Prinzregentenstraße

For Adolf Hitler, whose private residence was located on the second floor of Prinzregentenplatz 16, Prinzregentenstraße met his expectations of a boulevard that always was an expression of power and political importance for him. In this respect, he provided the impetus towards its redevelopment. First, the House of German Art was built from 1933-1937 at the northern end of the street. The building with its endless portico, described by art historians as being much too wide, sealed off the English Garden and thus interrupted the smooth transition of garden courtyard and the city. Furthermore, several town houses were destroyed, such as those next to the Bavarian National Museum. In 1937 the Luftgaukommando, now serving as the offices of the Bavarian Ministry of Economic Affairs, Infrastructure, Transport and Technology since the 1950s, was inaugurated. In this way Prinzregentenstraße lost its lightness and for severity which still dominates. 
In the third section between Wilhelm-Tell-straße and Brucknerstraße, were built between 1941-1934 residential blocks, which were conceived as Versuchsbauten for an unrealised Südstadt, flanked at both ends by square air-raid shelters, which form part of the building block. Südstadt was to have been extended as a model Nazi estate with around 14,500 residential units which would have been provided from the outset with high bunkers, either as found at the Versuchsbauten, or in the middle of the building with direct access from the apartments. The Versuchsbauten are today virtually unchanged, one of the two seven-story bunkers now containing an art exhibition centre since 1993 featuring national and international individual pieces and group exhibitions.

 House of German Art (Haus der Deutschen Kunst)
Hitler at the opening of the House of German Art
The House of German Art was described by Hitler as "the first beautiful building of the new Reich" and "a temple for genuine and eternal German art." In designing the structure in 1933, Hitler already revealed his plan for eventual war by providing for an air raid shelter in the basement. Irreverent locals nicknamed the building "the Athens railway station" and "a sausage stand."
Troost's original plans
How Prinzregentstrasse was intended to look, with the Bavarian Prime Minister's residence in the background
Troost and Hitler in front of a model of the building in 1933
Josef Wilk's Porträt Prof. Troost showing the Haus der Deutschen Kunst in the background, now at the Deutsches Historisches Museum. Behind is Adolf Wissel's Kahlenberger Bauernfamilie which had been included in the Großen Deutschen Kunstausstellung of 1939 at the Haus der Deutschen Kunst : Farm Family From Kahlenberg.
Golden model presented by Hermann Göring to Hitler on the latter's 50th birthday
   
Hitler viewing the progress on the construction of the House of German Art with architects Professor Gall and Albert Speer. The right shows the plaque engraved on bronze over the entrance reading "Die Kunst ist eine erhabene und zum Fanatismus Verpflichtende Mission" (Art is an Ennobling Mission Demanding Fanaticism).
The Haus der Deutschen Kunst ("House of German Art") at Prinzregentenstrasse 1 was constructed from 1934 to 1937 following plans of architect Paul Ludwig Troost as the Third Reich's first monumental propaganda building. Its inaugural exhibition was the Große Deutsche Kunstausstellung ("Great German art exhibition"), which was intended as an edifying contrast to the concurrent Entartete Kunst exhibition.
Numerous activities were scheduled for that day, such as a procession through town depicting “2,000 years of German culture.” In the presence of the Führer, a performance of Tristan und Isolde in the Munich National Theatre opened the festivities. The dedication of the Haus der Deutschen Kunst in the Prinzregentenstrasse took place on July 19. Hitler had laid the cornerstone there in 1933. The new building was to serve as a replacement for the old “Glass Palace,” that had been an art gallery located at the old Botanical Garden. In former times, art collections had been exhibited in the building until it had been completely destroyed by a fire in 1931. The opening of an art exhibition complemented the dedication of the new building. The Essential Hitler (489)
 Hitler at the official cornerstone laying October 15, 1933
Hitler and Himmler at the opening, 1937.  
Hitler formally opened the ”House of German Art” in Munich in a drab, pseudoclassic building which he had helped design and which he described as ”unparalleled and inimitable” in its architecture. In this first exhibition of Nazi art were crammed some nine hundred works, selected from fifteen thousand submitted, of the worst junk this writer has ever seen in any country. Hitler himself made the final selection and, according to some of the party comrades who were with him at the time, had become so incensed at some of the paintings accepted by the Nazi jury presided over by Adolf Ziegler, a mediocre painter who was president of the Reich Chamber of Art, that he had not only ordered them thrown out but had kicked holes with his jack boot through several of them. ”I was always determined,” he said in a long speech inaugurating the exhibition, ”if fate ever gave us power, not to discuss these matters [of artistic judgement] but to make decisions.” And he had made them. In his speech – it was delivered on July 18, 1937 – he laid down the Nazi line for ”German art”:
Works of art that cannot be understood but need a swollen set of instructions to prove their right to exist and find their way to neurotics who are receptive to such stupid or insolent nonsense will no longer openly reach the German nation. Let no one have illusions! National Socialism has set out to purge the German Reich and our people of all those influences threatening its existence and character . . . With the opening of this exhibition has come the end of artistic lunacy and with it the artistic pollution of our people . . .

Hitler speaking at the opening of the third "Great German Art Exhibition" July 16, 1939 in the Ehrenhalle. From 1937 until 1944, the hall was used exclusively for opening exhibitions and holding press conferences, and every year the Nazis would meet here for the Grosse Deutsche Kunstausstellung. It was Hitler who had determined that  the plinths and the wall and pillar covering of the three-nave sky-lit hall should be clad in blood-red marble from Tegernsee.  The omnipresence of the colour red, so prominent on the Nazi flag, served to reinforce the ubiquity of the National Socialist world view.

Hitler speaking in the Ehrenhalle July 18, 1937, and the site today


Exhibition from the time of the Third Reich and now, featuring "Svayambh," a gigantic sculpture by Anish Kapoor; the gallery now displays anything but German art. Leaning against a wall displaying the history of the building inside is the dedication to the gallery's original sponsors which used to feature much more prominently.

One artist honoured at the Haus der Kunst was Ai Wei Wei, an artist who knows only too well the constant threat of living under a capricious, totalitarian regime.

 
The rear of the building
Then and now, photoshopped on the right with Hitler giving his speech at the opening, in which he expressed his great satisfaction that he, and not his political opponents, had erected the building:
In 1931, the National Socialist takeover was still so far off in the distant future that there was no way of foreseeing the construction of a new exhibition palace for the Third Reich. In fact, for a while it did seem as though the “men of November” would provide an edifice for the exhibition of art in Munich that would have had as little to do with German art as it, conversely, reflected the Bolshevist affairs and circumstances of their time. Many of you perhaps still recall the plans for that building that was intended for the old Botanical Garden that has now been given such a beautiful design. A building quite difficult to define. An edifice that could just as easily have been a Saxon thread factory as the market hall of a mid-sized city—or perhaps a train station, or then again even an indoor swimming pool. I need not press upon you how I suffered at the thought back then that the first misfortune would be fol- lowed by yet another. And that therefore, in this case in particular, I was truly glad, really happy about the faint-hearted lack of determination on the part of my political opponents at the time. In it lay the only chance of ultimately saving the erection of a palace for art exhibitions in Munich to become the first great undertaking of the Third Reich.
After the war, the building was used by the American occupation forces as an officer's mess; in that time, the building came to be known as the "P1", a shortening of its street address. The building's origins can still be seen such as in regards to the swastika-motif mosaics in the ceiling panels of its front portico.
"The New Age: Sacrifice, Faith and Loyalty" section during the July 18, 1937 "Two Thousand Years of German Culture" parade.
video
Excerpt from Nazi propaganda film of the summer 1939 German Art Festival in Munchen. On 15 and 16 October 1939, the Große Deutsche Kunstausstellung inside the Haus der Deutschen Kunst was complemented by the monumental Tag der deutschen Kunst celebration of "2,000 years of Germanic culture" where luxuriously and pretentiously draped floats (one of them carrying a 5 meter tall golden Nazi Reichsadler) and thousands of actors in historical costumes paraded down Prinzregentenstraße for hours in the presence of Adolf Hitler, Hermann Göring, Joseph Goebbels, Heinrich Himmler, Albert Speer, Robert Ley, Reinhard Heydrich, and many other other high-ranking Nazis, with minor events taking place in the Englischer Garten nearby.
Some stills from the film:


Images from the Grosse Deutsche Kunstausstellung in 1939 and 1940.
Hitler speaking inside the so-called "Ehrenhalle" [Hall of Honour] at the official opening of the third "Große Deutsche Kunstausstellung" July 16, 1939.

At the opening on July 16, 1939
One of the large exhibition halls of the "Große Deutsche Kunstausstellung" 1940

Rooms 22, 2 and 31
 
Porträt des Führers by Fritz Erler, 1939 and the interior today

Hilter at the Opening in 1940; the picture on the wall is Hans Happ’s Die Frucht der Erde and the sculpture on the right is Hans Plangger’s Abschied. Hitler would make a reappearance in Maurizio Cattelan's Him at the Haus der Kunst in 2003.
Now a publicly accessible online archive of the images displayed reveals the full extent of the Nazi aesthetic -- and includes details about who bought which work of art.
Joseph Goebbels's speech at the opening of the 1941 art exhibition at the Haus der Kunst
Footage and Documentaries relating to Art and its importance to Hitler and the Third Reich:
Tag der Deutschen Kunst (1939)
German Art- In the Shadow of Hitler
Hitler's Art War- Provocative and engaging lecture by Godfrey Barker

The Prinz-Carl-Palais

Prince Carl-Palais is the official residence of the Bavarian Prime Minister; here German president Paul von Hindenburg and Prime Minister Heinrich Held leave the palace, 12 August 1925.

Hitler at the opening of the House of German Art with the the Prinz-Carl-Palais in the background, where Mussolini stayed in 1938 during the Munich Conference. Mussolini came here for the last time on September 18, 1943 after being rescued four days earlier in a remarkable coup de main at the Gran Sasso where il Duce had been interned at a mountain hotel, and brought to Germany.
Mussolini was brought to the Prince Carl Palace in Munich, from where he addressed the Italian people in a radio address that evening. During Hitler’s years of triumph in 1937 and 1938, Mussolini had always set up quarters at the Prince Carl Palace. But his speech now lacked the enthusiasm of earlier years. Mussolini cared about only one thing, his mistress Clara Petacci. He would not rest until Hitler finally had ϟϟ Obergruppenführer Sepp Dietrich bring her from Italy.
As seen from the photo from 1937, the reichsadler that had been added during the regime has been removed without any trace. In 1924 this became the residence of the Bavarian Prime Ministers.
 Surrounded by destruction in 1948. On the right is the ruined shell at the end of the war and today, restored with the Nazi eagle removed
Munich was one of the five “Führer Cities” in the planned Greater German Reich, whose urban fabric was to be radically transformed. The monumental plans, which were drawn up in close consultation with Hitler himself, involved the construction of a grand avenue, the Great Axis, which was to be 2.5 kilometres long and 120 metres wide and lined with over-dimensioned cultural and prestige buildings, as well as a six-kilometre east-west axis. The city was to be visually dominated by a huge dome structure for the new main railway station and a 200-metre-high “Monument to the Movement”.  Planned completion date for the building work was 1950, but in fact only a few of these projects were ever actually built. Those that were include the redevelopment of Königsplatz with the nearby Nazi Party buildings and the widening of Von-der-Tann-Straße to create a connection between the Haus der Kunst and the party headquarters on Königsplatz. The above shows the construction of  the altstadtringtunnel at Von-der-Tann-Straße in front of the Prinz-Carl-Palais, completed in February 1937; the Haus der Kunst is on the left.

Hofgartenarkaden

The propaganda exhibition of "Degenerate Art" was organised by the Nazis and opened in the Hofgarten arcades on July 19 1937, ending in November of that year. The day before had been opened the "First Great German Art Exhibition" allowing the regime's conception of art to be compared with what it deemed 'degenerate.' The Munich exhibition was followed by a travelling exhibition under the same title to other twelve cities, displaying some other exhibits until 1941.  The Munich exhibition was organised by Adolf Ziegler, who also led the previous seizures from collections and museums such as the Wallraf-Richartz Museum in Cologne, the Folkwang Museum in Essen, the Kunsthalle in Hamburg, the Landesmuseum in Hanover and the new division of the National Gallery in Berlin for use in the show, of which 600 were then actually shown. They represented the maligned art styles of Expressionism, Dadaism, Surrealism and New Objectivity. To achieve a "chaotic" effect, the works were hung in the showrooms in a deliberately disadvantageous perspective and provided with abusive slogans on the walls. The exhibition, according to official figures, saw 2,009,899 visitors and was at that time one of the most visited exhibitions of modern art.

Donald Kuspit, discussing the ‘Entarte (sic) Kunst’ exhibition of 1937, has suggested that Hitler ‘had a vested interest in repression’ and a corresponding wish to exalt clear and unified images over those requiring debate and textual exegesis, and which therefore introduced the possibility of uncertainty. Hitler’s own words on this exhibition reveal a wish to erect a barrier between image and text: ‘Works of art that cannot be understood but need a swollen set of instructions to prove their right to exist...will no longer openly reach the German nation.’ When ‘art’ becomes propaganda, then image and text are not required to explain each other, but instead to participate in a mutual objectification.
In front of the former site of the 'Exhibition of Degenerate Art' which had officially opened July 19, 1937 at the same time with the first large one German art exhibition in the House of German art.
 According to William Shirer, the exhibition was an humiliating failure:
In another part of the city in a ramshackle gallery that had to be reached through a narrow stairway was an exhibition of ”degenerate art” which Dr. Goebbels had organised to show the people what Hitler was rescuing them from. It contained a splendid selection of modern paintings – Kokoschka, Chagall and expressionist and impressionist works. The day I visited it, after panting through the sprawling House of German Art, it was crammed, with a long line forming down the creaking stairs and out into the street. In fact, the crowds besieging it became so great that Dr. Goebbels, incensed and embarrassed, soon closed it.
In fact, Frederic Spotts argues the complete opposite:
In a mere two weeks between 600 and 700 works from around Germany were seized, dispatched to Munich and hung. The show opened on 19 July 1937 with some 650 works by 112 'art stutterers' from thirty-two public museums on display. It included examples from all the major schools of German painting and sculpture- Expressionism, Verism, Abstraction, Bauhaus, Dada, New Objectivity- and all the major artists. Although he had inspected the collection beforehand, Hitler did not deign to put in a public appearance once the exhibition opened. But he inaugurated it vicariously the day before in a raging speech. '...The end of madness in German art and, with it, the cultural destruction of our people has begun,' he proclaimed. 'From this moment we shall conduct a merciless war against the remnants of our cultural disintegration.' On he sputtered, reviling 'the cliques of chatterboxes, dilettantes and art swindlers.'
Like enemy prisoners being thrown to the lions in the Colosseum, the victims were to be seen and mocked by the crowd before being consumed. The show was deigned to demonstrate that Modernist art was not simply ugly, indecent and deranged but that it also directly assaulted traditional social mores by disparaging motherhood, military heroism, religion and whatever was healthy, clean and chaste.Hitler's criteria- post1910 German works- were generally followed, though stretched to include such adoptive Germans as Chagall and Jawlensky, and two non-Germans., Mondrian and Munch. The work by the good Nordic Munch caused such ideological indigestion that after a few days the room where it hung was closed. The paintings, presented in a way to heighten ridicule, were not so much displayed as plastered helter-skelter on the walls, though this may have resulted partly from the haste with which the show was assembled. To leave no doubt about their iniquity, the works were labelled with such propagandistic slogans as 'madness becomes a method', 'nature as seen by sick minds' and 'a insult to German womanhood.' Ensuring that no one could have the slightest doubt about the iniquity of the works, it is said that actors were sent to the exhibit to make raucous fun of what they saw.
It was the biggest blockbuster show of all time. Hitler ordered that entry should be without charge and encouraged the public to attend. And attend it did. One million people went in the first six weeks alone and more than two million in the remaining six months in Munich. Another million or so saw the exhibition when it travelled to twelve other cities between February 1938 and April 1941. By all accounts spectators went to bury, not to praise. 'It became increasingly obvious to me that most people had come to see the exhibition with the intention of disliking everything,' it was later commented. Some non-Nazis, some non-Germans also applauded. A Boston art critic commented, 'There are probably plenty of people- art lovers- in Boston, who will side with Hitler in this particular purge.' The Fuehrer was enormously pleased with the popular response. It appeared to prove his point that Modernism was an elitist phenomenon that had lost meaning for the great mass of the public. It further seemed to support his belief in 'the people as the judge of art.' So gratified was he, in fact, that at his direction a pamphlet with illustrations of the works accompanied by hostile commentary was published and widely circulated. He had achieved his purpose. The event was a stunning demonstration of his power to crush what he opposed. In so doing, he brought to an end the most exciting school of painting and sculpture in modern German history.
 Amongst those attacked are the sculptures shown here by Marg Moll, Otto Braun, Eugen Hoffmann and Rudolf Belling;
 The 'Dada Wall'
In the foreground left: Marg Moll's 'Tänzerin' (Dancer, around 1930) and in the foreground on the right: Otto Baum, 'Stehendes Mädchen' (Standing Girl, 1930)
The Deutsches Historisches Museum in Berlin has a miniature recreation of the exhibition's layout, from our 2013 school trip

In a Rediscovered Trove of Art, a Triumph Over the Nazis’ Will

However,  the 1938 law that allowed the Nazis to seize thousands of other Modernist artworks deemed “degenerate” because Hitler viewed them as un-German or Jewish in nature remains on the books to this day.
 

Schackgalerie
Named after Adolf Friedrich von Schack who, after settling at Munich, was made member of the academy of sciences. Here he began to collect a gallery of pictures, containing masterpieces of Romanticism with painters such as Anselm Feuerbach, Moritz von Schwind, Arnold Böcklin, Franz von Lenbach, Carl Spitzweg, Carl Rottmann, etc., and which, though bequeathed by him to the Emperor William II, still remains at Munich.  The building itself was designed by Max Littmann in 1907 next to the former diplomatic mission of Prussia in the Prinzregentenstrasse and still houses the museum since the kaiser decided to keep the collection in Munich. Here it is shown shortly after completion, bearing the scars of the war in 1946, and today. On February 1 1939 Hitler brought together art treasures that were formerly part of the Schack Gallery in Munich with works of art from the same period that previously had been in the possession of the Bavarian State. These objects of art were to be integrated in a permanent collection renamed the “Schack Gallery of German masters of the 19th century,” with its seat in Munich.The State of Bavaria would become the official proprietor of the gallery. The Bavarian Minister- President was to administer the collection “in accordance with the Führer’s instructions.” The new Schack gallery was to find a permanent home in the exhibition halls at the Königlicher Platz.

Luftgaukommando
(
VII Regional HQ of the Luftwaffe)

At 250m long, the building at Prinzregentenstraße 24 still bears visible signs of its former military use. Above the former officers' entrance remains the Luftwaffe eagle with its spread wings holding the residual traces of a swastika. The main entrance is flanked by two eagles. Sixteen helmets adorn the window gables at the top of the five-story tower. On the east side one still encounters the stylised swastikas adorning the wrought iron grill the building.  From 1938-40 the eastern part of the building was occupied by the Air Force Command. From 1940, the entire building served as the command post of the Air District Headquarters, which was engaged in the comprehensive development of air defence and the live experiments on concentration camp prisoners. The expansion of Prinzregentenstraße to a continuous large transport route and shuttle to the Munich-Riem airport saw the Hubertusbrunnen relocated and the park covered over. Today the former dining area serves as a library. The historic rooms have been left largely in its original state. Today it houses the Bavarian Ministry of Economic Affairs, Infrastructure, Transport and Technology.
Topping-out ceremony May 12, 1937 and today.
Built between 1935-1936 by the architect German Bestelmayer, this building still displays the steel helmets, eagles, and, incredibly (and illegally) swastika window grills today:

Inside the Nazi eagle still greets visitors, albeit sans swastika.

At night the grills are actually lit up from within the building even though the German Strafgesetzbuch in § 86a outlaws "use of symbols of unconstitutional organisations" as used on this government building:
right across the street is the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum

According to Jonathan Petropoulos in The Faustian Bargain - The Art World in Nazi Germany "many Jewish galleries, like the renowned Bernheimer firm in Munich, were taken over by Aryan trustees. As the confiscated works mounted up, [museum director Ernst] Buchner cooperated with the Gestapo by making rooms available in the Bavarian National Museum."
Over the side door a Nazi eagle remains, missing only its swastika whilst at the other end a wreath is shorn of its offending symbol as well. This is within a wing at the southeast corner added by German Bestelmeyer in 1937. Bestelmeyer served as a professor at the Technical University, and from 1934 until his death in 1942 he was President of the Bavarian Academy of Fine Arts.  He had been an outspoken advocate of traditionalist, völkisch architecture. He was a member of the Munich School to which Paul Troost also belonged. In 1928, with Paul Schultze-Naumburg, Paul Schmitthenner and others, he founded "The Block", a group of architects in opposition to the modernist group The Ring. He was singled out for praise in 1931 by Schultze-Naumburg and in 1934, after the Nazis came to power, wrote an article in which he endorsed Alexander von Senger's criticism of Le Corbusier, described 1920s architecture as having become "soulless", and rejected flat roofs as unsuited to the climate in Germany. He was a member of both the Werkbund and the antisemitic Militant League for German Culture. He became a Reich Cultural Senator in 1935. He brought von Senger to the Bavarian Academy and designed buildings such as the Luftwaffe office building on the across the screen seen above, which were much praised at the time. However, he also designed a number of mostly Protestant churches, some of which met with official approval, and Hitler chose his design for the Mangfall Bridge, a girder bridge on two massive concrete pylons carrying one of the new autobahns, which was influential in its simple modernity and size.  Bestelmeyer died in 1942 at the resort of Bad Wiessee. On Hitler's orders, his body was brought back to Munich and after lying in state in the Academy of Fine Arts, transferred for the state funeral to the light-court of the University of Munich which he had designed, with 300 members of the Hitler Youth in attendance.
Inside lying in storage is the guillotine with which the Scholl siblings were executed.

One casualty of the Luftgaukommando was the Hubertusbrunnen, built from 1903-1907 after a design by Adolf Hildebrand in the form of a covered temple. Inside was the actual fountain and the statue of a deer. St. According to the legend of Hubertus found a stag located in the well house carrying a cross between its antlers. It was originally located in front of the Bavarian National Museum but removed in 1937 and in 1954 re-established at its current location.
 
Demolition work on Hubertusbrunnen in Prinzregentenstraße March, 1937. The Hubertusbrunnen is now located in the west of Munich at the eastern end of the Nymphenburg canal.
Munich's Angel of Peace (Friedensengel) at the other end of Prinzregentenstr. during the Day of German Art and today. Just beyond is Hitler's Residence- Prinzregentenplatz 16
The residence in 1937 and today. This was Hitler's residence which, from 1929, was paid for by Hitler's publisher until a decade later when Hitler paid for it outright. Hitler’s private apartment on the third floor of 16 Prinzregentenplatz was located in an apartment house and consisted of nine living rooms, two kitchens, two walk-in closets, two bathrooms, and furnishings. Hitler’s patron, Hugo Bruckmann, had procured the apartment for him. The annual rent was 4,176 marks. The term of the lease contract was first to run until April 1, 1934, with a six-month term of notice. Hitler moved into the apartment on October 1, 1929.
The apartment had been furnished and decorated by Gerdy Troost, widow of architect Paul Ludwig Troost, a member of the Nazi Party and architectural advisor of Hitler. Hitler filled the apartment with works of art he had collected, particularly nineteenth century German paintings as well as German Old Masters. In 1925 Hitler brought his widowed half-sister Angela Raubal from Austria to serve as housekeeper for both his Munich apartment and his rented villa The Berghof. She brought along her two daughters, Geli and Friedl. Hitler became very close to his niece Geli Raubal, and she moved into his apartment in 1929, when she was 20. Their relationship is shrouded in mystery but was widely rumoured to be romantic. On September 18, 1931 she died of a gunshot wound in the apartment; the coroner proclaimed her death a suicide. Hitler was on his way to Erlangen to give a speech, but he returned immediately to Munich on hearing the news. He took her death very hard and went into a depression. He mourned her for years, maintaining her rooms exactly as they had been.
 Hitler continued to live in the apartment until 1934, when he became Führer and Reichskanzler of Germany. After that, Hitler kept the apartment, but spent most of his time either in Berlin or in his Berghof residence.
Angela Maria Raubal,nicknamed “Geli”, was born on June 4, 1908 in Linz. She was the daughter of the deputy head of the tax department, Raubal, and his wife Angela, born Hitler (from the second marriage of Hitler’s father, Alois). She studied singing in Munich, although her voice was only average. When Hitler took up residence at Prinzregentenplatz No. 16 in 1929, she got her own room in the huge but sinister apartment of her uncle. She committed suicide there on September 18, 1931. By the time Hitler returned from an engagement in Nuremberg, her corpse had already been removed. Hitler did not attend the funeral in Vienna but instead retreated to the home of his publisher Müller at the Tegernsee. He spent several days there in seclusion. His court photographer Heinrich Hoffmann was the only one allowed to accompany him. Many feared the shock of Geli’s unexpected death might lead him to commit suicide, too. On the anniversary of his niece’s death on September 18, 1932, Hitler secretly visited her grave in Vienna. Goebbels noted in his diary: “Führer gone to Vienna for private visit. Nobody knows about it so that there won’t be any crowds.” News of Hitler’s presence in Vienna leaked, however, and led to many political rumours. On Hitler’s orders, Geli’s room remained untouched. Before the war, he spent every Christmas Eve there in sentimental reflection.
Hitler sometimes used the Munich apartment for high-level diplomatic meetings. On September 25, 1937, he met there with Benito Mussolini when he was trying to get Mussolini to agree to his plan to annex Austria to Germany; the leaders agreed to a strengthening of their Axis pact.During their hour-long summit conference, the German and Italian leaders agreed to continue supporting Francisco Franco in Spain, to seek better relations with Imperial Japan, and to oppose Franco-British policies that prevented their joint expansion of power and territorial acquisitions—a great strengthening of the Axis Pact of 1935 and the Anti-Comintern (Communist International) Pact of 1936.
He also met with British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in the apartment on September 30, 1938, following the signing of the four-power Munich Accords. On September 30, 1938, Hitler hosted Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain at the apartment following the signing of the four-power Munich Pact, but before the signing of the Anglo-German Declaration that led Chamberlain to declare that he had brought “peace for our time” home with honour from Germany.
As for Hitler, he later boasted to his intimates: “I saw our enemies at Munich—they are little worms!” Because of the document signed in Hitler’s apartment, Chamberlain mistakenly thought they’d guaranteed European peace for a generation. Nazi Germany occupied the German Sudetenland—taken from the Czechs—the next day.
Hitler looking out from the balcony. After the American Army had entered Munich, it became the headquarters of an American Section. The furnishings were removed and the Munich Financing Office of the Land of Bavaria took up its quarters in the building and today the third floor is actually police station. The second floor, Hitler's former apartment, houses the headquarters of the regional police of Munich and is not open to the public.
When He Was 5, He Got a New Neighbour: Hitler 
The writer and historian Edgar Feuchtwanger grew up perhaps 100 yards from Adolf Hitler during the Nazi era, before escaping Germany. 
To be a Jew in Germany in the 1930s was not comfortable. Edgar Feuchtwanger, a schoolboy in Munich at the time, knew the fear and the dread shared by all German Jews witnessing the unstoppable ascent of a madman. Yet his situation was different. Very different.  In 1929, Adolf Hitler moved into Mr. Feuchtwanger’s neighborhood. With money from his publisher, Hitler took a nine-room apartment on the third floor of No. 16 Prinzregentenstrasse (Prince Regent Street). It was luxurious, with two bathrooms and two kitchens. Edgar, 5 years old, could see it from his window, a building not 100 yards away on Grillparzerstrasse. And for the next nine years, until the Feuchtwangers fled Germany in 1938, Edgar lived virtually side by side with a man bent on exterminating him, his family and every family like his, not only in Germany, but as far as the Reich could extend its dominion.  Photo  Mr. Feuchtwanger as a boy. Credit Feuchtwanger Family Mr. Feuchtwanger (FOISHT-vanger), whose memoir, “I Was Hitler’s Neighbor,” was published last year in translation in Britain, will speak about his childhood, and the man who cast his shadow over it, at the 92d Street Y on Friday at 2 p.m. The book, originally in French, has not been published in the United States.  Today, at 91, he could well be the last German Jew alive who grew up within arm’s reach of Hitler and observed him day to day, if only in fleeting glimpses. Speaking in a relative’s apartment in Midtown on Wednesday, Mr. Feuchtwanger, a historian who taught for 30 years at the University of Southampton, in England, and now lives in a village near Winchester, recalled his brushes with Hitler, and some of the turning points in 20th-century history. He brought with him, in a manila envelope, notebooks from his days at the Gebele School in Munich, filled with assignments on patriotic themes and decorated, here and there, with tributes to the leader whom Germans were learning to call Führer.  The neighborhood, he said, was stocked with Nazis. On his way to school, he walked past the villa of Heinrich Hoffmann, Hitler’s photographer, the man who introduced Eva Braun, then his shop assistant, to Hitler. Often, he caught a glimpse of Hitler lounging in a deck chair in the garden. Not far away was the house of Ernst Röhm, head of the Nazi Party’s paramilitary wing.  Photo  Mr. Feuchtwanger with his daughter Antonia Cox and one of his grandsons, Thomas, in New York. Credit Nicole Bengiveno/The New York Times “He is somewhat forgotten today,” Mr. Feuchtwanger said, speaking slowly, with the hint of a German accent. “But at the time he was considered the second man in the Reich, the only one whom Hitler had to address with some respect. When he spoke to Hitler he did not call him ‘mein Führer,’ but used the informal ‘du.’”  Röhm was soon out of the picture, arrested personally by Hitler on June 30, 1934, in the purge known as the Night of the Long Knives. Mr. Feuchtwanger knew of it long before most of his fellow Germans. Hearing jackboots and slamming car doors, he went to the window and saw SS officers assembling a motorcade for the short trip to Hanselbauer Hotel in Bad Wiessee, where Röhm and his followers were staying.  “Even as a small boy I could sense the tremendous, hot tension there was around,” Mr. Feuchtwanger wrote in his memoir. “That public events could produce such tension, that gripped one’s throat, almost took one’s breath away, is now practically unknown to the present generation.”  Continue reading the main story Mr. Feuchtwanger’s first memorable encounter with Hitler himself occurred when he was 8. He and his nanny, out for a stroll, began walking down Prinzregentenstrasse.  “Just as we passed his front door, Hitler came out, wearing a mackintosh and a trilby hat,” Mr. Feuchtwanger said. “There were some people in the street who shouted ‘Heil Hitler.’ Then he looked at me and my nanny, quite benevolently.”  Photo  One of Mr. Feuchtwanger’s childhood notebooks. Credit Nicole Bengiveno/The New York Times Mr. Feuchtwanger paused for a moment and said, “If he had known who I was, it would have been quite different.”  Indeed. The name Feuchtwanger was well known to Hitler and the Nazi Party, and not in a good way. Edgar’s father, Ludwig, was not the problem. As the director of Duncker & Humblot, a distinguished publishing house specializing in books on economics and sociology, he was objectionable only because he was a prosperous Jew. Racial laws forced him out of the business in 1936.  Ludwig’s brother, Lion, was another matter. At the time, he was probably the most-read novelist in Germany, the author of “Jud Süss” (“The Jew Süss”), a historical novel about the financial adviser to Duke Carl Alexander of Württemberg in the 18th century. The novel, published in 1925, was later twisted into a viciously anti-Semitic film by the Nazis, released in 1940.  More offensive to the Nazi Party was his novel “Success.” Set in Bavaria in the 1920s, it included a satirical portrait of Hitler, inserted into the novel as Rupert Kutzner, a rabble-rousing garage mechanic who creates a political movement, the Truly German Party.  When “Success” was published in 1930, Joseph Goebbels announced in his newspaper, Der Angriff, that the author had just earned a seat on the first train out of Germany when the Nazis came to power. The novel featured prominently in the book burnings of May 1933. Goebbels himself turned up for the bonfire in Berlin. By chance, Lion was in the United States on a lecture tour when Hitler became chancellor, but his brother, back in Germany, bore the family name.  It was not until the mid-1930s, Edgar Feuchtwanger recalled, that Hitler assumed his full dimensions. It was still possible to walk on the sidewalk in front of Hitler’s building. Hitler had not yet taken to wearing a military uniform at all times in public or traveling in motorcades.  Photo  One of Mr. Feuchtwanger’s childhood notebooks. Credit Nicole Bengiveno/The New York Times After he became chancellor in 1933, things changed. Mr. Feuchtwanger’s mother now complained that she could not get milk because the deliveryman was steering extra bottles to Hitler. SS guards moved into the apartment below his and took up positions on the sidewalk outside. Pedestrians were made to cross to the other side of the street.  History paraded past young Edgar’s window. He saw the fleet of long, six-wheeled Mercedes gather to depart for the annexation of Austria in 1938 and, several days later, watched as Hitler, standing erect, holding onto the windshield of his open car, greeted adoring crowds.  Later that year, he watched Mussolini’s car taking him from the four-power conference that led to the signing of the Munich Agreement. “I would join in the crowds to see what was going on,” Mr. Feuchtwanger said, recalling the periodic commotion on the square outside Hitler’s building.  Ludwig Feuchtwanger, like many Jews, misread Hitler at the outset. He believed that German Jews could reach some sort of livable, stable accommodation with the regime. “My parents did talk about the political situation, and I knew more about it than 8-year-olds do today,” Mr. Feuchtwanger said. “I knew that he was no good for us. But I wouldn’t say I was terrified.”  At school, Mr. Feuchtwanger was not tormented, by teachers or fellow students, although Nazification reached full steam by the time he entered the prestigious Maximilian Gymnasium in 1935. He was spared having to enroll in the Hitler Youth, obligatory for his non-Jewish classmates. But he did have to stand for hours at a time, arm outstretched in the Nazi salute, at school rallies organized by the party. “The way you go through it was to rest your arm on the shoulder of the chap in front of you,” he said.  He brought out two of his school notebooks. In the opening page of the first, to commemorate Labor Day 1933, he had inscribed a large swastika superimposed over the Communist hammer.  “I had a teacher who was over the moon about the Nazi takeover,” he explained.  Political reality sank in on Kristallnacht, in November 1938, when Edgar’s father was arrested and interned at Dachau. Amazingly, the camp administration failed to make the connection between his name and that of the author of “Success.” Six weeks later he was released and began making plans to take his family out of Germany. “He knew it was curtains,” Mr. Feuchtwanger said. Nearly all the Feuchtwangers escaped. One of Ludwig’s eight siblings, a half sister, died in Theresienstadt.  At 14, Edgar Feuchtwanger adopted a second life as an honorary Englishman. He studied at Winchester School, where classmates called him “fish finger” and “Volkswagen.” He earned a doctorate in history at Magdalene College, Cambridge, and went on to write studies of the Victorian era, including biographies of Gladstone and Disraeli, and histories of modern Germany, up to the Nazi seizure of power.  He reached again for a notebook. In this one, from 1934, he honored Hitler on his 45th birthday by pasting in a glowering portrait of the Führer, adorned with a Nazi eagle and swastika. Mr. Feuchtwanger smiled. “Just think, it was a Jewish child who did this,” he said.
Kunstbunker Tumulka
Down the road on Prinzregentenstrasse 97, this was built in 1944 as a set of flats surrounded by bunkers, one of which serves as the venue for contemporary art exhibitions.
Model of the apartment complex. In this May 1945 photo on the right one can see both Hitler's residence in the top centre and the apartment at the bottom-left.
 Troost created for the House of German Art and the two buildings NSDAP at Königsplatz the first designs of monumental structures of the Nazi regime. Buildings and facades  The double-axis-symmetrical museum in the style of a reduced Neoclassicism is 175 m long and in the middle part 50m wide, east and west it narrows by building recesses. [2] The design is based on a continuous grid, constructed of steel beams. The beams are covered with stone slabs, so that the building looks like a stone. The main entrance is in the middle of the southern, more entrances lead from the middle of the north side of the north gallery and on the narrow sides in the side wings. Both longitudinal sides is a 21-axis portico colossal, not fluted, the entire height of the building occupying columns in front, which is each completed by each cornerstone. The portico on the south side show at the Prinzregentenstraße was originally preceded by the full width of a staircase, it was in 1971 reduced in the course of road alterations in depth and broken up in the midsection. On the back of the basement is at ground level accessible due to a drop of the terrain. There is a staircase leading system on the level of the ground floor. The two lobbies and staircases results in a total depth of 75 m.  The base area is covered with Nagelfluh, the exterior facades with limestone from the Danube at Kelheim. The stairs and outer bottom surfaces are granite. [3] Before the building is a series Linden, which are a traditional avenue tree in Munich. interior installation  Also inside the house of art is symmetrical. Originally called "Hall of Honour" central hall closes centrally at the entrance and leads to the northern gallery by. Left and right of each are a large extended exhibition hall surrounded by a series of small rooms. These areas, which make up the central part, reaching the full height of the building. On the south side are elongated and administrative buildings, in the north the former restaurant, now North Gallery. Only those parts of the building are two floors, upstairs are both showrooms. The halls in full and the exhibition rooms on the upper floor were lit by skylights. [4] The total exhibition area is 5040 m². [5] The exhibition rooms on the ground floor can be divided or assigned arbitrarily, so that several exhibitions can be held at the same time. The building have from the outset over several lifts, a complex heating and air conditioning and an air raid shelter, [6] which is used for exhibitions since 2011th  Inside, the floors are covered with Solnhofen, door frames and skirting boards made of J US military government wanted to give responsibility for the building in the hands of the artists' associations. 1948 therefore created the part again incurred, newly founded partly Artists Clubs Munich Secession, New Group and New Munich Artists' Association a club "exhibition management Haus der Kunst München eV" as the carrier of the exhibition business. [7] The building itself went as a special fund to the Free State Bayern. [27] it was divided the building under different users. Yet until 1955 retained the US Army, the central hall, the restaurant and some adjoining rooms for their officers' club.  The west wing of the building was used by the Bavarian State Painting Collection. During the reconstruction of the Alte Pinakothek selected works to 1958 were shown in their inventory, then to 1981, those of the Neue Pinakothek and to 2000 showed the west wing pieces of the Staatsgalerie Moderne Kunst until it moved into the Pinakothek der Moderne. From 2001 to 2007 the "Theater im Haus der Kunst" took advantage of the Bayerisches Staatsschauspiel the west wing. [28]  As in 1955, the US Army moved out permanently from the Haus der Kunst, two upscale restaurants were included as a tenant in the building. A room in the east wing went to the restaurant Alecco. 1984 from the P1 nightclub under the direction of Michael Beetle. [29] The basement under the west wing housed the Hungarian Restaurant Piroschka. In 1994 it and the P1 moved to its premises, which uses it to this day. [30] The east wing was since completely for exhibitions. In addition, were installed as in the central hall galleries and a cashier that the monumental effect of the space has been reduced.  Ludwig Grote organized 1949 exhibition Der Blaue Reiter with outlawed under the Third Reich artists who had worked in Munich and the surrounding area before and after the First World War. [31] The architectural historian Irene Meissner stated means that the House of Art "through exhibitions of "had been. [32] the show organizers organized since 1949 the annual" decontaminated formerly proscribed modern art Great Art exhibition Munich ". The traditional carnival ball of artists' associations as a social event took place now in the Haus der Kunst. The former site of the celebrations, the artist am Lenbachplatz, was in part destroyed and the ball was important to finance the exhibition activities. [33] In 1950, the previous German owner of the officer clubs, Peter Ade, Managing Director of Exhibition Management and the Director of the Haus der Kunst. He organized exhibitions with an emphasis on Classical Modernism, but also cultural and historical topics like "Culture and Fashion" (1950) found place.  CEO Ade organized in 1955 on the American model a Mäzenatenkreis of Haus der Kunst from industry representatives. In 1958 donated this annual contributions of about 500,000 marks. Half of the sum was used for the purchase of works Munich artist, so that the club building up an extensive art collection. [27] The fact that the house was carried by the artists associations, excellent contacts brought him to museums at home and abroad and enabled many loans. [34] the house of Art often collaborated with other museums together and organized traveling exhibitions or participated in them. The Picasso exhibition in 1955 was based on an image heritage status, which had been previously shown in Paris, but was extended for Munich by 37 works. [35] In this form, they then went to Cologne and Hamburg and was the last time that the Guernica was loaned in Europe. [36] 1956 was followed by other popular successes with exhibitions from Paul Cézanne and Vincent van Gogh. [24] the house of Art saw his task but always also in living and established in the art world, but not yet internationally to show prominent artists such as Henry Moore in 1960 or Fritz Wotruba 1967. and it organized look to National Art smaller or lesser known countries: Brazilian Art 1959 or Art from the Benelux countries in 1968. [24]  From 1956 to 1997, the German art and antiques fair was held at the Haus der Kunst. Organized by the Federation of German art trade, she was the first German sales show for the art trade. [37]  Following a massive dispute with the show organizers to access to the Haus der Kunst since 1961 also shows the Free Munich and German artistry in the exhibition series "Autumn Salon", later "Art Salon" and "New Art Salon" works of its members in the northern gallery of the house. [38] As part of the cultural program of the 1972 summer Olympics a special world cultures and modern art took place in the Haus der Kunst. These built architect Paolo Nestler a two storey extension over the full northern side. The tubular steel construction with extensive glazing took up the rhythm of the columns. Two stair towers on the outer sides and a sound body in the West were covered with white sheets. The cultivation was torn down after the Olympics. [3]  The House of Art organized by Ade three big shows with Egyptian works: 1976 Nefertiti - Akhenaton 1979 gods and pharaohs and 1980, the exhibition "Tutankhamun", for the Egyptian Antiquities Authority one of the sarcophagi, the famous head mask and other high-profile pieces from the grave Tutankhamun gave last time. [39] She was the biggest box office hit in the history of the house. [24] in 1982 had Peter Ade Haus der Kunst leave. The Bavarian Court did after 37 years in the variety of its offices conflicts of interest. [40] He went to the Hypo Foundation for Culture and opened in 1983 for this the Kunsthalle of the Hypo Cultural Foundation. Ades successors were Hermann Kern (1982-1985) and Magdalena Huber-Ruppel (1985 to 1990). In 1991, the house closed for a complete renovation. [41] Stiftung Haus der Kunst  In the late 1980s, the Haus der Kunst had massive financial problems. Under Ade, the operation of the Haus der Kunst [42] had completely worn itself. The problems contributed various causes in. Ades successors could not organize exhibitions with the same audience influx and so solicit fewer donations besides less direct revenue. On the other hand went all costs. Art and culture were increasingly seen as services and business, including insurance premiums and security costs rose significantly. Therefore, the State of Bavaria also joined the operation of the House. [27] Since 1992, operates the House of Art by the "Stiftung Haus der Kunst in Munich, nonprofit mbH". In it, the State of Bavaria and the Schörghuber Group closed the main sponsor together, other shareholders were the Mäzenatenvereinigung "Society of Friends Haus der Kunst München eV" and the Exhibition Management Great Art Exhibition. [43] The foundation foundation goes back to the commitment of the Schörghuber family, the house of Art for ten years, each with a million marks (from 2002 EUR 500,000) to promote.  The first director of the new organization was established in 1993 Christoph Vitali. He opened his tenure with the exhibition elan vital. The eye of Eros in which he brought together classical modernism thematically with contemporary art. This epochs overarching approach remained his focus even in the Look Serious Games. The spirit of Romanticism in German art and the night. Under Vitali the Haus der Kunst in 1995 and one of only three European partners of the exhibition was the first and only time works of Impressionism the Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia outside their own premises. [44] On the roof of the house is temporarily the great blue logo "Alliance [Logo] Arena" that hangs otherwise the Munich football stadium Inscription: "Allianz Arena" on the roof of the House of Arts of 2006.  The term of office of Chris Dercon as the next head of the house began with the long-planned "critical deconstruction" the latest fixtures from the 1950s and 1960s. Since then, the architecture of the Haus der Kunst is back in its original state and the central hall can be experienced in its original action again. [45]  Under Dercon line the Haus der Kunst extended from 2003 its focus and shows architecture, film and photography, fashion and design. Moreover Dercon addressed the history of the building and the role of art in the Third Reich. Large audience favorites were the exhibitions of works by Andreas Gursky and Ai Weiwei. During the 2006 FIFA World Cup, the building of the lettering "Allianz Arena" graced. Since the stadium was allowed to wear any sponsors names, the lettering has been temporarily removed from there. [46] Also in 2006, auctioned the Circle Haus der Kunst its built since 1958 art collection for a total of 5.2 million euros that have been earmarked applied to arts funding. [27] In the wake of the financial crisis, however, walked away more than a million lost. [47]  an art trade show at the House of Art International Art Fair Munich again instead of [48] - From 2010 to 2012 took the highlights.  2011 started a collaboration of the Haus der Kunst with the Goetz Collection. In former air raid shelter of the Haus der Kunst parts of the video art collection of Ingvild Goetz be shown. Since October 2011 conducts Enwezor the Haus der Kunst. [49] Enwezor built links with other cultural institutions in Munich and cooperated with the Bavarian State Opera and the Munich Kammerspiele. In the selection of exhibitions and artist, he sat on Contemporary Art.  2014 opened a permanent exhibition on the history of the house in the archive gallery. It is based on the systematic evaluation since 2004 the historical archives of the House. [50] In the film documents, plans and objects from the early days of the House of German Art and postwar raises the exhibition house of his past. [51]  Several problems in the organization of the house came together in mid-2014. The Schörghuber family announced that they would get out of arts funding and also the home of Art and continue to support only charitable purposes. From the Mäzenatenverein "Society of Friends House of Art" appeared next to the family Schörghuber several corporate sponsors. As a result, there was direction disputes [27], which could be dissolved in November 2014 after the resignation of Andreas Langenscheidt by the Presidency of the Society of Friends by the choice of the former Bavarian Culture Minister Wolfgang Heubisch his successor. The Society of Friends may participate through an amendment even at the cost of the planned 2016 general renovation of the building by the London architect David Chipperfield. The project represents the Free State of Bavaria € 58 million available. [5]  With the withdrawal of Schörghubers were missing in the budget of around 7 million euros a year about 8%. In addition, exhibitions of years had passed since around 2011 because of the clear focus on younger, contemporary artists less audience prone than before, so that the revenues of the house were below one million. [47] By 2012 had the Free State of Bavaria unplanned with 534,000 euros to cover the deficit to step in. [52] between 2014 and the end of 2015 was Director Enwezor only partially available because he also was director of the Biennale di Venezia in 2015.  The former club exhibition management, which has been renamed 2014 in artists composite the Haus der Kunst, brings its own problems in the operation of the house. Since 2011 his great art exhibition takes the Munich artist only held every two years. Thus accounted for in the years without issue but public funding, so that the club had its finances largely used up after 2012. In the next, actually exhibition free between 2014 therefore only a seven-day review with subsequent auction was held in the North Gallery.
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