Site Index

During one of my tours
Welcome to my website, a daily work in progress which has gone far beyond my original pretensions when I first launched it nearly two decades ago as a way of trying to bring the past to life for my students. Inspired by Geoff Walden's Third Reich in Ruins, I've cycled around the world taking photographs of historic sites and use GIFs to compare them with how they once appeared. It has since expanded its focus from the Nazi-era to try to involve the ancient world which is my particular passion.
 After years of people telling me how much of a challenge it is to navigate through its webpages, read its font and generally mocking its 1990s format- I don't make any money from this site!- I've finally been persuaded to create this homepage to serve as a general index, although it's certainly not exhaustive and one need only look to the right of the page for main areas of focus or search for a key word among the tagged labels. Nor does it reference to a wealth of teaching resources built up over the past quarter century with all past DP History exams with questions hyperlinked to actual examples from students either written under exam conditions or  graded by the IBO as well as lecture notes, extended essays and internal assessments.
In the end, what gives me the greatest satisfaction is having people from around the world contact me, whether to correct the various errors within these pages, ask for help researching material, request tours, or just feel provoked to reach out from a shared interest in the past.
Hitler's Bunker and Reich Chancellery
My most visited page to date despite the one showing the least number of sites given the extensive destruction and reconstruction of the area. Nevertheless, the site of Hitler's bunker and the Reich Chancellery holds profound historical significance, representing the epicentre of Nazi power and the culmination of Hitler's authoritarian regime. The bunker, located beneath the Reich Chancellery building, served as his fortified command centre and residence during the final stages of the war. It was within these confines that Hitler orchestrated his last stand against the advancing Allied forces, ultimately leading to his demise and the collapse of the Third Reich. The Reich Chancellery, as the seat of Nazi government, was a symbol of Hitler's absolute authority and control over Germany and occupied territories. Its grand architecture and imposing presence reflected the regime's grandiose ambitions and its ruthless pursuit of domination. Today, the site serves as a sombre reminder of the atrocities committed during the Nazi era and stands as a testament to the resilience of democracy in the face of tyranny. 
 Sites featured: Führerbunker, New Reich Chancellery, Old Reich Chancellery, Mohrenstrasse Underground Station, Wilhelmplatz, Memorial for the Murdered Jews of Europe
The Brandenburg Gate and Reichstag in Berlin are iconic landmarks steeped in historical significance, representing pivotal moments in Germany's past.  The Brandenburg Gate, a neoclassical triumphal arch, has stood witness to centuries of history, serving as a symbol of both division and unity. Constructed in the 18th century as a symbol of peace, it later became a potent symbol of division during the Cold War when it stood in the no man's land between East and West Berlin. Following German reunification in 1990, the gate regained its status as a symbol of unity and peace, serving as a focal point for celebrations and commemorations. The Reichstag's endured moments of triumph and tragedy, having witnessed the rise and fall of the German Empire, the tumult of the Weimar Republic, and the Nazi dictatorship. Severely damaged during the war, the Reichstag was meticulously restored and redesigned, with the addition of a striking glass dome supposedly symbolising transparency and openness.  
 Sites featured: Brandenburg Gate, Reichstag, Pariserplatz, Various embassies (American, Swiss, French), Adlon Hotel, Konzerthaus Clou, Akademie der Künste, Central Office of the Inspector General for Construction in the Reich Capital, Berlin Wall, Moltke bridge and various sites associated with the Battle of Berlin
Unter den Linden, the historic boulevard in Berlin, held significant importance to the Nazis, serving as a symbolic axis of power and propaganda during their reign. Lined with grand buildings and palatial architecture, it embodied the grandeur and authority of the Nazi regime. The boulevard was strategically utilised for propaganda purposes, with large-scale rallies and parades held to showcase Nazi strength and unity such as the torchlight procession held annually on Hitler's birthday. Such events were carefully choreographed spectacles designed to instil fear and awe in the populace and reinforce Nazi dominance.   
 Sites featured: Humboldt Universität, Berliner Dom, Ehrenmal, Friedrichstraße, Neue Wache, Bodemuseum, Museumsinsel, Alte Kommandantur, Stadtschloss, Lustgarten, Gendarmenmarkt, Staatsoper, Zeughaus, Bebelplatz, St. Hedwig's Cathedral, Französischer Dom, Deutscher Dom, Kaiser Friedrich Museum, Altes Museum, Pergamon Museum, Alte Nationalgalerie, Berliner Schloß, Russian embassy, Reich Ministry of the Interior 
Lined with imposing buildings and government offices, Wilhelmstraße was the epicentre of Nazi governance, housing key institutions and ministries essential to the regime's control. Among these were the offices of the Reich Chancellery, where Hitler's inner circle orchestrated the implementation of Nazi policies and directives.  Additionally, Wilhelmstraße was home to the Ministry of Propaganda, led by Joseph Goebbels, which played a crucial role in shaping public opinion and disseminating Nazi ideology through media and propaganda campaigns. The street also housed various other ministries and government offices, including the Ministry of Aviation and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which coordinated military operations and diplomatic efforts in support of Nazi expansionism. It was here that the machinery of the Nazi state operated.
 Sites featured:  Reich Justice Ministry,Reich Colonial Office,Reich Foreign Office, Central Office of the Führer's Deputy, Reich Aviation Ministry, Reichsministerium für Ernährung und Landwirtschaf, British Embassy, Reichsministerium für Wissenschaft, Erziehung und Volksbildung, Gestapo Headquarters, Haus der Flieger, Reich Propaganda Ministry, Prinz-Albrecht-Strasse, Topography of Terror, Berlin Wall,  Hotel Kaiserhof 
This page includes a number of significant historical importance within the context of the Nazi era, most located around Tiergarten. Bendlerblock, site of the failed July 20 plot, stands as a memorial to German resistance efforts. The Stauffenberg office in Bendlerblock was central to the July 20 plot and later witnessed the execution of conspirators. Tiergartenstraße 4 was the euthanasia program's administrative centre. The Siegessäule, appropriated by the Nazis as a symbol of militarism, was used for propaganda purposes. Alexanderplatz underwent redevelopment under Nazi rule, reflecting their vision of urban order. The Soviet memorial in Tiergarten continues to glorify the Red Army. Various Fascist Embassies in the area continue to show their iconography.
 Sites featured: Tiergarten, Main Synagogue, Bendlerblock, Siegessäule, Alexanderplatz, Stauffenberg office/site of execution, Soviet memorial Tiergarten, Friedrichstrasse, Charlottenburg, Lichterfelde, Reichsbahnbunker Friedrichstraße, Weidendammer bridge, Admiralspalast, Memorial to Homosexuals, Tiergartenstraße 4, Various Fascist Embassies, Wehrmacht Headquarters, Rotes Rathaus
More random sites around Berlin. In Charlottenburg, the Kaiser Wilhelm Church stands as a reminder of Allied bombing raids, while nearby, the Deutschlandhalle hosted Nazi propaganda events. Moving eastward to Reinickendorf Heiligensee, Horst Wessel's grave and Horst Wessel Platz are reminders of self-declared Nazi martyrdom. In Karlshorst, the site of the formal end to the war is a must-visigt whilst the Berlin Story Museum offers insights into the city's history, whilst the Städtische Krankenhaus am Friedrichshain served as a wartime hospital. In Mitte, the Reichspostministerium symbolised Nazi power, and the Anhalter Bahnhof played a role in deportations. In Friedrichshain, the Schillertheater and Volksbühne hosted cultural events, and the Kino Babylon screened propaganda films. Southwest in Kreuzberg, the Europahaus held Nazi gatherings, and the Gasthaus Zum Nußbaum was a meeting place for officials. In Tempelhof-Schöneberg, the Eldorado Gay Club reflects Nazi oppression, whilst in Kreuzberg, the Bülowstraße U-Bahn station and Mehringdamm saw urban development projects.
 Sites featured: Kaiser Wilhelm Church, Plötzensee, Deutschlandhalle, Reichspostministerium, Schillertheater, Reinickendorf Heiligensee, Charlottenburg, Karlshorst, Anhalter Bahnhof, Invalidenstrasse, Frankfurterallee, Fehrbellinerplatz, Horst Wessel's grave, Horst Wessel Platz, Volksbühne, Kino Babylon, Europahaus, Gasthaus Zum Nußbaum, Anhalter Bahnhof, Berlin Story Museum, Bülowstraße U-Bahn, Mehringdamm, Eldorado Gay Club, Berlin Messe, Städtische Krankenhaus am Friedrichshain, Hermannplatz, Haus der Reichsjugendführung
The Reichssportfeld, located in Berlin's Westend district, was a sprawling complex of sports facilities constructed by the Nazis for the 1936 Summer Olympics. Designed to showcase the regime's prowess and ideology, the complex included the Olympiastadion (Olympic Stadium), where the opening and closing ceremonies were held, as well as various other venues for athletic competitions and ceremonies. Adolf Hitler and other high-ranking Nazi officials attended the Games, which were used as a propaganda tool to promote Aryan supremacy and the supposed superiority of the Nazi regime. The Reichssportfeld thus served as a symbol of Nazi ambition and propaganda, presenting a carefully curated image of strength and unity to the world. Today, the Olympiastadion remains in use as a sports venue and is also a popular tourist attraction, serving as a reminder of the complex relationship between sports, politics, and propaganda during the Nazi era.
 Sites featured: Haus des Deutschen Sports, Olympiastadion, Olympic Stadium,Reichssportfeld, Commonwealth War Cemetery, Dietrich-Eckart-Bühne, Sportforum, Nazi Statues, Olympic bell tower, Olympic village WustermarkOlympia-Stadion subway station  
 Among the sites shown include the Wannsee Conference, held in January 1942 overlooking Lake Wannsee was a pivotal meeting where high-ranking Nazi officials coordinated the implementation of the "Final Solution," the systematic genocide of European Jews. Led by ϟϟ-Obergruppenführer Heydrich, the conference solidified plans for the mass deportation and extermination of millions of Jews across Nazi-occupied territories. The Ufa film studios were one of Europe's largest film production companies during the Nazi era. Under Goebbels' s Ministry of Propaganda, Ufa produced numerous films promoting Nazi ideology and propaganda, including anti-Semitic works such as "Jud Süß." The studio's output played a significant role in shaping public opinion and reinforcing Nazi narratives. Oranienburg-Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp was one of the first and largest established by the Nazis. Operating from 1936 until the end of the war, Sachsenhausen was a site of forced labour, torture, and mass murder, with tens of thousands of prisoners from across Europe perishing within its walls. The Treptower Soviet Memorial, situated in Treptower Park in Berlin, commemorates the Soviet soldiers who died liberating the city from Nazi occupation during the Battle of Berlin in 1945. The memorial features a grandiose statue of a Soviet soldier holding a rescued German child, surrounded by Soviet flags, Stalin quotes in gold and symbols of totalitarian victory.
 Sites featured: Site of the Wannsee Conference, Ufa film studios, Fort Hahneberg, Oranienburg-Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp, Prenzlau, Treptower Soviet Memorial, Tempelhof, Schöneweide, Lichterfelde, Reichsluftschutzschule), Liebermann-Villa, Villa Herz
 Webpage with some locations within the town and Brandenburg, but mostly devoted to Cecilienhof and sites associated with the Potsdam Conference. Located southwest of Berlin, Potsdam was heavily involved in Nazi military and administrative activities, with several key institutions and facilities established there. One notable site was the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics, where German scientists conducted research on nuclear fission and atomic weapons. The Potsdam Conference marked the end of the war in Europe and saw Allied leaders Churchill, Stalin, and Truman discuss the post-war reorganisation of Europe. Beyond its wartime significance, Potsdam suffered extensive damage during Allied bombing raids, resulting in the destruction of many historic buildings and landmarks.
 Sites featured: Velten, Brandenburg, Cecilienhof, Potsdam, Luckenwalde, Finsterwalde, Frankfurt/Oder, Eberswalde, Rathenow, Ravensbrück, Chorin, Prignitz, Falkensee, Schöneweide, Grünewalde, Treuenbrietzen, Gütergotz, Sans Souci
Munich was the Hauptstadt der Bewegung and this page focuses on sites found between Isartor and Karlstor relating to the origins of the Nazi Party including the Sterneckerbräu, the birthplace of the party itself. A number of sites relating to the Beer Hall Putsch and Kristallnacht are shown and a few paintings of Hitler are compared to the depicted sites as they appear today.
 Sites featured: Hotel Torbräu, Sendlinger Tor, Frauenkirche, Isartor, Hitler Paintings, Hofbräuhaus, Marienplatz, Karlstor, Polizeipräsidium, Peterskirche, Sterneckerbräu,Pfeffermühle, Kaufingerstraße, Neues Rathaus, Altes Rathaus, Sites associated with Kristallnacht, Viktualienmarkt, Maxburgstrasse, Alte Akademie, St. Michael's church, Asamkirche, Alter Hof, Burgstraße, Hotel Schlicker "Zum Goldenen Löwen", Am Tal, Haus Neumayr, Nürnberger Bratwurst Glöckl
Originally designed as a grandiose public square by architect Karl von Fischer in the early 19th century, Königsplatz became a focal point for Nazi rallies and propaganda events. The square's neoclassical architecture, inspired by ancient Greek and Roman design, was utilised by the Nazis to evoke a sense of power and authority. One notable structure on Königsplatz is the Propylaea, a monumental gateway inspired by the Propylaea of the Acropolis in Athens, which served as a backdrop for Nazi rallies and military parades. Additionally, the square was flanked by two large museums, the Glyptothek and the Staatliche Antikensammlungen, which housed collections of classical Greek and Roman art that were appropriated and reinterpreted by the Nazis to promote their ideology of Aryan superiority. Königsplatz thus became a symbol of Nazi appropriation of classical imagery and culture for propaganda purposes. 
 Sites featured: The Site of the Munich Agreement, Braunes Haus, Temples of Honour, Königsplatz, Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Königlicher Platz, Parteizentrum der NSDAP, Verwaltungsbau, Zentrale, Glyptothek, Führerbau, Ehrentempel, Propyläen, Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Zentraleinlaufamt und Zentralauslaufamt der Reichsleitung der NSDAP, Deutsche Christen Headquarters, Kanzlei des Stellvertreters des Führers, Hitler Paintings
Odeonsplatz, situated in the heart of Munich, holds historical significance with specific ties to the Nazi era. The square features notable landmarks such as the Feldherrnhalle, a monumental loggia built in the 19th century to honour Bavarian military leaders. During the Nazi regime, Odeonsplatz became a site of political significance, notably during the Beer Hall Putsch of 1923, a failed coup attempt by Hitler and the Nazi Party. The Feldherrnhalle, as a symbol of Bavarian pride and military tradition, played a central role in the Putsch, where violent clashes between Nazi supporters and government forces resulted in casualties and arrests. The event solidified Hitler's political aspirations and laid the groundwork for the Nazi Party's rise to power.   
 Sites featured:  Odeonsplatz, Isartor, Feldherrnhalle, Kriegsministerium, Theatinerkirche, Palais Preysing, Zentralministerium, Drückeberger Gaßl, Residenz, Shirkers' Alley, Beer Hall Putsch, Hitler Paintings, Theatinerkirche, Residenz, Ludwigstraße
 Prinzregentenstraße held significant historical importance during the Nazi era. The Luftgaukommando, or Air District Command, was located on Prinzregentenstraße and served as a key administrative centre for coordinating air defence and military operations in the region during the war. Nearby, the House of German Art (Haus der Deutschen Kunst) was a monumental building commissioned by the Nazis to promote their vision of "Aryan" art and culture. It hosted exhibitions showcasing artwork deemed ideologically acceptable by the regime, often featuring nationalist and heroic themes.One notable building along Prinzregentenstraße was Hitler's Residence, where Hitler maintained a private apartment and office whilst in Munich.  Additionally, Prinzregentenstraße was associated with the infamous Degenerate Art Exhibition (Entartete Kunst Ausstellung) held in 1937. This exhibition, located in the nearby Hofgartenarkaden, featured modern and avant-garde artwork confiscated by the Nazis from German museums. The artworks were labeled as "degenerate" and used as examples of so-called "cultural Bolshevism" and "Jewish influence" in the arts.
 Sites featured: Day of German Art, Luftgaukommando, Schackgalerie, House of German Art, Hofgartenarkaden, Remaining swastikas, Prinzregentenstraße, Hitler Residence, Degenerate Art Exhibition, Wagner memorial, Prinzregentenplatz, Kunstbunker Tumulka, Friedensengel, Hubertusbrunnen, Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, Kolonialpolitische Amt der NSDAP, Reich Governor of Bavaria Headquarters
Adolf-Hitler-Straße was a major thoroughfare intersected with several other key streets and was flanked by significant Nazi institutions and buildings such as the House of German Doctors, located at Adolf-Hitler-Straße 31. This building housed the Nazi Physicians' League and served as a centre for promoting Nazi racial hygiene policies and eugenics; on my tours I argue it marks a straight road to Auschwitz. Nearby was to stand Hitler's Mausoleum, a proposed monument intended to serve as a burial site for Hitler and other Nazi leaders. The construction of the mausoleum was never completed due to the course of the war. The Gestapo Headquarters were located at Wittelsbacherstraße 6, not far from Adolf-Hitler-Straße. This building served as the central office for the Gestapo, the Nazi secret police, and played a key role in suppressing dissent and enforcing Nazi policies.  The Brown House, the headquarters of the Nazi Party in Bavaria, served as a focal point for Nazi Party activities.
 Sites featured: Schwabing, Maxvorstadt, Alte Pinakothek, Neue Pinakothek, Brown House, Alter Simpl, House of German Doctors, Osteria Bavaria, Schellingstraße, Adolf-Hitler-Straße, Hitler's Mausoleum, Karolinenplatz, Gestapo Headquarters, Café Luitpold, Israeli Consulate, Strength Through Joy Headquarters, DAF Headquarters, League of German Women Headquarters, Reichrevisionsamt, Palais Törring, Black House, Nazi Documentation Centre, Türkentor, Reinhard Heydrich residence, Nazi Party offices, Völkischer Beobachter offices, Schelling Salon, Georg Elser memorial, Türkenstraße, Square for Victims of National Socialism, Maximiliansplatz, Wittelsbacher Palais
 Ludwigstraße housed key institutions and buildings that served various functions during the Third Reich. Among them the Landeszentralbank, as Bavaria's central bank, managed financial affairs crucial to the Nazi war effort, whilst the Kriegsministerium, oversaw military operations and strategic planning during the war. Munich University became a centre for Nazi propaganda and indoctrination, influencing professors and students alike. Haus Deutschen Rechts accommodated legal bodies instrumental in enforcing Nazi laws, whilst the Staatsbibliothek provided resources for Nazi propaganda and ideological research. The Staatsministerium facilitated the implementation of Nazi policies at the regional level, and the Siegestor, a triumphal arch, symbolised German nationalism and militarism. The Bayerisches Staatsministerium des Innern oversaw internal security and law enforcement, whilst the Zentralministerium für den gleichgeschalteten bayerischen Staat centralised control over Bavarian government agencies under Nazi rule.
 Sites featured: Landeszentralbank, Ludwigstraße, Kriegsministerium, Munich University, Haus Deutschen Rechts, Staatsbibliothek, Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Staatsministerium, Siegestor, Café Heck, Bayerisches Staatsministerium des Innern, Day of German Art, Zentralministerium für den gleichgeschalteten bayerischen Staat, White Rose, Hitler Paintings 
Various sites within walking distance between Munich's Karlstor and the main railway station. Park Café in the Old Botanical Garden served as a social hub during the Nazi period, frequented by both citizens and party officials. Nearby, The central railway station, facilitated the transportation of troops, supplies, and prisoners to and from Munich, playing a logistical role in Nazi operations. The Oberfinanzpräsidium administered financial affairs in the region under Nazi control, overseeing taxation and economic policies and still boasts the largest Nazi eagle in the city. The Justizpalast near Karlsplatz is renowned for hosting the Volksgerichtshof trials, where numerous anti-Nazi conspirators, including members of the White Rose resistance group, faced prosecution. The Ausstellungspavillon, the first Nazi edifice, hosted Nazi exhibitions and displays promoting racial superiority and militaristic ideals. Additionally, remnants of Nazi eagles and statues around the area serve as stark reminders of the regime's propaganda. The Main Synagogue, destroyed months before Kristallnacht, marks a site of profound loss and remembrance. Collectively, these sites around Stachus not only highlight Munich's architectural and cultural history but also its dark chapter under Nazi influence.
 Sites featured: Park Café, München Hauptbahnhof, Oberfinanzpräsidium, Justizpalast, Remaining Nazi eagles, Nazi statues, Hitler's artwork, Karlstor, Stachus, Neptunbrunnen, Ausstellungspavillon, Lenbachplatz, Bernheimer Haus, Main Synagogue, Sites associated with Kristallnacht
Munich's Hofbräuhaus emerged as a pivotal site for Hitler and the Nazi Party, serving to galvanise support for the Nazi movement among the populace, marking it as a symbolic venue for the propagation of Nazi ideology and political mobilisation. The nearby Pfeffermühle cabaret was a hub for anti-Nazi satire, offering a platform for performances that subtly critiqued the regime, symbolising the underground resistance in Munich. The Arisierungsstelle played a key role in the confiscation and forced sale of Jewish-owned businesses and properties as part of Nazi racial policies. The Nordbad, a public swimming pool, was emblematic of the Nazi emphasis on physical fitness and public health, serving as a site for the regime’s ideological propagation. Munich's Opera House, a cultural landmark, was often used for Nazi propaganda events and attended by high-ranking officials, reflecting the regime's efforts to intertwine culture with their political agenda. Hitler’s Residence in Munich served as a personal and political headquarters for Hitler, where numerous strategic decisions were made particularly after the Munich Agreement was signed.
 Sites featured: Gasthaus Deutsche Eiche, Pfeffermühle, Hofbräuhaus, Arisierungsstelle, Nordbad, Munich Opera House, Hitler Residence, Alter Hof, Hitler's artwork, GärtnerPlatztheater
Among the sites featured are the Deutschen Museum, one of the largest science and technology museums in the world, was utilised by the Nazi regime for propaganda purposes, showcasing achievements in German science and technology to promote the regime's image of progress and superiority. The Löwenbräukeller was a venue frequented by Hitler and the Nazi Party for political meetings and rallies. Oktoberfest, an annual beer festival held in Munich, was appropriated by the Nazis as a celebration of German nationalism and cultural identity, with propaganda displays and events promoting Nazi ideology. The Freikorpsdenkmal, a monument in Munich commemorating the Freikorps soldiers who fought in the early 20th century, was appropriated by the Nazis as a symbol of militarism and nationalism, glorifying the paramilitary groups that paved the way for Hitler's rise to power.
 Sites featured: Hitler's Residences, Löwenbräukeller, Oktoberfest, Deutschen Museum, Remaining swastikas, Hitler's Paintings, Freikorpsdenkmal, Ruhmeshalle, Maximilianeum, Hofbräukeller, Ludwigsbrücke, Baldham, Nazi Party Headquarters, Hotel Vier Jahreszeiten, Münchner Neueste Nachrichten, German Research institute for Psychiatry, Eternal Jew exhibition, Kongreßsaal, Remaining Nazi Eagles, Beer Hall Putsch sites, NSDAP Publishing House, White Rose, Ostbahnhof
Another sprawling page of Nazi-related sites in Munich including Nymphenburg Palace, repurposed by the Nazi regime for various functions, including hosting official receptions and ceremonies to bolster the regime's image of power and grandeur. Stadelheim Prison, used as a detention facility for political prisoners, resistance fighters, and other perceived enemies of the regime, where many were subjected to harsh conditions and torture. The Reichsfinanzhof was responsible for overseeing financial matters and taxation policies under the Nazi regime, playing a crucial role in funding the regime's activities and war effort. The Reichszeugmeisterei was responsible for overseeing the production and distribution of uniforms and equipment for the Nazi military and paramilitary organisations, ensuring uniformity and adherence to Nazi standards. Flughafen Oberwiesenfeld was an airfield used by the Nazis for military purposes, including training pilots and conducting reconnaissance flights. Much is devoted to football under the Third Reich.
 Sites featured: Nymphenburg, Stadelheim, Deutschland Kaserne, Funk Kaserne, Hofgarten, Staatskanzlei, Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, Football under the Nazis, Pasing, Englischer Garten, Haidling, Reichsfinanzhof, Adolf-Hitler-Kaserne, Reichszeugmeisterei, Flughafen Oberwiesenfeld, Night of the Amazons, Grünwalder Stadion, Olympic Stadium, Site of the Black September 1972 Olympic Games terror attack, Allianz Arena, Nazi statues, Manchesterplatz, Site of the Manchester Air Crash, Gebsattelbrücke, Death March memorial, Scholl graves  
Mostly focused on Nazi housing estates, such as the ones in Moosach, Neuperlach, and Pasing, which were part of the regime's efforts to reshape urban areas in accordance with Nazi ideology and principles of social engineering. These estates served multiple purposes, including providing housing for workers and families, promoting racial segregation and purity, and fostering a sense of community aligned with Nazi values. The architecture and layout of these estates often reflected Nazi aesthetics and propaganda, with buildings designed to evoke a sense of grandeur and strength, while also incorporating symbols and imagery associated with the regime. Additionally, the planning and development of these estates were closely supervised by Nazi officials, who sought to create idealised living environments that would support the goals of the regime.
 Sites featured: Alpine Museum, The Great Escape film locations, Siedlung, Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und Geologie, Pullach, Remaining Nazi iconography, Mustersiedlung Ramersdorf, Adolf Hitler fountains, Siedlung Am Hart, Siedlung Neuherberge, Siedlung Kaltherberge, Reichssiedlung Rudolf Hess
 A virtual tour around Munich cemeteries, revealing the resting places of many involved within the Nazi regine at the highest level.
Sites featured: Westfriedhof, Waldfriedhof, Nordfriedhof, Hochbunker, Gräfelfing, Ostfriedhof, Various Nazi-related graves: Troost, Bauriedl, Hoffmann, Riefenstahl, Wünsche, Böhme, von Kahr, Emil Maurice, Traudl Junge, Oswald Spengler, von Rauchenberger, Ferdinand Marian, Tirpitz, Bandera, Paul Hausser, Franz von Stuck, Röhm, Hans Baur, Anton Drexler, Rudolf Trauch, Eisner, Gerhard Wagner, Julius Schaub, Hjalmar Schach, von Gersdorff, Julius Schreck
The first and longest-operating concentration camps established by the Nazis. Opened in March 1933, shortly after Hitler came to power, Dachau served as a model for subsequent camps and became a symbol of the horrors of the Holocaust. Initially intended for political prisoners, Dachau later housed political oponents, Jews, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, and other groups considered undesirable by the regime. Inmates endured forced labour, starvation, torture, and medical experiments, leading to the deaths of tens of thousands. Liberation came in April 1945 when American forces liberated the camp, revealing the full extent of Nazi atrocities.
Sites featured: Dachau Waldfriedhof, Konzentrationslager, Dachau,  Hebertshausen ϟϟ Range, Müttererholungsheim, Deutenhofen, Kräutergarten, War Crimes Trial, Site of American Massacre of Guards, Bavarian Riot Police Headquarters
Dachau has gained infamy because of the concentration camp, but it was a workers' town and, during the time of the Munich Soviet Republic, a stronghold of the SPD, USPD and KPD. When Rudolf Heß wanted to campaign for the Nazis in the “Hörhammer” inn, he was driven away with jeers, whistles and the International. In the Reichstag election in March 1933, the Nazis only got 23.9 percent in Dachau, compared to 43.1 percent in Bavaria. People were proud to be a red city which might be why this location was chosen for the first camp.  From May 1944, an air raid shelter with numerous tunnels and shelters was built under the Dachau Schlossberg. Shortly before the end of the war, on April 28, 1945, the Dachau Uprising took place. A resistance group led by Georg Scherer and Walter Neff , consisting of recently escaped concentration camp prisoners, Dachau citizens and members of the Volkssturm, wanted to end the Nazi regime in the city and prevent a senseless defensive struggle.
Sites Featured: Various sites of interest within the town as well as Webling, site of an American massacre of Germans and Dachau-Leitenberg mass grave.
Designed by Albert Speer, the rally grounds were intended to serve as venues for massive propaganda events and rallies showcasing the power and grandeur of the Nazi Party under Hitler's leadership. The centrepiece of the rally grounds was the vast Zeppelin Field, where the annual Nuremberg Rallies took place, attracting hundreds of thousands of party members and supporters from across Germany and beyond. The rallies featured elaborate military parades, stirring speeches by Nazi leaders, and carefully choreographed displays of unity and strength. The rally grounds also included other structures such as the Congress Hall, designed to hold party congresses and other large gatherings, and the Great Road, a wide avenue flanked by monumental buildings intended to convey the grandeur of the Nazi regime.
Sites Featured: Märzfeld, Ehrenhalle, Kongreßhalle, Luitpoldhalle, Luitpoldgrove, Dutzendteich, Zeppelinfeld, Deutsches Stadion, Fliegerdenkmal, ϟϟ Barracks, Transformatorenstation, Reichsparteitagsgelände, Hall of Honour
 The city's historical significance, coupled with its strategic location and infrastructure, made it a focal point for Nazi activities and propaganda efforts. Additionally, Nuremberg was the site of the Nuremberg Laws, a series of antisemitic legislation enacted by the Nazis in 1935. These laws defined who was considered Jewish and restricted the rights of Jews in Nazi Germany, laying the legal groundwork for the systematic persecution and discrimination of Jewish citizens. Nuremberg als gained international attention as the location of the Nuremberg Trials after the war From 1945 to 1946, the Allies conducted a series of military tribunals in the city to prosecute prominent Nazi leaders for war crimes, crimes against humanity, and other atrocities committed during the war. The trials marked a watershed moment in international law and justice, establishing the precedent for holding individuals accountable for crimes against humanity on a global scale. 
Sites Featured: Remaining Nazi Eagles, Middle Franconia, Adolf-Hitler-Platz, Nuremberg trials court building, Streicher's Gauhaus, Remaining Nazi eagles, Judensau, Fränkischer Hof, Deutscher Hof, Adolf Hitler Youth Hostel, Triumph of the Will locations, Bahnhofplatz, Frauenkirche, Lorenzkirche, Sebaldus church, Hitler Paintings, Luftschutzschule Hermann Göring, Reichsbahndirektion, Main synagogue memorial, Aufsessplatz
Berchtesgaden, nestled in the Bavarian Alps near the Austrian border, was a significant location for Hitler and the Nazi regime during the Third Reich. Attracted by its scenic beauty and isolation, Hitler chose Berchtesgaden as the site for his mountain retreat, known as the Berghof which served as his primary residence for much of the war, where he entertained high-ranking Nazi officials, foreign dignitaries, and other guests. The compound included several buildings, gardens, and a teahouse, providing Hitler with a secluded and luxurious environment away from the pressures of governing in Berlin. It was also the setting for many infamous events, including meetings with Nazi leaders such as Göring, Goebbels, and Himmler. Despite its idyllic appearance, the Berghof wasn't immune to the horrors of the Nazi regime. It was here that Hitler made plans for the Holocaust and other atrocities, and where he received reports on the progress of the war and the implementation of his policies. Following Germany's defeat, the Berghof was destroyed by Allied forces to prevent it from becoming a shrine to Nazi ideology. Today, the site of the Berghof lies in ruins, with only a few remnants remaining, including the foundation and underground bunker complex.
Sites featured: Platterhof, Obersalzberg, Mooslahnerkopf, Kehlsteinhaus, Berchtesgaden, Hotel zum Türken, Bunker, Eagle's Nest, Berghof, Bischofswiesen, Hitler's Teehaus, Dietrich Eckart's grave, Paula Hitler's grave, Gästehaus Hoher Göll, Obersalzberg Documentation Centre
Took advantage for a few of the locations from Geography fieldtrips I'd run to Blaueis glacier with my students. The area around Berchtesgaden and the Obersalzberg was lavished with building projects including the 'Regierungsflughafen Reichenhall-Berchtesgaden' government airport in Ainring, which opened in 1934; the construction of a new office for the Reich Chancellery in Bischofswiesen; the conversion of the Hotel Berchtesgadener Hof into the 'Gästehaus der Partei'; the construction of a new train station in Berchtesgaden and a mountain infantry barracks in Strub and - after a conversion for 35 million Reichsmarks in 1942 - the baroque castle Klessheim in Salzburg with its own train station and its own access to the Reichsautobahn. Hitler used it as the Obersalzberg's guest house for meetings with foreign state guests, whom he did not want to receive in the intimate atmosphere of the Berghof.
Sites Featured: Hintersee, Schönau, Blaueis, Hochkalter, Königssee, Bischofswiesen, Stanggass, Strub, Reichskanzlei Berchtesgaden, Bad Reichenhall, Ramsau, Obersee, Adolf Hitler Kaserne, Jägerkaserne,  Adolf Hitler Youth Hostel, Bund Deutscher Mädel, Dietrich Eckart Clinic, Hotel Schiffmeister, Gasthaus Seeklause 
Although focusing mostly on the use of the site in a number of movies, one notable impact of the war on Schleißheim was the presence of military installations and facilities in the vicinity, including the Flugplatz Schleißheim. As a Luftwaffe training facility and operational airfield, Schleißheim Airport attention from Allied bombers, leading to occasional airstrikes aimed at disrupting Nazi military operations. The influx of military personnel and the establishment of barracks and support infrastructure for the Luftwaffe also brought changes to the social and economic fabric of the town.
Sites featured: Lohhof, Schönbrunn, Lustheim Palace, Oberschleißheim, Unterschleißheim, Schlosswirtschaft, Military Aviation School, Fliegerbeobachterschule, Fliegerfunkerschule, Lichtbildstelle, Various Film Locations- Paths of Glory, Three Musketeers, Last Year in Marienbad
Adolf-Hitler-Straße, Freising's main street (now Obere Hauptstrasse).
Deserving of especial attention given it's where I live, Freising had a local Nazi group established on September 7, 1922. Hitler himself gave a three-hour speech titled "Der Weg zur Freiheit" at Gasthof Kolosseum in Freising on February 12, 1928. Like many other places, Freising faced repression and persecution under the Nazi regime, particularly its Jewish residents for whom fifteen stolperstein commemorate. 
Sites Featured: Pettenbrunn, Kloster Wies, Hexenprozesse, Kreisleitung, Hohenbachern, Adolf-Hitler-Straße, Lindenkeller, Tüntenhausen, Weihenstephan, stolperstein, Vimy Kaserne, Hangenham, Dürneck, Münchenerstraße, Alte Gefängnis, Rathaus, Neustift, St. Georg kirche, Domberg, Gasthof Kolosseum, Prinz-Ludwig-Straße, Ziegelgasse, Fischergasse, Landshuter Hof, Hindenburg Straße, Captain Snow Straße, Adolf Wagner Straße, Norkus Straße, Von-Blombergstraße, Von-Stein-Straße, Sigmund-Halter-Straße, Horst Wessel Straße, Hotel Gred, Casellastraße, Hofbräuhaus, Adler Apotheke, Stauberhaus, Marienplatz, Fürstbischöfliches Lyceum, Marcushaus, NS-Kindergarten Neustift, Bürgerturm, Prinz Arnulf-kaserne, Stein kaserne, Pallotti Haus, Knabenseminar, Christi-Himmelfahrt Evangelical Church, bahnhof, Brunnhausgasse, Mohrenbrücke, bunkers, Lindenkeller, Waldfriedhof, Isarbrücke, Bayerischer Hof, Technische Universität München
 Stalag VIIA, located in the town of Moosburg, was the largest prisoner-of-war camp operated by Nazi Germany during the war. Moosburg itself played a significant role during the war due to its proximity to the camp. Stalag VIIA housed thousands of Allied prisoners, including soldiers from various countries captured during military campaigns. Conditions in the camp were harsh, with prisoners enduring overcrowding, inadequate food and medical care, and forced labour. Many prisoners also suffered from abuse and neglect at the hands of their captors.
 Sites featured:  Stalag VIIA, Moosburg, Bernstorf, Neufahrn bei Pettenbrunn, Neufahrn bei Freising, Allershausen, Aign, Hohenkammer, Zolling, Fürholzen, Kranzberg, Eching, Hangenham, Dürneck, Hallbergmoos
 Various sites an afternoon cycle ride from where I live. Erding was the site of a major airbase; I spent a day cmparing locations filmed for the Nazi-era comedy Quax, der Bruchpilot. I'd never heard of Isen until I received hundreds of images from the 14th Armoured Division, inspiring me to hunt down the sites shown in 80 year old wartime photos. Pfaffenhofen unterm Hakenkreuz by Reinhard Haiplik was immensely valuable in researching that town.
Sites Featured: Isen, Mauern, Dorfen, Dingolfing, Erding, Wartenberg, Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm, Ismaning, Scheyern, Schrobenhausen, Uttenhofen, Rasthof Holledau, Eberstetten, Geisenhausen, Brauerei Bortenschlager, Goldach, Reichsluftschiff Z1 memorial
The region surrounding Landsberg am Lech contains a landscape fraught with historical significance for the Nazi era. Landsberg itself holds a pivotal place in history as the site of Landsberg Prison, where Hitler was imprisoned following the failed Beer Hall Putsch in 1923. This infamous prison became emblematic of Nazi repression, as Hitler authored his virulent manifesto, Mein Kampf, within its walls. Beyond Landsberg, the area witnessed the establishment of numerous concentration camps, including Kaufering, a subcamp of Dachau Concentration Camp. I spent the summer of 2023 visiting various sites associated with these camps. Nearly 1/4 of the page is focused on Rosenheim.
Sites Featured: Eichstätt, Swabia, Rosenheim, Kaufering subcamp complexLandsberg am Lech, KZ Friedhof, Schwabhausen, Ingolstadt, Buchloe, Thingstätte, Landsberg Prison, ϟϟ graves, Concentration camps, Erpfting Jewish cemetery, Concentration Camp Cemetery Hurlach, Holzhausen concentration camp cemetery, Igling–Stoffersberg–Wald concentration camp cemetery, Flötzinger Bräustüberl 
 Chiemsee saw improvements in infrastructure and tourism as the Nazis promoted leisure activities and tourism in the region. Mittenwald and other sites here, known for their traditional Alpine charm, benefitted from increased tourism and cultural promotion under the Nazis. Garmisch-Partenkirchen, host to the 1936 Winter Olympics, received significant investment in infrastructure and tourism promotion, resulting in economic growth and international recognition.
 Sites featured: Chiemsee, Schönau, Mittenwald, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Starnberg, Mangfall, Bad Tölz, Murnau, Tutzing, Bodensee, Wolfratshausen, Gmund, Sites associated with the 1936 Olympics, Remaining Nazi eagles, Herrenchiemsee, Ludendorff's grave, Lambacher Hof, site of Ludwig II's death, ϟϟ Junker School Bad Tölz, bunkers, Schloss Linderhof, Meersburg am Bodensee, Death March memorials
 In the vicinity of Mühldorf, the Nazis established in late 1938 a subcamp of Dachau concentration camp which later became an independent concentration camp in 1942 involved in various projects that supported the Nazi war effort, including the construction of underground aircraft factories and the production of armaments. Thousands of prisoners perished due to the harsh conditions, forced labour, and arbitrary violence. The camp's proximity to key industrial centres and transportation hubs made it strategically important for the Nazi regime's wartime objectives. After its liberation Mühldorf became a displaced persons camp which the authorities today are trying to erase.
Sites featured: Deining, Oberammergau, Bad Wiessee, Oberbayern, Kaltenberg, Mühldorf, Oberaudorf, Feldberg, Mangfall, Traunstein, Herrsching, Uffing, Weilheim, Wasserburg am Inn, Durnbach, Markt Schwaben, Siegsdorf, Gmund Commonwealth War Cemetery, Weingut I, Rottenbuch, Tegernsee, Aufkirchen, Red Army Faction, Chiemsee, Lambacher Hof
 Although not a major urban centre like some other parts of the country, this region still felt the impact of Nazi policies and actions. The Allgäu served as a significant agricultural area, contributing to the Nazi regime's goals of achieving food self-sufficiency and supporting the war effort. Additionally, the region saw the establishment of forced labour camps and military installations, which played a role in the wider Nazi infrastructure. Neuschwanstein Castle near Füssen was famously commissioned by King Ludwig II of Bavaria in the 19th century. Whilst the castle predates the Nazi regime, its association with German royalty and romanticised mediæval imagery made it a symbol that the Nazis sought to co-opt for propaganda purposes. Hitler himself visited Neuschwanstein Castle, considering it a personal retreat and inspiration for his own architectural ambitions. During the war it was used as a depot for looted art by the Nazis, highlighting its significance beyond its historical and architectural allure.
 Sites featured: Kempten, Oberbayern, Oberjochpass, Oberstdorf, Kaufbeuren, Hopfen am See, Lindau, Steingaden, Ordensburg Sonthofen, Neuschwanstein, Füssen, Allgäu, Great Escape Locations, Generaloberst-Dietl-Kaserne,  Prinz-Franz-Kaserne, Concentration camp Kottern-Weidach, Oberstdorf 
The Upper Palatinate in eastern Bavaria played a significant role during the Nazi era, with several towns and cities in the region impacted by Nazi policies and institutions. Notably, the city of Weiden in der Oberpfalz served as a centre for military administration and logistics, hosting various Nazi offices and organisations. Additionally, the town of Flossenbürg, situated in the Upper Palatinate, was the site of the Flossenbürg Concentration Camp, where thousands of prisoners, including political dissidents, Jews, and other persecuted groups, were subjected to forced labour, torture, and execution. The region also saw the establishment of forced labour camps and military installations, contributing to the Nazi war effort.
 Sites featured: Waldmünchen, Flossenbürg Concentration Camp, Grafenwöhr, Schindler residence, Weiden, Neumarkt in der Oberpfalz, Oberpfalz, Regensburg, Walhalla, Auerbach, Kemnath, Judensau, Adolf Hitler Brücke, Hans-Schemm-Schule
In towns like Bayreuth, known for its cultural heritage and the annual Wagner Festival, the Nazis sought to co-opt and exploit the legacy of German nationalism and romanticism for their own propaganda purposes. The town became a centre for Nazi cultural events and rallies, with the regime using the iconic Bayreuth Festspielhaus as a venue to glorify its leaders and promote its racist ideology. Similarly, in Hof, a town with a rich industrial history, the regime's militarisation and propaganda efforts left a lasting mark on the community. The town's factories were repurposed for war production, whilst its residents were subjected to intense ideological indoctrination and surveillance. Nearby Kulmbach, famous for its beer, saw its breweries enlisted in the service of the Nazi war machine, producing supplies for the German military. The town also housed a subcamp of the Flossenbürg concentration camp, where prisoners were subjected to forced labour and inhumane conditions. In Bamberg, a UNESCO World Heritage Site renowned for its mediæval architecture, the Nazi regime staged elaborate propaganda events, exploiting the town's historic charm to promote its agenda of nationalism.
 Sites featured: Wunsiedel, Kulmbach, Bayreuth, Bamberg, Bad Berneck, Coburg, Gefrees, Hiltpoltstein, Naila, Forchheim, Staffelstein, Pegnitz, Behringersmühle, Hof Saale, Hohenberg, Lichtenfels, Münchberg, Oberfranken, Schloss Callenberg, Marktredwitz, House of German Education, Rotmainhalle, Restaurant Eule, BehringersmühleHotel Bube, Bad Staffelstein am Main, Hohenberg an der Eger, Hirschaid, Burgkunstadt,
Located in the heart of Bavaria, this region bore witness to the full spectrum of Nazi policies and actions. Towns like Schwabach, with its significant Jewish population, became battlegrounds for the implementation of anti-Semitic laws and the brutal suppression of dissent. Similarly, in Roth, the strategic importance of its railway station was exploited by the Nazis for military logistics, whilst a forced labour camp subjected prisoners to grueling conditions in support of the German war effort. Nearby Zirndorf housed another such camp, where inmates endured horrific suffering and exploitation. Academic and cultural centres like Erlangen weren't spared, as the regime sought to control institutions of higher learning and suppress intellectual dissent. Even picturesque towns like Rothenburg ob der Tauber weren't immune, as the regime exploited their historic sites for propaganda purposes, masking the grim reality of life under fascist rule.
Sites featured: Wehrmachtunterkunftheim, Remaining Nazi eagles, Schwabach, Roth, Zirndorf, Erlangen, Altdorf bei Nürnberg, Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Fürth, Leutershausen, Hotel Eisenhut 
Middle Franconia (2)
Another page illustrating Middle Franconia varied roles in supporting the Nazi apparatus, from industrial and military contributions to cultural propaganda, showcasing the comprehensive integration of these towns into the Third Reich's structure. Weißenburg and Dinkelsbühl, known for their mediæval charm, were used to evoke nationalist sentiment and promote the Nazi vision of Germanic heritage. Gunzenhausen gained notoriety for the anti-Semitic riots of 1934, reflecting the brutal enforcement of Nazi racial policies. Schwabach's industrial base contributed to the war effort, whilst Ansbach, as the regional administrative centre, hosted numerous Nazi rallies and activities. Leutershausen, though notable for its resistance fighter Hans Orgel, was part of the region's complex relationship with the Nazi regime. Roth became a hub of military activity, supporting Wehrmacht training, and Ellingen and Allersberg facilitated logistics and troop movements. Even rural areas like Ermetzhofen were influenced through agricultural policies and youth indoctrination camps.
Sites featured: Weißenburg, Dinkelsbühl, Gunzenhausen, Schwabach, Ansbach, Leutershausen, Roth, Ellingen, Allersberg, Ermetzhofen,
Würzburg was heavily bombed by Allied forces in March 1945, resulting in significant destruction and loss of life. The bombing targeted key infrastructure and military installations, but also caused widespread damage to residential areas and cultural landmarks. Kitzingen's airfield was utilised by the Luftwaffe for training pilots and conducting military operations during the war. Aschaffenburg, located on the Main River, was home to military installations and industrial facilities that supported the Nazi war machine. The city's strategic location along major transportation routes made it a target for Allied bombing raids during the war. Hammelburg was the site of a prisoner-of-war camp known as Oflag XIII-B. The camp housed Allied officers who were captured during military campaigns in Europe. In March 1945, the camp was liberated by American forces. Bad Kissingen was used by the Nazis as a recreational destination for military personnel and party officials.
Sites featured: Kitzingen, Würzburg, Niederbayern, Ochsenfurt, Lohr, Miltenberg, Aschaffenburg, Unterfranken, Remaining Nazi eagles, Gemünden, Bad Kissingen, Pompejanum, Schweinfurt, Hammelburg, Hitlerjugend schule, Adolf Hitler Tower
 Several towns and cities in Swabia were key centres of Nazi activity. Augsburg, one of the largest cities in the region, was a stronghold of the Nazi Party, with prominent Nazi leaders such as Julius Streicher and Adolf Wagner holding positions of power. The city also hosted major Nazi rallies and events, including the infamous Reichsparteitag, or Nuremberg Rally, in 1935. Memmingen, was home to a significant Nazi presence, with local party officials and organisations actively promoting Nazi ideology and enforcing regime policies. Additionally, the town served as a hub for Nazi propaganda and recruitment efforts, targeting young people and indoctrinating them into the Hitler Youth.
Sites featured: Donauwörth, Augsburg, Dillingen, Nördlingen, Günzburg, Wemding, Aichach, Hof, Remaining Nazi eagles, Oettingen
Hitler lived in Passau briefly as a child. The city's proximity to Austria and Czechoslovakia made it a significant location for Nazi military operations and logistics. Passau also served as a transit point for refugees fleeing Nazi persecution. During the war Straubing served as a regional administrative centre for the Nazi Party, overseeing the implementation of Nazi policies and directives in the area. Its Gauforum served as the regional administrative centre for the Nazis in the Lower Bavaria region, housing various party offices, administrative buildings, and meeting halls. Today, remnants of the Gauforum still exist in Straubing, serving as a reminder of the town's complex history during the Nazi era. Landshut, Himmler's hometown, served as a military garrison town, housing troops and supporting logistical operations.
Sites Featured: Vilsbiburg, Remaining Nazi eagles, Niederbayern, Passau, Straubing, Synagogue,Landshut, Hitler Residence, Himmler residence, Schochkaserne, Hans-Schemm-Schule
Much of the page relates to Kelheim and the neighbouring Befreiungshalle, used as a symbol of German nationalism and propaganda. The monument itself was not directly associated with the Nazi regime, but it was utilised to promote their ideology and glorify German military history.   
 Sites Featured: Mainburg, Siegenburg, Bayerisch Eisenstein, Ganacker concentration camp, Wolnzach, Steinhöring, Osterhofen, Grafentraubach, Geisenfeld, Schönberg, Deggendorf, Simbach, Weltenburg, Kelheim, Befreiungshalle, Napoleonshöhe, Abensberg
Weimar holds significant historical importance as the birthplace of the Weimar Republic, the first democratic government in Germany following the Great War. In 1919, the Weimar National Assembly convened in the Theaterplatz to draft the new constitution, ushering in a period of political, social, and cultural innovation known as the "Weimar Era." However, Weimar's association with democracy was short-lived, as Hitler rose to power in the early 1930s. During the Nazi regime, Weimar became a centre of cultural suppression and persecution, with institutions such as the Bauhaus art school being shut down for its perceived "degenerate" art. Additionally, Weimar was located in close proximity to the Buchenwald concentration camp, which played a significant role in the Nazis' systematic genocide. Buchenwald, situated on the Ettersberg hill near Weimar, was one of the largest and most notorious concentration camps operated by the Nazis. Established in 1937, Buchenwald initially held political prisoners, criminals, and other perceived enemies of the regime. As the war progressed tens of thousands of prisoners were subjected to forced labour, torture, medical experiments, and systematic murder. 
 Sites Featured: Buchenwald Concentration Camp, Buchenwald Memorial, Weimar, Hotel Elephant, Reichsstatthalterei, Deutsches Nationaltheater, Schiller's house, Nietzsche Archives, Weimarhalle, Emmy-Göring-Stift, Thälmann memorial, Ettersberg Cemetery 
During the Nazi era, Thuringia was not only a significant geographical location but also played a role in the implementation of Nazi policies and the perpetration of atrocities. Notably Erfurt, Thuringia's capital, was home to several Nazi institutions and organisations. The Gestapo headquarters in Erfurt played a central role in the suppression of dissent and the persecution of political opponents. Additionally, Thuringia was the site of forced labour camps, including the notorious concentration camp at Mittelbau-Dora. This camp, located near Nordhausen, was established in 1943 and became infamous for its harsh conditions and brutal treatment of prisoners. The camp was liberated by American forces in April 1945, but its legacy of suffering and death continues to haunt the region. 
Sites Featured: Egendorf, Meiningen, Erfurt, Wasungen, Gera, Jena, Salzungen, Eisenach, Sonneberg, Blankenburg, Nordhausen, Saalfeld, Thüringen, Greiz, Quittelsberg, Oberdorla, Eisfeld, Gotha, Altenburg, Masserberg, Bad Klosterlausnitz, Zeulenroda, Weida, Schmölln, Remaining swastikas
Today in no other federal state in Germany are there so many properties that are permanently used by right-wing extremists for political purposes; in 2012, by far the most neo-Nazi concerts took place in Saxony, almost a quarter in a single inn in Staupitz in northern Saxony. The eight members of the right-wing terrorist group Freital, who carried out several explosive attacks on refugee accommodation and political opponents in Freital and Dresden and were sentenced to several years in prison by the Dresden Higher Regional Court for forming a terrorist organisation and attempted murder or aiding and abetting, were active here. The right-wing extremist NPD entered the Dresden state parliament in 2004 and 2009 and in the 2017 federal election, the right-wing Alternative for Germany (AfD) became the strongest force in Saxony.
Sites Featured: Riesa, Bad Brambach, Annaberg, Glauchau, Löbau, Frankenberg, Freiberg, Aue, Zittau, Obergurig, Königsbrück, Rochlitz, Leipzig, Schkeuditz, Plauen im Vogtland, Hohenstein, Eilenburg, Görlitz, Augustusburg, Zwickau, Schildau, Geringswalde, Raschwitz Markkleeberg, Hammerleubsdorf, Leubsdorf,  Hohenstein-Ernstthal, Oschatz, Markranstädt, Schwarzenberg, Neuhausen, Bad Düben, Schlettau im Erzgebirge, Crimmitschau, Bautzen, Struppen  
Cities like Dessau housed pivotal Nazi institutions, such as the Junkers aircraft factory, contributing to the regime's military capabilities. Meanwhile, Halle served as a hub for Nazi propaganda and ideology, with a strong Nazi presence. Saxony-Anhalt was also a target of Allied bombing raids, with cities like Magdeburg bearing the brunt of destruction.
Sites Featured: Burg Saaleck, Bitterfeld, Staßfurt, Freyburg, Gardelegen, Wittenberg, Alsleben an der Saale, Zeitz, Torgau, Schafstädt, Köthen, Ammendorf, Magdeburg, Sachsen-Anhalt, Merseburg, Dessau, Tangermünde, Stendal, Bitterfeld, Halle (Saale), Burg Regenstein, Zeitz, Blankenburg (Harz)
Bergen-Belsen, near the town of Bergen, stands as a grim testament to the horrors of the Holocaust, where tens of thousands of Jews, political prisoners, and others were incarcerated in appalling conditions until its liberation by British forces in 1945. In the capital city of Hannover, the industrial and transportation hub of Lower Saxony, the scars of war are visible in the remnants of bombed-out buildings and the haunting legacy of forced labour camps, including the Hannover-Ahlem concentration camp, where Jewish women were subjected to inhumane treatment. Nearby, the picturesque town of Goslar, nestled in the Harz Mountains, bore witness to the encroachment of Nazi control, as forced labour camps and military units operated amidst its serene surroundings. Further south, in Braunschweig, the city's industrial importance made it a target for Allied bombing raids, resulting in widespread destruction and loss of life. Despite its historic and cultural significance, Braunschweig became enmeshed in the machinery of Nazi oppression, reflecting the broader impact of totalitarianism on communities across Lower Saxony.  
Featured Sites: Bergen-Belsen, Riddagshausen, Hannover, Stade, Goslar, Wunstorf, Hildesheim, Bergen-Hohne, Niedersachsen, Braunlage, Braunschweig, Tietlingen, Celle, Quakenbrück, Bernhard-Rust-Hochschule, Hitler Painting, Technischen Hochschule 
Lower Saxony played a significant role under the Nazi regime such as Wolfsburg, which became the site of the Volkswagen automobile factory in 1938. Under the direction of the Nazi government, the Volkswagen factory was established to produce the iconic "People's Car," designed to make car ownership accessible to the average German citizen. The factory employed thousands of workers and contributed to the region's economic growth during the Nazi era. Similarly, the town of Salzgitter saw industrial development and expansion during this time, with the establishment of the Hermann-Göring-Werke. This industrial complex produced steel and armaments for the Nazi war effort, providing employment opportunities and economic prosperity to the region. Additionally, the port city of Wilhelmshaven played a strategic role as a naval base for the German Navy, or Kriegsmarine. The construction of the Jade-Weser-Port, initiated by the Nazi government in the late 1930s, aimed to enhance Germany's maritime capabilities and facilitate the movement of goods and troops.
Sites Featured: Göttingen, Wittingen, Rüstringen, Bad Sachsa,Varel, Wilhelmshaven, Neuwallmoden, Norderney, Delmenhorst, Bückeberg, Niedersachsen, Lingen, Bad Nenndorf, Bad Gandersheim, Hamelin, Bad Pyrmont, Emden, Obernkirchen, Bad Grund, Uslar, Wangerooge, Hitler Tower, Oldenburg, Varel am Jadebusen
Known for its cultural heritage and architectural splendour, Dresden became a target for Nazi propaganda and militarisation. The city's iconic landmarks, such as the Frauenkirche and Zwinger Palace, were exploited by the regime for propaganda purposes, with Nazi rallies and events held in these historic settings to bolster support for the fascist regime. Additionally, Dresden's industrial capacity was harnessed for the war effort, with factories producing weapons and equipment for the German military. The city's strategic importance made it a target for Allied bombing raids during the war, culminating in the devastating bombing of Dresden in February 1945. The Allied firebombing reduced much of the city to rubble, resulting in the deaths of thousands of civilians and the destruction of cultural treasures.
Sites Featured: Saxony, Luftgaukommando, Dresden, Pirna, Radebeul, Adolf-Hitler-Platz, Theaterplatz, Dresden-Friedrichstadt Hospital,  Luftkriegsschule Klotzsche, Tachenberg Palace,  Zwinger palace, Villa Wach, Kulturpalast, Frauenkirche
Ordensburg Vogelsang, originally constructed as an educational institution for future Nazi leaders, served as a hub for ideological indoctrination and military training. Cities like Köln and Dortmund witnessed significant industrialisation and were targeted by Allied bombing campaigns due to their strategic importance. The EL-DE Haus in Cologne, once a Gestapo headquarters, now serves as a museum documenting the horrors of Nazi rule. Essen, an industrial powerhouse, played a crucial role in armaments production for the Nazi war machine. 
Sites Featured: Bad Godesberg, Ordensburg Vogelsang, Synagogue, Köln, Dortmund, Brühl, EL-DE Haus, Essen, Rheinhotel Dreesen, Judensau, Erwitte,Remaining Nazi eagles, Bonn, Schloss Augustusburg, Cologne, Rheinhotel Dreesen, Universitäts Hauptgebäude, Bad Honnef, Reichsschulungsburg der NSDAP und DAF, Remaining Nazi iconography  
Wewelsburg, a castle located near Paderborn, was repurposed by the ϟϟ under Heinrich Himmler's direction. It was transformed into a centre for ϟϟ ideological indoctrination and mystical rituals, symbolising Himmler's vision of a racial elite. The Hermannsdenkmal commemorating the ancient Germanic leader Arminius, became a symbol of nationalist sentiment during the Nazi era, used to promote the idea of Germanic superiority and military prowess, aligning with the regime's propaganda efforts to glorify the Germanic past.  
Sites Featured: Bochum, Herford, Werne, Übach-Palenberg, Münster, Teutoburg, Wewelsburg, Hermannsdenkmal, Bielefeld, Düsseldorf, Moers am Niederrhein, Siegen, Mülheim, Hamm, Gremmendorf, Nazi statues, Reichsmuseum für Wirtschafts- und Gesellschaftskunde, Schloss Jägerhof, Remaining Nazi eagles, Grevenbroich, Bad Hamm
Closing off my pages on the region, annual Westphalia-specific Nazi festivals, such as the commemorations for the Ruhr Battle martyr Ludwig Knickmann in Gelsenkirchen took place on June 21. Ritualised pomp also characterised the Gau party rallies in Münster and Bochum, which were attended by tens of thousands, as well as the countless district party rallies. There were also one-off events such as the funerals of regional party leaders or early Nazi supporters like  Emil Kirdorf in Gelsenkirchen in 1938. The four day motorcade of around 700 NSDAP "old guards" through the Westphalia region in June 1939 was a special event which initially included particularly long-serving party members with a membership number under 100,000, and later also other particularly deserving “party comrades”.
Sites Featured: Bad Salzuflen, Lünen, Wuppertal-Barmen, Mönchengladbach, Rheydt, Jülich, Xanten, Krefeld, Hagen, Selm, Viersen am Niederrhein, Wesel, Ibbenbüren, Kempen, Duisburg, Horn Bad Meinberg, Aachen, Oberhausen, Hilchenbach, Dreiländerpunkt, Hamminkeln, Glesch, Burg an der Wupper, Büttgen, Tondorf, Hasten Remscheid, Warstein, Werl, Remaining Nazi eagles, Lippstadt 
Following the Great War, the Treaty of Versailles demilitarised the Rhineland, prohibiting the presence of German military forces in the area. However, in 1936 Hitler violated the treaty by ordering the remilitarisation of the Rhineland, a move that marked a key step in his expansionist ambitions. This remilitarisation occurred on March 7, 1936, when German troops crossed the Rhine River and occupied the region without facing any opposition from France or Britain. This bold act of defiance allowed Hitler to test the resolve of the Allied powers and gauge their response to his aggressive actions. The remilitarisation of the Rhineland also served as a precursor to further German expansionism, including the annexation of Austria and the Sudetenland, ultimately leading to the outbreak of the war.
Sites Featured: Speyer, Alzey, Ingelheim, Rheinbrohl, Neuwied, Linz am Rhein, Mainz, Trier, Laubenheim, Remagen, Braubach, Bacharach, Koblenz, Landau in der Pfalz, Schweigen-Rechtenbach, Coblenz, Kallstadt, Beilstein, Rheinzabern, Worms, Werdohl, Frankenthal, Idar-Oberstein, Schifferstadt, Beilstein, Remaining Nazi eagles  
Saarland, a small region in western Germany bordering France and Luxembourg, has a complex history shaped by its strategic location and economic significance. Following the Great War, the Saar Basin was placed under the administration of the League of Nations, with a referendum in 1935 resulting in its return to Germany. During the Nazi era, Saarland was incorporated into the Greater German Reich, and its coal mines and industrial centres played a crucial role in supporting the war effort.
Sites Featured: Galgenbergturm, Spiesen-Elversberg, Saarlouis, Höchen  Bexbach im Saarpfalz, Merzig, Hanau im Mainz, Dillingen, Saar, Saarbrücken, Bad Hersfeld, St. Wendel, Quierschied, Winterberg Monument, Saarländisches Staatstheater, Hindenburgturm
Pomerania, with its strategic location on the Baltic coast, played a crucial role in Germany's military strategy. The region was heavily militarised, with the construction of naval bases, airfields, and defensive fortifications along the coastline. Schleswig-Holstein on the border with Denmark served as a vital transit point for troops and supplies heading to and from Scandinavia. Its ports and harbors were key logistical hubs for the German war effort. Mecklenburg, known for its picturesque landscapes and historic cities such as Schwerin and Rostock, underwent significant transformations under Nazi rule. The region saw the establishment of forced labour camps, agricultural collectivisation, and the suppression of political dissent. Rügen, Germany's largest island located in the Baltic Sea, was militarised with the construction of coastal defences and radar installations. Additionally, the island served as a vacation destination for members of the Nazi party and was used for propaganda purposes.
Sites Featured: Prora, Kiel, Horst, Heiligendamm, Greifswald, Sylt, Demmin, Rügen, Adolf Hitler Koog, Güstrow, Schwerin, Friedrichsruh, Pelzerhaken, Barracks, Mecklenburg, Quickborn, Pomerania, Ahlbeck Heringsdorf, Schleswig-Holstein, Bad Segeberg, Adolf-Hitler-Schanze, U-Boots Ehrenmal, Flandernbunker, Kellenhusen, Thingplatz, Plön, Ahlefeld Bistensee, Flensburg, Bad Arnis, Lübeck, Leck, Neustadt in Holstein, Heide, Neumünster, Remaining Nazi eagles, Grömitz, Kappeln/Schlei, Kellenhusen an der Ostsee, Rostock, Wismar, Neustrelit, Zingst, Anklam, Kellinghusen, Haffkrug, Neustrelitz, Nordseebad Dangast, Kühlungsborn, Schloß Ludwigslust
 In October 1944, the Vichy regime government under Marshal Pétain was moved from Vichy to Sigmaringen on Hitler's orders . Sigmaringen Castle remained the seat of what the National Socialists saw as the official French government until the end of the war. The Allied air raids in the war didn't all affect the cities in southwest Germany to the same extent. During the air raid on Pforzheim on February 23, 1945, 17,600 people died within a few minutes. Stuttgart, Mannheim, Heilbronn , Friedrichshafen , Freiburg and Ulm were also hit very hard . Karlsruhe, Reutlingen, Böblingen, Sindelfingen , Offenburg and Göppingen suffered serious damage . Other cities like Rottweil, Heidelberg, Baden-Baden, Esslingen , Ludwigsburg , Tübingen, Villingen , Konstanz, Aalen and Schwäbisch Gmünd remained almost intact and therefore still have intact old towns today. 
Sites Featured: Öschelbronn, Stuttgart, Esslingen, Konstanz,Thingstätte, Freiburg, Karlsruhe, Hechingen, Obertürkheim, Durlach, Heidelberg, Fruchtsäule, Schwetzingen, Bismarckturm, Wilhelmspalais,  Stuttgarter Polizeipräsidium, Panzer Kaserne,  Tompkins Barracks, Grenadierdenkmal, Karlsruhe Badisches Innenministerium, Staatliche Kunsthalle, Adolf-Hitler-Haus, Möslestadion, Remaining Nazi eagles 
Featuring sites associated with Rommel. One prominent site is the Rommel Memorial in Blaustein-Herrlingen, near Ulm which commemorates his military career and honours his contributions to the German armed forces. Rommel's former residence, the Villa Lindenhof in Heidenheim, is now a museum dedicated to his life and legacy. Additionally, Rommel's military career is closely tied to various military installations and headquarters throughout Baden-Württemberg, including those in Stuttgart, Karlsruhe, and Ulm.  
Sites Featured: Radolfzell, Laufenburg, Pfullingen, Villingen-Schwenningen, Offenburg, Friedrichshafen,Tübingen, Schönau, Breisach, Schwäbisch Hall, Rexingen, Maulbronn, Ulm, Mannheim, Schlageter's grave, Breisach am Oberrhein, Rommel's grave, Rommel's home, Blaustein, Dilsberg,  Schloss Lichtenstein, Metzgerturm, Todtnau, Remaining Nazi eagles, Göppingen, Donaueschingen, Heidenheim an der Brenz, Kloster Maulbronn, Neues Krankenhaus Diakonie-Klinikum, Kinzigdamm, Sir Francis Drake memorial, Ebingen
Many of the sites I visited as part of my cycling tour around the Roman Limes, the end point of which was just outside Schwäbisch Gmünd. The Nazis idealised the concept of a racially pure and superior Germanic past, and sought to portray themselves as the inheritors of this legacy. They emphasised the idea of the Roman Empire as a precursor to the Germanic peoples, presenting it as an example of strength, order, and civilisation intended to reinforce the notion of Germanic superiority and justify Nazi expansionism. The Nazis often undertook archaeological excavations and restoration projects at Roman sites to showcase their supposed connection to ancient Germanic culture, seeking to present themselves as the guardians of a glorious past and used Roman artifacts and imagery to promote their vision of a racially pure and unified Germany. The Limes, as the northern frontier of the Roman Empire, were portrayed as a symbol of ancient Germanic resistance to foreign invaders, drawing parallels between the Roman Empire's attempts to conquer Germanic tribes and their own struggles against perceived enemies of the German nation.
Sites Featured: Lörrach, Böblingen, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Amstetten, Ravensburg, Hardheim, Konstanz am Bodensee, Cannstatt, Ebingen, Ludwigsburg, Gengenbach, Nagold, Aalen, Heilbronn, Bräunlingen, Waldhilsbach, Schirenhof, Wiesendorf concentration camp, Weingarten, Schloss Sigmaringen, Böblingen, Schloß Kapfenburg, Esslingen,  Künzelsau, Obertürkheim, Remaining Nazi eagles, Bad Cannstatt, Gengenbach, Crailsheim 
In 1933, shortly after Hitler came to power, the Nazis established the Gestapo headquarters in Wiesbaden, using it as a base for surveillance, repression, and persecution of political opponents and marginalised groups. Additionally, the town of Hadamar gained infamy during the war for its role as a site of Nazi euthanasia programs. Between 1941 and 1945, the Hadamar Institute was used to carry out the systematic murder of disabled and mentally ill individuals deemed "unfit" by the regime, with thousands of victims being killed in gas chambers or by lethal injection. Furthermore, the town of Frankfurt am Main, the largest city in Hessen, was heavily bombed by Allied forces during the war due to its strategic importance as a transportation hub and industrial centre.
Sites Featured: Frankfurt, Windecken, Gießen, Saalburg, Niederwalddenkmal, Darmstadt, Wiesbaden, Bad Wildungen, Remaining Nazi eagles, Kassel, Runkel, Bad Homburg, Fritzlar, Hitlerturm, Offenbach am Main, Marburg, Naumburg, Rotenburg an der Fulda, Bad Sooden-Allendorf, Erlensee, Schloß Dehrn, Rüdesheim, Fliegerdenkmal, Wasserkuppe  
Page focusing on various sites associated with Hitler's formative years. One notable site is the town of Linz, Hitler's hometown, where he spent part of his childhood and adolescence. Although Hitler left Linz in his youth, he maintained an emotional attachment to the city and envisioned transforming it into a cultural centre of the Third Reich. His plans included grand architectural projects and cultural institutions, such as the construction of a monumental art museum to house stolen artworks and promote Nazi ideology. Whilst many of these ambitious plans never came to fruition due to the outbreak of th war, Hitler's vision reflects his desire to leave a lasting legacy and reshape the urban landscape in accordance with Nazi ideals. Braunau am Inn holds significance as the birthplace of Hitler. Despite efforts by local authorities to distance the town from this association, Braunau remains a site of pilgrimage for neo-Nazis and far-right extremists, who see Hitler as a hero and martyr. Furthermore, the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp complex was one of the largest and most notorious Nazi concentration camps where thousands were subjected to forced labour, torture, and execution at Mauthausen-Gusen. The camp's proximity to Linz made it strategically important for the Nazi regime, with many prisoners used as slave labourers in nearby factories and construction projects. 
Sites Featured: Braunau am Inn, Gusen, Leonding, Mauthausen Concentration camp, Fischlham, Linz, Hitler's birthplace, Hitler's schools, Adolf Eichmann residence, Nibelungen Bridge, Burschenschafterturm, Hitler's parents gravesite, Where Hitler's father died 
Featuring various sites associated with the Anschluß, and Hitler's paintings.  During the Anschluss of Austria by Nazi Germany in 1938, the Hotel Metropole served as the headquarters of the Gestapo, the secret police of the Nazi regime, which carried out surveillance, arrests, and interrogations of political opponents and minority groups. Additionally, the city's Jewish population was subjected to persecution and discrimination, with synagogues, businesses, and homes targeted for destruction and looting during Kristallnacht. Furthermore, Vienna's Jewish citizens were forced to wear yellow Star of David badges and were later deported to concentration camps, where many perished in the Holocaust. The city's historic Jewish quarter, Leopoldstadt, once a vibrant centre of Jewish life and culture, was decimated by the Nazis, with its synagogues destroyed and its residents deported or killed.
Sites Featured: St. Charles's church and the Vienna State Opera House, Chancellery, Hotel Imperial, Heldenplatz, Hofburg, Äußeres Burgtor, Loos Haus, Michaelerplatz, Burgtheater, Holocaust memorial, Gauhaus, Adolf-Hitler-Platz, Urania, Schönbrunn palace  
 More Sites in Austria
 Apart from the various ski resorts frequented by the wife and kid, my webpage focuses on Salzburg which became a hub for Nazi activities, including propaganda, military operations, and administration. One notable site was the HohenSalzburg Fortress, which was used by the Nazis as a prison and detention centre for political opponents. Additionally, the city's main square, Residenzplatz, was often the site of Nazi rallies and events, showcasing the regime's propaganda and power.  In Innsbruck, the city's location in the heart of the Alps made it strategically important for the regime, particularly for its role in military operations and propaganda. The Bergisel Ski Jump, located just outside the city, was used as a venue for Nazi propaganda events, including ski competitions and rallies.
Sites Featured: Döbling, Amstetten, Kufstein, Zell am See, Innsbruck, Kapfenberg, Salzburg, Dürnstein, Bad Ischl, Styria, Friesach, Kitzbühel, Melk, Lienz, Bad Leonfelden, Bad Radkersburg, Gröbming, St. Pölten, Traismauer, Wolfgangsee
Under Mussolini's fascist regime, Rome served as a central hub of power and propaganda, symbolizing the resurgence of Italian greatness and the embodiment of fascist ideals. Mussolini undertook ambitious architectural projects to glorify Italy's imperial past, transforming the cityscape with grandiose structures and emphasizing ancient Roman heritage. During the war, Rome fell under Nazi occupation from 1943 to 1944, leading to increased repression and targeting of Jews, political dissidents, and resistance fighters. The deportation of Rome's Jewish population to concentration camps resulted in significant loss of life.
Featured Sites: Accademia Fascista, Quirinal, Via dell’Impero, EUR, Stadio dei Marmia, Stadio dei Marmi, Termini, Florence, Colosseum, Roma Ostiense, Naples, Foro Mussolini, Palazzo Venezia, Palazzo Braschi, Via Rasella, Porta San Paolo, Via Nazionale, Porta San Giovanni, Campidoglio, Capitoline Hill, Piazza Augusto Imperatore, Ara Pacis, Piazza del Popolo, Castel Sant'Angelo, EIAR, Caserna Mussolini, Viale Romania, Viale Regina Elena, Via del Mare, Piazza Bocca della Verità, San Giorgio in Velabro, Arch of Janus, Largo Argentina, MVSN, Via del Circo Massimo, Curia Julia, Palazzo degli Uffici dell’Ente Autonomo, Basilica of Maxentius, Campo Roma
Ruled by two fascist dictatorships, South Tyrol, or Südtirol in German, is an autonomous province in northern Italy with a unique history and cultural identity shaped by its location at the crossroads of Germanic and Latin cultures. During the Nazi era, South Tyrol was annexed by Germany as part of the Third Reich's expansionist policies. This annexation, known as the Option Agreement, resulted in the forced assimilation of the German-speaking population into the Nazi regime. The Nazis established the Bozen-Bolzano transit camp, which served as a detention and deportation centre for political prisoners, Jews, and other persecuted groups. Thousands of individuals were held in the camp before being transported to concentration camps in Germany and Eastern Europe, where many perished.  Furthermore, South Tyrol's mountainous terrain made it an ideal location for military installations and defensive fortifications. The region was heavily militarised by the Nazi regime, with numerous bunkers, gun emplacements, and defensive lines constructed to defend against potential Allied invasions. 
Featured Sites: Bozen, Chiusa, Alto Adige, Bolzano, Bressanone, Klausen, Brixen, Elephant Hotel, Victory Monument, INA Headquarters, Headquarters of the fascist party (PNF), Casa Littoria, Piazza del Tribunale, Viale Giulio Cesare, INFPS, Gestapo Headquarters
Following the Munich Agreement, Prague fell under German control. The city served as a vital administrative and cultural centre for the Nazi regime in occupied Czechoslovakia. Heydrich, known as the "Butcher of Prague," was targeted by Czech resistance fighters parachuted in from Britain. The assassination led to brutal reprisals, including the destruction of the village of Lidice and the massacre of its inhabitants. The city's cultural heritage was both exploited and targeted by the Nazis with Hitler envisioning Prague as a showcase of Germanic culture.  
 Sites featured: Gestapo Headquarters, Cernínský Palác, Hradcany Castle, Wenceslas Square, Deutsches Theatre, Operation Anthropoid, Commonwealth War Cemetery, Prague, Winston Churchill Square, Stalin Monument, Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs, New Jewish Cemetery, Soviet Cemetery, Maisel Synagogue, Armadni Muzeum, National Museum, Staromestske Namesti, Charles Bridge, Rudolfinum concert hall, New German Theatre, Site of Heydrich's assassination, Church of Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Restaurant Krčma u Parašutistů, National Liberation Memorial 
Sudetenland or Sudeten area (in the Czech Republic today usually referred to as Pohraničí - " border area " - or simply as Sudety - "Sudeten") is an auxiliary name, mainly used after 1918, for an heterogeneous, non-contiguous area along the borders of what was then Czechoslovakia with Germany and Austria , where predominantly Germans lived by language, culture and self-identification. It was therefore also called Sudeten German areas and “Sudeten Germany” in Nazi propaganda . 
 Sites featured: Aš, Cheb, Olomouc, Karlsbad, Nürschan, Liberec, Marienbad, Bratislava, Eger, Jägerndorf, Komotau, Görkau, Kamnitz, Wildenau, Leitmeritz, Czechoslovakia, Falkenau, Wiesengrund, Franzensbad, Sokolov, Lanškroun, Konrad Henlein Platz,Straße der SA, Hermann Göring Platz, Adolf Hitler Platz, Orlau, Orlová  
France & Belgium
Lorraine was subject to German occupation following the annexation of the region by Nazi Germany in 1940. This period marked a tumultuous chapter in the region's history, as the local population grappled with the realities of occupation and collaboration.  Alsace-Lorraine was incorporated into the German Reich as part of the Gau Baden-Elsass, with its capital in Strasbourg. The region's Germanic heritage and proximity to the German border made it a target for Nazi efforts to promote German nationalism and suppress French influence. Additionally, Alsace-Lorraine became a key recruitment area for the German military, with thousands of young men conscripted into the Wehrmacht to fight on the Eastern Front and other theatres of war. 
Sites Featured: Jebsheim, Lauterbourg, Provence, Alsace, Ostheim, Strasbourg, Illhäusern, Mulhouse, Riquewihr, Molsheim, Le Bonhomme, Ammerschwihr, Sigolsheim, Kaysersberg, Kientzheim, Colmar, Munster, Bergheim, Verdun, Rethondes, Compiegne, Boulay, Bolchen, Münster im Elsass, Douaumont, Maginot line, Rouffach, Hill 351 memorial, Haguenau, Bergheim German war cemetery   
 Several sites associated with Hitler's service in the First World War hold historical significance and shed light on his early life and rise to power.  One such site is the Ypres Salient in Belgium, where Hitler served as a messenger for the German Army. Hitler's experiences in the trenches of the Ypres Salient left a lasting impression on him and shaped his worldview, contributing to his later militaristic and nationalist beliefs. Hitler's time in this area influenced his later attitudes towards warfare, sacrifice, and nationalism. 
Sites Featured: Roeselare, Becelaere, Lorraine, Hitler's artwork, Reims, Rethondes, Langemark, Fournes, Ypres, Menen, Belgium, Compiègne, Douaumont, Vimy Ridge, Messines, Fromelles, France, Ardooie, Poperinghe, Verdun, Arras, Bayershof German Headquarters, Commonwealth War Grave Cemeteries, Le Touret, Bapaume, Notre Dame de Lorette
Films include: The Great Escape, The Passenger, Last Year in Marienbad, Paths of Glory, The Three Musketeers, Quax der Bruchpilot  
Sites Featured: Deining, Füssen, Hopfen am See, Neuschwanstein, Pullach, Markt Schwaben, Oberschleisssheim, Munich, Erding  
Spent Christmas 2023 cycling around Vienna following the remaining traces of Harry Lime. Sites Featured: Zentralfriedhof, Schoenlanterngasse, Alserbachstraße, Spittelauer Lände, Hoher Markt, Vermählungsbrunnen, Tuchlaubenstrasse, Michaelertrakt, Wiener Riesenrad, Vienna Ferris Wheel, Morzinplatz, Former site of Gestapo Headquarters, Am Hof, Judengasse, Shulhofplatz, Mölker Steig, Hannakenbrunnen, Maria am Gestade church, Schreyvogelgasse, Salesianerinnenkirche, St. Ruprecht's church, Ruprechtsplatz, Ledererhof, Boersegasse, Tiefer Graben, St. Ulrichsplatz, Josefsplatz, Neuer Markt, Schloss Belvedere, Justizpalast, Schmerlingplatz,Hofburg Palace, Strauss monument in Stadtpark, Beethovenplatz, Rathaus, Votive church, Schoenbrunn Palace, Belvedere, Justizplatz, Wedding Fountain, Vermählungsbrunnen, Stephansdom, Lime's apartment, Site of Lime's 'death', Lime's grave, Café Mozart, Braunerstrasse, Portzellangasse, Marc Aurel Strasse, Metastasiogasse, Minoritenkirche, Sonnenfelsgasse, Rennweg, Metternichgasse, Salesianerinnenkirche, Wipplingerstraße, Judengasse, Shulhofplatz, Baron Kurtz's apartment, Ballgasse
After the game was released in 2018 which coincided with my family's tour of Ancient Greek sites, I compared the sites from the game with how they appear in reality and was most impressed by the level of research, accuracy and creativity employed by the designers.
Among the sites compared: Athens, Delphi, Mycenea, Olympia, Sounion

In 2015 I travelled with my family down the Nile visiting numerous ancient sites,f as always comparing them with how they might have originally appeared. Among the sites: Esna, the Pyramids, Cairo, the Sphynx, Kom Ombo, Luxor, Abu Simbel, Karnak, Philae, Temple of Isis, Valley of the Kings, Temple of Hatshepsut, Aswan Dam, Monument of Arab-Soviet Friendship, Mammisi, Temple of Philae, Temple of Augustus, Chapel of Horus, Temple of Hathor, Trajan's Kiosk, Avenue of Sphinxes, Hypostyle Hall, Akhmenu, Obelisk of Hatshepsut, Sphinx Alley, Court of Ramesses II, Colonnade of Amenhotep III, Temple of Hathor and Nefertari, Solar Cult chapel, Tombs of Ramesses IV, Merneptah, Twosret, Setnakhte, Tutankhamun, Temple of Khnum,
Twenty years after having left Greece where I taught in the Peloponnese I returned with Drake Winston, seeing how much has changed just in that space of time post 2008-financial crisis. Besides Athens the page includes visits to the temple at Sounion and the battlefield at Marathon as well as: The Acropolis, Propylaea, Erechtheion, Parthenon, temple of Nike, Areopagus, Arch of Hadrian, Temple of Olympian Zeus, Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, Hotel de Grande Bretagne, Temple of Hephaestus, Panathenaic stadium, Lysicrates Monument, Tower of the Winds, Gate of Athena Archegetis, Library of Hadrian, Prison of Socrates, Pnyx, monument of Philopappos, Academy, National Archaeological Museum, Marathon Dam
A few sites relating to the Nazi occupation but for the most part focused on the sites found in Pausanias: Olympia, Mycenae, Corinth, Delphi, Thermopylae, Tomb of Clytemnestra, Tomb of Aegisthus, Temple of Atreus, Corinth Canal, Temple of Apollo, Beme, Peirene fountain, Temple of Nemean Zeus, Temple of Hera, Heraeum, Philippeion, Temple of Zeus, Athenian Treasury, Sacred Way, Theatre of Delphi, Tholos of Delphi, Treasury of Siphnos 
Returned to Rome with Drake Winston, his mother driving the distance just to let me bring my lorica segmenta in which to prance around and get constantly hassled by the police. The highlight was fighting outside the Colosseum with my son on Christmas morning with absolutely no one around. Sites include: Arch of Constantine, Colosseum,  Pantheon, Basilica of Maxentius, via dei Fori Imperiali, Trajan's Forum and Column, Curia Julia, Forum Romanum, Temple of Mars Ultor, Temple of Castor and Pollux, Temple of Cæsar, Capitoline, Arch of Titus, Circus Maximus, Theatre of Marcellus, Aurelian Walls, Porta Flaminia,  Arch of Septimius Severus, Arch of Gallienus, Temple of Hercules Victor, Largo ArgentinaArcus Argentariorum, Ara Pacis, Mausoleum of Augustus, Porticus of Octavia, Arch of Drusus, Arch of Janus,  Mausoleum of Hadrian, Pons Aelius, Cordonata, Campidoglio, Statue of Marcus Aurelius, Column of Marcus Aurelius,  Palazzo dei Conservatori, Campus Martius, Stadium of Domitian, Circus Agonalis, Pyramid of Cestius, Porta San Paolo, Via Ostiensis, Via della Marmorata, Tivoli, Temple of Vesta, Hadrian's Villa 
Besides comparing as many of the sites as Drake Winston would allow on the day whilst wearing my subarmalis and caligae with how the might have appeared before 79 AD, focus is also given to the changes to the site after the wartime bombing by the Allies when the site was held by the Germans. I've also included some earlier images taken when I last visited Herculaneum. Sites include: Porta Marina, House of the Gladiators, House of Triptolemus, Samnite palaestra, Villa of the Mysteries, Temple of Isis, Odeon, Large Theatre, Amphitheatre, Arch of Caligula, Via di Mercurio, Via delle Terme, Via della Fortuna, Via del Foro, Porta Nocera, House of the Bronze Bull, brothel, House of the Faun, Casa dei Ceii, Porta Saliniensis, House of Fabius Amandius, Fullonica of Stephanus, Via dell'Abbondanza, House of Ephebus, House of the Tragic Poet, Temple of Vespasian, Stabiae Gate, Macellum, House of Fabius Rufus, Forum Holitoriumis, House of the Fugitives, House of Loreius Tiburtinus, Temple of Apollo, Forum baths, Stabian Baths, Statue and Arch of Marcus Holconius Rufus
Took advantage of a family holiday to visit various ancient Roman (and some WWII) sites including: 
Nîmes, Arelate, Provence, Glanum, Orange, Carpentras, Nemausus, Barbegal aqueduct, Aix en Provence, Gallia Narbonensis, Pont du Gard, Arausio, Saint-Gabriel de Tarascon, Van Gogh Paintings, Maison Carrée, Temple of Diana, Nymphaeum, Pont du Gard, Mausoleum of the Julii, St. Remy, Abbey of Saint-Pierre de Montmajour, Hypogée du Castelet 
I currently live a three hour cycle ride from the very borders of the Roman Empire, allowing me to visit remarkable sites and take part in Roman reenactments. 
Sites Featured: Celeusum, Biriciana, Castra Regina, Abusina, Manching, Altmannstein, Schirenhof, Castra Vetoniana, Hienheim, Augusta Vindelicum, Cambodunum, Rustica Möckenlohe, Römerpark Ruffenhofen, Weltenburg, Dalkingen, Mönchsroth, Regensburg, Augsburg, Passau, Straubing, Eining, Bad Gögging, Weltenburg-Frauenberg, Hienheim, Pförring, Weißenburg, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Buch, Mahdholz, Halheim, Dambach, Kreutweiher, Kleinlellenfeld, Filchenharder forest, Pfünz  
Sites Featured: British Museum, Temple Church, Natural History Museum, Imperial War Museum, National Gallery,Wembley Stadium, Abbey Road, Westminster Bridge, Tower Hill, London Eye, Nelson's column, Trafalgar Square, St. Paul's Cathedral, Churchill residence, Kensington Palace, Tower of London, Traitors' Gate, Victoria and Albert Museum, Cutty Sark, Greenwich, Flamsteed House, Royal Observatory

School Trips

Two pages of trips I've made with my students over two decades; click on each:
Bavarian International School school trip logo studentsHeath's Bavarian International School History Class