Showing posts with label Celeusum. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Celeusum. Show all posts


Augusta Vindelicum (Augsburg)
The Augustus statue at Maximiliansplatz surrounded by Nazi flags and today. Also referred to as Aelium Augustum (shortened to Aelia Augusta), Augsburg was founded in 15 BCE by Drusus and Tiberius as Augusta Vindelicorum, on the orders of their stepfather Emperor Augustus during the campaign of conquest to Raetia and a military camp was built as the nucleus of the later city. The epithet Vindelicorum represents the genitive plural of Vindelicus which referred to the Celtic tribe of the Vindelici who were located between Wertach (Virda) and Lech (Licus). This garrison camp soon became the capital of the Roman province of Raetia. During the reign of Hadrian, the town was raised to the status of a municipality, whose official name was then municipium Aelium Augustum. 
Only one Roman municipium is attested for the whole area: municipium Aelium Augusta Vindelicum (now Augsburg), which was granted municipal status under Hadrian. The inhabitants were not necessarily uncivilized—inscriptions prove that some of them were literate before the Roman conquest—but land so mountainous was not worth anything to Rome, and they were left alone. 
Martin Goodman (222-223) The Roman World
From this time on, more and more stone buildings were built. The city received a city wall that covered an area of roughly eighty hectares. Inscriptions show a heyday within the second and early third centuries. In late antiquity, unlike many other places, the city continued to be fully populated. Even up to the fifth century, buildings were still being erected here. Early development was due to a 400-year affiliation with the Roman Empire, especially because of its excellent military, economic and geographic position at the convergence of the Alpine rivers Lech and Wertach, and with direct access to most important Alpine passes. Thus, Augusta Vindelicum was the intersection of many important European east-west and north-south connections, which later evolved as major trade routes of the Middle Ages. Example sinclude the Via Claudia Augusta which had a connection to the road network to Rome at Ostiglia and ran via Verona, Meran, the Reschenpass, Landeck via Füssen to Augusta Vindelicum and continued to the Limes near Donauwörth. The road was started under Drusus and completed at the time of Claudius in the 1st century. The connection to the legionary city of Mainz was strategically important. In the first century CE, this route led either via Allgäustraße to Bregenz and then via Basel and Strasbourg or, a little shorter, via Günzburg on Donausüdstraße to Fort Hüfingen and from there via Basel to Mainz.The Legio VIII Augusta, under the command of Gnaeus Pinarius Cornelius Clemens, created a connection from Tuttlingen through the Kinzig valley to Argentoratum ( Strasbourg) with a connection to Mogontiacum (Mainz). This significantly shortened the route from Augsburg to Argentoratum and Mainz.
The Upper German-Raetian Limes was set up not least in order to militarily secure the much shorter Roman highway from Augsburg via Günzburg and Cannstatt to Mainz, which was built around fifteen years later. 
The Allgäustraße from Augsburg over the Septimerpass to Northern Italy ran via Cambodunum (Kempten) and Brigantium, today's Bregenz on Lake Constance.The Via Julia connected Augsburg (Augusta Vindelicum) with Salzburg (Iuvavum).Under Septimius Severus, the Via Raetia was fortified and gradually expanded into a road accessible by carriage. The via raetia led from Verona via Sterzing, the Brenner, Innsbruck and the Seefelder Sattel to Augusta Vindelicum.
 Relief on the left depicting a Roman wine trade oxcart from a grave stele, the original in the Augsburg Roman Museum Around 120 CE Augsburg became the capital of the Roman province Raetia. Augsburg was sacked by the Huns in the 5th century, by Charlemagne in the 8th century, and by Welf of Bavaria in the 11th century, but arose each time to greater prosperity.Various excavations provide a relatively good picture of the ancient city. It was surrounded by a wall that formed roughly a semicircle with a diametre of about 600 metres. In the south, the city seems to have expanded beyond the city wall. In the town centre the streets were laid out in a checkerboard pattern. However, this has not been proven for the urban areas in the north and west. There were numerous stone buildings, but there were also many in half-timbered construction. A forum and a thermal bath were excavated from the development. Numerous finds from Roman Augsburg are presented today in the Roman Museum in the former Dominican Church. Only a few remains of the former provincial capital can be seen in the town itself. Copies of some stone monuments were set up along the Roman wall at the cathedral shown here, the originals of which were mostly taken to the Roman Museum. Some original inscription plates and tombs from the collection of the humanist Konrad Peutinger can be found in the inner courtyard and through the gate of the Peutingerhaus.

Castra Regina (Regensburg) 
Parked outside Porta Praetoria, Germany’s most ancient stone building, a gateway dating from 179 CE under Marcus Aurelius for the new Roman fort Castra Regina ("fortress by the river Regen"). It was built for Legio III Italica and was an important camp on the most northerly point of the Danube corresponding to what is today the core of Regensburg's old town or Altstadt east of the Obere and Untere Bachgasse and West of the Schwanenplatz. Giant blocks of stone were used to construct this gate in the northern wall of the Roman military camp. It survives as a reminder of Castra Regina, the Roman settlement with its fourhuge gates with flanking towers. The left gate tower and an arch of the originally very representative camp entrance have been preserved. The gate tower still stands over two floors. The gate tower, which was once eleven metres high, was built from limestone blocks. The four metre-wide and six-metre high archway that has been preserved consists of thirteen large cuboids that were joined together without mortar.
Castra Regina was founded as a Roman legion camp, developed into a city on the upper Danube and became the nucleus of the city of the headquarters of the Legio III Italica was established here. Castra Regina consisted of the legionary camp itself, the civil town, a large cemetery and some shrines and temples. It was probably being at the confluence of the Naab and Regen into the Danube leading to important trade and traffic routes already in existence that prompted the Romans to build a military base here. Around 80 CE in what's now Regensburg-Kumpfmühl, a 2.2 hectare cohort fort of wood-earth construction was completed on a slope spur from which the Danube arch and the two river mouths could be seen. Either a 500-man mounted cohort or a double cohort of roughly a thousand foot soldiers were stationed here. During the Marcomanni wars under Marcus Aurelius, this fort was destroyed along with the associated civilian settlement around 170. In the area of today's old town, the building of the legion camp for the Legio III Italica was established in 179. It then became the main military base of the Raetia province. The legion commander was also the governor of Raetia. West of the legionary camp, a sizable civilian settlement developed within which craftsmen, traders and the members of the approximately 6000 legionaries lived. Thus Castra Regina ("fortified camp at the mouth of the Regen") became, in addition to its military role, an important trading post in Raetia. By the 3rd century hostile Germanic tribes broke through the Limes invading the province again as the legion camp and the area around Regensburg were devastated by the Alemanni. The camp was rebuilt after these storms, but the surrounding area hardly recovered from the massive destruction. Most of the farms were abandoned. By the 3rd century Castra Regina was devastated a second time. Around 357 the Juthungen, a sub-tribe of the Alamanni, invaded Raetia and wreaked havoc on the province no doubt affecting Castra Regina. The last section of the Legio III Italica departed at the end of the 4th century resulting in Castra Regina losing its military importance. 
Abusina (Eining)
Abusina was a Roman military camp located about 500 metres south of today's Einingen town centre on the Danube between the road leading to Sittling and the Abens river, which flows into the Danube just north of the fort and which was once eponymous for the Roman town.  It's the best preserved Roman fort in Bavaria. The name Abusina was derived from the Abens, a tributary of the Danube. The site was chosen where the Danube crossing branches off from the Roman road and running parallel to the Raetian limes. The stone fort at 1.8 hectares is rather small for the requirements of a fort and probably accommodated only one vexillation. In ancient times it was in a strategically and geographically important position. From there, both shipping traffic on the Danube and a road junction at this point could be controlled, where one traffic route branched off from the Roman Donausüdstraße in a south-easterly direction and another led across a Danube ford to the west. The closest larger garrisons were the Alen - Fort Pförring on the northern bank of the Danube, opposite today's Neustadt an der Donau, and Castra Regina. A small disadvantage of the location was the lack of line of sight to Fort Pförring, below, and to the beginning of the Limes section near Hienheim, which was also on the northern bank of the Danube. It could have been compensated by an additional watchtower on the vineyard. Abusina is today a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the few fully exposed and reconstructed in its foundations fortifications at this border section.
Foundations of the Prinzipia (staff building), the semicircular building serving as the flag shrine (aedes).
According to the founding inscription, the Abusina fort was built during the reign of Titus around the year 80 CE by the Cohors IIII Gallorum to secure the Danube line established as part of the northern border of the Roman Empire. This cohort was also the first regular unit to move into the new fort. In its first construction phase, the camp consisted of a fence in a wood-earth construction and inside of quite simple half-timbered buildings.
In the early 2nd century, probably towards the end of the reign of Trajan, the Cohors IIII Gallorum was replaced by a Vexillatio, a detachment of about 500 to 600 men from the Cohors II Tungrorum milliaria equitata. This assignment is an exemplary characteristic of the mobility, flexibility and thus modernity of the Exercitus Romanorum. Whilst the parent unit remained stationed in Britain, it was easily possible to deploy the detachment of this force in the distant Danube region in the meantime. A little later, between 138 and 147, presumably the Vexillatio of a sister unit, the Cohors IIII Tungrorum milliaria equitata, took its place for a few years.

Cohors I Praetoria's Trajan on the way to Abusina and Drake Winston in front of the real thing at Munich's Glyptothek.
Standing beside the so-called "Caracalla altar" which had been donated by Titus Flavius Felix, Praefect of the Cohors III Brittanorum equitata in Abusina, probably dating either from 211 or one to two years earlier. Its inscription honours the empress as the "mater Augustorum et castrorum", together with her two sons Geta and Caracalla. The subsequent deletion of the name Geta shows that after his violent death, like that famously seen on the Arch of Septimius Severus in the Forum Romanum in Rome Großkrotzenburg, Geta had not escaped the "damnatio memoriae" in Abusina. It was Mommsen who had argued that the gap between the AVG and the following ET cannot be explained unless it reflects the same attempt to erase Caracalla's brother's name. The foundation again indicates a connection with the Britain campaign of Septimius Severus, who was represented by his wife and son on this visitation trip from England to the Danube. 
Beside another army altar in  Carrawburgh on Hadrian's wall. From 153 the Cohors III Britannorum equitata with six centuries of infantry and six towers of cavalry is recorded as serving here where it remained until the final end of Roman rule over the province of Raetia in the early 5th century. Indeed, the fort provides a remarkable aspect of British history as it was occupied by the cohors III Britannorum equitata, or part of it. The inset shows a depiction of the altar from the 16th century Aventini adversariorum tomus by Bavarian scholar from nearby Abensberg, Johannes Turmair, known as Aventinus. In 1517 William IV, Duke of Bavaria commissioned him to write a history of the country which resulted in a complete history of Bavaria, Annales Bojorum ("Annals of Bavaria"). His condensed German version of it, the Bayerische Chronik, is the first important history in the German language.
The inscription reads: 
[Pro salute dd(ominorum) nn(ostrorum)] // Imp(eratoris) [Caes(aris) M(arci) A]ur(eli) Antonini Pii / [Aug(usti) [[et Imp(eratoris) Caes(aris) P(ubli) Sept(imi) Getae Aug(usti)]]] et Iul[iae] // Aug(ustae) matri(s) Aug[[[g(ustorum)]]] et kast(rorum) I(ovi) O(ptimo) [M(aximo)] / et Iun(oni) Re(ginae) et Miner(vae) sac(rum) Genio / coh(ortis) III Brit(annorum) aram T(itus) Fl(avius) Felix / praef(ectus) ex voto posuit l(ibens) m(erito) / dedicavit Kal(endis) Dec(embribus) / Gentiano et Basso co(n)s(ulibus) 
which can be translated as: 
T. Flavius Felix dedicated this altar to Iuppiter Optimus Maximus, Iuno Regina, Minerva and the genius of the cohors III Britannorum as the praefectus of the unit, for the well-being of the imperial family, Emperors Caracalla and Geta and their mother Iulia Domna. Hedius Lollianus Terentius Gentianus and Pomponius Bassus held their consulship in 211.
Drake beside the fantastic bust of Caracalla in the British Museum in London, and reimagined as he would have apeared in life.  At the end of February 212, Caracalla killed Geta. A period of terror followed in Rome and in the provinces in which Cassius Dio (lxxvii.4,1) records some twenty thousand people being killed. Sometime during the spring of 213, Caracalla left Rome for Gaul, putting the governor of the province to death. From here his entourage followed the Rhone valley towards Upper Germany reaching Mogontiacum (Mainz) on the Rhine, the traditional Roman operation base in Barbaricum. Then he stopped at Aquae (Baden-Baden) and paid a personal visit here in the fort at Abusina. The Acta Fratrum Arvalium recorded that on August 11, 213 the emperor arrived at the frontier of Raetia and crossed it in Barbaricum. The same source mentions that on October 8, 213 in Rome, on the Capitolium was hailed the Victoria Germanica of Caracalla. Recently it has been established that the inscriptions from Pannonia recording an expeditio Germanica, or a bellum Germanicum are related to the same expedition against the Alamanni who invaded Raetia.
On the front of the monument, six people are depicted who are grouped around an altar. To the right of the altar stands a bearded man with the back of his head covered. The boy to his right is similarly veiled. Both are wearing knee-length robes. The boy is holding a plate with offerings in his hand, and behind them is another person. To the left of the altar, a bare-chested sacrificial servant with an axe in hand leads a bull to be sacrificed. A musician behind the sacrificial servant accompanies the scene with his double flute. Another, badly damaged figure, possibly female, stands behind the altar.
 Abbot Werner, head of the Weltenburg monastery, remarks in the chronicle of his monastery that he wrote that the altar had eventually found itself  "brought into the village and used as a corner stone in the sacristy of the church. In this condition I examined it in 1780.” In 1784 the altar was sent to the Academy of Sciences in Munich where, he continues to write, "it had to stand at the entrance for many years without any archaeologist having pity on it.” In 1814 the altar was held within the Antiquarium in the Munich Residence and finally in the Bavarian National Museum.The two smaller upper fragments of the stone were found in 1887 and 1915 respectively and were also taken to Munich. However, the monument itself had been completely destroyed during the Second World War where fortunately in addition to this copy on the fort grounds in Eining, there is another, better preserved copy in the Archaeological State Collection in Munich. 
Here the copy's details are compared to the original altar stone of the Prefect Titus Flavius ​​Felix, photographed before the war and its eventual destruction.  
On the left side of the monument, the goddess Fortuna is depicted holding a cornucopia in her left hand, symbolising fertility and prosperity. Her right hand holds a rudder on the ground, symbolising that Fortuna, the goddess of fate, holds human fate in her hand. The right side of the stone shows the genius of the third Britannic cohort mentioned in the inscription, who is the guardian spirit of the troops. He also holds a cornucopia in his left arm and with his right hand makes a sacrifice from a bowl on a flaming round altar. 

The cohors III Britannorum was probably raised shortly after Roman rule was established on the British Isles, in order to pacify the region by drawing the local youth into the Roman army. During the Year of the Four Emperors, several troops recruited amongst Britons sided with Emperor Galba and subsequently with Emperor Vitellius under command of A. Caecina Alienus. Upon Vespasian's eventual victory, the cohors III Britannorum was transferred to Raetia. Here in Eining two military diplomas issued to soldiers of the cohors III Britannorum were recovered. It's possible that the cohors III Britannorum was transferred to the fort of Eining under the reign of Emperor Hadrian. During the military reorganisation of Emperor Antoninus Pius in the years around 160, the fort at Eining was reconstructed, probably by soldiers of the cohors III Britannorum.
This was part of a coordinated strengthening of the entire regional Limes section in Antonine times which quickly became necessary. During the Marcomanni Wars, the province of Raetia came under severe distress and at least partially and temporarily escaped Roman control. The fort and vicus of Eining were also destroyed for the first time. The area between Abusina and Castra Regina was probably not brought back under control until around 175 CE by the Legio III Italica stationed in Regensburg. 
After the rebuilding of the fort and the camp village, Abusina began a phase of calm and prosperity that lasted into the first third of the 3rd century. The political highlight of this period was the visit of the Emperor Caracalla in Eining in 213. Caracalla had to go to Raetia to conduct a preventive war against the north against the gathering Alemanni. The military operations that have now been initiated were so successful that they freed the province, including Abusina, from the pressure of the Alemanni for another two decades. From the year 233, however, the relatively stable times for the border residents were a thing of the past. In the course of the first Alemanni invasion, Abusina was destroyed again. More waves of Alemannic raids and conquests followed, until in 260 the Roman border defence in Raetia almost completely collapsed and the province sank into chaos. Eining was also burned down again in this last Alemanni storm. Numerous hoard finds, including the famous Eining hoard which was discovered by chance in 1975, bear witness to this time. This find is one of the most important archaeological discoveries in Bavaria, along with the treasures from Weißenburg and Straubing , and contains parts of Roman parade armour and is now part of the Archaeological State Collection in Munich. The 3rd British Cohort and the 3rd Italian Legion were among the few surviving military units and were the last stabilizing factors in the region.
The Abusina cohort stayed in its garrison until the Diocletian - Constantinian army reforms at the end of the 3rd and beginning of the 4th century and the expansion of the Danube-Iller-Rhine-Limes which could calm the situation in the border areas. The reforms created a larger mobile army stationed in the hinterland and reduced the strength of the troops standing directly on the border, whose barracks were converted into smaller and more strongly fortified structures. Such changes in the Roman army structure are reflected in the Eining Fort with the staff of the British cohort presumably reduced to 140 men and in the south-west corner of the old fort, including ditches, a small castle-like fortress was built on less than a quarter of the previous area. The barriers for the remaining three quarters were also maintained in the period that followed; the old fort area was used by both the military and the civilian population. The latter had not rebuilt the old Eininger vicus after 260, but now sought protection behind the walls of the fort. The final fall of Abusina occurred around the middle of the 5th century, probably as a result of an advance by the Alamanni from the west. It is possible that the last Romans remaining under the protection of the fortification belonged to those who were saved by the evacuation measures of Severin of Noricum.

The buildings eventually fell into disrepair with the stones being used by local farmers as building material as the foundation walls sank in the dust of history. After Thurmaier discovered the consecration stone here Abusina was forgotten again for several centuries. It was not until 1879 that the then pastor of Eining, Wolfgang Schreiner, began the excavations at his own expense. They continued until 1920, most recently under the supervision of the State Office for the Preservation of Monuments. In the last days of the Second World War, Wehrmacht soldiers holed up in Abusina came under American fire. After that, once again, nobody was interested in the Roman heritage until a decade later when digging began again and the walls were partially reconstructed. 

Excavations at the beginning of the 20th century of the principia and me during the 2016 Römerfest at Kastell Eining, a Roman auxiliary fort on the Danube about twenty miles from Regensburg (Castra Regina).
Large scale excavations from the 1870s onwards, their subsequent exposure, consolidation and partial covering by roofs led after many years of interest to phases of neglect and decay, due to increasing maintenance costs. A first large scale renovation in the 1950s attempted to solve this problem in a long- term way with modern wall, partially on top of Roman foundations but in other parts in their replacement, and a lot of concrete. As no continuous care followed, further consolidation work had to be done in the 1970s leading to even more loss of the original. After the initiative of a local interest group, “Historia Romana e. V.", plans to develop and to display the fort somehow as it was laid out originally are now competing with the present state as a landscape park with ancient and artificial ruins as well as a nature reserve.
The porta decumana on the right, the rear gate of the fort.  The current concrete and steel structure in the middle of the access to the river-side extends as a footbridge over the sloping terrain created by a team of designers from Düsseldorf who were allowed to revamp the site (if not the structures) in 2010. The porta decumana was normally located at the midpoint of the rear rampart of aRoman fort, and from it the via decumana ran up to the back of the principia, dividing the retentura into two zones, one to the left and one to the right. 

In front of the northern front of the camp was a large, heated mansio, or rest station, with a small bathing wing, a hostel and horse changing station for business travelers on behalf of the state.
At the beginning of the imperial era road stations were built at regular intervals along the most important Roman roads about every thirty miles or so. At first they primarily served the cursus publicus ( such as "state transport" post) before later expanding with other buildings and also used very heavily by travelers and traders. One would have traveled from one mansio to the next each day. A large driveway led to the rest stop (many digs were usually U­shaped) consisting of stables and car depots, as well as dining and guest rooms. This particular mansio served also as the headquarters of the beneficiaries, a type of road police with customs powers that was responsible for the security of the Roman road network.
Here it is clearly evident just how much reconstruction has been imposed on the actual remains-
Eining, the Roman Abusina, on the south bank of the Danube between the Raetien Limes and the Danube Limes in Bavaria, is a good example to show the complicated and complex post-Roman story of a WHS [World Heritage Site]. Preliminary to the “renovation” of exposed walls the history of the visible structures was studied: Large scale excavations from the 1870s onwards, their subsequent exposure, consolidation and partial covering by roofs led after many years of interest to phases of neglect and decay, due to increasing maintenance costs. A first large scale renovation in the 1950s attempted to solve this problem in a long- term way with modern wall, partially on top of Roman foundations but in other parts in their replacement, and a lot of concrete. As no continuous care followed further consolidation work had to be done in the 1970s leading to even more loss of the original. After the initiative of a local interest group (“Historia Romana e. V.”) plans to “develop” and to display the fort somehow as it was laid out originally are now competing with the present state as a landscape park with ancient and artificial ruins as well as a nature reserve.
Breeze and Jilek (133) Frontiers of the Roman Empire

The porta praetoria established after the loss of the Limes area on the other side of the Danube. This late addition to the Roman fort was built as part of the reorganisation of the late Roman Danube-Iller-Rhein-Limes under Emperor Aurelian and Probus. The east and north sides of the fort received new, stronger walls. A new tower was built on the new northeast corner and a tower with a gate in the middle of the northern front. The soldiers' quarters were located inside along the two new walls. In the middle of the courtyard was a 22-metre-deep well shaft. The fort was later extended by buildings on the northern wall. This north porch stood on a mighty embankment. The fort vicus moved to the rest of the cohort fort that was no longer needed. The porta praetoria and the porta principalis sinistra were retained as access to the late Roman fort vicus.
During the military reorganisation of Emperor Antoninus Pius in the years around 160, the fort at Eining was reconstructed, plausibly by soldiers of the cohors III Britannorum. The presence of the unit is at Eining is undebated by scholars, as it is well documented on military constitutions, imperial and votive inscriptions as well as tilestamps. Eining continued to be part of Raetia after the collapse of the Raetian Limes in 254. The NotitiaDignitatum lists a 'cohors III Brittorum' in Eining (Abusina), which might be identical to the cohors III Britannorum of the Principate.
Farkas István Gergő (149-150) The Roman Army in Raetia
The fort's thermal baths, probably built around the middle of the 2nd century, shown in 1915 and today. Several construction phases lay on top of each other in the excavated walls, which can no longer be safely separated from one another today. Again, it can be seen how much has been reconstructed since the war. The bath had been destroyed at least once during the Marcomann Wars in around 170 and then rebuilt with further expansions and modifications. The older thermal baths were only twenty meters in length but eventually were significantly expanded further to 38 metres. Immediately in front of the south side was a small bathroom measuring 6.5 x 7 metres leading some to posit that this small luxury bathroom was built especially for the visit of Emperor Caracalla or perhaps was simply reserved for higher-ranking people, officers or the camp commandant.

Site of a temple to Mars and Victoria near Weinberg. This area around Bad Gögging, which today belongs to Neustadt an der Donau, is rich in archaeological monuments from Roman times. There are two reasons for this: on the one hand, the Danube was part of the outer border of the Roman Empire; on the other hand, the Romans discovered hot sulfur springs there, whose healing properties they appreciated. And so Trajan himself had a state bath built in today's Bad Gögging, which in terms of comfort did not need to fear comparison with the thermal baths in Rome. The entire facility, which was equipped with all the finesse of Roman bathing culture, measured sixty by thirty metres.  
At the reconstructed Roman Villa Rustica Möckenlohe which lies between Eichstätt and Ingolstadt on the lower slopes of the Franconian Jura to the Danube River. The fertile land promoted a dense settlement of this area with Roman farms at the end of the 1st century CE. The museum is a reconstruction of the partially still visible antique remains. The stone house was built in the 2nd half of the 1st century by Romans and destroyed in 233 by the Alemanni. Many finds indicate a previous settlement in this place.
The main house was excavated from 1987 to 1989, and was rebuilt in 1992 and 1993. A colonnade links two protruding buildings to form a typical villa with protruding façade bays. The west section had a representational room with an apse and a hypocaust heating system, which is still visible in places, as well as two sleeping chambers to the north. The east wing had a cellar, whose rubble walls still stand up to a height of 1.5 metres. Above the cellar was the kitchen. Heavy beams supported the Roman tile roof. The museum offers a unique chance in southern Germany to literally enter into provincial Roman living culture. The exhibits are all objects found on the grounds of the Villa Rustica. Thus, despite the randomness of their conservation, they illustrate the individual fate of a "familia" as well as antique housekeeping and farming within the history of the Roman Empire. The animal park is a further attraction. The animals kept here, horses, longhorn cattle, woolly pigs, goats, sheep and chickens are typical Roman farm animals. Antique grain types are farmed and harvested with Roman harvesting machines. 
Today the site offers a pet park containing a large number of Roman breeds of the time as well as the opportunity to experience grinding at the rustic mill, fiddling with the former iron castle or riding, combined with a carriage ride. In addition, the equestrian center has a qualified social and riding pedagogue for therapeutic riding.
Another Roman fort nearby is that at Weltenburg-Frauenberg on the Danube outside Kelheim and the Weltenburg monastery. More a fortlet also known as Weltenburg-Galget, this had been constructed on the low hill overlooking the bend of Danube near present-day Weltenburg offering an advantageous location, as the Danube takes a sharp bend here, which allowed viewing a wide section of the area north of the riverbank. As a result, on the west side towards the steeply sloping bank of the Danube, there was obviously no need for a surrounding ditch. In the south, towards the ascending slope, as well as in the east of the fortification, three parallel trenches were archaeologically accessible. Remains of prehistoric and late Roman settlement are both present on the 'Wolfgangswall hill, along with Roman finds of the 1st century such as coins, militaria, glass and ceramics. It was constructed either under the reign of Emperor Claudius or in Flavian times in order to guard traffic on the Roman road in the Am Galget valley. Based on scarce finds, Fischer suggested that the fortlet was constructed under the reign of Emperor Claudius or in Flavian times in order to guard traffic on the Roman road in the Am Galget valley, although Farkas István Gergő in his Roman Army in Raetia argues that "it is altogether unlikely that a sole Roman fortlet were established on the lower Danubian ripa preceding the last decades 1st century." What little material was found at the site comprised entirely ofceramic fragments of mortars, two shards of so-called "soldiers' plates " with Pompeian red overlay and remains of amphorae. The only fragment of glass came from a blue ribbed bowl. The main parts of the metal finds include iron nails and bronze remains, of which only one handle holder can be identified. For a more precise dating of the fort site, Rind was able to use a disc brooch with doplphins and an as, the basic denomination of the Roman currency before the introduction of the denarius around 211 BCE, struck in Rome from the reign of Emperor Claudius. Later considerations brought a date to the Claudian- Early Flavian period suggesting that the fortification could also have been establihsed during the reign of Vespasian.
The site was a destination for treasure hunters early on. Prehistoric finds and especially Celtic coins have been found. Aventinus reported the legend that Saint Rupert of Salzburg had a chapel here built over a Minerva temple. The building visible there today is a baroque church that was built under Abbot Maurus Bächl in the early 18th century. The first proper excavations took place in 1909 in the monastery itself and in the adjoining monastery garden. In addition to two garbage pits from the older Bronze Age, a Celtic cemetery was also found, its three dead uncovered having been buried in the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. The next excavation was not carried out until 1938 when a small area was uncovered near the northeast slope of the mountain. Again traces of settlement from the older Bronze Age was found as well as the remains of a Celtic child buried at this point in the middle of the settlement.
A couple of miles away towards Hienheim is this "Hadrian's Pillar', one of a series of memorial stones on the Limes built in the middle of the last century under King Max II of Bavaria. At this point it marks the end of the Rhaetian Wall on the Danube. West of the pillar stands a reconstructed wooden watchtower. Representations from Trajan's column in Rome served as a model, on which such towers with handling and palisades were reproduced. They did not have stairs in their interior; Roman sentries came with a retractable ladder to the entrance halfway up the tower. The distance between the sentries was chosen so that from a tower always the two neighbouring towers were in sight. From the watchtower you have a good view of the Danube valley and over to the castle Abusina. The foundations of the stone tower are only recognisable as a small hill. From here you can follow the fairly exactly westbound Limes for about two miles and on a clear day one can see visible remains of four other sentinels.
Reconstruction of a wooden watchtower built about fifty metres west of the historical location at WP 15/46.
In the early second century, perhaps under Trajan, wooden watchtowers appeared for the first time on the stretch between the Rhine and Danube, but it is only in Hadrian’s reign that a barrier element, an oak palisade, was added alongside the patrol track which ran in front of the towers. In the middle of the century the (now probably decrepit) wooden towers were replaced with stone towers, and at or after the beginning of the third century the final change was implemented: in Upper Germany a ditch was dug between the fence and the towers, and in Raetia the fence was replaced with a 3-meter-high wall. The construction of watchtowers (which would also have facilitated lateral signaling) would have been a very obvious thing to do once troops with the basic function of exploratores became static for even a few days. However, we should remember that once the towers were built, their existence is not evidence that they were occupied permanently: for long periods they may have been visited only by patrols, or manned in times of heightened alert.
Erdkamp (231) A Companion to the Roman Army
Drake and the wife at watchpost 15/44. As early as the 1930s, employees of the Reich Limes Commission speculated about a possible Roman guard post that could have been located in this area - around two miles from the village of Hienheim. This assumption was due to the unusually long distance between the two watchtowers Wp 15/44 and Wp 15/46, which was 1210 metres. Attempts to find this sentry failed at the time and it wasn't until 1975 that a wall structure ten metres long was excavated around fifty metres south of the Limes whilst a farmer was plowing the area. In 1979 the clearly visible foundations and trench were first recorded by aerial photo archeology and subsequently documented Before the introduction of digital technology and the rectification of aerial photos, however, Hienheim was misinterpreted as a watchtower (Wp 15/45). Eventually a further investigation with ground penetrating radar took place in spring 2012 which made it possible to document that the findings still preserved were at a depth between 0.40 and 1.10 metres. Since the small fort is now on land that is used intensively for agriculture, its existence is acutely threatened. This was also confirmed by the electromagnetic field inspection in 2012 which showed that above a depth of 0.40 metres, the radar images only showed wall rubble, which also came to light on the surface in the form of limestone lumps. A classic excavation has not yet taken place at this
Weißenburg fort in ancient Biriciana is a former Roman Ala castellum, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located near the Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes. It lies in the borough of Weißenburg. Today the castellum with its remains of buildings- some of which have been preserved underground- the reconstructed north gate, the large thermal baths and the Roman museum with integrated Limes information centre is one of the most important addresses for Limes research in Germany. The remains of the cavalry fort built in the year 90 as part of Trajan’s military reorganisation include the North Gate shown left with Drake in front (reconstructed in 1990), the preserved walls, as well as a visualisation of the fort’s stone buildings with stone panels.
Drake on the right at the camp of the Numerus Brittonum. The fort was reinforced with stone structures and defences during the course of the 2nd century. The garrison served there to secure the newly conquered territory north of the Danube, which had been incorporated into the province of Raetia. As the excavations of 1986 showed, the Porta decumana existed on the northern frontof the wood-earth bearing made of twelve posts, six of which posts each belonged to one of the two gate towers by which the actual gate was flanked. The two wooden rectangular towers had a 3.20 x 3.60 metre floor plan. A palisade ditch around 0.60 metres wide connected the gate on both sides with the adjoining intermediate towers, each supported by four posts. After its construction, it covered an area of 3.1 hectares, with sides measuring 175 × 179 metres. Weißenburg was destroyed between 240-250 along with Ellingen.


Drake beside what I assume is the tombstone of Gaius Romanius Capito which belongs to the type of equestrian tombstone that developed around the middle of the 1st century and was widespread in the Rhineland. The original should be in the  Mittelrheinisches Museum in Mainz, where it was found in 1804. Capito died at the age of 40 after 19 years of service, far from his home as mentioned in the inscription: Celeia, today Celje in Slovenia
C(aius) Romanius / eq(ues) alae Norico(rum) / Claud(ia) Capito / Celeia an(norum) XL stip(endiorum) XIX / h(ic) s(itus) e(st) h(eres) ex t(estamento) f(aciendum) c(uravit)
(Caius Romanius Capito, of the Claudian voting- tribe, from Celeia, cavalryman of the Ala Noricorum, aged 40, served 19 years, lies here. His heir saw to the erection of the monument, in accordance with the will). Romanius is shown on horseback riding down a native warrior. He wears a mail shirt, with shoulder- pieces, a helmet and a long sword suspended from a belt over his left shoulder. He carries an oblong shield and raises a spear to strike at the barbarian. Behind is a servant or slave with two extra spears. Romanius is a citizen, from Celeia in Noricum. His regiment was based in the later Julio-Claudian period at or near Mainz.

Drake beside the remains of two hulls of Roman military ships that were found nearby at Oberstimm in 1986 and, after eight years of restoration work, were ready for display in 1994. These swift vessels were used for patrols and escort trips along the Danube River system.The course of the old river Brautlach is today still visible as a depression in the terrain. When a test trench was dig through the depression in 1986, the timbers of the boats came to light. Thanks to the water-logged milieu in the old riverbed the organic material was still in good condition. However, professional recovery, conservation and presentation need careful planning and skilled specialists, so that the excavation of the boats only began in 1994. Today the traces of the excavation are identifiable by the patches in the tarmac surface of the market and the gap in the line of trees. The boats’ hulls were preserved to a length of about 15 m and were almost complete. The width of one boat was 2.7 metres, and it was up to a metre in height. The wood for the boats came from two different kinds of trees; the planks were of pine, whereas the supporting structure was made of oak. When the fort was abandoned, the boats were in a bad state of repair and were sunk in an area which was already being used as a rubbish dump. A quayside was later built on the river bank and wooden piles were driven through the buried boats. The boats provided space for twenty rowers, and in addition had a mast and sail. The narrow stern and bow are typical for boats used by the army for purposes such as transporting troops, patrolling and conveying messages.Dendrochronological analyses revealed that the boats were built around 100 CE. As the oldest wooden piles from the quayside date to 118, the boats must have been used and then sunk some time before then.

Drake at the Oppidum of Manching, a large Celtic proto-urban or city-like settlement at modern-day Manching, near Ingolstadt. The settlement was founded in the 3rd century BCE and existed until about 50-30 BCE, reaching its largest extent within the late 2nd century BCE, when it had a size of 380 hectares. At that time, five to ten thousand people lived within its five mile walls. Thus, the Manching oppidum was one of the largest settlements north of the Alps. The ancient name of the site is unknown, but it is assumed that it was the central site of the Celtic Vindelici tribe.
  Drake Winston exploring the ruins of a wartime airfield behind the walls. Excavations at Manching have been necessitated by construction projects that started with a military airfield between 1936 and 1938. During that time during the Nazi remilitarisation of Germany, the Luftwaffe constructed an airfield here at Manching which led to the destruction of large proportions of the site without providing the opportunity for systematic archaeological research. Only very few finds were recovered from the construction site. In 1938, the archaeologist Karl-Heinz Wagner started an excavation of the northeast part of the enclosure. Within the visible earthen bank, he discovered the remains of a wall, which he described as a murus gallicus according to Julius Cæsar's description of such structures. A central portion of the settlement was destroyed when mechanical equipment was used to strip the area and tear away part of the wall. Efforts to recover artifacts were restricted by the exigencies of impending war, and only those materials that could be rescued from the spoil piles were saved. Due to the presence of the airfield, Manching was the target of multiple bombing raids during the war, leading to further destruction of archaeological evidence. 
In 1955 Allied forces decided to rebuild the airfield and, following negotiations with archaeologists, contributed an unprecedented sum of money for investigation of the settlement and of the area that would be affected by renewed construction. Excavations began that year and continued until 1974 under the direction of Werner Krämer. A subsequent excavation was organised in 1984 following a ten-year hiatus in response to the planned construction of an exit ramp on the secondary roadway that passes through the site (Landstrasse B16) and focused on a previously unexplored tract in the northern part of the settlement. Approximately one kilometre in length by 35–60 metres in width, a strip running from the center of the roughly circular enclosed area to the wall was examined. The earliest settlement is concentrated toward the center of the enclosed area and predates the construction of the wall. A track oriented east-west runs through the old center and provided the foundation for a later main road linking the east and west gates of the murus Gallicus. It is likely that the initial construction of the wall during the second half of the 2nd century BCE) was an expression of prestige that established Manching as a focal point for activities centered on production and exchange. These activities encompassed not only collection of raw materials and manufacture of goods but also feasting and the functions associated with market towns and fairs. The wall itself was rebuilt during the occupation of Manching, as is evidenced by a dendrochronological date for a structure in front of the eastern gate that coincides with its renovation in 105 BCE. It is likely that the function of the wall changed through time from display to defense because a third stage of construction reinforces the entire 7.2-kilometre length of the enclosure. Furthermore, burials of individuals who died of battle injuries attest to an attack on the settlement. The interior of the settlement seems to have been organised to facilitate trade. Structures include rows of stalls, homes, and even warehouses for the agricultural produce that made up the bulk of exchanged goods. Raw materials used in the production of glass, pottery, iron, and bronze indicate that Manching was a thriving centre for craft producers. Coins were recovered from the settlement, as were strikes used to mint coinage. Forty-eight imported amphorae that contained Mediterranean wine during transportation are among the items that were traded. Published volumes covering the analysis of the Manching materials feature bronze finds, tools, fibulae, glass, faunal material, graphite pottery, imported pottery and coarse wares, smooth wheel-thrown pottery and painted pottery, and human burials associated with the settlement. 
At the Kelten-Römer-Museum nearby in Manching. In the Celtic section are displayed the finds of the Oppidum in Manching which is located in the immediate vicinity. Of particular importance is the gold treasure discovered in 1999, consisting of 450 gold coins which make it the largest Celtic gold find discovered in the 20th century. The so-called cult tree found in 1984 is unique worldwide with its gold-plated image of a branch from the 3rd century BCE entwined with leaves, buds and fruits. The centrepiece of the Roman section are the two fifteen-metre long Roman military ships dating from about 100 CE from the time of Trajan. The wrecks were found in 1986 within a silted branch of the Danube. They were only salvaged according to plan in 1994 and then restored and preserved in the Roman-Germanic Central Museum in Mainz.
The fort at Pförring was the easternmost fort on the Raetian Limes, situated on the Biburg plateau, a terrace surrounded by steep slopes, northwest of today's Pförring. Its main task was to supervise the road running north of the Danube leading to Abusina. Mayer described
gateways, ramparts and moats clearly visible to the naked eye in 1838 when many coins, especially from the reign of Hadrian, were found. Fink had carried out the first excavations between 1891 and 1893 under the ægis of the Reichs-Limeskommission during which time he identified four gates, a double ditch and the principia. Aerial surveys and geophysical prospection offered further details of the fort’s inner layout and attested that the vicus surrounded the fort on three sides (west, south and east). The cemetery was located northeast of the fort, along the road leading to Eining. The fort covered an area of 3.9 hectares, with sides 194 × 201 metres long respectively.
The fort at Pförring was built during Emperor Trajan’s military reorganisation between 106 and 117. As with the neighbouring auxiliary fort at Kösching, the towers of fort at Pförring were also reinforced in 141, as attested by a building inscription. In the 1870s a coin hoard containing 1,300 pieces was discovered nearby, the latest coins having been issued in 224, thus indicating that the fort and the vicus were still active during the crisis of the 3rd century. The fort at Pförring was reinforced when the eastern section of the Raetian Limes between Weißenburg and Ellingen was abandoned. The fort was operational until the collapse of the Raetian Limes in 254. Based on a votive inscription350 and a Raetian military diploma, the fort at Pförring was garrisoned by the Ala I Flavia singularium civium Romanorum pia fidelis. Tacitus mentions this unit with its Prefect Iulius Briganticus in his Historiae (iv.70) in connection with events of the Year of the Four Emperors durin g whih the unit was probably set up by Vitellius. Iulius Briganticus and his unit switched to Vespasian's side, for which the Ala later received the honorary title of Flavia from Vespasian. Based on the building inscription found in a field in 1843, it is known that the Ala built the fort in stone in 141. 
As mentioned above, it is believed that Caracalla visited the camp in 213 as indicated by the remains of a limestone slab on which nine centimetre high gilded letters made of sheet bronze were originally attached. This plate is considered part of an honorary inscription for the emperor. The end of the camp took place during the Alemanni storm of 233. An incomplete treasure hoard contained a coin from the reign of  Severus Alexander who had been murdered two years later, but the end could also have come much later.
In 2007 the excavation site was invaded at night and material from documented findings as well as metal objects found by netal detectors were stolen. Above is shown the attempt to reconstruct the east gate as an hideous steel frame, built in 2013 in which five to seven metre long bored piles were driven into the ground and a concrete slab was imposed directly over the ancient foundations. The entire undeveloped area of ​​the fort and neighbouring camp village is threatened by intensive agriculture, erosion and ongoing robbery excavations. No excavations have taken place inside the fort since 1893. The formerly restored remains of the east gate and the north corner tower have fallen into disrepair again.
Abusina in Eining is just outside the fashionable spa town of Bad Gögging. Its history as a spa begins with the Romans as is obvious given references to Marcus Aurelius, Trajan and even Tiberius are everywhere. The sulfur springs of today's health resort used by the Romans and were probably already known at the time of Titus around 80, when the Cohors IIII Gallorum built the Abusina fort to secure the Danube line. What is certain is that Trajan himself visited the area around 110 and the garrison built a thermal bath which housed a caldarium , a sudatoriumand a frigidarium. When the local church of St. Andreas was rebuilt in the early 1960s, the remains of the baths from Roman times were found. Under its floor was a Roman bathing pool with an associated heating system, the so-called hypocaust heating. The pool has a size of 10.8 by 7.8 metres. The stamps on the bricks indicate that the bath was financed by both state and private assets of the emperor and was therefore of great importance. So far, however, it has only been possible to uncover parts of the Roman thermal baths of Bad Gögging, as they are located under the town centre. The Roman history of Bad Gögging is closely related to that of the nearby Roman fort Abusina built in 79 and expanded in stone under the emperors Domitian and Trajan.

Inside the Roman musem overlooking the baths in the former  St. Andreas (Andrew) church
It is unclear how long the baths were in operation and whether they were destroyed during the Marcomanni wars of 174, the Alemanni invasion of 260 or survived long enough to be wiped under the Huns in 450 by which time Abusina had largely been destroyed. However, the central bathing pool remained unaffected. The relics that were excavated from 1960 to 1970 under today's St. Andrew's Church can be viewed in the Roman Museum which now, with ironic justice, has taken over the church itself. The church itself is Romanesque and has a sculpture portal that is stylistically related to the art of the Magistri Comacini. The tympanum shown here on the left over the main door shows Christ as judge of the world between two angels. The side reliefs show various allegorical figures that represent sin or human vices. The larger fields refer to the Old and New Testaments and are related to each other. Such diverse scenes on a Romanesque portal of a local church are a rarity in southern Bavaria.

Two white concrete replicas
by the two artists Herbert Karl and Markus Wurmer, located behind the museum in Altmannstein on the Limes bike and hiking trail on the Schambach of the memorial stones erected by King Maximilian II in 1861, together with a stainless steel band shaped according to the course of the Upper German-Raetian Limes, forming an attempt at art. Entitled "Limes on Line," visitors are invited to go "on line", to enter and cross this boundary, in the real as well as in the figurative sense. The Upper Germanic-Raetian Limes runs a few hundred metres south on a hill. The original memorial read: Landmark between the former empire of the Romans and Teutons. Beginning at the so-called Haderfleck between Hienheim and Weltenburg. Main west direction through Bavaria and Würtenberg to Rems and Lorch, Sodan northwest to the Main and Rhine. The Pfahlrain runs from the Danube over Altmannstein,the Landshuter - Beilngrieser Staatstrasse near Sandersdorf over Zandt past here to Kipfenberg. The Pfahlrain Limes Danubianus, Vallum Hadriani also Probi, later called the Devil's Wall, built under Emperor Hadrian and even more fortified under Probus.
On the steepest part of the Meßnerberg about 470 metres above sea level beside WP 15/31. This stone tower which was 6 × 4.7 metres, had two special features- its ground-level access, which is rarely seen in the Limes watchtowers, was not, as usual, in the middle, on the back of the tower, but on the side on the northwest flank. The Limes wall had been added on both sides of the stone tower at a later date. The tower had already been identified labeled in 1959. Baatz reported in 1993 that the stone tower had been preserved as a high mound of rubble and that the hole from the RLK excavation was still visible within. Only “small remnants” of the wooden tower were preserved