Freising in the Third Reich

Freising

Münchenerstr. during the Third Reich and today
 
Mourners at Marienplatz on the left, honouring murdered Kurt Eisner February 24, 1919 with public buildings flying red flags. On the right is a period postcard of the event and the same site taken from the rathaus's Great Hall.
A few days after his April 7 murder, the Räterepublik, a soviet republic, was proclaimed in Munich. On the same day the soviet republic for Freising was also proclaimed.This soviet republic lasted about five days. The period photo is shortly after its overthrow when troops from Regensburg entered Freising. On the 30th they continued south to overthrow the soviets in Munich. The politically motivated murder of Bavaria's first Prime Minister, Kurt Eisner, on February 21, 1919 had mobilised many people in Freising. At the memorial rally a thousand came dressed in black on the Marienplatz. After hearing a speech from Ferdinand Zwack they marched to Neustift and back, accompanied by a brass band. Nevertheless, after Eisner's murder radical forces in Freising increased; after the proclamation setting up the Soviet Republic on April 7, 1919 in Munich, Freising too joined the Soviet Republic and following instructions from Munich, its public buildings flew red flags, bells rang, and "several thousand" gathered at the Vimy barracks and listened to several revolutionary speeches. Zwack became Commissar of the Workers 'and Soldiers' Council of the Soviet Republic. Whilst this was the type of experience many Bavarian towns had, few lasted very long. In Freising, the predominant influence of the Soviet Republic lasted at the most five days. Newspapers were censored during this time on the orders of the "Revolutionary Central" in Munich. The parliamentary government that had moved to Bamberg subsequently announced military action against the Soviet Republic. Freising behaved apparently neutral towards this Second Soviet Republic although its garrison appears to have stood on the side of the Soviet Republic. By the end of April troops and freikorps units acted against the Soviet Republic in Munich. As part of these troops, which came from Regensburg, moved into Freising on April 26, it met with no resistance. The south of the city was sealed off by a cordon at the Isarbrücke with machine guns set up. The town was now open to the parliamentary government although its leaders declared that followers of the Soviet Republic would be protected among its residents and information about them would not be passed on to the troops. Some volunteers joined various military organisations to participate in the fight against the Bavarian Soviet Republic. On April 30 the forces moved on again, and by May 1 and 2 the Soviet Republic was brutally suppressed.

   
View of Prinz-Ludwig-Straße from the end of Ziegelgasse. The Ziegeltor was destroyed in 1898, the last of Freising's six gates.
 
Two survivors amidst change, with the photo on the left showing the corner of Wippenhauser Straße and Schönmetzlerstraße during the Third Reich and today. The house on the left still stands, now serving the Islamischen Gemeinde Freising. On the right is the forlorn Petuel-Villa on Münchner Straße.
Fischergasse, looking from and at Calafati's, then and now
  
Fischergasse in the 1930s and today. Fischergasse is, as Wilhelm Heinrich Riehl noted in his 1866 essay on Freising, the only historic street that refers to a trade.
During the so-called Kinderhexenprozesse in Freising, the Hexenturm (Witches' Tower) at the Alte Gefängnis was constructed.
The first trial began with the arrest of the so-called Bettelbuben (beggar children) Andre and Lorenz on December 3, 1715, who were accused of being able to make piglets and mice. Based on their statements two other children were arrested. On August 12, 1717 Andre hanged himself in his cell whilst another boy died of illness. Three boys were executed on November 12, 1717 by sword and fire. Two other boys had to watch their execution and beaten with rods before being placed under "spiritual supervision." One girl, Elisabeth Adlwart was forced to shave the entirety of her body to be examined for physical characteristics of one who has made a pact with the devil.
The last witch hunt in Freising occurred between 1720 and 1722, and it included the execution of eight “zauberbuben” or magic boys. It was triggered by the arrest of Adlwart Veit for theft. Probably due to his conviction in the first children's witch trial (he was one of the two boys who had to watch the execution) the charge of theft was changed to witchcraft. In the course of this period over an hundred people were arrested with eight boys between 14 to 23 years and three middle-aged beggars were executed including Adlwart Veit on December 15, 1721. As so often in history, the wave of arrests and executions did not come to an end until more and more members of the upper classes were targeted.

The äußere Heiliggeistgasse in the 1930s and today on the left, and photo on the right from around 1870 showing the former Münchner Gate which had been emblazoned with the arms of Freising. The neo-Romanesque Altöttinger Chapel on the right is still there.
The Furtnerbräu and further down Obere Hauptstraße 24, 24a and 26; period photo from 1935
1930 and today; the war memorial has been moved slightly since the war and looking at Untere Hauptstraße 19, 21 and 23 in 1935 and today, with only the central building (the Tritscheler-Haus) remaining intact.
Freising during the Depression- Freisingers queuing up at the high street tobacconist's. The shop today sells shoes, whilst one of the reconstructed buildings has erected the bust of an aged woman who appears to be a casualty of the town's tumultuous history from the past century.
The Gasthof Kolosseum, now gone and replaced on the High Street with a Woolworths, where Hitler gave a speech on February 12, 1928. On 7 September 1922 the Freisinger local group of the NSDAP was created. On the right is shown Freising girls giving the Hitler salute.

A meeting of Social Democrats held at the Landshuter Hof (now a Thai restaurant) at the end of 1932 before Hitler's appointment and its prohibition under the Enabling Act through which many party officials were imprisoned, killed or went into exile.
1933 saw the replacement of mayor Stephan Bierner, who had been in that office for more than 30 years, with Nazi Gottlieb Schwemmer. This took place after the special commissioner for city and district of Freising (Sonderkommissar für Stadt und Bezirk Freising)Hans Lechner had been forced to accept Bierner's resignation by the NSDAP Ortsgruppenleiter George Preiser. Bierner denied, however, in a speech that he had been forced to resign and declared that he was not a National Socialist, but always a German first.

Adolf-Hitler-Straße, Freising's main street (now Obere Hauptstrasse)
The eagle that gives its name to the Adler Apotheke at Obere Hauptstraße 62 dates from 1937.
Obere Hauptstraße 3 during the nazi-zeit and today. Originally built in 1905, it housed the Hutmachergeschäft Koislmaier from 1911. By 1966 this building and the ones on either side were replaced with those of local architecht Hans Hofmann. Meanwhile the Laubenbräu at Marienplatz 3, now Café Marienplatz after a fire in 1965 too has changed its façade. Drake Winston at the side of the town hall and behind.
    
Military parades in the town centre
Marienplatz during the Third Reich and today, and with torchlight procession during the last year of the war
   
In front of the rathaus and St. George church
Marienplatz in 1943 and today
Adolf Hitler Strasse in a 1937 postcard and during a 1940 Bürgerfest. It wasn't until August 1945 that 18 streets in Freising were renamed, including Adolf Hitler Straße to Captain Snow Straße and then Obere Hauptstraße, Hindenburg Straße to Untere Hauptstraße (although in the postcard here it is named after Hitler), Adolf Wagner Straße to Gartenstraße, Herbert Norkus Straße to Fabrikstraße, Von-Blombergstraße was named after the defence minister and Generalfeldmarschall of the Wehrmacht Werner von Blomberg before he fell into disgrace in 1938 and was renamed Von-Stein-Straße after the Bavarian artillery General Hermann Freiherr von Stein (1859-1928), Sigmund-Halter-Straße to Sighartstraße, and Horst Wessel Straße to Bahnhofstraße. A planned "Hermann Goring Road " (the boreal part of the Asamstraße ) was not realised.
Heinestrasse, named after German poet Heinrich Heine was renamed, due to his Jewish origin, Dietrich-Eckart-Straße after the early member of the NSDAP and mentor to Adolf Hitler. A number of streets were renamed after 'martyrs' of the cause- Fabrikstraße became Herbert-Norkus-Straße after a Nazi killed by communists in 1932. Hirschmannstraße, now Kesselschmiedstraße, was named in honour of the Munich SA man killed in 1927. Schlageterstraße, now Goethestraße,was of course named for  Albert Leo Schlageter who had been killed by the French occupiers of the Ruhr in 1923 and co-opted posthumously by the Nazis as one of their own. Those killed as part of the failed Munich beer hall putsch were also honoured with street names-  Andreas-Bauriedlstraße (now Meisenstraße), Kurt-Neubauerstraße (now Rabenweg), Von-der-Pfortenstraße (today Tannenweg), Laforcestraße (renamed Buchenweg) and Karl-Kuhn-Straße (now Erlenweg).

One last example is Casellastraße, whose named has reverted back to Plantagenweg (behind where I live). Theodor Casella was the bank clerk who, according to Ernst Röhm in his book "Die Geschichte eines Hochverräters," was with Martin Faust both members of the armed militia organisation Reichskriegsflagge and were shot down accidentally in a burst of machine gun fire during the occupation of the War Ministry as the result of a misunderstanding with II/Inf.Regt 19.
Difficult to see in every image apart from the one at the NS-Dokumentationszentrum in Munich (left), the bus that transported armed Nazis to Munich for the failed 1923 Beer Hall Putsch came from Freising- it reads on the side 'Hofbrauhaus F[reising]'
 
Seen from the opposite side, 'Freising' is clearly discerned 
 The Freising Hofbräuhaus then and now
 
The Fürstbischöfliches Lyceum in 1933 on Untere Hauptstrasee directly across Marienplatz.
 
In 1936 and in front of the Marcushaus
 
SA marching past and SA man intimidating any thinking of shopping inside.
 The memorial plaque on the side of the building remembers the former Jewish inhabitants who had suffered during the Nazi regime using the usual vague terms such as 'Judenverfolgung'. One name on it belongs to the family of the first Jew who demonstrably established himself here- Isaac Raphael Ignaz Neuburger (born 30iv1853 in Buchau in Württemberg) where he launched his business in 1881- a factory producing materials and articles of clothing. The business ran well, so that by 1931 the adjacent building was acquired. In 1893 the Neuburgers received Bavarian nationality and on request to Ignaz Neuburger the right of domicile and citizenship of Freising was awarded. The family enjoyed an high reputation in Freising as seen in the condolence letter mayor Bierners wrote upon the death of Ignaz Neuburger in 1928 where he was described as "a splendid, honourable man as well as large benefactor of the municipality and its people ."
The Kreisleitung of the NSDAP in 1936; formally the 'alte rathaus', the locals would refer to it as das 'braune haus.' On the façade can be seen the Nazi eagle and the writing "Ein volk, Ein führer, Ein reich." 
On the other side is clearly shown a Hitler Youth drummer. The Kreisleiter was a Nazi Party political rank and title which existed as a political rank between 1930 and 1945 and as a Nazi Party title from as early as 1928. The position of Kreisleiter, or county leader, was first formed to provide German election district coordination and, after the Nazi assumption of power, the position became one of county municipal government, effectively replacing the traditional German government establishment.

In 1881 Ignaz Neuburger opened his family-run department store on Bahnhofstr. 4 directly across the road from the Nazi party headquarters.. The photos above show the business as it was and after the business had been 'aryanised' and the family sent off to exile and/or death. By the time the photograph on the right was taken Bahnhofstraße was rechristened Horst Wessel Straße.
    
The same building, showing anti-Semitic graffiti (pogromstimmung) on the former shop owned by the Neuburger family. Note how the buildings on either side are unchanged, especially the Hotel Gred.
On 10 November 1938 the second large, publicly organised action against the Jewish community took place against in Freising after four large meetings including those organised by the NSDAP Ortsgruppe in the Kolosseum and the owner of the Stieglbräu. A large crowd with signs marched before the house of the Neuburgers and the Holzers and demanded loudly that all Jews in Freising should leave. Irma Holzer was humiliated own the road by the crowd, which broke the windowpanes of the Neuburger's department store. The Lewins left, selling their house in 1936 for substantially less than it was worth. Martin Holzer emigrated to Palestine, whilst the Neuburgers remained the longest in the city when their official notice of departure to Munich took place only by 27.x.1939.
Nearby on the high street, which I found hard to find despite looking out for them, are the so-called 'stumbling blocks' (stolperstein) that mention the fates of Freising's Jewish victims:

Another victim of the pogrom was lawyer and future mayor Max Lehner. Although not a Jew, he was forced to wear a sign reading Juda verrecke around the town.
 Memorial to ethnic Germans forced out of the Sudetenland after the war
Neustift- the kloster when it served as a military barracks and today and the kindergarten which was originally established in 1937 by the Nazis as the NS-Kindergarten Neustift.
The Bürgerturm from the Topographia Germaniae and when it was used by the Hitlerjugend during WWII. I'd been locked inside for an hour one morning when the proprietor locked up without knowing we were upstairs at the time.
SA marching down my street- Prinz-Ludwig-Strasseand looking from the other direction-  the 7. Infanterie-Division and 19. Infanterie-Regiment marching down the same road on May 1, 1939.
Prinz Arnulf-kaserne in 1914 on the left and from my street exactly 100 years later. 

The German army leaving the site, now used for private accommodation. Later renamed the General von Stein Kaserne der Bundeswehr, today it's known as the Vimy kaserne, named after the immortal Canadian victory over the Germans during the Great War. The street was given its name by the Nazi authorities. It was here that ϟϟ-Hauptsturmführer Michael Wittmann, holder of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, assigned to the 19. Infantry Regiment for two years. Heinrich Himmler also attended military training in 1918 here, writing to his family in nearby Landshut:
The Freising course is getting more and more rotten and strict: oh well, we’ll make a reasonable job of it, even if we’re not brilliant.
 The road entering into the complex, Major-Braun-Weg, is named after Major Alois Braun (1892-1963), head of the Freisinger Panzer Replacement Division 17.
It was just outside Freising to the north at the Haidberghof (which I run past very week) in the hamlet of Pettenbrunn that Braun chose as a base for the anti-Nazi Freiheitsaktion Bayern (FAB). In early April 1945, the Major met with members of the FAB which consisted of a total of five groups, mainly from members of the military in Freising, Munich and Moosburg, who had also reached out to civil society groups and even U.S. intelligence in Switzerland. It wasn't until the night of April 27-28 that they initiated any action, the plan of which attempted the removal of higher military personnel and the Gauleiter of Munich and Upper Bavaria, Paul Giesler in order to negotiate, with the Reich Governor in Bavaria, Franz Xaver Ritter von Epp, an armistice with the Allied troops. Then, based on a ten-point programme, a transitional government would be established. With leaflets, newspaper and radio, the public was called upon for support. In the end, nearly 440 soldiers were involved. The radio station in Ismaning was taken over under the command of Lieutenant Ludwig Reiter with 100 to 150 men and tanks,and from 6:00 the FAB was able to transmit within a radius of more than 100 kilometres, declaring that the FAB had "fought the power of government" and called for support from listeners. In Munich and many other places south of the Danube, 78 actions took place involving some 990 participants who responded to this FAB call for action. Governor Ritter von Epp (who had been involved in the Boxer rebellion, the first act of genocide in the 20th century against the Herero in German SW Africa,
was a commanding officer in Freikorps and Reichswehr, member of the Nazi Party in 1928 when he got elected to parliament, and acted as Reichskommissar, later Reichsstatthalter, for Bavaria in 1933) had responded hesitantly and had been brought at night to Haidberghof, meeting Major Brown and several officers. However, von Epp left the isolated farm in the morning unconvinced. He was later arrested on Paul Giesler's orders after being associated with the Freiheitsaktion Bayern, led by Rupprecht Gerngroß. However, Epp had not wanted to be directly involved with the group as he considered their goal - surrender to the Allies - a form of backstabbing of the German army. In total 57 people were arbitrarily executed.

After the war, Major Alois Braun worked in the Bavarian Ministry of Education as an elementary school consultant. From 1947 he founded the "Archives of the resistance movement set up by order of the Bavarian State Chancellery."

The Haidberghof was demolished in the 1960s to make way for the construction of a missile base.
Next door to the Vimy kaserne is the Pallottiner, taken over by the Nazis in 1939 for its "political unreliability." The suburbanisation has made then-and-now comparisons from the period problematic.
Albert Eise, the Pallotti House's first rector, was born on 7 January 1896 in the Swabian town of Oeffingen. After the First World War he joined the Pallotti, completed his novitiate at Limburg and was ordained a priest in 1925. In 1936 in connection with the December issue of monthly magazine "Queen of the Apostles" for which he served as editor, he fell for the first time in conflict with the Gestapo. He was accused of promulgating in the issue"remarks which were likely to cause unrest and an erroneous impression about the German armaments in the reader." Other versions were referred to as "spiteful attacks on party and state". From the start of the war his rejection of the Nazis increasingly grew until he was finally arrested on August 4, 1941 by the Gestapo. He had spoken at a public meeting "in the sense of an enemy of the state". On November 14 he was sent to Dachau concentration camp. Due to the tortures of the camp and poor medical care Father Albert Eise died on September 3, 1942. This plaque inside commemorates him.

Another remaining army barracks is the General-von-Stein-Kaserne, built in 1936-37 as part of the upgrade of the Armed Forces on Mainburgerstraße. It was first named the Artilleriekaserne as the Artillerieregiment 7 was first stationed here and later renamed after Hermann Freiherr von Stein, a Bavarian General of Artillery in the First World War. From 1939 the Fahrersatzabteilung 7 was based here followed, from 1942 until the end of the war, again by the Artillerie-Regiments 7. After the war it served the USAAF; from 1948 to 1957 it was the home of the 604th Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron. In 2010 the site was converted into a residential area and all surrounding buildings were demolished. 
The III Abteilung des Artillerieregiments 7 on Hitlerstraße moving on its way to the new barracks
The Nazi eagle that graced the entrance has been removed, but its round base remains. Across the street on Sighardstrasse social housing estates (Wohnungsbau) built immediately after the war can still be found.
On the base of Mary's column on Marienplatz is a reference (incongruously in German rather than Latin) to local boy and former Hitlerjugend Pope Benedict's 2006 visit when he was made an honorary citizen.
In the 1997 book Salt of the Earth: The Church at the End of the Millennium, the then Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger was asked in an interview With Peter Seewald to address the question of whether he was ever in the Hitler Youth.
At first we weren’t, but when the compulsory Hitler Youth was introduced in 1941, my brother was obliged to join. I was still too young, but later as a seminarian, I was registered in the Hitler Youth. As soon as I was out of the seminary, I never went back. And that was difficult because the tuition reduction, which I really needed, was tied to proof of attendance at the Hitler Youth.
Both brothers were ordained in Freising on 29 June 1951; the photo of their ordination is often found cropped online to depict him making the Hitler salute. Ratzinger is shown right on Freising Dom as Archbishop of Munich and Freising (1977-1982).



Pope Benedict XVI's arms incorporate the Coat of arms of the Prince-Bishopric of Freising and the seal of Freising (right). Both the bear and the head represent St. Corbinianus, a 7th century bishop of Freising.
 
The Domberg as it appeared during the war
 
and after
Leading up to the cathedral
 
The Cathedral during the NSDAP era and now. Apparently there had been a judensau on the cathedral until 1921. The inscription attached to the fifteenth century Judensau in the choirof read:“Sowahr die Maus die Katz nit frisst, wird der Jud kein wahrer Christ” (as much as the mouse does not eat the cat, the Jew won’t become a true Christian).

The former Knabenseminar, (now the Dombergmuseum) was converted by the Nazis into a military hospital during the war.
 
The Christi-Himmelfahrt Evangelical Church after the bombing of April 18, 1945.

As it appears today after plans of the Günzburger architect Julius Ott. It was consecrated May 22, 1952. The memorial in front marks the 200 who were killed in the bombing, forty of whom were parishioners of this church.
 
The railway station immediately after having been bombed, provisionally cleared up, and now

The post office across the street too was destroyed, shown after its destruction, as it appears in Freising von 1945 bis 1950, and today

Brunnhausgasse after the April 18, 1945 bombing
The remains of the entrances to the air raid shelter below the Lindenkeller

The provisional graves of the victims have been replaced, and today a memorial at the waldfriedhof commemorates Germans from the lost territories

On April 29, 1945 at 18.00 the Isarbrücke was blown up; its current incarnation seen from Korbinianbrücke
  
...but does nothing to stop the allies as the Americans advance down Hitlerstraße. On the 29th at 13:45 the alarm was given and Freisingers ran to their cellars and air raid bunkers. Shortly afterwards from the Ampertal grenades were fired into the city. At 17:30 the first American units reached the Wieskirche; already by noon the last regular German troops had withdrawn from Freising towards the south, leaving only 160 men of the Freising volkssturm between Neustift and Hozgartenstrasse. It was only by around 18:30 that the town commander gave them the order to retreat given that the Americans were already on the main street as shown in the photo above. By 19:15 they now occupied the town centre from Thalhauser straße and Wippenhauserstrasse. It had been the decisive act of Karl Dettenhofer, the former owner of the Bayerischer Hof hotel that Freising was handed over without a fight. After Dettenofer was told by the city commander that "surrender is out of the question", he summarily approached the Americans accompanied by pastor Albert Brey and Alois Schwarz who drove (being the only one of them with a license) with a white flag on the bonnet. Moving towards the enemy lines they asked the commanding American officer to come with them to the remaining German defenders under the Lindenkeller from where the city commander finally signed the order for capitulation.
Looking towards Wihenstephan hill In 1904 and the park beside the Hochschule Weihenstephan in 1937
  
An American GI stands in front of what is now the Technische Universität München at supposedly the oldest brewery in the world- Weihenstephan.  On the right is the  Braustuberl Weihenstephan before the war and today.
 What passes for Weihenstephan's war memorial in a disused lot
Images of Freising from the wartime photographs of a member of the 522nd Field Artillery Battalion of the 442 Regimental Combat Team provided by his sons as Layla 'n Pip. The 442nd is notable in US history for a few reasons, the most extraordinary of which is that soldiers were recruited out of the "relocation camps" -- facilities behind barbed wire in remote parts of the American West where West Coast citizens and resident aliens of Japanese descent were "relocated" by order of the government.
Nazis on Marienplatz during the Third Reich, and Neo-Nazis commemorating the 66th anniversary of the bombing of Freising at the same location, as they do every April 18.
Neo-Nazis at the same site on March 13, 2011 over seventy years later; looks like the handful of members hurried out of their car to take the picture at 3 in the morning... One weekend I was stopped by a nice group of National Socialists on the bridge in town over the Isar and given this brochure against foreigners such as myself. My Chinese wife, a bit further back, wasn't offered one. Difficult to see in the image are the dashed borders within those of Poland and Czech Republic denoting the land Germany "lost" (including the Sudetenland) after the war and which, presumably, this group has still not accepted.
Here, just outside Freising in Dürneck where I cycle past everyday to get to work, is where Ferdinand Marian died in a road accident in 1946. He had been the star of history’s most incendiary film, Jud Süß despite having had an half-Jewish daughter from his first marriage and whose second wife had been married to a Jew whom Marian hid in his house. Apparently he had been driving to Munich drunk with a borrowed car to collect denazification papers that with the permission by US film officer Eric Pleskow that would have allowed him to work again, having celebrated this news just beforehand. Other sources suggest that the accident was suicide although I can't find any support for this claim. His losing fight to not appear in the film was the subject of the German-Austrian movie Jud Süss - Film ohne Gewissen of 2010.
 
Kloster Wies during the Great War and today 
Also just outside Freising but to the east is the 'Naturfreunde' centre in Hangenham overlooking the area which hosted the Nazis in 1933.

Schloss Hohenkammer in kreis Freising, flying the Nazi flag, and a view of the town during the Third Reich and today
The oldest traces of human settlement of the area of ​​Freising disclosed excavations at the Cathedral Hill in 1976 that promoted ceramics and chert units to days. These findings were associated with the Late Neolithic Münchshöfen culture. Other testimonies are extensive finds from the Early Bronze Age and the Urnfield. Also a Roman road on the Isar is known archaeologists. Continuous settlement has indeed been established beyond doubt, because of the exposed position of the Cathedral Hill scenic but most likely. The original town name, the settlement of a Frigis means may be traced back to a local establishment before the Migration and is probably of Celtic origin. From the Duke Palatinate for clergy city The next settlement historical testimonies date from the early Middle Ages, as the place under the name of a Duke Frigisinga Palatinate in the first Bavarian tribal duchy (n from 555. Chr.) Was. After Duke Theodo had split II. During his lifetime the Duchy Boii among his four sons, Freising a residence (Palatium) and a Lady Chapel was around 715 a agilolfingische residence to a castle (Castrum), belonged. Freising is the only known town foundation of the Bavarian Agilolfinger and the oldest town in Upper Bavaria. The Marienkirche, the first predecessor of the later cathedral was, at that time already built of stone and designed as a bishop's church. Duke Theodo had made a pilgrimage to Rome and had with Pope Gregory II. To the establishment of bishoprics in Bavaria asked. This event was recorded in the Liber Pontificalis and led to 716 papal instruction, four bishoprics (Regensburg, Passau, Salzburg and Freising) to found in Bavaria. This first church organization came but however, it had to pay it to Freising one third of revenue. These payments were made until 1803 to the diocese of Freising, and then to 1852 to the Kingdom of Bavaria. The June 14, 1158 is also the official city anniversary of Munich, with the rise of Munich started for later metropolis. After the exile of Henry Munich was awarded in Regensburg difference of 1180 the Bishop of Freising, before it came into the possession of the newly enfeoffed with the duchy of Bavaria Wittelsbach 1240 and 1255 whose residence was. 1159 was started in place of the previous building, the fire fell victim to the same year with the construction of the five-aisled Romanesque cathedral. The reasons for the devastating urban and Dombrand from April 5, 1159 are in the dark. But they were in close temporal association with the discussion of the Bishop of Freising with Henry the Lion. When early recovery (to 1205) occurred Emperor Barbarossa and his wife Beatrix of Burgundy as donors in appearance. At the inner Romanesque Cathedral entrance the donor couple immortalized with relief statues. The building itself was the first brick building north of the Alps since the fall of the Roman Empire. Bishop Albert I. of Harthausen initiated the reconstruction of the following period, although often modified, but in the core goes back to him mighty pillar basilica with two west towers and hall crypt. The famous Beast column (about 1160) in the crypt is the only one of its kind in Germany. Engraving in topographia germaniae of Matthaeus Merian, 1642 Archbishopric In the late Middle Ages, Freising became a major city whose Prince Bishops (Bishopric since 1294) made themselves earned primarily to the Cultural Heritage of their residence. Another important step was the 1359 the town charter by Bishop Albert. The Dukes of Bavaria from the house of Wittelsbach saw the Bishopric of Freising with its counties and possessions (Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Mittenwald, Ismaning, Burgrain and Isen) but always as a thorn in the Bavarian duchy. They tried to members of their own family to be placed on the Freising bishop chair, giving them repeatedly succeeded in the 15th century. Freising in 1698 from the east at a painting in Prince Gang of episcopal residence Freising in 1698 from west Bishop Veit Adam von Gepeckh (1618-1651) was the cathedral remodel extensively and build the bishop's residence. When Peter Paul Rubens, he was the great high altar of the cathedral The Apocalyptic woman in order. He led Freising through the difficult period of the Thirty Years' War. 1632 was the Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus on his way to Munich by Freising, demanded 30,000 guilders and plundered the city yet. Famine and pestilence raged when the Swedes in 1646 again invaded the city. The successor of the bishop, Albrecht Sigismund of Bavaria, founded in 1674 as a sign of the conquered plague Marian column, which is the central square in the old town its name. He built the outer Cathedral entrance and create a courtyard outside the city walls. A heyday Freising under Bishop Johann Franz Eckher of Kapfing and Liechteneck (1696-1727). The Dom, he endowed the Maximilian Chapel, in the assumption of the Holy Maximilian had Christianized already 1500 years ago by Freising Bayern. On Bishop Eckher the prince gear goes back, a photo gallery of all the bishops of Freising and views of Freising lands. 1697 he founded the first Freisinger Hochschule, the (Lyceum) at Marienplatz, and had built the baroque tower of the parish church of St. George. For millennial anniversary diocese (1724) he entrusted the Asam brothers with a major renovation of the Episcopal Church. He also instructed the Benedictine Father Karl Meichelbeck to write a new history. The two-volume historical work Historia Frisingensis considered the first source critical historical work in the German area and continued the long tradition Freisinger historiography. A dark chapter of this time were the children witch trials in Freising, where several children were executed. [7] Joseph Conrad Schroff Berg-Moe, the last prince bishop of Freising secularization Secularization in 1802/03 meant the cancellation of more than a thousand years bishopric Freising and thus the end of the spiritual dominion of the Freising prince-bishops. On August 23, 1802, the city was occupied by the military. From November 27, 1802 civil seizure commissioner Baron Johann Adam von Aretin the city managed. He caused the dissolution of the bishopric, the acquisition of goods and dismissed the cathedral and pin colleges with her court from office. The former residence has been incorporated into the Electorate of Bavaria. The seat of the newly created archdiocese of Munich and Freising was moved to Munich in 1821. The secularization fell all monasteries and many churches in the city to the victim. Either they were fed looted and abandoned or profaned and other uses. The collegiate churches and monasteries of St. Andrew on Cathedral Hill and St. Veit on another hill between Weihenstephan Hill and Toompea were complete, Weihenstephan Monastery largely destroyed. Even the cathedral and its early Gothic side Churches (currants and Benediktuskirche) should be demolished. This, however, prevented the French general Duverdien, who wanted to use the church as a banquet hall for the birthday party of Napoleon Bonaparte. contrast Particularly serious was the loss of Asamkapelle St. Korbinian over a formerly known as Sanctuary source (Korbiniansbrünnlein) on Weihenstephan Hill. The ruin is the only preserved church ruins from the secularization in Bavaria. The buildings of the Premonstratensian Neustift (carried out the incorporation of the district 1905) present themselves as the jewel of the Bavarian Rococo and accommodate the Freising district office. The Benedictine abbey Weihenstephan, founded in 1020 remained as a brewery and agricultural patterns operating condition and is home to the University of Weihenstephan-Triesdorf and the Science Centre Weihenstephan for Food, Land Use and Environment of the Technical University of Munich. Secularization hit the residence of the former Bishopric very hard and put not only their city tradition but their existence per se into question. They lamented the loss of many church property; by eliminating the episcopal rule and to supplying clergy from seven monasteries was a large part of the population Freisinger suddenly unemployed and destitute. It took over a decade to recovered the city from this blow. Even since the Middle Ages rich Freisinger guild life with rare trades such as instrument maker and goldsmith came to a virtual standstill. Freising in Bavaria Kingdom Between 1817 and 1819, the kidneys Bach was arched over a branch of the Stadtmoosach, in the main street and the Heiliggeistgasse. [8] On the occasion of the jubilee celebrations for 25-year reign of the Bavarian King Maximilian Joseph was erected in 1824 in Freising of Koenigstein. The King Stone was first in the school garden near the Heiliggeistspital and in 1853 added to the Fürstendamm. [9] 1834 Lyceum was established as a theological college again, from 1923 evolves the existing until 1969 Philosophical-theological college Freising. They followed up on the first Lyceum 1697-1803. Today in the buildings the cathedral library is housed, which counts with more than 322,000 volumes of the largest ecclesiastical libraries in Germany. [10] In 1858 the AG Bayerische Ostbahnen the first railway line from Munich to Freising and Landshut to Regensburg for passenger and freight free. The station was built south of the city; the route led outside downtown between Isar and Cathedral Hill. [11] Because of the increased traffic and the low headroom all medieval city gates were demolished in the 19th century. From the Freising town fortifications are only Citizens tower where there is a museum, and Charles Sturm. other hand obtaining remained the gates at entry points to the Cathedral Hill. [8] a building designed by Matthias Berger building for the Archbishop boys' seminar on the premises of the deanery of St. Andrew on Cathedral Hill from 1868 to 1870. built, which today houses the Dombergmuseum. [8] Since the garrison should be laid in Neustift (in the former monastery Neustift) to Freising, began on 7 December 1904, the construction work for the Prince Arnulf Barracks (later Vimy Barracks). The municipality Neustift thus lost an important economic factor, which is why she applied for compensation as the incorporation to Freising, which was completed on January 1, 1905 [12]. [13] Am Domberg received 1900-1902 the a seminary residence an extension. Architect of the building on the site of the former Church of St. Andrew was Gabriel von Seidl. In 1904/05 the new Freisinger town hall was built at Marienplatz, the Munich architect Günther Blumentritt had planned. 1908 arched kidney Bach was drained in downtown during the construction of sewers. [8] During the First World War was, as in Germany, especially the deteriorating supply situation is a problem for the population. Revolution, the Weimar Republic and National Socialism Freising Marienplatz 1900 1918 was abolished with the November Revolution in Bavaria, the monarchy and Kurt Eisner proclaimed the republic. Also in Freising a worker, soldier and Bauernrat was founded. However, the municipal administration to Mayor Stephan Bierner remained in office and continued working. From the state elections on 20 January 1919, the Bavarian People's Party and the SPD were in Freising with 48 or 39 percent emerged as a clear winner. In the cabinet of Kurt Eisner a native Freisinger was with Hans Unterleitner as social affairs minister represented. [14] A few days after the assassination of Eisner proclaimed the Soviet Republic in Freising as in Munich on 7 April 1919th Opposite the communist Soviet Republic a few days after that Freising neutral behaved, albeit Freisinger garrison had probably been on their side. On April 26, 1919, the troops of the Government engaged in Bamberg exile of Regensburg Coming to Freising one against which there was no resistance. The city is known for parliamentary government, however, declared to protect the followers of the Soviet Republic among its citizens and not to betray them. On April 30, the troops moved on to Munich and beat in the days that followed the rule of the councils was violently suppressed. [14] On September 7, 1922, the Freisinger NSDAP local group was founded. 1924 celebrated Freising one week the 1200 anniversary of the diocese. At church services, speeches and processions were about 50,000 visitors. 1925 railway line Munich-Landshut was electrified, opened the Mission Seminar of the SAC on 14 September 1930 and the associated Pallottinerkirche St. John the Baptist ordained in the north of the city. 1933 resigned Mayor Stephan Bierner, who was more than 30 years in office after the special commissioner for the city and county of Freising Hans Lechner and the local Nazi group leader Georg Preiser had demanded his resignation. However, the mayor denied in a speech that he was forced to resign. Although he was not a Nazi, but always been a national and German-minded man. His interim successor was the Regierungsbaurat Gottlieb Schwemmer, later Karl Lederer was used. On April 1, 1937 parts of the territory of the municipality Vötting came to the city, [12] which was incorporated on 22 May 1940 in the district of Freising. Aerial view of 25 April 1945 can be recognized by the General-of-stone barracks (B), the Vimy Barracks (C) and the Replacement Barracks (F). Clearly visible are the damage the raid of April 18 in the station area. In addition to Vimy Barracks two barracks were built in Freising in the 1930s. Between 1933 and 1936, was built on the Haindl finger street called Replacement Barracks (E Barracks), which was first still disguised as SA-sports school, and 1936/37, the General-of-stone barracks am Main Burgersberg. [13] In the Kristallnacht, there were 1938 in Freising riots. An about 3,000 people full crowd moved through the city and urged the Jewish inhabitants to leave the city. The daughter of a department store owner, after she had come to the streets, led around to look at and then put her father in protective custody. Another victim of the riots was the lawyer and later mayor of Max Lehner. Although he was not a Jew, he was beaten with a sign saying to Judah driven through the city. He was accused of being Jewish hearing and to represent Jews in court. 1945 Of the 16 Freisinger Jews in 1933 lived only two who had fled to England or Palestine. Although they returned to Germany, but not to Freising. Until shortly before the war, the city was not directly affected by the war. It was considered as hardly important war industry was present and was on Cathedral Hill a military hospital for foreign officers in population and authorities as safe from bombing. The only heavy air raid on Freising took place on April 18, 1945, and called 224 fatalities. Target of the attack with 61 Boeing B-17 was the railway station. The area around the station with the factories of Steinecker and Schlüter was the most affected. Here also the Ascension Church was destroyed; the area at Wörth and the area around the cooking Bäckergasse were hit harder. Even a little chapel at Dombergsüdhang and a building on Cathedral Hill were destroyed. The victims were buried in mass graves at the cemetery in Neustift. [15] [16] On 29 April 1945, American troops approaching the city. In the early afternoon they were fired by artillery. Particularly affected was the northern part of the city. Some businessmen, including the hotel owner Dettenhofer (Hotel Bayerischer Hof), tried to persuade the city commandant to surrender. On steeple of the parish church of St. George they had hoisted the white flag, which had to be hauled in. A second attempt Dette Hofer to bring the commander in whose headquarters the task was not successful because of the feared SS in the city. Since the American troops had now reached the outskirts, located Dettenhofer went with the mayor and the parish priest of St. George on them. They reached a cease-fire in order to negotiate the surrender of the city can. An American officer accompanied them back to the command post. The SS was now withdrawn and the commander agreed to a surrender of the city to. On the same day about 18 o'clock the Korbinian bridge was blown over the Isar from the SS in order to obstruct the American advance. The very next day a pontoon bridge was built which could be used for the time being, however, a few exceptions only by the military. Within five days, a footbridge made of wood and until June 2, was built a motorable bridge for heavier vehicles Freisinger companies at the destroyed bridge. The Korbinian bridge was built in slightly altered form to 1948 again. [16] History As temporary mayor of the Police Commissioner Rasch was used on 30 April. Already on May 2, he was replaced Emil Berg from this office. On March 8, 1946, the city was taken back from the district Freising and received back their circle immediacy. On 26 May 1946, the first municipal elections were held, from the CSU emerged as the winner. The city council chose Karl Wiebelsberg the new mayor. (→ Politics in Freising) [16] On January 15, 1952, the last resident officer left the city. Thus, the Americans withdrew from the policy of the city of Freising. 1956 long-planned road breakthrough from Johannisplatz was started to the station and there was today Johannisstraße. In early 1957, the first 300 German soldiers came to Freising as part of the Transport Company of the Air Force Supply Regiment Erding I and were initially (General-von-Stein-Kaserne) housed in the artillery barracks in which at that time also American troops were still accommodated. On July 18, the barracks turned into German hands. In 1966, the last of the three Freisinger barracks was handed over by the Americans and the army after 21 years left the last American troops Freising. [13] 1959 gas, water and electricity supply to the city were combined under the umbrella of the newly formed Stadtwerke Freising. On September 8th of this year a new wastewater treatment plant was put into operation and on 30 September 1965, the Freisinger prison in Fischergasse was closed. 1967 directed the state government for the Hofoldinger forestry and also for the Erdinger Moos, just outside the town of Freising a the regional planning procedure for the new Munich Airport. On 6 August 1969, the decision was made for the site Erdinger Moos, which led to violent protests. 1969 the Philosophical-theological college Freising was closed and founded the University of Applied Sciences Weihenstephan 1 August 1971st On 1 July 1972, the city was the administrative reform in Bavaria again a part of the district. At the same time the previously independent municipalities Haindlfing, Itzling (partial), and Sünzhausen Tüntenhausen and on 1 May 1978, the municipalities amalgamated Pulling and Attaching in the town of Freising. [12] [17] To cope with the increasing traffic and relieve the city center, in 1974 the so-called high route was opened. This new road layout crosses the railway line and the Moosach. On 11 September of the following year subsequent to the elevated guideway new Isarbrücke was released with the name Luitpold Bridge opened to traffic. The building connects the northern and southern parts of the city together. Until then, the road ran through downtown on a level crossing with barrier and over the narrow bridge Korbinian. Since May 26, 1972, the S-train runs from Freising to Munich. In 1972, the gym was opened in the Luitpold conditioning. Between 1975 and 1980, the Cathedral High School received a new building on Cathedral Hill. Given the Phillip castle were rebuilt and two canons' replaced by new buildings. [8] Caused a stir in Freising 1976 kidnapping case Richard Oetker. The industrialist's son was abducted on 14 December in the parking lot of the Technical University of Munich at Weihenstephan. Two days later, and after payment of 21 million DM ransom he was released in the environment. [18] 1989 celebrated the anniversary Freising 1250 years Sacred City and 1996 1000 years Markets Freising. Between 1988 and 1995, lying between two Moosacharmen directly to the Old Town area at the Wörth was fundamentally redesigned. On the vacated by relocation of the municipal nursery areas and a parking lot new buildings and a parking garage were built. [8] Munich Airport is since 1992 on the outskirts of town Large urban changes and a massive increase in population had Freising since the construction of the airport Munich Franz Josef Strauss in 1980 and its opening in 1992. The lies partly within the boundaries of the district town airport is only 5 km from the center of the city and 3 km away from Lerchenfeld district. Already on May 2, the largest part of the municipal staff was a led by the mayor's Emil Berg to nungenzubeginnen in this difficult time together with the police and the military government have Wi receptive eder of public life with first aid and Verwaltungsanord-. AlsFolgedesGesetzesNr.8 the military government which ruled that e- hemalige NSDAP members and their sub-divisions only allowed to be employed as ordinary workers, the previous administration was Stadtver Captain Snow, the military governor, deposed. As official handout erschi s the "demand of the city and the district Freising judge leaf" for the first time 26 May 1945th In August 1945 were 18 street names performed (among others Adolf Hitler Street in Captain Snow Straß e, later Upper e Haupts treet, Hindenburgstraße in Lower High Street, Adolf Wagner treet road in garden, Herbert Norkus Straß e in Fabri k street, Horst Wessel Strass-way Hofstraße) On September 6, 1945, a provisional city council was formed, but it had only a consultative role. He owned the masters Johann Braun, Carl Dettenhofer, Michael Einreiner, Georg Erl, Martin Fischer, Dr. Franz Geroß, Michael Klauber, Leonhard Rödl, JosefSchelsundKarlWarmuthan. The Spruchkammer Freising city was opened on 15 M ay 1946, chaired by Dr. Lochner and Dr. Goss as a public plaintiff. She worked fast19.000Fälle. The first free local elections were held on 26 Mai1946statt. 65 years war Freising Bombed station building, provisionally prepared in 1945 used by the military government Stadtpolizei 1947: from left: Hans Hagl, Toni Sedlmeier, Josef Geißdörfer, Hans Meier Edit .: Stadtarchiv Freising Major-Braun-Weg 12, 85354 Freising Phone: 08161-2349821 Fax: 08161-2349822 Internet: http://www.stadtarchiv.freising.de eMail: stadtarchiv@freising.de © 2010 Published on July 29, 1945 65 years war Freising During World War II more than 40 million people were victims of a cruel and murderous war, including en was also hundreds of victims from the city and district of Freising. The day the war ended on May 8, 1945 is therefore Nisse a day of remembering those terrible, inhumane events j very year. "Remembering helps the life and Weiterle- ben. It helps the coexistence in this world, for the future, "were the words of Dr. Haßlberger during a memorial service 199. 5 The bombing of Freising Immediately with the horrors of war Freising was on April 18, 1945, faced against 15 o'clock. With hundreds of wounded, prisoners of war, refugees and bombed (from Munich) already fas t ei ne Laz aretts tadt, rec you hnete against the looming end of the war no longer sat with an attack. But within the last flights of 1 Airdi vision 8th Airforce Army (their 959th sortie) with the objectives of Rosenheim and Trauns protein also flew 61 Maschi nen at Freising. Center of the attack was the fiscal territory to the station with the adjacent home dustriebetrieben, doc h bombs sc hlugen in Vinzentinum in Bahnhofstrasse and in the territory Koch Bäckergasse / a Oberer Graben. 228 people died in the rubble, were added by shrapnel many wounded. 200 buildings were damaged, 20 completely destroyed, the Steinecker factory burned three days l nes. Freedom Action Bavaria (FAB) in Freising On April 27, heard many citizens of southern Bavaria, as well as in Freising in the broadcast receivers calling the Freedom Action Bavaria by Hauptmann Rupprecht Gerngross for immediate termination of the war. Meanwhile tried on the Haidberghof at Pettenbrunn, the command post of the freedom movement, Vertrauensl oday the organization (including the Freising commander of Panzerjägerabteilung Major Brown), the imperial Stadholderless Ritter von Epp, who had been brought at the instance of Captain Gerngross to Freising, to persuade the movement to win, or of the futility of further warfare. But all attempts were going on successfully. In a 10-point program, which is essentially concerned with the areas of "removal the Nati onalsozialismus and militarism, fight anarchy, Sic manufacturing of nutrition, rebuilding the rule of law, establishment of a social Or dnung, reintroduction of basic rights and Mensc henwürde "described summed up, try again hte the FAB already a Gr andl age Eisten for the reconstruction of the country after the war to l. Bold Freisinger citizens preserve the city v or further destruction On 29 April at 13.45 rang for the last time the sirens in Freising and chased the people in the air-raid shelters. Soon after tially impacted from the opposite bank of the Amper first Grana th of Americans in a Town. The Freisin- ger population expected panic in their homes bzw.in public shelters further Akti ones of the Americans. In under- ground command post of town commanders in Lindenkeller be prepared, reinforced ärkt by people of the SS, the "defense" of the city before. Although the white flag was already hoisted on the tower of the parish church, erwi--made to the fire of the Americans. In this dangerous situation hten courageous Freisin- ger citizens temptation under the leadership of the hotel owner Carl Dettenhofer to convince the city commandant, the city ben immediately handed over without a fight. After the SS wanted to continue on repeated e- nergisches urging Dettenhofer the fight, decided this with pastor Brey and Mayor Lechner to that arrived already on the Lanke Mountain Ameri- kanern with the white flag against down. There they finally succeeded, the Americans to convince them of the peaceful intentions of all Freising citizens, so that the Americans were deterred from one bombardment of the city. Detten- Hofer drove towards evening at the top of the American Association of th e city and event this led the population formed the hoisting of weißenFahnen. AlsderZugsichvordemLinden- cellar, eventually resulted also th e German officers. Through their courageous and selfless intervention Those responsible for civil Carl Dettenhofer who was the initiator, and his fellow Al ois Pfaller, R udolf Kraml, Alois Schwarz and the pastor of St. George, Albert Brey in this way the city Freising before further Beschieß ung and Z erstö- tion preserved. Sr. ieriger new beginning Likewise wiediesinnlose Bursting Isarbrücke on April 29 could also stattfi in the following days ndenden looting in Heeres- ver pflegungsamt (beyond the Bahnlini e), in the share tavern in army ordnance (mykaserne behind the vinyl), in the DAF site (German Labour front) in Laubenbräu and the Reichsbahn wagons not be prevented. Even before the Sc hul e n, Pr i vat i e be n an d concerning Where hn ung s was not stopped. Only the views and sawn notices the military government with Strafan- threats after redeeming the war on May 8 led to the partial return of the financial plündertenGuts. The workers home (Brunnhausgasse 4) was 100% and the Outbuildings (no. 2) destroyed 70%, both the club Vinzentius- g ries ig Bürgerfest in the Upper Main, 1940 Behelfsabrücke for geprengte of the SS Isarbrücke 1945 Opened in 1881, Ignaz Neuburger as a family, a department store in the Bahnhofstrasse. 4. The Neuburger were harassed systematically from 1933rd The last Jewish family verliesen 1939 three G eschwister Neubur ger, Alfred, Sieghar d and Emma the city of Freising. Your 1891 bought house was "arisiert". In 1941, she was deported to Riga and died at a Erschie- ßungsaktion in Kovno. The picture above shows the department store Neuburg in 1915, down to the expulsion in 1940 On 14 September 2006 Pope Benedict XVI visited. the end of his Bayern travel the city of Freising.