Examine the significance of Garibaldi’s leadership in the uni cation of Italy between 1848 and 1870.
Ottoman Empire from the early 19th to the early 20th century
5. Examine the methods used by Muhammad Ali to establish and maintain power in Egypt.
6. “The main cause of the Crimean War was the rivalry of the European powers.” Discuss.
Western and Northern Europe 1848–1914
7. Examine the importance of left-wing movements in the Third French Republic.
8. Evaluate the success of Disraeli’s domestic policies.
Imperial Russia, revolutions, emergence of Soviet State 1853–1924
9. “The reigns of Alexander II (1855–1881) and Alexander III (1881–1894) were marked by political continuity but signi cant economic change.” Discuss.
10. Examine the view that the October/November Bolshevik Revolution was caused by the poor decisions of the Provisional Government.
European diplomacy and the First World War 1870–1923
11. “Diplomatic crises in the period from 1905 to 1913 were the main cause of the outbreak of the First World War in 1914”. Discuss.
12. Evaluate the reasons for Allied victory in the First World War.
War and change in the Middle East 1914–1949
13. Examine the strengths and weaknesses of British policy in Palestine between 1922 and 1939.
14. “Atatürk made Turkey a modern, secular, democratic state.” Discuss.
Interwar years: conflict and cooperation 1919–1939
15. “Political divisions between 1929 and 1933 were the main cause of the collapse of democracy in Germany.” Discuss.
16. Examine the successes and failures of Mussolini’s domestic policies.
The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 1924–2000
17. Examine Stalin’s foreign relations up to 1941.
18. To what extent did economic weakness contribute to political developments and change within the Soviet Union between 1982 and 1991?
The Second World War and post-war Western Europe 1939–2000
19. “Poor military leadership led to the defeat of the Axis powers in Europe.” Discuss.
20. Examine the contribution of King Juan Carlos to the establishment of democracy in Spain.
Post-war developments in the Middle East 1945–2000
21. Examine the importance of economic and political factors as causes of the 1979 revolution in Iran.
22. Examine the reasons for Israel’s military dominance in the Middle East between 1949 and 1973.
Social and economic developments in Europe and the Middle East in the 19th or 20th century
23. “Religion became much less important in society.” Discuss with reference to one country over a period of approximately  fty years.
24. Evaluate the significance of changes in leisure and sport in one country over a period of approximately fifty years.



  questions for the may 2016 paper 3 history exam revealed