How did newspaper reports on the Kent State Shootings vary and how reliable were they?


A) Plan of the investigation (125 words)      
            With Vietnam changing the way that Americans viewed foreign wars by bringing the battles into their living rooms, media coverage of the event became a milestone in reporting open, investigative journalism. On May 4th, 1970 the National Guard shot into a crowd of student protesters at Kent State University in Ohio and memorialised the incident as “the day the war came home[1]”.
            This investigation will therefore focus on the shootings of the four students at Kent State and answer the questions ‘how did newspaper reports on the Kent Shootings vary and how reliable were they?’. This will show how the reports reflected the impact of the event on the United States and demonstrate how reporting changed with the passage of time. In Section B, an explanation of the history of the Vietnam War both abroad and on the Homefront will be provided. Then, a brief summary will be presented detailing the immediate reactions of the press, as well as subsequent reports. In Section C The New York Times will be evaluated to show how treatment of Kent State changed over time. Part D will analyze the importance of the context of the event through the assessment of the tone of early reportage and the reasons that it changed with emerging evidence and a changing mood throughout the country due to subsequent events. Finally, Part E will conclude the accuracy and effectiveness of reporting on this event.

B) Summary of Evidence (462 words)

            Involvement in the Vietnam War[2] polarized the United States between those who continued to advocate the war and those who supported the growing peace movement. As early as May 2nd, 1964, the first major student demonstration against the war was held in New York City, while another 700 marched in San Francisco and smaller numbers of protesters gathered in Seattle and Madison, Wisconsin[3]. Opposition increased with the support of popular public figures such as Mohammed Ali and Martin Luther King Jr, who put massive anti war efforts into “capturing public attention and putting pressure on government to listen to…the people[4]”. In 1965, The Johnson administration employed a policy of minimum openness in its dealings with the media. Military information officers sought to manage media coverage by emphasizing stories that portrayed progress in the war[5].
            On May 1st, 1970, President Nixon announced the invasion of Cambodia. This event launched an immediate demonstration by 500 students at Kent State University as a symbolic protest to “bring the war home”. Over the next three days the size and hostility of the protest grew considerably. Over 2,000 students gathered to burn down the ROTC[6] building on campus. On May 3rd, students awoke to a military take-over on campus yet continued with demonstrations. Students assembled again at 11 am on May 3rd around the burned down ROTC building. Guardsmen became concerned with the overwhelming size and vigor of the crowd and the armed soldiers “fired into a crowd”[7].  
            Following Kent State, America's legal evolution trended toward a broader interpretation of freedom of the press. In 1971 the “Pentagon Papers”, a United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political-military involvement in Vietnam, were exposed on the front page of The New York Times[8]. Senator Birch Bayh commented that the censorship of the media had created a “credibility gap” between the people and the government[9]. Subsequent events such as the publically documented investigation into President Nixon’s involvement in the Watergate scandal further underlined the necessity for open journalism.
            Immediate reactions of the press to Kent State focused on the emotional response of the shootings through the circulation of a Pulitzer Prize winning[10] photograph capturing a 14-year-old run away screaming over the body of a dead student. The award-winning photograph rapidly found itself in such publications as a May 18th edition of Newsweek and Time magazine[11]. The event triggered national outrage and subsequent demonstrations that led to wider press coverage of the student movement. Today, Kent State is primarily viewed as the turning point of the Vietnam War as the dramatic nature of the press associated with the Kent State Shootings caused a breakthrough in American news coverage, which consequently led to a change in public opinion on the Homefront.

Evaluation of Sources (571)

Source A-
The New York Times May 5th, 1970

            The day immediately succeeding the Kent State Shootings, Kifner, a writer for The New York Times, published an article documenting the details of the event along with an analysis of key figures that were involved in the Shootings. The article appeared on the front page of the Times along with John Filo’s infamous photograph of the shot student lying on the ground and another photograph of American troops marching into Vietnam.
            Although the article maintains a largely detached, narrative style of journalism, the writer establishes a somber tone in order to criticize the response of the National Guard to the protest, as well as President Nixon’s involvement in the war through a personal commentary on the key events. Kifner describes the atmosphere around campus after the protests as being “a bizarre daze…as students struggled to comprehend what happened and to find something to do about it”. He also comments that to the best of his ability, he knew of no indication of sniper fire by students on the National Guard and condemned Nixon’s response to the deaths by criticizing the principals of the student movement.
            The article focuses on the dramatic nature of the shootings and the repercussions the event had on both administration and affected students. It is therefore valuable for historians studying Kent State and the anti-war movement during Vietnam as it emphasizes the American public’s immediate response to the incident, which was one of a growing mistrust for the government. It also demonstrates how media aimed to bring the shock-factor of war to people’s living rooms through photographs and suspenseful journalism.
            However, the article is therefore limiting, as its purpose is to sympathize with the protesters and portray the event from a spectator’s point of view. The article does not detail the events leading up to the protest nor does it investigate other perspectives. Furthermore, as the article was released so soon after the Shootings, it is filled with emotive urgency that may not reflect all of the information of present at the time.

Source B-
The New York Times May 17th, 1990

            On May 17th, 1990, 20 years after Kent State, journalist Vincent Canby of The New York Times published an article that aimed to evaluate the long-term significance of the event and compare the students’ reactions to the Shootings in the 70’s to current students opinions about the significant political activism that took place on their campus.
            In his article, Canby interviews the University’s Sociology professor who comments that he is appalled by “the students' wholehearted acceptance of the values of the Reagan era” and that the campus is shaped by the students’ “sense of their own insignificance”. This pessimistic view of the school contrasts the initial adamant tone of the reporter who affirms that “the events at Kent State shook the country, they also became emblematic of an era in which students worked with passion to change the world for the better”.
            This investigation is useful for historians studying Kent State because the hindsight allows us to see just how significant the event was in the long run of the Vietnam War and how it had such a different impact on those present during the movement as it did to those in later generations.
            However, it is limiting because the article does not examine how the event was initially reported, nor does it detail how it created a more open policy in American Journalism, thereby bringing about the radical change that Canby briefly mentions.

D) Analysis  (560 words)
            Can one event really have a great enough influence on the social structure of a country that it alters the way the media portrays war? Did the emergence of a new movement of journalism in the United States alter the way that the Kent State Shootings were reported throughout time? According to H. R. Haldeman, a top aide to President Richard Nixon, the shootings did in fact have a direct and significant impact on national politics. He states, “The shootings at Kent State began the slide into Watergate, eventually destroying the Nixon administration”[12]. This event proved to be so effective in altering the political and social opinion of the country, in part due to the way it was covered by the media. War coverage of the Kent State Shooting contrasts the way any event, political or social, had been reported in the United States prior to the Vietnam War. Early publication of the event focused on the revolutionary quality of the Shootings and the emotional impact a foreign war was having on people and movements domestically. After the printing of the New York Time’s analysis of the event, John Kifner claims that, “not long ago, the Administration was considered an artful, managerial mechanism, oiled with serenity, unanimity and self-confidence. Now it showed symptoms of severe internal distress”[13]. This refers to the letter that Governor Hickel wrote to Nixon urging him to respect the views of protestors; “"I believe this administration finds itself today embracing a philosophy which appears to lack appropriate concern for the attitude of a great mass of Americans – our young people." This dissent garnered worldwide media attention, and on November 25, 1970, Hickel was fired over the letter, proving the impact media coverage had not only a great impact on youth, but also on prominent members of the government. It also suggests that Kent State was the first social event during the Vietnam War that was covered extensively enough to create a dramatic response from the public. Public opinion pollsters found the immediate national reaction to be one of absolving the Guard and placing blame on the students for the tragedy at Kent State.[14]
            A week after the Kent State shootings, on May 4, 100,000 anti-war demonstrators converged on Washington, D.C. to protest the shooting of the students in Ohio and the Nixon administration's incursion into Cambodia. Even though the demonstration was quickly put together, protesters were still able to bring out thousands to march in the Capital. It was an almost spontaneous response to the events of the previous week thanks to the rapid response of the media. This event set the National Student Strike of 1970 into full motion with the Jackson State College protest on May 14th.
            On the 40th anniversary of May 4th, 1970 Rick Hampson of USA Today comments on the lasting impact of the event on American history by boldly stating, “Rarely has an American home front been so traumatized. For a time the school was so ashamed it shortened its name to "Kent” changed its logo and ended its annual May 4 observances.” Yale historian Jay Winter goes so far as to call the Kent State shootings "a wound in the nation's history". The journalist comments that during the 40 years since America left Vietnam and entered Iraq and Afghanistan, the wars America now fights have never really come home. Similarly to Kifner’s article, evaluated in Section B, Hampson declares “"There's no strong opposition to it today…no sympathy for the movements that took place here”.

E) Conclusion (222)

            In assessing the accuracy of Kent State and how news coverage of the event changed over time, it is crucial to understand the context of the protests. Amidst a national anti-war movement, newspapers captured the spirit of the revolution with rapid responses to coverage of the ever-growing opposition to American involvement in Vietnam. Reporters took advantage of the realization that the First Amendment allowed them to freely publicize confidential government information and began a more open communication with the public.
Kent State became symbolic of “the deep political and social divisions that… divided the country during the Vietnam War era[15]” by highlighting the horrors of war on the home front and providing the opportunity for open critique of the administration.
            Although the Shootings still hold a place in history amongst the anti-war movement, the significance of the event has long been lost in journalism. Even newspapers such as The New York Times who once held breaking coverage of May 4th, now report on the anniversary of the day that the impact of the occurrence is being lost with new generations. As the Vietnam War is no longer an issue that affects today’s students, the remembrance of the day has also lost its importance and this can be seen in the detached, apathetic tone of modern news articles.
            Newspapers, like most other forms of media, provide an accurate source of historical evidence as they document the actualities of an event. However, the attitude of the public at the time of publication creates a significant impact on how the articles are interpreted and responded to. Events that occurred nearly a half a century ago, no matter how well documented they are, lose emotional attachment and interest in journalism as they fail to memorialise the atmosphere, which may or may not contribute to more historical accuracy.


F) Sources


Caputo P., 13 Seconds: A look back at the Kent State Shootings, Penguin Books LtD, 2005

Ciment J, PhD, The Young People’s History of the United States, Media Projects Incorporated, 1998

Edwards O, The USA and the Cold War, 1945-63 Second Edition , Hodder & Stoughton, 2002

Farmer A. & Sanders V, Context, Access to History: An Introduction to American History, 1860-1990,
Hodder & Stoughton, 2002

Gordon W. A, Four Dead in Ohio, North Ridge Books, 1995

Gottfried T, The Fight for Peace: A History of Antiwar Movements in America, Twenty-First Century
Books, A division of Lerner Publishing Group, 2006

Michener J. A, Kent State: What Happened and Why, New York: Random House, 1971

Zinn H, A People’s History of the United States, Harper & Row, 1980


Canby, Vincent. "After 20 Years, What Has Changed at Kent State?" The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. New York Times, 17 May 1990. Web. 01 Feb. 2012. .

Hampson, Rick. "1970 Kent State Shootings Are an Enduring History Lesson." News, Travel, Weather, Entertainment, Sports, Technology, U.S. & World - USA TODAY, 05 Apr. 2010. Web. 01 Feb. 2012. .

[1]Caputo P, “13 Seconds: A look back at the Kent State Shootings”, Penguin Books LtD, 2005 – Cover jacket

[2] The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. The war was fought between North Vietnam supported by its communist allies, and the government of South Vietnam, supported by the United States and other anti-communist nations.
[3] Flynn, George Q. (1993). The Draft, 1940–1973. Modern war studies. University Press of Kansas. p. 175.

[4] Gottfried T, The Fight for Peace: A History of Antiwar Movements in America, 2006, pg 98

[5] Vietnam: A History by Stanley Karnow 1991 p. 18
[6] ‘Reserve Officer Training Corps’

[7] “killing two female and two male students and wounding eight others… Some of the victims were onlookers not involved in the protest” (Gottfried T, The Fight for Peace: A History of Antiwar Movements in America, 2006 pg. 100)
[8] "The Pentagon Papers”1971 Year in Review. UPI. 1971. Retrieved 2010-07-02.
[9] Dickinson, William B.; Mercer Cross, Barry Polsky (1973). Watergate: chronology of a crisis. 1. Washington D. C.:
[10] ‘Kent State Massacre’ by John Filo
[11] Time Magazine “US Student Protest” May 18th, 1970
Article: At War With War by Hedley Donovan, Editor In Chief

[12] In The Ends of Power, Haldeman (1978)
[13] Haldeman. (1978). The Ends of Power.
[14] Newsweek, May 25, 1970, p. 30. A Newsweek poll reported that in placing blame for the shootings at Kent State 10% blamed the Guard; 58% blamed the students; and 31% were undecided.
рейхсканцелярия Фюрербункер Καταφύγιο του Χίτλερ 総統地下壕 제1차 세계 대전 제2차 세계 대전 홀로코스트 뉘른베르크 전범 재판 하인리히 히믈러 나치 신나치주의 신비주의 히틀러 암살 미수 사건 독일 에바 브라운 겔리 라우발 브론 location of hitler's bunker    “body man”K元首地堡(德语:Führerbunker)殺。5月2日,蘇聯軍隊佔領此處。 大眾文化      電影帝國毀滅即是以此地為主要場景。 al Penn Фюрербункер (Führerbunker (инф.)) — наименование комплекса подземных помещений в Берлине, размещённых под рейхсканцелярией. Этот бункер служил последним убежищем Адольфа Гитлера в течение последних недель существования национал-социалистического режима в Германии. Бункер был штаб-квартирой фюрера, в которой он и ещё ряд нацистских руководителей (включая Геббельса) покончили с войны  Бункер был расположен к северо-востоку от рейхсканцелярии. Пять метров под землей (четыре метра железобетона и метр грунта), тридцать комнат (помещений различного назначения — от конференц-зала до туалета и венткамер), расположенных на двух уровнях с выходами в главное здание и аварийный выход в сад. Бункер имел общую площадь около 250 квадратных метров. Был построен в два этапа (1936 и 1943 годы). Впервые Гитлер посетил Фюрербункер 25 ноября 1944 года. 16 января 1945 года Адольф Гитлер окончательно перебрался в Фюрербункер, но до 15 марта 1945 периодически покидал его, однако 15 марта 1945 с приближением советских войск перестал покидать его окончательно.  Выход из бункера в сквер внутреннего двора Рейхсканцелярии, место сожжения трупа Гитлера После Второй мировой войны  Здание Рейхсканцелярии было снесено, входы в бункер взорваны и засыпаны грунтом. На месте запасного выхода сейчас автостоянка. Взорванный в 1947 г. бункер Бывший сквер Рейхсканцелярии в наше время (2009 г.) См. также      «Бункер» — фильм 1981 года с Энтони Хопкинсом в главной роли.     «Бункер» — фильм 2004 года с Бруно Ганцем в главной роли.     Вервольф (бункер)     Волчье логово     Герда Кристиан     Рейхсканцелярия     Рохус Миш     Траудль Юнге  Литература      Pietro Guido: Führerbunker-Discovered its Mysteries ISEM [Vierte Ausgabe, 2006]総統地下壕(独: De-Führerbunker.ogg Führerbunker[ヘルプ/ファイル])は、ドイツ・ベルリンにあった総統官邸の地下壕を指す。総統官邸の地下壕は二つのエリアに区切られている が、ここではその二つを扱う。  目次      1 概要     2 総統大本営として関連項目  概要  1935年、総統アドルフ・ヒトラーは総統官邸の中庭に地下壕を設置させた。当時は主要施設に地下壕を設けるのは特別なことではなかった。1943年に は、戦況の悪化を受けて、防御機能を高めた新たな総統地下壕が建造された。二つの地下壕は階段で接続されており、新造部分は「Führerbunker」 (総統地下壕)と呼ばれ、旧造部分は「Vorbunker」(旧地下壕)と呼ばれた。  地下壕は攻撃にも耐えられるよう厚さ4mものコンクリートによって造られ、約30の部屋に仕切られていた。構造は強固で、空襲やソ連軍によるベルリンへの 激しい攻撃にも耐え抜いた。しかし急ごしらえで建造されたため各所で水漏れが起きており、ヒトラー自身が換気を嫌ったため空調は良好ではなく、決して完璧 なつくりとはいえなかった。また、初期こそヒトラーが嫌っていた喫煙は硬く禁じられ、利用者もそれを守っていたが戦況が絶望的になるにつれヒトラーの姿が ない所では堂々とタバコを吸うようになってゆき、末期にはヒトラーが目の前を通り過ぎてもタバコを吸うようになった。  大戦末期の1945年1月16日からヒトラーはここでの生活をはじめた。ヒトラーとエヴァ・ブラウン、ヨーゼフ・ゲッベルスらが総統地下壕に居住し、ゲッ ベルスの家族やマルティン・ボルマン等他の者は旧地下壕に居住した。ヒトラーはベルリン市街戦末期の1945年4月30日にここで自殺した。翌日には後継 首相のゲッベルスも自決し、5月2日にはソ連軍に占領された。 総統大本営として  地下壕は総統大本営としての役割を果たしており、国防軍最高司令部や陸軍総司令部・空軍総司令部といったドイツ軍中枢に関わる人物がここで勤務していた。 ヒトラーが関係者以外の立ち入りを禁じたためにエヴァ・ブラウンら部外者は空襲時に避難する以外は地下壕に立ち入らなかった。  しかしソ連軍がベルリンに迫った4月15日、エヴァは家具を地下壕に運び入れさせ、ヒトラーの側で生活することを決めた。ヒトラーや軍需相シュペーアが避 難を勧告したが、エヴァは応じなかった。 総統誕生日   4月20日、ヒトラーは56歳の誕生日を地下壕で迎えた。ヒトラーの誕生日を祝うために空軍総司令官ヘルマン・ゲーリング、海軍総司令官カール・デーニッ ツ、国防軍最高司令部総長ヴィルヘルム・カイテル、外相ヨアヒム・フォン・リッベントロップといった政軍の高官が集まった。同日午前、ベルリン市内に対す るソ連軍の砲撃が始まり、いよいよベルリンが戦場となることは明白であった。  ヒトラーに祝意を表明した後、ゲーリングとカイテルは国防軍最高司令部と陸軍総司令部・空軍総司令部の大部分の機能をベルリンから避難させる許可を求め た。ヒトラーは許可を与え、ゲーリングらの同行も認めた。さらに北部ドイツの軍指揮権をデーニッツに委ねた。この時点では南部ドイツの指揮権については言 明せず、ナチス党官房長マルティン・ボルマンをはじめとして、ヒトラーがやがて南部に避難すると見る者も存在した。しかし翌21日未明にベルリンを離れな い意志を言明し、オーバーザルツベルクに「狼はベルリンにとどまる」という電文が打電された。狼はヒトラー個人を指す暗号である(アドルフは「高貴な狼」 という意味であり、またヒトラーはしばしば「狼」という意味のヴォルフという偽名を使用していたため)。しかしゲーリング、デーニッツら軍高官は決定に従 い、ベルリンを離れることになった。 ベルリンの孤立  4月22日午後3時、総統地下壕で作戦会議が開かれた。しかしベルリン防衛の不活発さに激怒したヒトラーは自殺をほのめかし、その意志はボルマンを始めと する幹部にも伝えられ、壕内の人々にも伝わった。カイテルとヨードル作戦部長、ボルマンが説得したためヒトラーの精神は落ち着きを見せたが、カイテルらの 避難勧告には応じなかった。同日午後8時45分、総統副官のプットカマー海軍少将・シャウブ親衛隊大将、ヒトラーの主治医モレル、女性秘書のヴォルフ (en:Johanna Wolf)、シュレーダー(en:Christa Schroeder)などの職員が地下壕から退去し、オーバーザルツベルクのヒトラー山荘ベルクホーフに避難した。しかしエヴァや秘書のユンゲらはヒト ラーの勧告にもかかわらず、退去に応じなかった。一方、午後8時にはゲッベルスの夫人マグダとその6人の子が地下壕に入り生活するようになった。  4月23日、ヨードルから「ヒトラーの自殺意志」を聴いたコラー空軍参謀総長が地下壕を脱出し、オーバーザルツベルクのゲーリングの元に向かった。これを 受けたゲーリングは連合軍との降伏交渉を始めるべく、ヒトラーに総統権限委譲を確認する電文を送る。しかしヒトラーは激怒し、ゲーリングの逮捕と監禁を命 じた。この日のうちにリッベントロップはドイツ北部に疎開し、翌4月24日未明にはシュペーアが地下壕から退去した。このころの地下壕の様子をシュペーア は「英雄気取りのゲッベルス、疲れ切ったヒトラー、権力闘争に燃えるボルマン、異常な多数者の中で、エヴァだけが冷静であった」と回顧している。同日、ベ ルリンの北、ラインスベルク近郊ノイルーフェン基地にカイテルやヨードル、国防軍総司令部と陸軍総司令部の人員が集まった。ヒトラーの許可を得て陸軍総司 令部の統帥任務は解除され、国防軍総司令部が陸軍総司令部を吸収してベルリン防衛の指揮を取ることになった。  4月25日正午頃、遂にベルリン市はソ連軍によって完全に包囲された。 最期への日々  4月26日、グライム空軍上級大将が女性飛行士ハンナ・ライチュの操縦する飛行機に乗ってベルリン市に入った。ソ連軍の対空砲火を切り抜け、砲撃で破壊さ れた滑走路を使っての着陸であり、地下壕の人々は大いに沸き立った。グライムは即日元帥に昇格し、ゲーリングの後任の空軍総司令官に任命された。  4月27日、エヴァ・ブラウンの妹グレートルの夫であり、親衛隊全国指導者連絡官のフェーゲライン親衛隊中将が国外逃亡を図ったとして逮捕された。28日 には親衛隊全国指導者ヒムラーが単独で和平交渉を行っていることが発覚した。フェーゲラインは処刑され、ヒムラーは解任された。  4月29日午前0時頃、新空軍司令官グライムとライチュがヒトラーの指示でベルリンを脱出した。この時、地下壕にいた者達がライチュに手紙を託している。 その後、ヒトラーは秘書ユンゲを呼び、政治的遺言の口述を行い、自らの死後の閣僚を指名した。新大統領にデーニッツ、首相にゲッベルス、ナチス党担当大臣 にボルマンが指名されている。(ヒトラー内閣#参考:ヒトラーの遺書による内閣)その後個人的遺言を残し、エヴァとの結婚、自殺後の遺体処理方法、遺産の 管理を明らかにした。  遺言書の口述が終わった午前3時頃、ヒトラーとエヴァは結婚式を挙げた。ゲッベルスとボルマンが立会人と介添えを行い、ベルリン大管区監督官ワグナー (en:Walter Wagner (notary))によって結婚登録が行われた。その後、小会議室で簡単な披露宴が行われた。午前4時、秘書ユンゲはヒトラーに清書した遺言書を見せ、ヒ トラーやボルマンらのサインを受けた。ゲッベルスは遺言書に補遺として自らがベルリンで死ぬことを書き記した。  4月29日午前8時、ヒトラーは遺言書をデーニッツ、中央軍集団司令官シェルナー、そしてナチス党発祥の地であるミュンヘンに届けるよう使者を送り出し た。このほか幾人かの総統副官に脱出許可を与えた。  午後3時、ヒトラーはムッソリーニ処刑の報道を知った。午後6時、ゲッベルスの子供らも招いた「ベルリン市民とのお別れ」パーティが行われ  Bavarian International School た。午後10時には作戦会議が行われ、ベルリン防衛司令官ヴァイトリング中将から戦闘は4月30日夜までしか継続できないという連絡が入った。午後11 時、総統副官ベロー(de:Nicolaus von Below)大佐がヒトラーのカイテルあて書簡を持って地下壕を脱出した。ただし、ベローは危険を感じて書簡を破棄したため正確な内容は伝わっていない。 終焉  4月30日午前2時、地下壕に残った女性秘書たちのためのパーティが行われた。このパーティの最中、ヒトラーは内科主治医であるハーゼ親衛隊中佐に自殺方 法について相談している。ハーゼは青酸カリと拳銃を併用する自殺方法を提案した。すでにヒトラーは主治医シュトゥンプフエッガー親衛隊中佐から自殺用の青 酸カリのカプセルを受け取っていたが、ヒトラーは青酸カリの効力に疑問を抱いていた。そこでヒトラーの愛犬であるブロンディが実験台となり、青酸カリで薬 殺された。  正午、ヒトラーはボルマンとギュンシェ親衛隊少佐に、午後3時に自殺することを伝え、遺体を焼却することと、地下壕は爆破せずそのまま残すことを命令し た。午後1時、ヒトラーはユンゲとクリスティアン、栄養士のマンツィアリ(de:Constanze Manziarly)を同席させて最後の食事を取った。  午後3時、総統地下壕の廊下に側近が整列し、ヒトラー夫妻との最後の別れを行った。全員無言であhey can read election returns. They respect power and see it leaking out of him. If Mr. Obama had won the election they would have faked respect and affection.  Vladimir Putin delivered the unkindest cut, patting Mr. Obama’s shoulder Background Richard Nixon was elected President of the United States in 1968, promising to end the Vietnam War. In November 1969, the My Lai Massacre by American troops of between 347 and 504 civilians in a Vietnamese village was exposed, leading to increased public opposition in the United States to the war. The nature of the draft also changed in December 1969, with the first draft lottery since World War II. This eliminated deferments allowed in the prior draft process, affecting many college students and teachers. The war had appeared to be winding down throughout 1969, so the new invasion of Cambodia angered those who believed it only exacerbated the conflict. Across the country, campuses erupted in protests in what Time called "a nation-wide student strike", setting the stage for the events of early May 1970. Timeline Map of the shootings Thursday, April 30 President Nixon announced to the nation that the "Cambodian Incursion" had been launched by United States combat forces. Friday, May 1 At Kent State University a demonstration with about 500 students[10] was held on May 1 on the Commons (a grassy knoll in the center of campus traditionally used as a gathering place for rallies or protests). As the crowd dispersed to attend classes by 1 p.m., another rally was planned for May 4 to continue the protest of the expansion of the Vietnam War into Cambodia. There was widespread anger, and many protesters issued a call to "bring the war home". A group of history students buried a copy of the U.S. Constitution to symbolize that Nixon had killed it.[10] Trouble exploded in town around midnight, when people left a bar and began throwing beer bottles at police cars and breaking downtown storefronts. In the process they broke a bank window, setting off an alarm. The news spread quickly and it resulted in several bars closing early to avoid trouble. Before long, more people had joined the vandalism. By the time police arrived, a crowd of 120 had already gathered. Some people from the crowd had already lit a small bonfire in the street. The crowd appeared to be a mix of bikers, students, and transient people. A few members of the crowd began to throw beer bottles at the police, and then started yelling obscenities at them. The entire Kent police force was called to duty as well as officers from the county and surrounding communities. Kent Mayor LeRoy Satrom declared a state of emergency, called Ohio Governor Jim Rhodes' office to seek assistance, and ordered all of the bars closed. The decision to close the bars early increased the size of the angry crowd. Police eventually succeeded in using tear gas to disperse the crowd from downtown, forcing them to move several blocks back to the campus.[7] Saturday, May 2 City officials and downtown businesses received threats, while rumors proliferated that radical revolutionaries were in Kent to destroy the city and university. Mayor Satrom met with Kent city officials and a representative of the Ohio Army National Guard. Following the meeting, Satrom made the decision to call Governor Rhodes and request that the National Guard be sent to Kent, a request that was granted. Because of the rumors and threats, Satrom believed that local officials would not be able to handle future disturbances.[7] The decision to call in the National Guard was made at 5:00 pm, but the guard did not arrive into town that evening until around 10 pm. A large demonstration was already under way on the campus, and the campus Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) building[11] was burning. The arsonists were never apprehended and no one was injured in the fire.[12] More than a thousand protesters surrounded the building and cheered its burning. Several Kent firemen and police officers were struck by rocks and other objects while attempting to extinguish the blaze. Several fire engine companies had to be called in because protesters carried the fire hose into the Commons and slashed it.[13][14][15] The National Guard made numerous arrests and used tear gas; at least one student was slightly wounded with a bayonet.[16] Sunday, May 3 During a press conference at the Kent firehouse, an emotional Governor Rhodes pounded on the desk[17] and called the student protesters un-American, referring to them as revolutionaries set on destroying higher education in Ohio. "We've seen here at the city of Kent especially, probably the most vicious form of campus oriented violence yet perpetrated by dissident groups. They make definite plans of burning, destroying, and throwing rocks at police, and at the National Guard and the Highway Patrol. This is when we're going to use every part of the law enforcement agency of Ohio to drive them out of Kent. We are going to eradicate the problem. We're not going to treat the symptoms. And these people just move from one campus to the other and terrorize the community. They're worse than the brown shirts and the communist element and also the night riders and the vigilantes", Rhodes said. "They're the worst type of people that we harbor in America. Now I want to say this. They are not going to take over [the] campus. I think that we're up against the strongest, well-trained, militant, revolutionary group that has ever assembled in America."[18] Rhodes can be heard in the recording of his speech yelling and pounding his fists on the desk.[19] Rhodes also claimed he would obtain a court order declaring a state of emergency that would ban further demonstrations and gave the impression that a situation akin to martial law had been declared; however, he never attempted to obtain such an order.[7] During the day, some students came into downtown Kent to help with cleanup efforts after the rioting, which was met with mixed reactions from local businessmen. Mayor Satrom, under pressure from frightened citizens, ordered a curfew until further notice. Around 8:00 pm, another rally was held on the campus Commons. By 8:45 pm the Guardsmen used tear gas to disperse the crowd, and the students reassembled at the intersection of Lincoln and Main, holding a sit-in with the hopes of gaining a meeting with Mayor Satrom and the university president, Robert White. At 11:00 p.m., the Guard announced that a curfew had gone into effect and began forcing the students back to their dorms. A few students were bayoneted by Guardsmen.[20] Monday, May 4 On Monday, May 4, a protest was scheduled to be held at noon, as had been planned three days earlier. University officials attempted to ban the gathering, handing out 12,000 leaflets stating that the event was canceled. Despite these efforts, an estimated 2,000 people gathered[21] on the university's Commons, near Taylor Hall. The protest began with the ringing of the campus's iron Victory Bell (which had historically been used to signal victories in football games) to mark the beginning of the rally, and the first protester began to speak. Companies A and C, 1/145th Infantry and Troop G of the 2/107th Armored Cavalry, Ohio National Guard (ARNG), the units on the campus grounds, attempted to disperse the students. The legality of the dispersal was later debated at a subsequent wrongful death and injury trial. On appeal, the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit ruled that authorities did indeed have the right to disperse the crowd.[22] The dispersal process began late in the morning with campus patrolman Harold Rice,[23] riding in a National Guard Jeep, approaching the students to read them an order to disperse or face arrest. The protesters responded by throwing rocks, striking one campus patrolman and forcing the Jeep to retreat.[7] Just before noon, the Guard returned and again ordered the crowd to disperse. When most of the crowd refused, the Guard used tear gas. Because of wind, the tear gas had little effect in dispersing the crowd, and some launched a second volley of rocks toward the Guard's line, to chants of, "Pigs off campus!" The students lobbed the tear gas canisters back at the National Guardsmen, who wore gas masks. When it became clear that the crowd was not going to disperse, a group of 77 National Guard troops from A Company and Troop G, with bayonets fixed on their M1 Garand rifles, began to advance upon the hundreds of unarmed protesters. As the guardsmen advanced, the protesters retreated up and over Blanket Hill, heading out of the Commons area. Once over the hill, the students, in a loose group, moved northeast along the front of Taylor Hall, with some continuing toward a parking lot in front of Prentice Hall (slightly northeast of and perpendicular to Taylor Hall). The guardsmen pursued the protesters over the hill, but rather than veering left as the protesters had, they continued straight, heading down toward an athletic practice field enclosed by a chain link fence. Here they remained for about ten minutes, unsure of how to get out of the area short of retracing their path. During this time, the bulk of the students congregated off to the left and front of the guardsmen, approximately 150 to 225 ft (46 to 69 m) away, on the veranda of Taylor Hall. Others were scattered between Taylor Hall and the Prentice Hall parking lot, while still others were standing in the parking lot, or dispersing through the lot as they had been previously ordered. While on the practice field, the guardsmen generally faced the parking lot which was about 100 yards (91 m) away. At one point, some of the guardsmen knelt and aimed their weapons toward the parking lot, then stood up again. For a few moments, several guardsmen formed a loose huddle and appeared to be talking to one another. They had cleared the protesters from the Commons area, and many students had left, but some stayed and were still angrily confronting the soldiers, some throwing rocks and tear gas canisters. About ten minutes later, the guardsmen began to retrace their steps back up the hill toward the Commons area. Some of the students on the Taylor Hall veranda began to move slowly toward the soldiers as they passed over the top of the hill and headed back down into the Commons. At 12:24 pm,[24] according to eyewitnesses, a Sgt. Myron Pryor turned and began firing at the students with his .45 pistol.[25] A number of guardsmen nearest the students also turned and fired their rifles at the students. In all, 29 of the 77 guardsmen claimed to have fired their weapons, using a final total of 67 rounds of ammunition. The shooting was determined to have lasted only 13 seconds, although John Kifner reported in the New York Times that "it appeared to go on, as a solid volley, for perhaps a full minute or a little longer."[26] The question of why the shots were fired remains widely debated. Photo taken from the perspective of where the Ohio National Guard soldiers stood when they opened fire on the students Bullet hole in Solar Totem #1 sculpture[27] by Don Drumm caused by a .30 caliber round fired by the Ohio National Guard at Kent State on May 4, 1970 The Adjutant General of the Ohio National Guard told reporters that a sniper had fired on the guardsmen, which itself remains a debated allegation. Many guardsmen later testified that they were in fear for their lives, which was questioned partly because of the distance between them and the students killed or wounded. Time magazine later concluded that "triggers were not pulled accidentally at Kent State." The President's Commission on Campus Unrest avoided probing the question of why the shootings happened. Instead, it harshly criticized both the protesters and the Guardsmen, but it concluded that "the indiscriminate firing of rifles into a crowd of students and the deaths that followed were unnecessary, unwarranted, and inexcusable."[28] The shootings killed four students and wounded nine. Two of the four students killed, Allison Krause and Jeffrey Miller, had participated in the protest, and the other two, Sandra Scheuer and William Knox Schroeder, had been walking from one class to the next at the time of their deaths. Schroeder was also a member of the campus ROTC battalion. Of those wounded, none was closer than 71 feet (22 m) to the guardsmen. Of those killed, the nearest (Miller) was 225 feet (69 m) away, and their average distance from the guardsmen was 345 feet (105 m). Eyewitness accounts Two men who were present related what they saw. Unidentified speaker 1: Suddenly, they turned around, got on their knees, as if they were ordered to, they did it all together, aimed. And personally, I was standing there saying, they're not going to shoot, they can't do that. If they are going to shoot, it's going to be blank.[29] Unidentified speaker 2: The shots were definitely coming my way, because when a bullet passes your head, it makes a crack. I hit the ground behind the curve, looking over. I saw a student hit. He stumbled and fell, to where he was running towards the car. Another student tried to pull him behind the car, bullets were coming through the windows of the car. As this student fell behind the car, I saw another student go down, next to the curb, on the far side of the automobile, maybe 25 or 30 yards from where I was lying. It was maybe 25, 30, 35 seconds of sporadic firing. The firing stopped. I lay there maybe 10 or 15 seconds. I got up, I saw four or five students lying around the lot. By this time, it was like mass hysteria. Students were crying, they were screaming for ambulances. I heard some girl screaming, "They didn't have blank, they didn't have blank," no, they didn't.[29] May 4, after the shootings Immediately after the shootings, many angry students were ready to launch an all-out attack on the National Guard. Many faculty members, led by geology professor and faculty marshal Glenn Frank, pleaded with the students to leave the Commons and to not give in to violent escalation: I don't care whether you've never listened to anyone before in your lives. I am begging you right now. If you don't disperse right now, they're going to move in, and it can only be a slaughter. Would you please listen to me? Jesus Christ, I don't want to be a part of this ... ![30] After 20 minutes of speaking, the students left the Commons, as ambulance personnel tended to the wounded, and the Guard left the area. Professor Frank's son, also present that day, said, "He absolutely saved my life and hundreds of others".[31] Casualties Killed (and approximate distance from the National Guard): Jeffrey Glenn Miller; age 20; 265 ft (81 m) shot through the mouth; killed instantly Allison B. Krause; age 19; 343 ft (105 m) fatal left chest wound; died later that day William Knox Schroeder; age 19; 382 ft (116 m) shot in the back; fatal chest wound; died almost an hour later in a hospital while undergoing surgery Sandra Lee Scheuer; age 20; 390 ft (120 m) fatal neck wound; died a few minutes later from loss of blood Wounded (and approximate distance from the National Guard): Joseph Lewis Jr.; 71 ft (22 m); hit twice in the right abdomen and left lower leg John R. Cleary; 110 ft (34 m); upper left chest wound Thomas Mark Grace; 225 ft (69 m); struck in left ankle Alan Michael Canfora; 225 ft (69 m); hit in his right wrist Dean R. Kahler; 300 ft (91 m); back wound fracturing the vertebrae, permanently paralyzed from the chest down Douglas Alan Wrentmore; 329 ft (100 m); hit in his right knee James Dennis Russell; 375 ft (114 m); hit in his right thigh from a bullet and in the right forehead by birdshot, both wounds minor Robert Follis Stamps; 495 ft (151 m); hit in his right buttock Donald Scott MacKenzie; 750 ft (230 m); neck wound In the President's Commission on Campus Unrest (pp. 273–274)[32] they mistakenly list Thomas V. Grace, who is Thomas Mark Grace's father, as the Thomas Grace injured. All those shot were students in good standing at the university.[32] Although initial newspaper reports had inaccurately stated that a number of National Guard members had been killed or seriously injured, only one Guardsman, Sgt. Lawrence Shafer, was injured seriously enough to require medical treatment, approximately 10 to 15 minutes prior to the shootings.[33] Shafer is also mentioned in a memo from November 15, 1973. The FBI memo was prepared by the Cleveland Office and is referred to by Field Office file # 44-703. It reads as follows: Upon contacting appropriate officers of the Ohio National Guard at Ravenna and Akron, Ohio, regarding ONG radio logs and the availability of service record books, the respective ONG officer advised that any inquiries concerning the Kent State University incident should be directed to the Adjutant General, ONG, Columbus, Ohio. Three persons were interviewed regarding a reported conversation by Sgt Lawrence Shafer, ONG, that Shafer had bragged about "taking a bead" on Jeffrey Miller at the time of the ONG shooting and each interviewee was unable to substantiate such a conversation. In an interview broadcast in 1986 on the ABC News documentary series Our World, Shafer identified the person that he fired at as Joseph Lewis. Aftermath and long-term effects Photographs of the dead and wounded at Kent State that were distributed in newspapers and periodicals worldwide amplified sentiment against the United States' invasion of Cambodia and the Vietnam War in general. In particular, the camera of Kent State photojournalism student John Filo captured a fourteen-year-old runaway, Mary Ann Vecchio, screaming over the body of the dead student, Jeffrey Miller, who had been shot in the mouth. The photograph, which won a Pulitzer Prize, became the most enduring image of the events, and one of the most enduring images of the anti-Vietnam War movement.[34][35] The shootings led to protests on college campuses throughout the United States, and a student strike, causing more than 450 campuses across the country to close with both violent and non-violent demonstrations.[8] A common sentiment was expressed by students at New York University with a banner hung out of a window which read, "They Can't Kill Us All."[36] On May 8, eleven people were bayonetted at the University of New Mexico by the New Mexico National Guard in a confrontation with student protesters.[37] Also on May 8, an antiwar protest at New York's Federal Hall held at least partly in reaction to the Kent State killings was met with a counter-rally of pro-Nixon construction workers (organized by Peter J. Brennan, later appointed U.S. Labor Secretary by President Nixon), resulting in the "Hard Hat Riot". Shortly after the shootings took place, the Urban Institute conducted a national study that concluded the Kent State shooting was the single factor causing the only nationwide student strike in U.S. history; over 4 million students protested and hundreds of American colleges and universities closed during the student strikes. The Kent State campus remained closed for six weeks. Just five days after the shootings, 100,000 people demonstrated in Washington, D.C., against the war and the killing of unarmed student protesters. Ray Price, Nixon's chief speechwriter from 1969–1974, recalled the Washington demonstrations saying, "The city was an armed camp. The mobs were smashing windows, slashing tires, dragging parked cars into intersections, even throwing bedsprings off overpasses into the traffic down below. This was the quote, student protest. That's not student protest, that's civil war."[8] Not only was Nixon taken to Camp David for two days for his own protection, but Charles Colson (Counsel to President Nixon from 1969 to 1973) stated that the military was called up to protect the administration from the angry students; he recalled that "The 82nd Airborne was in the basement of the executive office building, so I went down just to talk to some of the guys and walk among them, and they're lying on the floor leaning on their packs and their helmets and their cartridge belts and their rifles cocked and you’re thinking, 'This can't be the United States of America. This is not the greatest free democracy in the world. This is a nation at war with itself.'"[8] President Nixon and his administration's public reaction to the shootings was perceived by many in the anti-war movement as callous. Then National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger said the president was "pretending indifference." Stanley Karnow noted in his Vietnam: A History that "The [Nixon] administration initially reacted to this event with wanton insensitivity. Nixon's press secretary, Ron Ziegler, whose statements were carefully programmed, referred to the deaths as a reminder that 'when dissent turns to violence, it invites tragedy.'" Three days before the shootings, Nixon himself had talked of "bums" who were antiwar protestors on US campuses,[38] to which the father of Allison Krause stated on national TV "My child was not a bum."[39] Karnow further documented that at 4:15 am on May 9, 1970, the president met about 30 student dissidents conducting a vigil at the Lincoln Memorial, whereupon Nixon "treated them to a clumsy and condescending monologue, which he made public in an awkward attempt to display his benevolence." Nixon had been trailed by White House Deputy for Domestic Affairs Egil Krogh, who saw it differently, saying, "I thought it was a very significant and major effort to reach out."[8] In any regard, neither side could convince the other and after meeting with the students, Nixon expressed that those in the anti-war movement were the pawns of foreign communists.[8] After the student protests, Nixon asked H. R. Haldeman to consider the Huston Plan, which would have used illegal procedures to gather information on the leaders of the anti-war movement. Only the resistance of J. Edgar Hoover stopped the plan.[8] A Gallup Poll taken immediately after the shootings reportedly showed that 58 percent of respondents blamed the students, 11 percent blamed the National Guard and 31 percent expressed no opinion.[40] However, there was wide discussion as to whether these were legally justified shootings of American citizens, and whether the protests or the decisions to ban them were constitutional. These debates served to further galvanize uncommitted opinion by the terms of the discourse. The term "massacre" was applied to the shootings by some individuals and media sources, as it had been used for the Boston Massacre of 1770, in which five were killed and several more wounded.[1][2][3] On May 14, ten days after the Kent State shootings, two students were killed (and 12 wounded) by police at Jackson State University under similar circumstances - the Jackson State killings - but that event did not arouse the same nationwide attention as the Kent State shootings.[41] On June 13, 1970, as a consequence of the killings of protesting students at Kent State and Jackson State, President Nixon established the President's Commission on Campus Unrest, known as the Scranton Commission, which he charged to study the dissent, disorder, and violence breaking out on college and university campuses across the nation.[42] The Commission issued its findings in a September 1970 report that concluded that the Ohio National Guard shootings on May 4, 1970, were unjustified. The report said: Even if the guardsmen faced danger, it was not a danger that called for lethal force. The 61 shots by 28 guardsmen certainly cannot be justified. Apparently, no order to fire was given, and there was inadequate fire control discipline on Blanket Hill. The Kent State tragedy must mark the last time that, as a matter of course, loaded rifles are issued to guardsmen confronting student demonstrators. In September 1970, twenty-four students and one faculty member were indicted on charges connected with the May 4 demonstration at the ROTC building fire three days before. These individuals, who had been identified from photographs, became known as the "Kent 25." Five cases, all related to the burning of the ROTC building, went to trial; one non-student defendant was convicted on one charge and two other non-students pleaded guilty. One other defendant was acquitted, and charges were dismissed against the last. In December 1971, all charges against the remaining twenty were dismissed for lack of evidence.[43][44] Legal action Eight of the guardsmen were indicted by a grand jury. The guardsmen claimed to have fired in self-defense, a claim that was generally accepted by the criminal justice system. In 1974 U.S. District Judge Frank Battisti dismissed charges against all eight on the basis that the prosecution's case was too weak to warrant a trial.[7] Larry Shafer, a guardsman who said he fired during the shootings and was one of those charged, told the Kent-Ravenna Record-Courier newspaper in May 2007: "I never heard any command to fire. That's all I can say on that." Shafer—a Ravenna city councilman and former fire chief—went on to say, "That's not to say there may not have been, but with all the racket and noise, I don't know how anyone could have heard anything that day." Shafer also went on to say that "point" would not have been part of a proper command to open fire. Civil actions were also attempted against the guardsmen, the State of Ohio, and the president of Kent State. The federal court civil action for wrongful death and injury, brought by the victims and their families against Governor Rhodes, the President of Kent State, and the National Guardsmen, resulted in unanimous verdicts for all defendants on all claims after an eleven-week trial.[45] The judgment on those verdicts was reversed by the Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit on the ground that the federal trial judge had mishandled an out-of-court threat against a juror. On remand, the civil case was settled in return for payment of a total of $675,000 to all plaintiffs by the State of Ohio[46] (explained by the State as the estimated cost of defense) and the defendants' agreement to state publicly that they regretted what had happened: In retrospect, the tragedy of May 4, 1970 should not have occurred. The students may have believed that they were right in continuing their mass protest in response to the Cambodian invasion, even though this protest followed the posting and reading by the university of an order to ban rallies and an order to disperse. These orders have since been determined by the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals to have been lawful. Some of the Guardsmen on Blanket Hill, fearful and anxious from prior events, may have believed in their own minds that their lives were in danger. Hindsight suggests that another method would have resolved the confrontation. Better ways must be found to deal with such a confrontation. We devoutly wish that a means had been found to avoid the May 4th events culminating in the Guard shootings and the irreversible deaths and injuries. We deeply regret those events and are profoundly saddened by the deaths of four students and the wounding of nine others which resulted. We hope that the agreement to end the litigation will help to assuage the tragic memories regarding that sad day. In the succeeding years, many in the anti-war movement have referred to the shootings as "murders," although no criminal convictions were obtained against any National Guardsman. In December 1970, journalist I. F. Stone wrote the following: To those who think murder is too strong a word, one may recall that even Agnew three days after the Kent State shootings used the word in an interview on the David Frost show in Los Angeles. Agnew admitted in response to a question that what happened at Kent State was murder, "but not first degree" since there was – as Agnew explained from his own training as a lawyer – "no premeditation but simply an over-response in the heat of anger that results in a killing; it's a murder. It's not premeditated and it certainly can't be condoned."[47] The Kent State incident forced the National Guard to re-examine its methods of crowd control. The only equipment the guardsmen had to disperse demonstrators that day were M1 Garand rifles loaded with .30-06 FMJ ammunition, 12 Ga. pump shotguns, bayonets, and CS gas grenades. In the years that followed, the U.S. Army began developing less lethal means of dispersing demonstrators (such as rubber bullets), and changed its crowd control and riot tactics to attempt to avoid casualties amongst the demonstrators. Many of the crowd-control changes brought on by the Kent State events are used today by police and military forces in the United States when facing similar situations, such as the 1992 Los Angeles Riots and civil disorder during the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. One outgrowth of the events was the Center for Peaceful Change established at Kent State University in 1971 "as a living memorial to the events of May 4, 1970."[48] Now known as The Center for Applied Conflict Management (CACM), it developed one of the earliest conflict resolution undergraduate degree programs in the United States. The Institute for the Study and Prevention of Violence, an interdisciplinary program dedicated to violence prevention, was established in 1998. According to FBI reports, one part-time student, Terry Norman, was already noted by student protesters as an informant for both campus police and the Akron FBI branch. Norman was present during the May 4 protests, taking photographs to identify student leaders,[49] while carrying a sidearm and wearing a gas mask. In 1970, FBI director J. Edgar Hoover responded to questions from then-Congressman John Ashbrook by denying that Norman had ever worked for the FBI, a statement Norman himself disputed.[50] On August 13, 1973, Indiana Senator Birch Bayh sent a memo to then-governor of Ohio John J. Gilligan suggesting that Norman may have fired the first shot, based on testimony he [Bayh] received from guardsmen who claimed that a gunshot fired from the vicinity of the protesters instigated the Guard to open fire on the students.[51] Throughout the 45 years since the shootings, debate has continued on about the events of May 4, 1970.[52][53] Two of the survivors have died: James Russell on June 23, 2007;[54] and Robert Stamps in June 2008.[55] Strubbe Tape and further government reviews In 2007 Alan Canfora, one of the wounded, located a copy of a tape of the shootings in a library archive. The original 30-minute reel-to-reel tape was made by Terry Strubbe, a Kent State communications student who turned on his recorder and put its microphone in his dorm window overlooking the campus. A 2010 audio analysis of a tape recording of the incident by Stuart Allen and Tom Owen, who were described by the Cleveland Plain Dealer as "nationally respected forensic audio experts," concluded that the guardsmen were given an order to fire. It is the only known recording to capture the events leading up to the shootings. According to the Plain Dealer description of the enhanced recording, a male voice yells "Guard!" Several seconds pass. Then, "All right, prepare to fire!" "Get down!," someone shouts urgently, presumably in the crowd. Finally, "Guard! ... " followed two seconds later by a long, booming volley of gunshots. The entire spoken sequence lasts 17 seconds. Further analysis of the audiotape revealed that four pistol shots and a violent confrontation occurred approximately 70 seconds before the National Guard opened fire. According to The Plain Dealer, this new analysis raised questions about the role of Terry Norman, a Kent State student who was an FBI informant and known to be carrying a pistol during the disturbance. Alan Canfora said it was premature to reach any conclusions.[56][57] In April 2012, the United States Department of Justice determined that there were "insurmountable legal and evidentiary barriers" to reopening the case. Also in 2012 the FBI concluded the Strubbe tape was inconclusive because what has been described as pistol shots may have been slamming doors and that voices heard were unintelligible. Despite this, organizations of survivors and current Kent State students continue to believe the Strubbe tape proves the Guardsmen were given a military order to fire and are petitioning State of Ohio and U.S. Government officials to reopen the case using independent analysis. The organizations do not desire to prosecute or sue individual guardsmen believing they are also victims.[58][59] One of these groups, the Kent State Truth Tribunal,[60] was founded in 2010 by the family of Allison Krause along with Emily Kunstler to demand accountability by the U.S. government for the massacre. In 2014 KSTT announced their request for an independent review by the United Nations Human Rights Committee under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the human rights treaty ratified by the United States.[61][62] Memorials and remembrances Kent State Shootings Site U.S. National Register of Historic Places Kent State shootings is located in Ohio Kent State shootings Location .5 mi. SE of the intersection of E. Main St. and S. Lincoln St., Kent, Ohio Coordinates 41.150092°N 81.343353°WCoordinates: 41.150092°N 81.343353°W Area 17.24 acres (6.98 ha)[64] Governing body Private NRHP Reference # 10000046[63] Added to NRHP February 23, 2010[63] Each May 4 from 1971 to 1975 the Kent State University administration sponsored an official commemoration of the events. Upon the university's announcement in 1976 that it would no longer sponsor such commemorations, the May 4 Task Force, a group made up of students and community members, was formed for this purpose. The group has organized a commemoration on the university's campus each year since 1976; events generally include a silent march around the campus, a candlelight vigil, a ringing of the Victory Bell in memory of those killed and injured, speakers (always including eyewitnesses and family members), and music. On May 12, 1977, a tent city was erected and maintained for a period of more than 60 days by a group of several dozen protesters on the Kent State campus. The protesters, led by the May 4 Task Force but also including community members and local clergy, were attempting to prevent the university from erecting a gymnasium annex on part of the site where the shootings occurred seven years earlier, which they believed would alter and obscure the historical event. Law enforcement finally brought the tent city to an end on July 12, 1977, after the forced removal and arrest of 193 people. The event gained national press coverage and the issue was taken to the U.S. Supreme Court.[65] In 1990, twenty years after the shootings, a memorial commemorating the events of May 4 was dedicated on the campus on a 2.5 acre (10,000 m²) site overlooking the University's Commons where the student protest took place.[66] Even the construction of the monument became controversial and, in the end, only 7% of the design was constructed. The memorial itself does not contain the names of those killed or wounded in the shooting; under pressure, the university agreed to install a plaque near it with the names.[67][68] External video May4thMemorial.JPG May 4, 1970 Site Makes National Register of Historic Places, (1:46), Kent State TV In 1999, at the urging of relatives of the four students killed in 1970, the university constructed an individual memorial for each of the students in the parking lot between Taylor and Prentice halls. Each of the four memorials is located on the exact spot where the student fell, mortally wounded. They are surrounded by a raised rectangle of granite[69] featuring six lightposts approximately four feet high, with the student's name engraved on a triangular marble plaque in one corner.[70] George Segal's 1978 cast-from-life bronze sculpture, In Memory of May 4, 1970, Kent State: Abraham and Isaac was commissioned for the Kent State campus by a private fund for public art,[71] but was refused by the university administration who deemed its subject matter (the biblical Abraham poised to sacrifice his son Isaac) too controversial. The sculpture was accepted in 1979 by Princeton University, and currently resides there between the university chapel and library.[72] An earlier work of land art, Partially Buried Woodshed,[73] was produced on the Kent State campus by Robert Smithson in January 1970.[74] Shortly after the events, an inscription was added that recontextualized the work in such a way that it came to be associated by some with the event. In 2004, a simple stone memorial was erected at Plainview-Old Bethpage John F. Kennedy High School in Plainview, New York, which Jeffrey Miller had attended. On May 3, 2007, just prior to the yearly commemoration, an Ohio Historical Society marker was dedicated by KSU president Lester Lefton. It is located between Taylor Hall and Prentice Hall between the parking lot and the 1990 memorial.[75] Also in 2007, a memorial service was held at Kent State in honor of James Russell, one of the wounded, who died in 2007 of a heart attack.[76] In 2008, Kent State University announced plans to construct a May 4 Visitors' Center in a room in Taylor Hall.[77] The center was officially opened in May 2013, on the anniversary of the shootings.[78] A 17.24-acre (6.98 ha) area was listed as "Kent State Shootings Site" on the National Register of Historic Places on February 23, 2010.[63] Places normally cannot be added to the Register until they have been significant for at least fifty years, and only cases of "exceptional importance" can be added sooner.[79] The entry was announced as the featured listing in the National Park Service's weekly list of March 5, 2010.[80] Contributing resources in the site are: Taylor Hall, the Victory Bell, Lilac Lane and Boulder Marker, The Pagoda, Solar Totem, and the Prentice Hall Parking Lot.[64] The National Park Service stated the site "is considered nationally significant given its broad effects in causing the largest student strike in United States history, affecting public opinion about the Vietnam War, creating a legal precedent established by the trials subsequent to the shootings, and for the symbolic status the event has attained as a result of a government confronting protesting citizens with unreasonable deadly force."[9] Every year on the anniversary of the shootings, notably on the 40th anniversary in 2010, students and others who were present share remembrances of the day and the impact it has had on their lives. Among them are Nick Saban, head coach of the Alabama Crimson Tide football team who was a freshman in 1970;[81] surviving student Tom Grace, who was shot in the foot;[82] Kent State faculty member Jerry Lewis;[83] photographer John Filo;[31] and others. Cultural references Main article: Kent State shootings in popular culture Documentary 1970: Confrontation at Kent State (director Richard Myers) – documentary filmed by a Kent State University filmmaker in Kent, Ohio, directly following the shootings. 2000: Kent State: The Day the War Came Home (director Chris Triffo, executive producer Mark Mori), the Emmy-Award-winning documentary featuring interviews with injured students, eyewitnesses, guardsmen, and relatives of students killed at Kent State. 2007: 4 Tote in Ohio: Ein Amerikanisches Trauma ("4 dead in Ohio: an American trauma") (directors Klaus Bredenbrock and Pagonis Pagonakis) – documentary featuring interviews with injured students, eyewitnesses and a German journalist who was a U.S. correspondent. 2008: How It Was: Kent State Shootings – National Geographic Channel documentary series episode.[84] 2010: Fire In the Heartland: Kent State, May 4, and Student Protest in America (director Daniel Lee Miller) – documentary featuring the build-up to, the events of, and the aftermath of the shootings, told by many of those who were present and in some cases wounded. 2015: "The Day the 60's Died" (Director Jonathan Halperin) - documentary featuring build-up of events at KSU, archival photos and film as well as eyewitness reminisce of the event. Film and television 1974: The Trial of Billy Jack – The climactic scene of this film depicts National Guardsmen lethally firing on unarmed students, and the credits specifically mention Kent State and other student shootings.[85] 1981: Kent State (director James Goldstone) – television docudrama.[86] 1995: Nixon – Directed by Oliver Stone, the film features actual footage of the shootings; the event also plays an important role in the course of the film's narrative. 2000: The '70s starring Vinessa Shaw and Amy Smart, a mini-series depicting four Kent State students affected by the shootings, as they move through the decade.[87] 2002: The Year That Trembled (written and directed by Jay Craven; based on a novel by Scott Lax), a coming-of-age movie set in 1970 Ohio, in the aftermath of the Kent State killings.[88] Literature Plays 1976 – Kent State: A Requiem by J. Gregory Payne. First performed in 1976. Told from the perspective of Bill Schroeder's mother, Florence, this play has been performed at over 150 college campuses in the U.S. and Europe in tours in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s; it was last performed at Emerson College in 2007. It is also the basis of NBC's award-winning 1981 docudrama Kent State.[89] 2010 – David Hassler, director of the Wick Poetry Center at Kent State and theatre professor Katherine Burke teamed up to write the play May 4 Voices, in honor of the incident's 40th anniversary.[90] 2012 – 4 Dead in Ohio: Antigone at Kent State (created by students of Connecticut College's theatre department and David Jaffe '77, associate professor of theater and the director of the play) - An adaptation of Sophocles' Antigone using the play Burial at Thebes by Nobel Laureate Seamus Heaney. It was performed November 15–18, 2012 in Tansill Theater.[91] Prose Harlan Ellison's story collection, Alone Against Tomorrow (1971), is dedicated to the four students who were killed.[92] Gael Baudino's Dragonsword trilogy (1988–1992) follows the story of a teaching assistant who narrowly missed being shot in the massacre. Frequent references are made to how the experience and its aftermath still traumatize the protagonist decades later, when she herself is a soldier. Jerry Fishman's How Nixon Taught America to do The Kent State Mambo (2010) is a fantasy novella about the tragedy.[93] Stephen King's post-apocalyptic novel The Stand includes a scene in Book I in which Kent State campus police officers witness U.S. soldiers shooting students protesting the government cover-up of the military origins of the Superflu which is decimating the country.[94] Music The best known popular culture response to the deaths at Kent State was the protest song "Ohio", written by Neil Young for Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young. The song was written, recorded, and preliminary pressings (acetates) were rushed to major radio stations, although the group already had a hit song, "Teach Your Children", on the charts at the time. Within two-and-a-half weeks of the Kent State shootings, "Ohio" was receiving national airplay.[95] Crosby, Stills, and Nash visited the Kent State campus for the first time on May 4, 1997, where they performed the song for the May 4 Task Force's 27th annual commemoration.[96] There are a number of lesser known musical tributes, including the following: Harvey Andrews' 1970 song "Hey Sandy"[95][97] was addressed to Sandra Scheuer.lyrics Steve Miller's "Jackson-Kent Blues," from The Steve Miller Band album Number 5 (released in November 1970), is another direct response.[95] The Beach Boys released "Student Demonstration Time"[98] in 1971 on Surf's Up. Mike Love wrote new lyrics for Leiber & Stoller's "Riot in Cell Block Number Nine."[95] Bruce Springsteen wrote a song called "Where Was Jesus in Ohio" in May or June 1970. The unreleased and uncirculating song is reported to be the artist's emotionally charged response to the Kent State shootings.[99] In 1970–71 Halim El-Dabh, a Kent State University music professor who was on campus when the shootings occurred, composed Opera Flies, a full-length opera, in response to his experience. The work was first performed on the Kent State campus on May 8, 1971, and was revived for the 25th commemoration of the events in 1995.[100] Actress and singer Ruth Warrick released in 1971 a single with the song "41,000 Plus 4 - The Ballad of the Kent State", an homage to the four students killed at Kent State.[101] In 1971, the composer and pianist Bill Dobbins (who was a Kent State University graduate student at the time of the shootings), composed "The Balcony", an avant-garde work for jazz band inspired by the same event, according to the album's liner notes.[102] Dave Brubeck's 1971 cantata Truth Is Fallen was written in response to the slain students at Kent State University and Jackson State University; the work was premiered in Midland, Michigan on May 1, 1971, and released on LP in 1972.[95][103] Holly Near's "It Could Have Been Me" was released on A Live Album (1974). The song is Near's personal response to the incident.[104] A commemorative 2-CD compilation featuring music and interviews was released by the May 4 Task Force in May 2005, in commemoration of the 35th anniversary of the shootings.[105] One of the students who participated in the protest was Chrissie Hynde, future leader of The Pretenders, who was a sophomore at the time.[106] Her former bandmate,[107] Mark Mothersbaugh, and Gerald Casale, founding members of Devo, also attended Kent State at the time of the shootings. Casale was reportedly "standing about 15 feet (4.6 m) away"[108] from Allison Krause when she was shot, and was friends with her and another one of the students who were killed. The shootings were the transformative moment for him[109] and for the band, which became less of a pure joke and more a vehicle for social critique (albeit with a blackly humorous bent).[108] Magpie cover the topic in their 1995 album, Give Light. The song 'Kent' was written by band member, Terry Leonino, a survivor of the Kent State shootings.[100] Genesis recreates the events from the perspective of the Guards in the song "The Knife", on Trespass (October 1970).[95] Barbara Dane sings "The Kent State Massacre" written by Jack Warshaw on her 1973 album I Hate the Capitalist System.[110] Musician, spoken word artist and political activist Jello Biafra, who was influenced by the Vietnam War protests and Kent State,[111] mentions the shootings in his satirical song "Wish I Was in El Salvador", included in the collaboration album Last Scream of the Missing Neighbors he made with Canadian hardcore punk band D.O.A. in 1990. The verse recites "Commander says I gotta hold the line/'Til the TV cameras leave/Then we'll fire away, make my day/Just like good ol' Kent State".[112] Chris Butler (The Waitresses) was attending Kent State University at the time of the shootings and released an album in 2014 based on his personal recollections of the event.[citation needed] The Swedish rock band Gläns över Sjö & Strand made a song about the shootings, in the album Är du lönsam lilla vän?, called "Ohio 4 maj 1970".[113][114] See also List of massacres in Ohio References "These would be the first of many probes into what soon became known as the Kent State Massacre. Like the Boston Massacre almost exactly two hundred years before (March 5, 1770), which it resembled, it was called a massacre not for the number of its victims but for the wanton manner in which they were shot down." Philip Caputo (May 4, 2005). "The Kent State Shootings, 35 Years Later". NPR. Retrieved November 9, 2007. Rep. Tim Ryan (May 4, 2007). "Congressman Tim Ryan Gives Speech at 37th Commemoration of Kent State Massacre". Congressional website of Rep. Tim Ryan (D-Ohio). Retrieved November 9, 2007. John Lang (May 4, 2000). "The day the Vietnam War came home". Scripps Howard News service. Retrieved November 9, 2007. Shots Still Reverberate For Survivors Of Kent State 'Dean Kahler, who was paralyzed during the shootings, went on to become a high school teacher and covered the events of May 4 in his classes' NPR News, May 3, 2010. Retrieved January 20, 2014. Dean Kahler: Visitors' Center helps him move past May 4, 1970 'Dean Kahler, among the most severely wounded of the 13 Kent State students shot by the National Guard on May 4, 1970, tours the new May 4th Visitors' Center being dedicated this weekend' WKSU, May 3, 2013. Retrieved January 20, 2014. "Sandy Scheuer". May 4, 1970. Retrieved May 12, 2013. Lewis, Jerry M.; Thomas R. Hensley (Summer 1998). "The May 4 Shootings At Kent State University: The Search For Historical Accuracy" (REPRINT). Ohio Council for the Social Studies Review 34 (1): 9–21. ISSN 1050-2130. OCLC 21431375. Retrieved April 16, 2007. Director: Joe Angio (February 15, 2007). Nixon a Presidency Revealed (television). History Channel. "Weekly Highlight 03/05/2010 Kent State Shootings Site, Portage County, Ohio". "Chronology of events". May 4 Task Force. May 4 Task Force. Retrieved April 20, 2010. "Kent State 1970:Description of Events May 1 through May 4". Retrieved April 3, 2009. The Report of the President's Commission on Campus Unrest, 1970. Special Report KENT STATE. "Information developed by an FBI investigation of the ROTC building fire indicates that, of those who participated actively, a significant portion were not Kent State students. There is also evidence to suggest that the burning was planned beforehand: railroad flares, a machete, and ice picks are not customarily carried to peaceful rallies."--Page 251. "ROTC building arson May 2, 1970: Witness statements taken August 6, 1970, p. 6". Kent State University Libraries and Media Services, Department of Special Collections and Archives. Retrieved April 16, 2007. "ROTC building arson May 2, 1970: Witness statements taken August 6, 1970, p. 4". Kent State University Libraries and Media Services, Department of Special Collections and Archives. Retrieved April 16, 2007. "ROTC building arson May 2, 1970: Witness statements taken August 6, 1970, p. 5". Kent State University Libraries and Media Services, Department of Special Collections and Archives. Retrieved April 16, 2007. Payne, J. Gregory (1997). "Chronology". Retrieved April 16, 2007. Sharkey, Mary Anne; Lamis, Alexander P. (1994). Ohio politics. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press. p. 81. ISBN 0-87338-509-8. "President's Commission on Campus Unrest - pp. 253–254" (PDF). Retrieved May 12, 2013. Caputo, Philip (2005). 13 Seconds: A Look Back at the Kent State Shootings/with DVD. Chamberlain Bros. ISBN 1-59609-080-4. Eszterhas, Joe; Michael D. Roberts (1970). Thirteen seconds; confrontation at Kent State. New York: Dodd, Mead. p. 121. ISBN 0-396-06272-5. OCLC 108956. "Chronology, May 1–4, 1970". Kent State University. Retrieved April 27, 2008. Krause v. Rhodes, 471 F.2d 430 (United States Court of Appeals, 6th Cir. 1974). Bills, Scott (1988). Kent State/May 4: Echoes Through a Decade. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-87338-278-1. "May 4th Memorials". Kent State University. Retrieved February 24, 2010. "TRIALS: Last Act at Kent State". Time. September 8, 1975. Retrieved August 18, 2011. John Kifner (May 4, 1970). "4 Kent State Students Killed by Troops". The New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2010. McDonald, Kyle (April 21, 2014). "Full History of Familiar Kent State Sculpture Comes to Light after Decades". Record-Courier. Retrieved May 1, 2014. (subscription required (help)). President's Commission on Campus Unrest, p. 289. "Kent State Shootings: 1970 Year in Review". January 27, 2012. Archived from the original on 12 February 2009. Retrieved February 1, 2012. "The Kent State Shootings and the "Move the Gym" Controversy, 1977". Retrieved April 3, 2009. "Kent State shootings remembered". CNN. May 5, 2000. Retrieved December 6, 2010. "The Report of the President's Commission on Campus Unrest, William W. Scranton, Chairman, US Government Printing Office, 1970. Retrieved April 20, 2011." (PDF). Retrieved February 1, 2012. "U.S. Justice Department 1970 Summary Of FBI Reports (truthful excerpts)". Retrieved April 16, 2007. Lovelave, Angie (August 26, 2010). "John Filo: Iconic Photos of the Vietnam War and Their Influence on Collective Memory". Vietnam Iconic Photos. Retrieved 20 January 2014. "May 4 Archive: 1995 Retrospective". Retrieved 20 January 2014. "1970 Timeline". New York University. Retrieved May 1, 2007. Associated Press (May 10, 1970). "Arsonists Strike on 2 Campuses". The Modesto Bee. pp. A–2. Retrieved December 5, 2010. "National Guardsmen were withdrawn from the University of New Mexico late Friday after a confrontation with students that sent 11 people to the hospital with bayonet wounds."[dead link] de Onis, Juan (May 1, 1970). "Nixon puts 'bums' label on some college radicals". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 4 May 2013. "histcontext". Retrieved February 1, 2012. "Campus Unrest Linked to Drugs Palm Beach Post May 28, 1970". Google. Retrieved February 1, 2012. "Killings at Jackson State University!". The African American Registry. 2005. Archived from the original on December 1, 2006. Retrieved April 16, 2007. The Report of the President's Commission on Campus Unrest (PDF). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1970. ISBN 0-405-01712-X. Retrieved April 30, 2011. (subscription required (help)). This book is also known as The Scranton Commission Report. "Kent Twenty Five". Archived from the original on 18 September 2002. Retrieved May 12, 2013. Pacifico, Michael; Kendra Lee Hicks Pacifico. "Chronological summary of events". Mike and Kendra's May 4, 1970, Web Site. Retrieved April 16, 2007. Tim Phillips, "Attorney for Students who were Shot at Kent State Dies in New York", Activist Defense, March 8, 2013. Neil, Martha, "Joseph Kelner, attorney who sued sitting Ohio governor over Kent State slayings, is dead at 98", ABAJournal, March 8, 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-09. Stone, I.F. (December 3, 1970). "Fabricated Evidence in the Kent State Killings". The New York Review of Books 15 (10). ISSN 0028-7504. OCLC 1760105. "Center for Applied Conflict Management". CACM Homepage. January 29, 2007. Retrieved April 16, 2007.[dead link] Renner, James (May 3, 2006). "The Kent State Conspiracies: What Really Happened On May 4, 1970?". Cleveland Free Times. Archived from the original on October 22, 2007. Retrieved May 1, 2007. Canfora, Alan (March 16, 2006). "US Government Conspiracy at Kent State – May 4, 1970". Retrieved April 16, 2007. Verifying documents are in the Special Collections archive at the Kent State University library. Corcoran, Michael (May 4, 2006). "Why Kent State is Important Today". The Boston Globe. Retrieved May 1, 2007. Stang, Alan (1974). "Kent State:Proof to Save the Guardsmen" (REPRINT). American Opinion. ISSN 0003-0236. OCLC 1480501. Retrieved May 1, 2007. People: James Dennis Russell Department of Kent Education. Retrieved January 22, 2014. Victim of KSU May 4 shootings dies Retrieved from Internet Archive January 2014. John Mangels (October 8, 2010). "Kent State tape indicates altercation and pistol fire preceded National Guard shootings (audio)". Cleveland Plain Dealer. Retrieved February 1, 2012. Maag, Christopher (May 11, 2010). "Ohio: Analysis Reopens Kent State Controversy". The New York Times. Retrieved February 1, 2012. Northeast Ohio. "May 4th wounded from Kent State shootings want independent review of new evidence Cleveland Plain Dealer May 3, 2012". Retrieved May 12, 2013. John Mangels, The Plain Dealer (May 9, 2010). "New analysis of 40-year-old recording of Kent State shootings reveals that Ohio Guard was given an order to prepare to fire". Cleveland Plain Dealer. Retrieved February 1, 2012. Kent State Truth Tribunal Krause, Laurel (March 7, 2014). "Decades Later, No Justice for Kent State Killings". Blog of Rights. American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved 7 March 2014. "KSTT submission to UN Human Rights Council" (PDF). United Nations Human Rights Council. February 14, 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2014. "Announcements and actions on properties for the National Register of Historic Places for March 5, 2010". Weekly Listings. National Park Service. March 5, 2010. Retrieved March 5, 2010. Seeman, Mark F.; Barbato, Carole; Davis, Laura; and Lewis, Jerry (December 31, 2008). "National Register of Historic Places Registration: Kent State Shootings Site" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved March 5, 2010. "Tent City and Gym Struggle". "May 4 Memorial (Kent State University)". Kent State University Libraries and Media Services, Department of Special Collections and Archives. Retrieved April 16, 2007. "May 4 Memorial Controversy". Retrieved May 12, 2013. May 4 Memorials: Eyewitnesses react Retrieved from Internet Archive January 18, 2014. "Prentice Lot May 1999". January 27, 2001. Retrieved September 14, 2010. Pacifico, Michael; Kendra Lee Hicks Pacifico (2000). "Prentice Lot Memorial Dedication, September 8, 1999". Mike and Kendra's May 4, 1970, Web Site. Retrieved April 16, 2007. "Abraham and Isaac". Kent State University Libraries and Media Services, Department of Special Collections and Archives. Retrieved April 17, 2007. Sheppard, Jennifer (1995). "Strolling Among Sculpture on Campus". The Princeton Patron. Princeton Online. Retrieved April 16, 2007. "Photograph". Retrieved May 12, 2013. Gilgenbach, Cara (April 15, 2005). "Robert I. Smithson, Partially Buried Woodshed, Papers and Photographs, 1970–2005". Kent State University Libraries and Media Services, Department of Special Collections and Archives. Retrieved April 17, 2007. O'Brien, Dave (May 3, 2007). Written at Kent, Ohio. "State honors historic KSU site with plaque near Taylor Hall". Record-Courier (Kent and Ravenna, Ohio). pp. A1, A10. Archived from the original on 6 May 2008. Retrieved March 27, 2008. Steve Duin (July 1, 2007). "The long road back from Kent State". The Oregonian. Archived from the original on May 3, 2008. Retrieved April 11, 2008. "Associate Provost's Perspective". Retrieved May 12, 2013. Closure at Kent State? The Nation. Retrieved January 20, 2014. National Register Criteria for Evaluation, National Park Service. Accessed 2013-02-28. "Weekly List Actions". National Park Service. Retrieved March 5, 2010. Lopresti, Mike (May 3, 2010). "May 4 shootings still follow former Kent State football players". USA Today. Retrieved December 6, 2010. Kirst, Sean (May 4, 2010). "Kent State: 'One or two cracks of rifle fire ... Oh my God!'". The Post-Standard (Syracuse, New York). Retrieved December 6, 2010. Adams, Noah (May 3, 2010). "Shots Still Reverberate For Survivors Of Kent State". NPR. Retrieved December 6, 2010. National Geographic Channel: "How It Was: Death at Kent State," 2008. Kent State University - Special Collections and Archives. Retrieved January 20, 2014. Tom Laughlin dies at 82 'The 1974 “The Trial of Billy Jack” was also a hit, in which Laughlin attacked such events as Kent State'., 15 December 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2014. NBC's Emmy award winning docudrama: Kent State May 4 Retrieved January 20, 2014. "The 70s DVD". Lions Gate. 2000. Retrieved March 3, 2011. "Synopsis of The Year That Trembled". AMC-TV. Retrieved December 6, 2010. Kent State: A Requiem 'The play was first performed as a Readers Theatre production as Kent State: A Wake at Yale University and Occidental College in 1976'. May 4 Retrieved January 20, 2014. Brennan, Claire. "May 4th Voices". Oral History Review. Oxford Journals. Retrieved 20 January 2014. "Event Releases: '4 Dead in Ohio' explores modern event through ancient story". Connecticut College. November 12, 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2014. Ellison, Harlan. Alone Against Tomorrow, MacMillan Publishing Company, 1972 ISBN 978-0025352506. Fishman, Jerry. How Nixon Taught America to do The Kent State Mambo, Rosedog PR, 2010 ISBN 978-1434982827. King, Stephen (2011). The Stand. Hodder & Stoughton. pp. 264–268. ISBN 978-1444720730. "Tin Soldiers and Nixon Coming": Musical Framing and Kent State Chapman University Historical Review. Retrieved January 20, 2014. Brummer, Justin. "Vietnam War: Kent / Jackson State Songs". Retrieved 1 August 2014. Andrews, Harvey. "Hey Sandy". Archived from the original (MP3 EXCERPT FROM SONG) on June 14, 2007. Retrieved May 1, 2007. Love, Mike. "Student Demonstration Time". Ontario Coalition Against Poverty. Archived from the original on April 16, 2007. Retrieved May 1, 2007. "". Retrieved July 25, 2008. Miscellaneous Music (Related to Kent State Shootings) 1970-2005 Kent State University: Special Collections and Archives. Retrieved January 21, 2014. Brummer, Justin. "Vietnam War: Kent / Jackson State Songs". Retrieved 23 May 2014. "Textures - Bill Dobbins". Unearthed in the Atomic Attic. June 30, 2010. Retrieved 7 May 2013. "May 1–4, 2002". Composers Datebook. May 1, 2002. Retrieved May 1, 2007. "Holly Near - It Could Have Been Me (Live)". Retrieved 4 May 2013. "The Kent State May 4 CD Project". WorldCat. Retrieved 10 May 2015. "Behind the Music 1970". VH1: Behind the Music. VH1. "Pretenders". The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll. Simon & Schuster. 2001. Retrieved December 6, 2010. Olson, Steve (July 2006). "DEVO and the evolution of The Wipeouters: interview with Mark Mothersbaugh". Juice: Sounds, Surf & Skate. OCLC 67986266. Retrieved May 1, 2007.[dead link] 4-speakers/ "Biography of May 4 speakers". KentWired. May 2, 2010. Retrieved December 6, 2010. "Casale told, an online music magazine, that May 4, 1970, was the day he stopped being a hippie. 'It was just so hideous,' he said. 'It changed everything: no more mister nice guy.'"[dead link] "Barbara Dane Discography". Retrieved October 12, 2009. Vander Molen, Jodi (February 2001). "Jello Biafra Interview". The Progressive. Retrieved 16 September 2014. "Jello Biafra Lyrics: Wish I was in El Salvador". Retrieved 16 September 2014. "Ohio 4 Maj 1970 by Gläns över sjö & strand on Spotify". Retrieved February 1, 2012. "Gläns Över Sjö & Strand – Är Du Lönsam Lille Vän? (1970)". Retrieved February 1, 2012.[dead link] Further reading Main article: Bibliography of the Kent State shootings Agte, Barbara Becker, (2012), Kent Letters: Students' Responses to the May 1970 Massacre. Deming, New Mexico: Bluewaters Press ISBN 978-0-9823766-6-9 Bills, Scott. (1988). Kent State/May 4: Echoes Through a Decade. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press. ISBN 0-87338-278-1. Caputo, Philip. (2005). 13 Seconds: A Look Back at the Kent State Shootings with DVD. New York: Chamberlain Bros. ISBN 1-59609-080-4. Davies, Peter and the Board of Church and Society of the United Methodist Church. (1973). The Truth About Kent State: A Challenge to the American Conscience. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux. ISBN 0-374-27938-1. Eszterhas, Joe, and Michael D. Roberts (1970). Thirteen Seconds: Confrontation at Kent State. New York: Dodd, Mead. ISBN 978-1-938441-11-0. Gordon, reassuringly. Normally that’s Mr. Obama’s move, putting his hand on your back or shoulder as if to bestow gracious encouragement, needy little shrimp that you are. It’s a dominance move. He’s been doing it six years. This time it was Mr. Putin doing it to him. The president didn’t like it.  From Reuters: “‘It’s beautiful, isn’t it?’ Putin was overheard saying in English in Obama’s general direction, referring to the ornate conference room. ‘Yes,’ Obama replied, coldly, according to journalists who witnessed the scene.”  The last time we saw a president so alone it was Richard Nixon, at the end of his presidency, when the Democrats had turned on him, the press hated him, and the Republicans were fleeing. It was Sen. Barry Goldwater, the GOP’s standard-bearer in 1964, and House Minority Leader John Rhodes, also of Arizona, who went to the White House to tell Nixon his support in Congress had collapsed, they wou