Nazi-era sites around Munich (5)

Staatskanzlei and Munich War Memorial
The Bavarian State Chancellery serves as the personal offices of the chancellery staff. It was erected from 1989 to 1993 around the central dome of the former Bavarian Army Museum, which had been built in 1905 at the site of the Hofgartenkaserne barracks and was demolished during the Second World War. After its destruction during the war, the two side wings were torn off, the central building was for a ruin for decades. By 1982, however, the 52 metre high dome with its copper coverage was restored.  
 
The remnants of some renaissance arcades of the Hofgarten in the north were integrated to the building. The two new wings are covered in full length with glazed stairs in the style of Jacob's Ladders, giving the impression of ship stairs. At the request of then-Prime Minister Max Streibl an intimate space with wood panelling and furnishings, ("Zirbelstube") was inserted after the reception room of the Prime Minister, who caused a stir because of high costs. The building comprises about 8,800 m². To the east of the building the stream Köglmühlbach flows past above ground. Before the west side of the courtyard is the war memorial and the equestrian statue for Duke Otto I Wittelsbach.
From 1905-1945, this housed the Bavarian Army Museum, founded by Ludwig II. Destroyed during the war with only the dome remaining, it has since been rather impressively reconstructed and is now used by the Bavarian government. In front of the building, beneath a Travertine slab, is a crypt commemorating the unknown soldier. The mausoleum, adorned with the names of the dead and the dedication “To Our Fallen” on one side of the chamber and the assurance “They Will Rise Again” on the other, leads down to a sunken crypt-like space enclosing the full-size sculpture of a soldier in battle-dress laid out upon the altar of the fatherland.  
All the names have become a sign for men of one fate, as it were traces of the mythos of the fallen. . . . The view upon all the names of one mission [Berufenheit] of itself awakens in us the need for a figure in which the fate of the many, who have become one, is allegorically [gleichnishaft] embodied. We are prepared to descend into the crypt located below the altar-tomb-block. In it is the sought-for image of the one who represents all: a young warrior in his repose of death...

 [T]he way in which the Munich memorial addresses [anspricht] the individual is fundamentally different from the effect that the individualistic figurative memorial [of the nineteenth century] exerts on the individual. For one comes to the single figure after having crossed the chamber of the community, whose walls hold the columns of names of the sacrifices [Opfer] and the supporters of a new national community [Volksgemeinschaft]. And the individual, whose image the crypt harbours, is indeed not an individual, but rather a symbol of all who fell . . . that is why we feel the symbol always as a person . . . in the ordinary sense proper to the concept. Persona comes from personare and that means “to sound through.” The whole sounds through the one, through whom he existed and for whose sake he fell: his nation [Volk].
 Hubert Schrade, Das deutsche Nationaldenkmal

 During the November 1918 Revolution, and two photographs from memorial ceremonies in December 1924 and November 1931.
  
GIFs: The tomb of the Unknown Soldier during the war and today.
 Originally erected in front of the former Army Museum (now the Bavarian State Chancellery) in the Hofgarten in 1924 to commemorate the 2 million dead of the Great War, the 'Dead Soldier' sculpted by Bleeker now dedicated to the dead of both world wars. It was also used as a backdrop for nationalist and militaristic propaganda during the Nazi era. Annual remembrance days for war heroes were organised here by both the Wehrmacht and the Nazi party from 1934 onwards. This war memorial modelled on a megalithic tomb was already one of the most visited war memorials in Germany even during the Weimar Republic. Its centrepiece is a crypt in which Bernhard Bleeker’s idealised figure of the “dead soldier” is laid out, representing the 13,000 Munich soldiers who fell in the First World War and whose names were once engraved on the walls of a further walkway that circumscribed the memorial. Damaged during the Second World War, the war memorial was restored on the orders of the American military government, albeit without the names of the 13,000 dead. In the 1950s an inscription was added commemorating the fallen soldiers and civilian victims of the years 1939 to 1945. This dedication reflects the desire of the population to continue commemorating the war dead even after 1945, although its portrayal of both the city and its population exclusively as victims represents a very one-dimensional view. To this day military ceremonies in honour of the dead are still held regularly at the war memorial. Directly in front is the Memorial for the Resistance
Leo Kornbrust’s memorial was unveiled on 24 July 1996 by the Bavarian Minister president Dr. Edmund Stoiber. It is engraved on one side with a line of block letters reading "Zum erinnern zum gedenken" ("To Recall and to Commemorate") under which is a reproduction of a handwritten letter by Generalfeldmarschall Erwin von Witzleben who was arrested the day after the attempted July plot. 
We will not pass judgement on the various possible forms of government as only one will be raised clear and unambiguously: every person has a right to a useful and just state that guarantees the freedom of the individual and to he general welfareFreedom of speech, freedom of religion, the protection of individual citizens from the arbitrary will of criminal regimes of violenceThese are the foundations of the new Europe.
During his trial he was forced to appear in court without his belt and false teeth. On August 8, 1944 he was executed by being hanged by piano wire from a meat hook. 
In the centre of the Hofgarten is its pavilion, the Diana temple, designed by Heinrich Schön the Elder in 1615 shown after the war and today. Its roof is adorned with a copy of the Tellus Bavaria bronze statue by Hubert Gerhard from 1623; the original is now set up as part of the bronze collection in the Vierschäftesaal of the Munich Residenz. After the Second World War when the Hofgarten was destroyed, a compromise was found between the stylistic elements of an English landscape garden and the original design of the 17th century. From July to November 1937, the propaganda exhibition "Degenerate Art" organised by the Nazis which took place in the northern Hofgartenarkaden.

ϟϟ-Deutschland-Kaserne
ϟϟ-Deutschland-Kaserne
The monumental main building of today's Ernst-von-Bergmann barracks at Neuherbergstraße 11 was built for the ϟϟ-Standarte 1 Deutschland between 1934 and 1938, according to plans by Oswald Bieber. This was an armed union of the so-called "ϟϟ-Einsatzgruppe", which later appeared in the "Waffen-ϟϟ" which served primarily as a representative and guardian of the regime before the war. The ϟϟ-Standarte 1 Deutschland was permanently outside the barracks as a result of the Sudeten crisis from October 1938 onwards, and from the beginning of the war was involved several times in war crimes. The "ϟϟ Barracks Freimann" served as an accommodation and training place for the ϟϟ during the war; ϟϟ-Flak units were also stationed here. Whilst the ϟϟ men were housed in the barracks, ϟϟ leaders and sub-leaders lived with their families in a settlement built south of the barracks which can still be seen in the residential buildings on today's Kleinschmidtstraße. During the war, an external camp of the Dachau concentration camp, whose relatives had to work for  ϟϟ administration, was placed within the barracks. Other concentration camp prisoners were housed in a concentration camp outside the barracks and had to carry out labour for the Dyckerhoff & Widmann construction company.
View of the parade ground with the eight-storey tower next to the former main guard at Ingolstädter Strasse in 1939. The externally plain and spacious barracks construction, also known as the ϟϟ Barracks Freimann, was erected in reinforced concrete. The functional architecture of the ϟϟ barracks differed in terms of the costly materials used, the elaborate construction techniques and the renouncement of any façade ornamentation, which were mostly constructed as brick buildings and had decorative elements. The ϟϟ-Standarte 1 Deutschland had taken part in the annexation of Austria and later the occupation of the Sudetenland before contributing to the annexation of Bohemia and Moravia in March, 1939. It was ordered by Hitler that it should be expanded to a division but the war interrupted this plan. It took part in the invasion of Poland attached to Panzer-Division Kempf and following that campaign it was used to form ϟϟ-Division Verfügungstruppe, later renamed Das Reich. It was as this division which is notorious for having descended on the village of Oradour-sur-Glane, France, in reprisal for partisan attacks. After assembling the villagers, the troops separated the men from the women and children, then shot the men as their families looked on. After this, the troops herded the women and children into a local church, locked the doors, and set the structure ablaze with hand grenades. A total of 642 died. 
An armoured division of the US Army, which entered the country on April 30, 1945, took the barracks after fierce fighting in the Lohhof Panzerwiese area. From 1948 the barracks "Warner Kaserne", used by the Americans until 1968, was named after Henry F. Warner, who had fallen in the Ardennes on December 21, 1944, to which the Congress of the United States posthumously published the "Medal of Honour, the highest American award for bravery. In addition to military use, UNESCO used the buildings to accommodate dispersed persons (DPs) and the headquarters of the International Refugee Organization (IRO) on the site until 1951. The international refugee organisation supported the approximately 3,800 DPs of different nationalities living here (as of October 1950) during the intended departure.

Funk-Kaserne
 
Dating from 1936, now used by the police.  The funkkaserne was erected as a Luftwaffe news barracks in the course of the armament of the Wehrmacht from 1936 to 1938. The buildings survived the Second World War largely without damage.  In the post-war years until May 1955, the US Army and the UN Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) operated the largest southern German Resettlement Center for Displaced Persons, a transitional accommodation for predominantly Eastern European forced labourers, who were sent to Germany during the  war. Pioneer barracks of the Bundeswehr  From 1956 to 1992 the area was a barracks of the army of the Bundeswehr. Despite the sole use as a pioneer barracks, the name "Funkkaserne" was retained. Lastly, it was the pioneer battalion 210, the pioneer battalion 220 - a training unit a few kilometres away in the Prinz Eugene barracks, and the Panzerpionierkompanie 560. The pioneer battalion 210 (heavy pioneer battalion of the 2nd corps) was intended to make blasting shafts with  drill vehicles in the event of a war. According to rumours, it was planted for the use of Atom mines stored at the US 10th Special Forces Group in the Flint Barracks in Bad Toelz. The military use of the barracks ended with a final meeting in March 1992 in the presence of the then Secretary of State and later Bavarian Minister-President Günther Beckstein, the first major Munich Bundeswehr property to be abandoned in the course of the reduction of troops. After a canal and an old canal restoration and a dismantling of the rail connection from military times to the railway line from Freimann to Schwabing, the demolition work for the former barracks building began at the end of 2010 and a new construction is planned for the year 2016. An area of ​​8.72 hectares in the north-east corner of the former barracks area was excluded from the urban transformation and remained the property of the federal government. It is still used by the Federal Police for accommodation and services buildings and is to be compacted in favour of additional residential buildings.
 
Just outside the reichsadler remains, shorn of its swastika (although traces are left). Even though it is allowed to appear outside the walls of the former base, I was told not to take photos of it (which of course I ignored).


Adolf-Hitler-Kaserne
Formerly the Karl-Liebknecht-Kaserne, this is where Hitler stayed after returning to Munich after the Great War until 1920. It was named after him in 1934. Much of it was destroyed during the Second World War and the remaining buildings used for residential purposes.

Reichsfinanzhof
Currently serving as the Bundesfinanzhof, the highest tax court, from 1933 the judgements here provided the legal justification for the expropriation of political opponents and Jews, the latter through the "Reichsfluchtsteuer". From the 1939 directory:
Reich Finance Court in Munich (Reichsfinanzhof zu München) Ismaningerstrasse 109; Telephone: 480255/6 The Reich Finance Court is the supreme court in Reich tax matters. In final appeal proceedings it hands down decisions in cases especially referred to it by law. The Senate of the Reich Finance Court, composed of five members, including the chairman, decides in legal complaint cases. At the final vote the case is decided by the votes of at least three members, including the chairman. The Reich Finance Court is the supreme authority in respect to real property taxes, in so far as the taxes are administered by state offices and Oberfinanzpräsidenten (Chief Finance Presidents). In addition, upon application of a Land (state) government, the Reich Finance Minister can designate the Reich Finance Court as the supreme court for the taxes of the states (Länder), communes, communal associations and religious societies.
The former site of the Nationalsozialistischer Deutscher Dozentenbund (NSDDB). One of the responsibilities of the National Socialist Association of German Lecturers, founded in 1935 as a professional association of university lecturers designed to keep them in line with Nazi ideology and located at what is today Max-Joseph-Straße 4. It was to push for the dismissal of politically undesirable university lecturers, to run the universities according to dictatorial principles and to make the curriculum conform with Nazi ideology. The conditions for bringing the universities into line were favourable in Munich, for even before 1933 the National Socialist German Students’ Association at the Technical University had held almost half the seats on the Students’ Committee. Students eventually had to be members of the Nationalsozialistischen deutschen Studentenbund. The NSDStB, headed from 1928 to 1933 by Baldur von Schirach, served to promote the Nazi way of life through indoctrination with Nazi philosophy, and included physical training and military drills. Universities were purged of Jewish, liberal, and social-democrat personnel who were harassed, dismissed, forced into exile and retirement, and even imprisoned and replaced by inexperienced and unqualified but reliable Nazi professors. This was a terrible loss for Germany which had held a position of world leadership in science but gave Britain and America many scientists, such as Albert Einstein, who were forced into exile. 
University teachers were controlled by the NSDDB. The new curriculum emphasised the basic elements of Nazi ideology- racism, nationalism, Germanic culture, duty, loyalty to the Führer, soldierly spirit, obedience and discipline. Students were often required to put aside their books and spend months in military training and labour camps. With continual rounds of marches, rallies and other party activities, the desperate professors had to ease their requirements drastically in order to graduate sufficient numbers.
The educational reforms instituted by the Nazi regime had catastrophic results. The traditional German humanism was replaced with politico-racial institutions dedicated to militarism, racial hatred and aggressive expansionism. Many young people began to question the value of obtaining the once-prestigious Abitur—the graduation certificate needed to enter a university. By the late 1930s, many students were dropping out of school to work as craft apprentices or industrial trainees. Education—from elementary schools to the universities—became merely an appendage of the Propaganda Ministry, intellectual standards declined precipitously and a whole generation was the victim of odious indoctrination. 
LePage  (93)  Hitler Youth
The main building of the Reichszeugmeisterei, built by Paul Hofer and Karl Johann Fischer, in Tegernseer Landstraße 210 with Nazi flags and a Reichsadler over the entrance portal. The Nazi leadership demonstrated power and rule with the monumental building in the "rot Giesing". In 1934, the Nazis bought the site between Tegernseer Landstrasse, Peter-Auzinger- and Soyerhofstrasse, which had once belonged to the car body builder Beißbarth. Two years later, the party bought the Warthof, which had been used as an evangelical orphanage since 1911. The buildings of the Reichszeugmeisterei, the Reichsautozugs Deutschland and the Bavaria auxiliary train were built on the huge, traffic-heavy situated area from 1935 onwards. In addition to service buildings and housing blocks for the accommodation of the employees, a remote heating installation with a widely visible roof was also installed. The Reich General Ordnance Depot "was one of the largest concrete skeleton constructions erected during the Nazi period" (Kopleck, 73) which housed party vehicles. Today can be seen the traces of the reichsadler above the entrance and, along the sides, surviving reliefs depicting German enterprise. The Reichszeugmeisterei was the Nazis' central procurement office and developed into its largest service centre, inspecting the production and distribution of all official equipment and uniforms, such as the brown shirt, Nazi flag and party badge. After the war, the US Army confiscated the largely indestructible buildings as a barracks, and in 1948 it was named after corporal Francis X. McGraw , who had fallen in the Rhineland in 1944. The McGraw barracks were the seat of the military government for Bavaria.
Nazi uniforms and regalia were designed, manufactured, controlled and sold by the Reichszeugmeisterei, literally the National Material Control Office, which can be thought of as a government procurement office. The Reichszeugmeisterei was established at almost the moment that Hitler took over the government of Germany. By July 1934, the RZM was in place with a director, staff and offices in Munich at Tegernseer Landstrasse 210. Officially, it had the solitary purpose of selecting suppliers and sellers of certain NSDAP uniform-related products. It had exclusive legal authority to design and control quality and costs of uniforms, badges, medals and other regalia. Since its mission was on behalf of the Nazi Party (the RZM was a branch of the Treasury Department) its jurisdiction included material for use by both the Gliederungen der NSDAP and Angeschlossende Verbände (associated units). Secondarily, the RZM was charged with making sure that the production of all that they ordered was carried out in “Aryan” manufacturing plants, with materials of German origin whenever possible. Producers authorised by the RZM were not allowed to employ “non–Aryan” workers, and had to give preference to Nazi Party members when promoting workers and dealers. Each firm authorised to produce or sell RZM material was issued an RZM registration number and it was required that the number appear on all finished products they made or sold. The RGBI I- 1269 law promulgated on 20 December 1934 punished by imprisonment or forced labour the illegal manufacture, wearing of Nazi uniforms and bearing of regalia. The official RZM shops for retailing Nazi Party badges and equipment were shown by a white metal sign with the inevitable swastika/eagle emblem and the words, “Zum Verkauf parteiamtlicher Gegenstände zugelassen NSDAP Reichszeugmeisterei”. The RGBI I-844 law from 26 June 1935 punished by imprisonment any person who insulted, despised, or mocked Nazi regalia, uniforms and flags.
Jean-Denis G.G. Lepage, Hitler Youth, 1922-1945, pp50-51
Rosenstrasse
Rosenstraße in the city centre with flags for the Reichstag elections at the end of March 1936 and today.
In 1895 Josef Schülein established the Unionsbrauerei in Haidling which quickly developed into one of the largest breweries of Munich. Because Schülein was a Jew, its beer was often defamed as “Jew beer”.
 
 Ehemaliger Flughafen Oberwiesenfeld
 The airport administration buildings with a Junkers D 1758 in 1931. As early as the late 19th century, the military field at Oberwiesenfeld was identified as a suitable location for the emerging air traffic. In 1890 the "Luftschiffer-Lehrabteilung" of the Bavarian army was founded. On the drill field, hot air balloons and zeppelins took off and landed as did, from 1909, simple aircraft. After the First World War use was limited to civil aviation. The equipment of the airfield was very modest, as there were missing buildings for the repair of the airplanes and for waiting passages. In 1927, the city council of Munich issued a planning contract, which envisaged the expansion of Oberwiesenfeld as an "airport of the first order". After completion of the hangar and the modern administration building, the Munich Airport was opened on May 3, 1931 by Lord Mayor Karl Scharnagl. Due to the rapidly increasing number of passengers, it was already clear shortly after the opening that the airport on the Oberwiesenfeld would soon be too small. Due to the adjacent development, the airport could not be extended. After the completion of the new Munich-Riem traffic lane in 1939, the Luftwaffe used the Oberwiesenfeld airport. After the war it was confiscated by the US armed forces and then used by private pilots until the airport buildings were demolished in 1968 in the course of the design of the Olympics park for the 1972 Munich Olympic Games.
 
Swastikas remaining  on the façade at Marsstraße 26

Former home of Reinhard Heydrich
This is a photo from my last visit of Reinhard Heydrich's home outside Munich at Zuccalistraße 4 near Nymphenburg castle. Of this house his wife Lina wrote "When unexpected visitors arrive, the architecture of the house makes it possible for us to make everything disappear in time. Our dog gives us plenty of warning."
At the end of the war, Heydrich's widow returned to the island of Fehmarn with her surviving children. She owned and ran a hotel and restaurant. The Finnish theatre director and poet Mauno Manninen (1915-1969) was a frequent guest at the hotel. He took pity on the difficulties she experienced as a result of her infamous name and offered to marry her to enable her to change it. They married in 1965 but did not live together. She died on August 14, 1985.
See the special Prague section on Operation Anthropoid



Schloss Nymphenburg
 
Huge Nazi flags in front and the wife at the site today
Within walking distance of Heydrich's house is this, the biggest Baroque palace in Germany, and site of the 1938 Nazi production of "De Nacht van de Amazonen"seen during the 1930s and today.
Schloss Nymphenburg unterm Hakenkreuz with Rudolf Heß and today with Drake Winston; the photo on the right shows the site during the so-called Day of German Art Festival during the weekend of July 14-16, 1939 in Munich.
Rarely seen amateur colour footage filmed in Friedberg and Munich in 1938 showing the night masquerade "De Nacht van de Amazonen." The mayor of Munich obtained from the local Gauleiter the permission for the girls on the chariots to parade with sexy costumes. It took place on July 27, 1936, July 31, 1937, July 30, 1938, and July 29, 1939. In the post-war years, it was concealed and forgotten, until in 1989 Herbert Rosendorfer's novel of the same title brought the event back into the public consciousness. 
New York correspondent Ernest R. Pope described the two and a half hours of scene after scene in the park behind the Nymphenburg Castle in 1936 consisting of over one hundred practically naked girls took part, 700 horses and 2,000 performers - including many ϟϟ guards, wearing costumes of the 17th century. The women, clad in the tightest pair of panties, held spears in their hands and sat dispassionately as Amazons on horses. Others, also in panties with butterfly wings on their arms, danced in the grass in the glare of searchlights set up by Wilhelm Hindelang. Under the motto "The festival stands and falls with the lighting" he worked out the lighting plans and provided lighting effects, in particular the coloured lighting of the water features and groups of trees by underwater floodlights and mercury vapour lamps. The installed power cables at Nymphenburger Park doubled to more than 7000 metres. In the western half of the stage, 38 towers measuring 40 x 40 cm and 9 metres in height were built. In addition, 4 towers were built for large floodlights in the size of 1.90 x 2.50 metres and 18 metres height and 16 pieces about 20 metres high light power masts on the ground floor paths. Along the linden-lined high avenue on the central canal 103 further headlights were installed. Much of the lighting and the telephone system for the direction and lighting instructions were provided by the Wehrmacht. 
 Other women still wore nothing but silver paint on their bodies, posing on horse-drawn carriages as naked goddesses- Diana, the goddess of the hunt; the Amazon queen, wearing a large feathered helmet; Venus, the goddess of love, painted silvery in front of a shell; even a Chinese temple goddess. Christian Weber increasingly turned to his knowledge, which he had won in 1937 when visiting the Paris World's Fair that "the naked German girls look better than the French." For the Night of the Amazons he concluded that "all we have to do is take them off and put them in the spotlight." From 1938, the number increased only with skin-coloured briefs-dressed girls. For the first time, 150 bronzed male and female participants were deployed, who under significant health risks from top to bottom were painted with gold-coloured theatrical make-up.
The police were at times unable to restrain the masses outside the area. Every year members of the Gestapo meticulously searched the spacious area of ​​the Nymphenburg Palace. Finally, the presence of Adolf Hitler was hoped for although he preferred instead the Bayreuth Festival that took place at the same time. Prince Adalbert of Bavaria who lived with his family in Nymphenburg Palace, described the prevailing excitement. His family and he was forbidden to open window during this period or to receive visitors.

Nearby at schloß Blutenburg beside a memorial to the April 1945 Death March, one of 22 that remember those who, in the winter of 1944-45, the ϟϟ had evacuated from the concentration camps that were threatening to fall into the hands of the Allied forces . Weak or ill prisoners were left behind or killed, whilst the rest were taken on foot or by train to other camps. Those who collapsed on the road or tried to escape were summarily killed on the spot whilst others starved or froze to death. Of the more than 700 000 prisoners, who were registered in early January 1945, at least 250,000 were killed on the death marches.

Grünwalder Stadion 
Grünwalder Stadion einst und jetzt. It was built in 1911 and was the home ground for TSV 1860 München until 1995. In the autumn of 1943, the stadium was heavily hit by two Royal Air Force bombs. During the first attack on September 7, an explosive bomb destroyed the western half of the seat base. Parts of the hall were destroyed by two more explosive bombs. The second attack on October 2 left behind seven large bombs on the field, the caster and the ramparts. The eastern part of the main tribune was now also destroyed. The wooden roof of the hall was completely burnt down, the western part of the grandstand was closed, the eastern part had survived the attacks with only slight damage. The TSV 1860, FC Bayern and FC Wacker were moved to the Dantestadion after the first attack. When this was also hit by bombs, the clubs had to look for other places. The game could thus be maintained until the end of the war. 

During refurbishment of the dilapidated stadium, an unexploded Second World War bomb was found buried within the pitch.  In the course of construction work in 2012, the 225 kilogram bomb was found only one metre under the turf of the penalty area last week. Police closed off the site and evacuated surrounding buildings before a team of experts got down to work defusing and removing the bomb. Thirty minutes later the scare was over. Until the opening of the Olympic Stadium in 1972 and the moving of FC Bayern to its new ground, the Grünwalder Stadion was home to both Munich clubs and served as venue for fourteen international games. For decades, stars like Franz Beckenbauer, Gerd Müller, Sepp Maier or even Brazilian legend Pelé literally ran only a few inches above a fully functioning bomb.
 
Aerial photograph of the stadium from 11 March 1943. The central photograph shows the result of two air raids on July 19, 1944 leaving a crater circled in yellow and today.
TSV 1860 München giving the Hitler salute on the left, and playing an amateur team composed of members of the ϟϟ. The last game of the war took place as late as April 23 1945, when FC Bayern Munich, ‘Gaumeister’ of 1945, beat their local rivals TSV 1860 Munich 3–2.
The history of the rival Munich team, Bayern München, is quite different. Bayern had been founded in the Bohemian quarter of Schwabing- of the club's founding charter from 1900, two out of 17 signatories were Jewish- and were very much a Jewish club before the second world war, with a Jewish president, Kurt Landauer, and a Jewish manager. Landauer professionalised the club by investing in professional coaches, sports facilities and youth work, creating the basis for the German football championship in 1932. Another success story was a twofold cultural transfer: country-trained trainers from the UK and Jewish physical coaches from Austria-Hungary such as Richard "Little" Dombi, who went on to manage Barcelona and Feyenoord, helped Bayern Munich develop the Scottish flat and short pass as well as the technical refinements of the "Donaufußballs". In addition, Landauer, in conflict with the the German Football Association (DFB), drew up the introduction of professional football together with Walther Bensemann, the Jewish founder of the magazine "Der Kicker". Landauer had to resign, along with a number of other Jewish members and officials, when Hitler seized power a few months later and fled to Switzerland after 33 days in the Dachau concentration camp. 
Bayern were discredited as a Judenklub by the Nazis but resisted its coercion, even though it nazified its club logo seen left. In 1934, Bayern players were involved in a brawl with Nazi brownshirts. Two years later, the Bayern winger Willy Simetsreiter made a point of having his picture taken with Jesse Owens, who enraged Hitler by winning four gold medals at the Berlin Olympics. The full-back Sigmund Haringer narrowly escaped gaol for calling a Nazi flag parade a "kids' theatre", and captain Conny Heidkamp who managed to hide Bayern's trophies when other clubs heeded an appeal from Göring to donate metal for the war effort. The most symbolic act of defiance occurred in Zurich in 1943 when, after a friendly against the Swiss national team, the Bayern players lined up to wave at the exiled Landauer in the stands.  Landauer returned to Munich after the war and once again became Bayern president until 1951 whilst club publications simply mentioned that he had to leave Germany "on political-racial grounds" with the word 'Jew' assiduously avoided. Such reticence is suspected to stem from Bayern's current commercial interests in Asia leading the team to play down its Jewish heritage and admirable history. 
 
The stadium is immortal for serving as the site of The Philosophers' Football Match, a Monty Python sketch originally featured in the second Monty Python's Fliegender Zirkus depicting a football match in the Olympiastadion at the 1972 Munich Olympics between philosophers representing Greece and Germany. 

 
The Grünwald Sportschule still appears to have Nazi-era statues at its entrance

 The old town hall in the Munich district of Pasing which was taken over by the Nazis in 1938 and made the site of As a Haus der Partei after the municipal administration had moved to the new building on Landsberger Strasse.

The Advent Church in Aubing (a locality of Munich), owned and used by a congregation within the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria. The foundation stone for the church was laid on the 1st Advent, 1938 shown here and from thus the church took its name. The building, planned by architect Horst Schwabe, was consecrated on September 29, 1940 by Oberkirchenrat Oskar Daumiller.






Canisiusschule in 1934 with schoolchildren and maypole. In the National Socialist era, the school forecourt was designed as a "Thingplatz", which is clearly shown in this picture.  In 1937 ten teachers taught 480 pupils. which was too small and an extension building as part of its southern wing was opened in 1938. In 1943 the school building was damaged by an air bomb. From mid-1944 to autumn 1945 no classes could take place. After the war, over a thousand pupils were forced into the school, due to the influx of exiled and displaced persons. 








On Dachauerstraße 128 is this memorial to Bavarian railwaymen who died in the Great War. Erected 1922, destroyed in 1945 and replaced in 1962, it reads they "died for Germany's fame and honour / The dead of the Bavarian railway group / in the World War of 1914-18." It has been the subject of attack from two men who have been fined 6,300 euros for defacing it with a mere board reading how "We mourn for all who lost their lives in the cruel and senseless World War 1914-1918. To ensure peace and to prevent wars." The men, Hans-Peter Berndl and Wolfram P. Kastner, describe it an "unspeakable scandal that every year on memorial day the Bundeswehr present dazzling wreaths financed from tax money." They point out that those who claim "that the soldiers of the First World War were killed for fame and honour" is consciously twisting the truth, if not lying.

Stadelheim Gaol
Die Justizvollzugsanstalt München in der Stadelheimer Straße im Münchner Stadtteil Giesing gehört mit 14 ha Nutzfläche zu den größten Justizvollzugsanstalten in Deutschland.  Inhaltsverzeichnis      1 Zahlen     2 Außenstellen     3 Geschichte     4 Zwischenfälle     5 Gedenkstätte     6 Prominente Inhaftierte     7 Rundfunksender     8 Trivia     9 Literatur     10 Weblinks     11 Einzelnachweise  Zahlen  Die insgesamt fünf Gebäude des Geländes (Nord-, Süd-, West-, Ost- und Neubau[2]), inklusive der offenen Vollzugsanstalt in der Leonrodstraße, besitzen eine Gesamtkapazität von 1379 Haftplätzen, die in Notständen auf 2100 erweitert werden kann. Die höchste Auslastung der JVA-Gebäude bestand am 9. November 1993 mit 1969 Gefangenen. In Stadelheim werden größtenteils männliche Gefangene ab 16 Jahren inhaftiert. Hinzu kommen der Jugendarrest, die Frauenabteilung und die mittlerweile geschlossene JVA Neudeck, die zusammen weitere 124 Gefangene aufnehmen konnten. Im Jahr 2001 betrug die durchschnittliche Belegung 1581 Inhaftierte und lag damit deutlich oberhalb der regulären Häftlingskapazität. Im Jahr 2001 waren 596 Personen in der JVA Stadelheim beschäftigt, davon 506 Beamte und 90 Angestellte. Außenstellen  Der Jugend- und Frauenstrafvollzug findet seit 2009 in einem Neubau, in unmittelbarer Nachbarschaft zum Hauptgelände statt. Dort stehen Haftplätze für 150 Frauen, 46 männliche und 14 weibliche Jugendliche zur Verfügung. Das Gebäude, das im Rahmen des Public-Private-Partnership errichtet und betrieben wird (Auftrag für Planung, Bau, Finanzierung, Betrieb und die Unterhaltung der Ver- und Entsorgungsanlagen einschließlich der Energielieferung ist/war Aufgabe der privatwirtschaftlichen Vertragspartner).[3] Die Einweihung fand am 26. Mai 2009 statt.[4] Grundstückseigentümer des großen Areals (Stadelheimer Straße 4 bis 6, ca. 8.850 m²) ist seit 8. Dezember 1994 der Freistaat Bayern (zuvor Bundeseigentum).[5] Für den Vollzug von Freigängern gibt es eine Außenstelle in der Leonrodstraße mit 45 Plätzen.[6]  Bis 2009 war der Strafvollzug für Frauen und Jugendliche in der ehemaligen Justizvollzugsanstalt Neudeck im Stadtteil Au untergebracht. Geschichte  Die dauernde Überbelegung der Münchner Gefängnisse Anger, Baaderstraße und Lilienberg, sowie bauliche Mängel führten 1892 zu Überlegungen ein neues Zentralgefängnis zu errichten. So entstand 1894 auf dem ehemaligen Gut Stadelheim in Giesing, vor den Toren Münchens, der sogenannte Nordbau, als erster Bauabschnitt für 465 Gefangene. Sieben Jahre später, 1901, eröffnete der Südbau. Ab April 1901 wurden hier die Hinrichtungen ausgeführt. Beide Bauten stehen heute unter Denkmalschutz.  Insgesamt wurden in Stadelheim mindestens 1049 Gefangene hingerichtet, wovon nur 13 auf die Zeit zwischen 1895 und 1927 entfallen (darunter diejenige Eugen Levinés 1919). Der Großteil der Hinrichtungen wurde in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus zwischen 1933 und 1945 ausgeführt. Unter den mindestens 1035 Getöteten dieser Zeit fanden sich unter anderem Ernst Röhm († 1934) und die Mitglieder der Weißen Rose († 1943). Die hingerichteten Personen wurden teilweise auf dem benachbarten Friedhof am Perlacher Forst beerdigt.  Bei der Niederschlagung der Münchner Räterepublik Anfang Mai 1919 kam es im Gefängnis Stadelheim zu zahlreichen widerrechtlichen Tötungen durch die siegreiche Soldateska. Nach dem Zeugnis von Ernst Toller, der in Stadelheim inhaftiert wurde, stand am Gefängnistor in weißer Kreideschrift zu lesen: „Hier wird aus Spartakistenblut Blut- und Leberwurst gemacht, hier werden die Roten kostenlos zu Tode befördert“.[7] Zwischenfälle  Am 22. August 1986 nahm ein Häftling einen Rechtsanwalt als Geisel, der im Besprechungszimmer der JVA auf einen Mandanten wartete. Der Anwalt konnte befreit werden, wurde jedoch durch eine selbstgebastelte Bombe des Geiselnehmers verletzt. Aufgrund ungenügender Sicherheitsmaßnahmen in der JVA erhielt er ein Schmerzensgeld vom Freistaat Bayern. Gedenkstätte  Eine Gedenkstätte, gestaltet durch den Bildhauer Wilhelm Breitsameter, wurde 1974 errichtet und kann von Gruppen nach Anmeldung besucht werden. Am 65. Jahrestag der Hinrichtung (22. Februar 2008) von Hans und Sophie Scholl und Christoph Probst in Stadelheim wurde die Gedenkstätte erstmals für die Öffentlichkeit zugänglich gemacht.[8] Prominente Inhaftierte      Breno, Untersuchungshaft aufgrund dringenden Verdachts der schweren Brandstiftung (24. September bis 6. Oktober 2011)     John Demjanjuk, mutmaßlicher Kriegsverbrecher     Kurt Eisner, nach dem Januarstreik 1918 verhaftet, ab Sommer bis zum 14. Oktober des Jahres in Stadelheim     Willi Graf (Weiße Rose) wurde am 12. Oktober 1943 hier ermordet.     Anton Graf von Arco auf Valley, der Mörder Kurt Eisners     Hans Hartwimmer, Wilhelm Olschewski und weitere Mitglieder der Hartwimmer-Olschewski-Widerstandsgruppe wurden hier hingerichtet oder in Untersuchungshaft ermordet.     Adolf Hitler wurde vom 24. Juni bis 27. Juli 1922 wegen Landfriedensbruchs inhaftiert.     Kurt Huber (Weiße Rose) wurde am 13. Juli 1943 hier ermordet.     Gustav Landauer wurde am 2. Mai 1919 hier getötet.     Eugen Leviné wurde am 5. Juni 1919 hier getötet.     Lehmann „Leo“ Katzenberger, hier hingerichtet (ermordet) am 3. Juni 1942     MOK, Berliner Rapper, inhaftiert 2003/04     Christoph Probst (Weiße Rose) wurde am 22. Februar 1943 hier ermordet.     Ernst Röhm, ehemaliger SA-Stabschef, wurde am 1. Juli 1934 in Zelle 70 erschossen.     Alexander Schmorell (Weiße Rose) wurde am 13. Juli 1943 hier ermordet.     Hans Scholl und Sophie Scholl (Weiße Rose) wurden am 22. Februar 1943 hier ermordet.     Ingrid Schubert, RAF-Terroristin, Suizid durch Erhängen am 18. November 1977     Oliver Shanti, inhaftiert seit 2008     Ludwig Thoma verbüßte 1906 eine sechswöchige Haftstrafe wegen Beleidigung der Sittlichkeitsvereine     Ernst Toller, inhaftiert 1919–1924     Friedrich Ritter von Lama, bekannter katholischer Journalist, saß wegen Hörens von Radio Vatikan ein, am 9. Februar 1944 hier als Gefangener ermordet     Bebo Wager (Revolutionäre Sozialisten) wurde am 12. August 1943 hier ermordet.     Konstantin Wecker, Musiker, 1995 U-Haft wegen Kokainkonsums     Karl-Heinz Wildmoser senior, Ex-Präsident des TSV 1860 München     Dieter Zlof, der Entführer von Richard Oetker, war bis zu seiner Verlegung in die Justizvollzugsanstalt Straubing hier inhaftiert.     Beate Zschäpe, Mitglied des Nationalsozialistischen Untergrunds (NSU), seit März 2013  Besonderheit: Kurt Eisner, Graf Arco-Valley, Adolf Hitler und Ernst Röhm waren zu unterschiedlichen Zeiten in Zelle 70 untergebracht.[9] Rundfunksender  Stadelheim war von 1926 bis 1932 Standort des Zentralsenders des Bayerischen Rundfunks. Am 1. März 1926 nahm er den Probebetrieb und am 1. April 1926 den endgültigen Betrieb auf. Als Antenne verwendete der neben der Haftanstalt gelegene Sender eine an zwei 100 Meter hohen, freistehenden Stahlfachwerktürmen befestigte T-Antenne. Als Sendeanlage kamen ein Röhren- und ein Maschinensender der Berliner C. Lorenz AG zum Einsatz. Allerdings bereitete der Betrieb des Maschinensenders zahlreiche technische Probleme.  Da die Sendeantenne sehr schnell den Anforderungen nicht mehr genügte, wurden im Herbst 1926 die beiden Stahltürme durch zwei 75 Meter hohe Holzfachwerktürme ersetzt. In der Nacht vom 22. auf den 23. November 1930 knickte ein Sturm beide Türme ab, wobei auch einige Gebäude beschädigt wurden. Noch am gleichen Tag wurde der Sendebetrieb mit einer Notantenne, die zwischen den Turmstümpfen gespannt wurde, wieder aufgenommen. Als Ersatz für die zerstörten Türme baute man zum Jahreswechsel 1930/31 zwei Holztürme in größerem Abstand zu den Gebäuden, die eine T-Antenne trugen.  Nach der Inbetriebnahme der Sendeanlage Ismaning am 3. Dezember 1932 diente der Sender Stadelheim noch als Reservesender für Ismaning. Er dürfte im November und Dezember 1933 zum letzten Mal regulär in Betrieb gewesen sein, als der Sender Ismaning wegen Umbauarbeiten stillgelegt wurde. Trivia  Im Volksmund auch Stadelheim genannt, ist ein „Stadelheimer“ in der Umgangssprache von München und Umgebung ein Vorbestrafter. Als Wortwitz wird auch der Spitzname „St. Adelheim“ verwendet, der sich geschrieben nur durch einen Punkt unterscheidet, ausgesprochen aber „Sankt Adelheim“ ergibt.
During the Nazi era, 1,200 died within these walls, perhaps most notably Ernst Roehm on June 30, 1934:
Hitler, in a final act of what he apparently thought was grace, gave orders that a pistol be left on the table of his old comrade. Roehm refused to make use of it. ”If I am to be killed, let Adolf do it himself,” he is reported to have said. Thereupon two S.A. officers, according to the testimony of an eyewitness, a police lieutenant, given twenty-three years later in a postwar trial at Munich in May 1957, entered the cell and fired their revolvers at Roehm point-blank. ”Roehm wanted to say something,” said this witness, ”but the S.S. officer motioned him to shut up. Then Roehm stood at attention – he was stripped to the waist – with his face full of contempt.”
Shirer, 197
Also executed at Stadelheim were Hans and Sophie Scholl, who lie together in a grave with their comrade Christoph Probst, executed with them. The graves are to be found within Neu-Perlach cemetery nearby. The execution chamber at Stadelheim apparently was converted into an automobile repair shop (right) before being destroyed in 1968.




In 1943, the outer camp of Allach-Karlsfeld, a subcamp of tthe Dachau concentration camp, was built east of the Dachauer Strasse at Karlsfelder Strasse, where people were imprisoned under gruesome conditions. On April 30, 1945 the forced labourers were liberated by American soldiers. On May 2, 1997, a memorial placard for the victims was unveiled at the last existing barrack on Garnetstraße.


 

Das Paläontologische Museum in der Nähe des Königsplatzes ist das Ausstellungsforum der Paläontologie und Geobiologie München. Es zeigt imposante Skelette aus der Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbeltiere. Neben dem größten Dinosaurier Bayerns zählen hierzu Skelette von Reptilien aus der Zeit vor den Dinosauriern, Flugsaurier, Fischsaurier sowie Säugetiere aus der jüngeren Erdgeschichte. Hier ist vor allem das Skelett des berühmten Mühldorfer Ur-Elefanten zu nennen, aber auch diverse Vertreter des Eiszeitalters wie Säbelzahntiger, Höhlenbär und Riesenhirsch. Des weiteren erwartet die Besucher aktuelle Sonderausstellungen zu wechselnden Themen, die exotische Tierwelt in Bayern vor 16 Millionen Jahren sowie eine „Reise“ durch 4 Milliarden Jahre Leben. Weitere Highlights sind das Münchner Exemplar des Urvogels Archaeopteryx und der kleinste Dinosaurier Bayerns Compsognathus. Das Paläontologische Museum München entführt Sie in die faszinierende Welt der Urzeit.
The former site of the Palaeontological Museum at Neuhauser Straße 51 after being completely destroyed during the April 24th 1944 bombing; 80% of all its fossils were destroyed as well. Ernst Stromer, the German paleontologist who first described Spinosaurus aegyptiacus through its only remains which were mounted here in the Bavarian State Collection of Paleontology in Munich, which included the lower jaw and parts of the spine. In April 1944, the Royal Air Force dropped a bomb on the museum, and Spinosaurus — and every Egyptian dinosaur fossil known at the time — was destroyed. After the war the museum was relocated here at Richard-Wagner-Straße 10. 
The interior of the Paläontologische Museum in 1949, after the interior was severely damaged from an high-explosive bomb

The Alpine Museum was burnt out after a bomb attack on July 13, 1944. Later the ruin was completely destroyed by fire bombs.
Every party in Germany had its own paramilitary force- this is the SPD's marching in front of the Gebsattelbrücke on July 3, 1932 before the national elections. In the centre with the raised fist is the Landtag deputy Rosa Aschenbrenner (SPD). Aschenbrenner was in the USPD from 1920 to 1922 and then for the KPD from 1924 to 1928 and finally from 1930 to 1932 and from 1946 to 1948 a member of the SPD. The Iron Front (Eiserne Front) was an anti-Nazi, anti-monarchist, and anti-communist paramilitary organisation formed from a union of the Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold, the General German Trade Union Confederation (ADGB), the General Free Workers 'Union (Afa-Bund), the SPD and the Workers' Gymnastics and Sports Federation (ATSB) in opposition to national socialism . Their political opponents included the KPD. The KPD chairman, Ernst Thälmann, characterised the Iron Front as a "terror organisation of social fascism." In his call for the founding of the Iron Front, Reichsbanner chairman Karl Höltermann stated:  
The year 1932 will be our year, the year of the final victory of the Republic over its opponents. Not a day, not an hour more, we want to remain on the defensive - we are attacking! Attack down the line! Our deployment already has to be part of the general offensive. Today we call - tomorrow we will beat! 
 The symbol of the union were three arrows, which were interpreted differently. They stood for the opponents of the Iron Front, the three enemies of democracy: Communists, monarchists and national socialists, but also for the three pillars of the workers' movement: the party, the union and the Reichsbanner as symbols of the political, economic and physical power of the Iron Front. The three arrows of Carlo Mierendorff and Sergei Tschachotin were developed.  The Iron Front ceased to exist with the suppression of the workers' movement and the destruction of the trade unions on 2 May 1933.


On Fürstenrieder Strasse 46 was a located small grocery store run during the Nazi period by Margot and Ludwig Linsert. They belonged to the "Internationale Sozialistische Kampfbund" (ISK), a group of the workers' movement, which had to go underground in 1933. The Linserts opted for active resistance and distributed anti-Nazi leaflets. When the South German branch of the ISK flew up in the summer of 1938, Margot Linsert was able to present herself before the Gestapo as a seemingly ignorant young mother. Her husband also survived his term of imprisonment and later became Bavarian President of the DGB. The grocery business served Margot Linsert as a starting point to help the persecuted genes through the use of certain codewords - if someone asked for a hatter for example, it referred to a member of the resistance.
Auferstanden aus Ruinen
Hackerbrücke after the war and today. The name derives from the mediaeval execution site,which was abandoned at the beginning of the 19th century. By that time the brewery Hacker-Pschorr was sited here, as the surroundings of the Hackerbrücke were influenced by the »Bierstadt« Munich, which used the terrace level of the Ur-Isar to build beer cellars. In the 19th century, the breweries moved out of the narrower city centre, including the only remaining Augustiner brewery on Landsberger Strasse 31-35. Where, since the 1890s, the iron arches of the Hackerbrücke arch over the rails, was the first train station in Munich. The "shack" on the Campus Martius burnt down in 1847 and was replaced by the Bürklein new building further east. Since the 1870s, Munich had begun to remove railroad level crossings and build bridges. With its iron arch construction, the Hackerbrücke in Munich is symbolic of the emergence of modern engineering architecture, as it is best known worldwide in the Paris Eiffel Tower.

What had been an air protection shelter on Hotterstraße was converted in 1947 to an hotel in the town centre.

American troops on Dachauerstraße on April 30, 1945 and the site today.
Completed in 1932, the post office at Goetheplatz after the war and today.
The city brook that run down Baaderstraße and Ickstattstraße shown in 1946 has long dried up.

Sebastiansplatz in 1946 and today
 
Building the U-Bahn station at the corner of Lindwurmstraße and Rothmundstraße in May, 1938.
 
The Markuskirche then and now
 
The gaol at Corneliusstraße no longer exists postwar

Two unidentified eagles stumbled upon in Munich:
 
Can't find any information on this in terms of its date; found accidentally on Liebigstr. whilst walking along the river to Prinzregentenstr with another found at the other end of town on Orleanstr. showing a distinctive eagle of indeterminate origin.


The façade at Löwengrube 20 in 1940 and today.
Nazi mementos I found being sold in the front window of a Munich antique shop. It's but one of many I found which surprised me given the country's supposed strict laws concerning the open display of such items (unless used publicly by the Government itself). All swastikas were covered with a round sticker which seems as useful as censoring swear words on television.
No need to go back eighty years before American and British imperial troops finally liberated Western Europe from fascism to find traces of evil in Germany today: In the ongoing series of attacks on Europeans, Ali Sonboly slaughters people at the McDonald's at Olympia-Einkaufszentrum and the scene a few days later with my bike in the foreground, bought at the Rose shop at OEZ; it was only being asked by the wife to pick up our son at kindergarten that I wasn't there
July 19, 2016: 17-year-old Afghan refugee known to the police killed at least one man and injured 20 other train passengers including Chinese tourists with an axe and a knife in Würzburg
July 22, 2016: 18-year-old Iranian gunman apparently acting alone opened fire in a busy shopping mall in Munich killing at least nine people in the third attack against civilians in Western Europe in eight days. 
July 24, 2016: A 21-year-old Syrian refugee known to the police killed a woman with a machete and injured two other people in Reutlingen.  
July 25, 2016: One person killed and 12 others injured at a restaurant in Ansbach in an explosion. The man had been known to the police.
July 27, 2016:  Eritrean refugee raped a 79-year-old woman in a cemetery in Ibbenbrüren whilst she was visiting her sister’s grave.
July 27, 2016: Gang of six Muslims yelling 'Allahu Akbar' stormed nudist pool in Geldern threatening to 'exterminate' women and children. The German professional swimming association (BDS) responded by calling for migrants to become pool lifeguards.
July 27, 2016: A ‘suitcase bomb’ failed to explode near a government migrant office in Zirndorf as police continue to hunt for the man and woman involved.


July 29, 2016: Chancellor Merkel, having no children, experience of growing up in a multicultural environment in the DDR or involvement with minorities whilst enjoying complete financial and physical security, states that she will continue to encourage more migrants into the country regardless of public fears.