Ancient Greece

First arriving in Athens by bike 2000 and today with Drake Winston. On the morning of April 27, 1941, the first Germans entered Athens, followed by armoured cars, tanks and infantry. The Germans drove straight to the Acropolis and raised the Nazi flag. According to the most popular account of the events, the Evzone soldier on guard duty, Konstantinos Koukidis, took down the Greek flag, refusing to hand it to the invaders, wrapped himself in it, and jumped off the Acropolis. Whether the story was true or not, many Greeks believed it and viewed the soldier as a martyr.

Behind me (and the Wehrmacht exactly sixty years before) is the Acropolis, its buildings the legacy of Pericles' decision to use League funds, contributed for the war against Persia, for the rebuilding of Athens which heralded the most important programme of state patronage to have been seen in Greece, only to be rivalled later in the capitals of the Hellenistic kings. Work was not completed until the end of the century, the last phase being undertaken despite the distractions of a crippling and unsuccessful war. But even these latest additions can be seen as necessary parts of the overall programme. The Acropolis was to have a new, or rather redesigned, temple to replace the incomplete one overthrown by the Persians. The Parthenon was less a cult place than a war memorial, dedicated as much to the glory of Athens and Athenians as to the city goddess Athena. Whilst it was building other temples were planned and under construction in Athens and in the Attic countryside, some not to be completed until later in the century, when also the Acropolis received its new monumental gateway (Propylaea, in the 430s) and the Erechtheion (mainly 421-406 BCE), to house its oldest cults.
In front of the Parthenon and how it appears in a reconstructed form in Nashville. Dedicated to the goddess Athena, construction began in 447 BCE when Athens was at the peak of its power and completed in 438 BCE, although decoration of the building continued until 432 BCE. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece, generally considered the zenith of the Doric order, and its decorative sculptures are considered some of the high points of Greek art. The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece, Athenian democracy and Western civilisation, and one of the world's greatest cultural monuments. When the Turks took over Greece, it desecrated and turned into a mosque in the early 1460s. On September 26, 1687, an Ottoman ammunition dump inside the building was ignited by Venetian bombardment during a siege of the Acropolis, and the resulting explosion severely damaged the Parthenon and its sculptures. Fortunately, from 1800 to 1803, Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin, safely removed some of the surviving sculptures, now known as the Elgin Marbles, with the permission of the Turks of the Ottoman Empire and they are now protected within the British Museum.
Joseph Goebbels visiting in April, 1939 and Drake Winston eighty years later. He had earlier visited on September 22 which he described as “one of the most profound and beautiful mornings of my life. [...] Spent hours strolling through the most noble site of Nordic art. The Propylaea, the Parthenon, and the Erechtheion. I'm quite stunned. Over everything this deep blue Attic sky [...] How the Führer would love to be here with us!" His later visit when his joy at seeing the Acropolis again inspired Goebbels to describe it as the cradle of Aryan culture: "...On Acropolis. O, this shattering view!" Of this visit, Irving (527) writes how
In Athens, though formally the guest of the mayor, he again visited Prime Minister Metaxas. The Greeks reassured the British afterwards that they had stressed their special relationship with London: Goebbels, they reported, had told Metaxas that in his opinion Hitler was not planning any further move ‘for the moment’ (which was a faithful rendering of what Hitler had told him). In Athens, he learned belatedly that Poland was still holding out over Danzig. ‘If the fat hits the fire the Führer will recall me,’ he decided, and travelled on.
Germans raising the German war ensign above the Acropolis on April 27, 1941
 Overlooking Athens from atop the Acropolis April 27, 1941 and now with Mount Lycabettus as reference point; on the left, the Presidential palace provides another point of reference.
Greece was occupied by German forces in 1941. The Athens section of the German Archaeological Institute already had a long history of sympathy for the Nazi regime. Georg Karo, though of Jewish parentage, early lent his support to the regime and enthusiastically greeted the prospects of renewed excavations at Olympia. When Karo was forced out for racial reasons, he was succeeded as first secretary by his deputy Walter Wrede, an enthusiastic Nazi. It was Wrede who warmly welcomed the conquering German army to Athens in April 1941 and gave Field Marshall von Brauchitsch and his staff a special tour of the Acropolis dressed in full Nazi uniform. Another archaeologist, Erich Boehringer, was the German cultural attaché in Greece from 1940 to 1943. He was a follower of the poet Stefan George and had been strongly influenced by George’s elitist Hellenic enthusiasm. Some of the German archaeologists urged that a less oppressive policy be followed in occupied Greece, partly out of Hellenic sentiment and partly because they argued that the Greeks represented “the only people of non-Slavic stock able to fulfil the European mission against the Slavs.”
Dyson (209-210)
German troops getting a group photo and members of Britain's elite Special Boat Squadron (SBS) after their liberation of Greece
At the Erechtheum on the Acropolis, comparing the view today with how it appeared  before the extensive renovations and shown in Frederick Edward Gould, the 9th Earl of Cavan's With the Yacht, Camera, and Cycle in the Mediterranean published in 1895. On the right is Drake Winston a generation later showing the difference from the other side 
Drake within the Pandroseion, a sanctuary dedicated to Pandrosus, one of the daughters of Cecrops I, the first king of Attica Greece, occupying the space adjacent to the Erechtheum and the old Temple of Athena Polias. The sanctuary was a walled trapezoidal courtyard containing the altar of Zeus Herkeios, protector of the hearth and of the courtyard, under the sacred Olive Tree planted by Athena. At the west was an entrance stoa from the propylea. In the northeast corner was an elaborate entrance into the north porch and the entire Etrechtheion complex. At the east, there was also a small opening through which the Thalassa of Poseidon could be viewed. The south-east corner gave access to what some thought was the tomb of Cecrops. According to legend, Athena presented the sacred olive tree to the city here after her victory over Poseidon in the contest for the land of Attica. Herodotus wrote that on the day after the destruction of the Acropolis by the Persians in 480 BCE, a fresh shoot had sprung from the trunk of the burned tree. This tree became a symbol of Athens' survival. As a tribute to this ancient event, an olive tree was planted here in modern times by Sophia of Prussia, granddaughter of Queen Victoria, in honour of the Athenians.
In front of the south side with the famous "Porch of the Maidens" featuring its six draped female figures (caryatids) as supporting columns, built to conceal the giant fifteen foot beam needed to support the southwest corner over the Kekropion, after the building was drastically reduced in size and budget following the onset of the Peloponnesian war. In 1800 one of the caryatids and the north column of the east porch together with the overlying section of the entablature were removed by Lord Elgin and later sold to the British Museum (along with the pedimental and frieze sculpture taken from the Parthenon) where Drake and I visited her shown on the right. Athenian legend had it that at night the remaining five Caryatids could be heard wailing for their lost sister.
In the Odyssey (viii, 80 and 81) the Goddess "Athene came to Marathon and entered the stoutly- built house of Erechtheus." This building "where first Athene brought to light The shoot of the grey olive A heavenly crown And ornament to brilliant Athens," has undergone a good deal of restoration. Previous attempted restorations by Greece damaged the roof of the Caryatids' porch with concrete patches, along with major damage caused by pollution in Athens. In 1979, the five original Caryatids were moved to the Old Acropolis Museum and replaced in situ by exact replicas removing any further argument that the one in the British Museum should be returned.
The Nazi propaganda picture shows soldiers of the German Wehrmacht on the Acropolis of Athens after the conquest of the city. The photo was taken in April 1941.  On the right are the British liberators of Greece at the same site three years later as Sergeant R Gregory and Driver A Hardman admire the Caryatids during a tour of the Acropolis in Athens in October 1944.
The occupying Germans in front of the Erechtheum and my Dad decades later. Nearly two decades later Drake Winston provides the comparison with a photograph from an exhibition of photographs taken by professional and amateur German photographers during the Nazi occupation of Greece in 1941-44, presented in the 17th century Fethiye Mosque, inside the Roman Agora, which was only recently opened to the public.. Belonging to Vyronas Mitos and mostly comprising shots of Athens, the collection was compiled by a German soldier stationed in Greece during the war who later bequeathed it to his daughter. She went on to sell the collection in the 1980s, with Mitos picking up some 3,000 photographs related to Greece.

Then-and-now of my first visit to the site and a later visit by my parents 
Standing under the Arch of Hadrian, a monumental gateway resembling a Roman triumphal arch which had originally spanned an ancient road from the centre of Athens to the complex of structures on the eastern side of the city that included the Temple of Olympian Zeus. It has been proposed that the arch was built to celebrate the adventus (arrival) of Hadrian and to honour him for his many benefactions to the city, on the occasion of the dedication of the nearby temple complex in 131 or 132 CE. It is not certain who commissioned the arch, although it is probable that the citizens of Athens or another Greek group were responsible for its construction and design. There were two inscriptions on the arch, facing in opposite directions, naming both Theseus and Hadrian as founders of Athens. Whilst it is clear that the inscriptions honour Hadrian, it is uncertain whether they refer to the city as a whole or to the city in two parts: one old and one new. Whilst it was once thought that the arch marked the line of the ancient city wall, and thus the division between the old and the new regions of the city, has been shown to be false by further excavation.
German occupying forces in front of the Temple of Olympian Zeus in May, 1941, Begun in the 6th century BCE during the rule of the Athenian tyrants who envisaged building the greatest temple in the ancient world, it was not completed until the reign of Hadrian in the 2nd century, roughly 638 years after the project had begun. During the Roman period the temple -that included 104 colossal columns- was renowned as the largest temple in Greece and housed one of the largest cult statues in the ancient world. In his treatise Politics, Aristotle cited the temple as an example of how tyrannies engaged the populace in great works for the state and left them no time, energy or means to rebel.
Germans saluting at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. On the right a Wehrmacht soldier stands beside a Greek Evzone guarding the tomb on Syntagma Square on April 27, 1941 and Drake Winston today.
 Across the street is the Hotel de Grande Bretagne, a five-star luxury hotel in central Athens with a splendid view of the Acropolis from its rear terrace. Not surprisingly, it became a German headquarters building and VIP residence during the Occupation.
October 18, 1944 during the liberation of Athens as Prime Minister Georgios Papandreou lays a wreath at the tomb of the Unknown Soldier with the Hotel Grande Bretagne behind as British Lieutenant General Ronald Scobie salutes, and Drake at the same spot today. The British had arrived to liberate Greece in October under Operation Manna with the exiled Greek government and some units of the Greek army, led by General Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos. On October 13, British troops entered Athens and Papandreou and his ministers followed six days later. Greek King George II stayed in Cairo because Papandreou had promised that the future of the monarchy would be decided by referendum. Eventually after fifteen communist protesters were shot dead, fighting broke out between ELAS and the British on December 3. Scobie's troops were outnumbered and clinging onto a small section of the city, but once reinforcements arrived they regained the initiative and suppressed the uprising. On Christmas Eve, Churchill and his foreign secretary Anthony Eden flew to Athens to resolve the situation. A ceasefire was agreed on January 11 and a political settlement reached in February. It was not to last - Greece fought a bitter civil war from 1946-9.

German Panzer IV Ausf. G in Athens 1943 with the Temple of Hephaestus in the background.
At the Panathenaic, or Kallimarmaro, stadium and from a German soldier's photograph during their occupation. A stadium was built on the site of a simple racecourse by Lycurgus around 330 BCE and later rebuilt in marble by Herodes Atticus. The only stadium in the world built entirely of marble, it was excavated in 1869 and hosted the opening and closing ceremonies of the first modern Olympics in 1896 and serves as the last venue in Greece from where the Olympic flame handover ceremony to the host nation takes place.
The Lysicrates Monument from the northwest from a photo by James Robertson (died 1888) and today. It had been erected by the choregos Lysicrates, a wealthy patron of musical performances in the Theatre of Dionysus, to commemorate the award of first prize in 335-334 BCE to one of the performances he had sponsored. The choregos was the sponsor who paid for and supervised the training of the dramatic dance-chorus.  The monument is known as the first use of the Corinthian order on the exterior of a building. In 1658, a Capuchin monastery was founded near the site and, a decade later, bought the monument which by then was known either as the "Lantern of Demosthenes" or "Lantern of Diogenes". A reading of its inscription by Jacob Spon established its original purpose. Lord Byron stayed at the monastery during his second visit to Greece. In 1818 the first tomato plants in Greece were planted in its gardens before the Turks burned down the convent leaving the monument exposed to the elements. In 1829, the monks offered the structure to an Englishman on tour, but it proved to be too cumbersome to disassemble and ship.  Lord Elgin, rescuer of the Parthenon marbles, ended up unable to negotiate successfully for the monument. After Robertson's photo had been taken, the architects François Boulanger and E. Loviot supervised a restoration which is seen today.
The so-called Tower of the Winds or Horologion of Andronikos Kyrrhestes, an octagonal Pentelic marble clocktower in the Roman Agora in Athens that functioned as a horologion or "timepiece" and is considered the world's first meteorological station after recent research has shown that the height of the tower was motivated by the intention to place the sundials and the wind-vane at a visible height on the Agora. The structure features a combination of sundials, a water clock, and a wind vane supposedly built by Andronicus of Cyrrhus around 50 BC, but may in fact have been constructed in the 2nd century BCE before the rest of the forum. It stands twelve metres in height with a diameter of roughly eight metres and was topped in antiquity by a weathervane-like Triton that indicated the wind direction. Below the frieze depicting the eight wind deities—Boreas (N), Kaikias (NE), Eurus (E), Apeliotes (SE), Notus (S), Lips (SW), Zephyrus (W), and Skiron (NW)—there are eight sundials. In its interior, there was a water clock driven by water coming down from the Acropolis.
Drake outside the so-called Prison of Socrates. Cut into the rocky slopes of the Hill of the Muses, this site probably contained a monumental two or three floor dwelling given the alignment of beam-holes on the surface of the rock. The wooden beams supported the front part of the structure, which was made of stone masonry and wood. To the exterior floor are passageways that used to connect with water channels cut into the facade of the building, and a carved stairway at the south provided communication with the higher levels of the slope. The preserved back part of the structure is a complex of three rooms, carefully cut into the bedrock, with doorways at the east and a cistern at the back. The use of the rooms is yet unknown. Its cave-like structure and its location near the agora no doubt led to the legend that the building is non other than the Prison of Socrates, or an ancient bath. During the war the structure was used to hide antiquities of the Acropolis and the National Archaeological Museum sealed up behind a thick concrete wall to protect them from the German looting

LEFT: The northwest corner of the Acropolis from the Areopagus as it appeared in the late 19th century and today with Drake. In classical times, the Areopagus functioned as the court for trying deliberate homicide, wounding and religious matters, as well as cases involving arson or olive trees; Ares was supposed to have been tried here by the gods for the murder of Poseidon's son Halirrhothius. In Aeschylus's The Eumenides from 458 BCE, the Areopagus is the site of the trial of Orestes for killing his mother Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus. It was from here, drawing from the potential significance of the Athenian altar to the Unknown God, that the Apostle Paul is said to have delivered the famous speech, "[n]ow what you worship as something unknown I am going to proclaim to you. The God who made the world and everything in it is the Lord of heaven and earth and does not live in temples built by hands." (Areopagus sermon, Acts xvii.24)  
RIGHT: Drake atop the Pnyx, used for popular assemblies in Athens as early as 507 BC, when the reforms of Cleisthenes transferred political power to the citizenry. From then on Athenians gathered on the Pnyx to host their popular assemblies, thus making the hill one of the earliest and most important sites in the creation of democracy. At this site all the great political struggles of Athens of the "Golden Age" were fought out. Pericles, Aristides and Alcibiades spoke here, within sight of the Parthenon, temple of Athena. Here Demosthenes delivered his vilifications of Philip of Macedon, the famous Philippics. It was then outside the city proper, but close enough to be convenient. It looks down on the ancient Agora, which was the commercial and social centre of the city.  Some like Christopher Wordsworth note that the environs and position of the Pnyx as well as its openness and objects of appeal, provided the ancient Greek speakers with the inspiration that not even the Roman Forum could rival, a result of previous reforms that included the utilisation of demography and topography for the purpose of serving the interests of a rhetorical culture. As such, the Pnyx is the material embodiment of the principle of ἰσηγορία, "equal speech"- the equal right of every citizen to debate matters of policy. The other two principles of democracy were ἰσονομία, equality under the law, and ἰσοπολιτεία, equality of vote and equal opportunity to assume political office. The right of isēgoría was expressed by the presiding officer of the Pnyx assembly, who formally opened each debate with the open invitation "Τίς ἀγορεύειν βούλεται;", "Who wishes to speak to the Popular Assembly?".
The monument of Philopappos during the second half of the 19th century and during the Great War, March- June 1917. Dedicated to Gaius Julius Antiochus Epiphanes Philopappos, a prince from the Kingdom of Commagene, who died in 116, his death caused great grief to his sister Julia Balbilla who, with the citizens of Athens, erected the mausoleum on Muse Hill near the Acropolis. Pausanias in his Description of Greece, I.25.8, described Philopappus’s grand tomb as a monument built for a Syrian man. The monument was built on the same site where Musaios or Musaeus, a 6th-century BCE priestly poet and mystical seer, was held to have been buried. The location of this tomb, opposite the Acropolis and within formal boundaries of the city, shows the high position Philopappus had within Athenian society. The monument itself is a two-storey structure supported by a base. On the lower level there is a frieze representing Philopappus as a consul, riding on a chariot and led by lictors. The upper level shows statues of three men: of Antiochus IV on the left, of Philopappus in the centre and of Seleucus I Nicator, now lost, on the right.  In the niche below Philopappus is an inscription in Greek translated as: "Philopappos, son of Epiphanes of the deme of the Besa" which was the name Philopappus carried as an Athenian citizen. In the niche left of Philopappus, a Latin inscription records Philopappus’s titles, honours and his career as a Roman magistrate: "Caius Iulius Antiochus Philopappos, son of Caius, of the Fabian tribe, consul and Arval brother, admitted to the praetorian rank by the emperor Caesar Nerva Trajan Optimus Augustus Germanicus Dacicus". On the right niche of Philopappus once stood a Greek inscription of which now only the base is preserved: Βασιλεύς Αντίοχος Φιλόπαππος Βασιλέως Επιφανούς Αντιόχου ("King Antiochus Philopappos, son of King Antiochus Epiphanes").  Below the statue of Antiochus IV, Philopappos' paternal grandfather, is an inscription that states "King Antiochus son of King Antiochus". This inscription honours Antiochus IV and his late father, the last independent ruler of the Kingdom of Commagene, King Antiochus III Epiphanes. When Antiochus III died in 17, Commagene was annexed by the Roman Emperor Tiberius and became a part of the Roman Empire. Below the statue of Seleucus I, the founder of the Seleucid Empire from whom the Commagene kings claimed descent, stood another inscription, now lost. The traveller Cyriacus of Ancona wrote in his memoir that underneath the inscription stated "King Seleucus Nicator, son of Antiochus".  The monument measures 32.2 feet × 30.5 feet and contains Philopappus’s burial chamber. In 1898 excavations were carried out at the monument and in 1899 conservation work was undertaken. In 1940, archaeologists H. A. Thompson and J. Travlos conducted small additional excavations. Recent investigations have certified that architectural parts of Philopappus’s Monument were used for construction of the Minaret in the Parthenon.  Only two-thirds of the façade remains. The tomb chamber behind the façade is completely destroyed except for the base. The Philopappus Monument was apparently still intact in 1436, when the traveller Ciriaco de' Pizzicolli visited the monument and wrote in his memoirs that the monument was still intact. The destruction of the monument must have occurred after this time.
The Academy in 1870 and when I posed in 2001.
The Artemision Bronze as it appeared when recovered, missing its arms and greatly deterorated before being completely rebuilt. On the right is it before the war with Goebbels visiting and a copy of it at the Nazis' former Veraltungsbau in Munich with proposed thunderbolt (and not the trident of Poseidon as some would have it despite the unsuitability of the device and the fact that miniature copies clearly show Zeus with the thunderbolt.
The sculpture was first discovered in 1926 and further excavated in 1928, at the site of a shipwreck that occurred no earlier than the middle of the second century BCE. Unfortunately, not much is known about the wreck because exploration was abandoned when a diver died in 1928 and was never resumed. Many such shipwrecks are of Roman date and were of vessels looting Greek art to Italy, but it is unclear whether the Artemision wreck is one of these. The Jockey of Artemision – a bronze statue of a racehorse and its jockey also at the museum – was recovered from the same shipwreck and Seán Hemingway has suggested that the jockey and horse may have been looted from Corinth in 146 BCE by the Roman general Mummius in the Achaean War, and was on its way to Pergamon when lost.
During the war wrapped in tar paper before burial to hide and preserve its priceless collections from widespread looting by occupying forces. A month after Greece became embroiled in war with Italy – treating with contempt Mussolini’s ultimatum issued on October 28, 1940 – every museum in the country received a letter from the government giving detailed instructions as to how they were to hide their treasures from the invaders. One of the proposals was to pack the exhibits in crates, hidden under sandbags. The other, which was more widely applied, involved burying the artefacts under museum floors, in courtyards and stowing them in the basements of any state institution.
Also in the Archaeological museum, the statue of the emperor Claudius in Pentelic marble found at Megara. The over life-size statue renders the emperor as Zeus where his symbol, the eagle, is depicted in front of the support, which has the form of a tree trunk.
Joseph Goebbels visiting in April, 1939. According to legend, here on Cape Sounion was the spot where Aegeus, king of Athens, leapt to his death off the cliff, thus giving his name to the Aegean Sea. The story goes that Aegeus, anxiously looking out from Sounion, despaired when he saw a black sail on his son Theseus's ship, returning from Crete. This led him to believe that his son had been killed in his contest with the dreaded Minotaur, a monster that was half man and half bull. The Minotaur was confined by its owner, King Minos of Crete, in a specially designed labyrinth. Every year, the Athenians were forced to send seven men and seven women to Minos as tribute. These youths were placed in the labyrinth to be devoured by the Minotaur. Theseus had volunteered to go with the third tribute and attempt to slay the beast. He had agreed with his father that if he survived the contest, he would hoist a white sail. In fact, Theseus had overcome and slain the Minotaur, but tragically had simply forgotten about the white sail.  
The earliest literary reference to Sounion is in Homer's poem the Odyssey, probably composed in the 8th century BCE, recounting the mythical tribulations suffered by Odysseus in a gruelling ten year sea-voyage to return to his native island, Ithaca, in the Ionian sea, from the sack of Troy. This ordeal was supposedly inflicted upon him by Poseidon, to whom the temple at Sounion was dedicated.  As the various Greek commanders sailed back from Troy, the helmsman of the ship of King Menelaus of Sparta died at his post while rounding "holy Sounion, cape of Athens". Menelaus landed at Sounion to give his companion full funeral honours. The Greek ships were then caught by a storm off Cape Malea and scattered in all directions. The first version of the temple was built in the archaic period but it was destroyed by the Persians in 480 B.C, in the second Greco-Persian War. Pericles rebuilt the temple of Poseidon probably around 440 B.C. but only some columns of it stand today. A five metre tall statue of Poseidon used to stand inside the temple, but today only a part of it survives and it is displayed in the Archaeological Museum of Athens. The frieze of the temple was made of marble from Paros island and it depicted the legends of Theseus. On one column, one can see the word "Byron" on it, engraved by Lord Byron during a visit in 1810.
Drake Winston showing the changes in restoration to the temple; its present state is due to the work performed in the 1950s by the Greek Archaeological Service led by Anastasios Orlandos.

The Corinth Canal under construction, during the war, and me today. Periander had envisioned the canal but, lacking the technology, settled for the marble tramway. At the time, it was also thought that Poseidon, god of the sea, opposed joining the Aegean and the Adriatic. Others dreamed of constructing the canal, including Julius Caesar, because it saved 200 miles of sailing around the Peloponnesus, but it was Nero who actually attempted it in 66 CE. Included in his workforce were six thousand young Jewish slaves recently captured by Vespasian in Galilee, where the Jewish war had begun. His attempt was soon abandoned based on the belief that if the seas were connected, the more northerly Adriatic, mistakenly thought to be higher, would flood the more southern Aegean. Eventually work recommenced in 1881 where Nero's crew had stopped, completing the canal in 1893.
The Bema (Judgement seat) at Corinth, where Paul was claimed to have been brought before Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus, (Acts xviii.14), although the idea of an obscure wandering rabbi called Paul being given an hearing from the Roman consul of all Greece, a Roman senator and brother of Seneca is hard to credit.

Drake Winston on the left in front of the Temple of Apollo and me about 18 years earlier. So much today is either closed off or even closed completely. The city site is in the foreground, dominated by the remains of the sixth-century BCE Temple of Apollo, one of the few survivors of the town's destruction by the Romans. Our only evidence that this is dedicated to Apollo is the brief reference in Pausanias's Description of Greece [2.iii.6]. On the right in the distance to the south rises the citadel, Acrocorinth, linked by long walls to the city in the fourth century BCE. It is the most impressive of the acropoleis of mainland Greece:
One of the finest stories in Plutarch is the account of the capture by Aratus of the Acrocorinthus. (Vit. Aratus, xiv. ff.)
At the Temple of Zeus. Pindar speaks of "deep-soiled Nemea", but the character of the country has indeed changed with soil having been washed away by the storms of the ages. There is scarcely a human habitation to be seen. Here and there a patch of green offers scant pasture to a herd of goats. The Nemean Games took place at a spot some twelve miles to the west of this temple.
It was here that Heracles was required to bring the skin of this beast to Eurystheus; at Nemea he cut himself a club with which he killed the monster. This is the early tradition of the story; later authors (of whom Theocritus gives the fullest account in his twenty-fifth idyll)made the lion invulnerable, so that Heracles was obliged to strangle it with his hands after clubbing it, and then to flay it by using its claws to cut the invulnerable hide. At any rate, the club and lion's skin henceforth were Heracles' weapon and clothing par excellence; in art as in literature, they are invariably associated with him. 
Herakles, after the Nemean lion had bitten off one of his fingers had only nine and that there exists a tomb erected for this detached finger.
Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History Book 2  
"Not in Nemea or ancient Argos shall I [Herakles the god] more often dwell
 Statius, Silvae 3. 1. 1
The Lion Gate At Mycenae. This monumental gateway to the citadel at Mycenae was built in the mid thirteenth century B.C. and was never lost to view. It, and the massive walls, were thought by the ancient Greeks to have been built by giants, serving as a reminder to them of the achievements of their Age of Heroes, the period about which Homer sang. It was erected during the 13th century BCE, around 1250 BCE in the northwest side of the acropolis and is named after the relief sculpture of two lionesses or lions in a heraldic pose that stands above the entrance. It is the sole surviving monumental piece of Mycenæan sculpture, as well as the largest sculpture in the prehistoric Ægean. It is the only monument of Bronze Age Greece to bear an iconographic motif that survived without being buried underground, and the only relief image which was described in the literature of classical antiquity, such that it was well known prior to modern archæology.
 Lion Gate with Wilhelm Dörpfeld (looking through the hole in the wall to the left) and Heinrich Schliemann in the centre GIF. The Lion Gate had stood in full view of visitors to Mycenae for centuries and was mentioned by Pausanias in the 2nd century CE. The first correct identification of the Lion Gate in modern literature was during a survey conducted by Francesco Grimani, commissioned by the Provveditore Generale of the Kingdom of the Morea in 1700, who had used Pausanias's description of the Lion Gate to identify the ruins of Mycenae. In 1840, the Greek Archæological Society undertook the initial clearing of the site from debris and soil that had accumulated to bury it, and in 1876 Heinrich Schliemann, guided by Pausanias's accounts, excavated the area south of the Lion Gate

At a couple of tombs around Mycenae. Around 1600 BCE the Mycenae built these tombs above ground in a rounded conical shape like a beehive.

At the so-called Temple of Atreus and with Drake Winston nearly two decades after. Dating from 1300-1200 BCE in 1923, it's 114 feet long and 20 feet wide consisting of geometric bands- chevrons that are upright Vs shape inside with running spirals. The main chamber is 47 1⁄2 ft and 43 feet high. What was left behind in the tombs were symbols of artwork that were of the wealth and power of the deceased. “The main tomb chamber is a circular room. It roofed with a corbel vault built up in regular course, or layers, of ashlar- squared stones smoothly leaning inward and carefully calculated to meet in single capstone at the peak”. (M.Stokstad, 102) The Atreus tomb has bronze plaques. The tomb was carved with green serpentine porphyry, with engraved red and green marble panel, limestone. The entrance portal to the tumulus was richly decorated: half-columns in green limestone with zig-zag motifs on the shaft, a frieze with rosettes above the architrave of the door, and spiral decoration in bands of red marble that closed the triangular aperture above an architrave. Segments of the columns and architraves were safely removed by Lord Elgin in the early nineteenth century and are now in the British Museum, shown here on the right with Drake Winston. It appears that the capitals are influenced by ancient Egyptian examples; one is in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin as part of the Antikensammlung Berlin. Other decorative elements were inlaid with red porphyry and green alabaster, a surprising luxury for the Bronze Age. With an interior height of 13.5 metres and a diameter of 14.5 metres, the tomb had the tallest and widest dome in the world for over a thousand years until construction of the Temple of Mercury in Baiae and the Pantheon in Rome. Great care was taken in the positioning of the enormous stones, to guarantee the vault's stability over time in bearing the force of compression from its own weight. This gave a perfectly smoothed internal surface, onto which could be placed gold, silver and bronze decoration. The room was constructed by digging vertically into the hillside, like a well, and then walling and roofing the space with stone from the floor level of the chamber, and finally back-filling the earth above. Tiers of ashlar masonry were laid in rings so that each successive tier projected slightly farther inward, until only a small opening is left at the top. Above the entryway there is an open space in the shape of a triangle. This space, which is known as a relieving triangle, is meant to funnel the weight of the structure off the lintel and into the sides of the structure, preventing the lintel from breaking due to pressure.
At the tomb Of Clystemnaestra, a Mycenæan tholos type tomb built around 1250 BCE. A number of architectural features such as the semi-column were largely adopted by later classical monuments of the first millennium BCE, both in the Greek and Latin world. With its imposing façade it is, with the so-called Treasury of Atreus, the most monumental tomb of that type. The tomb is named after Clytemnestra, the wife of king Agamemnon, mythical ruler of Mycenae and leader of the Greeks in the Trojan War. However, it has been also suggested by modern scholars starting with Lord William Taylour that the tomb may have been king Agamemnon’s. Ithat this might have been Agamemnon's tomb or even that the tomb was never occupied due to the destruction of Mycenae which occurred during that time. Indeed, a number of Mycenaean tholos tombs were named after mythical persons of the local ruling dynasties, like Atreus and Aegisthus. Pausanias referred to the location of the tombs of Clytemnestra and Aegisthus a little further from the walls of Mycenae, as they were not judged fit to be buried within the walls due to the murder of king Agamemnon. 19th century archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann followed this passage of Pausanias and searched at the vicinity of Mycenae for their tombs. Excavations in the 1960s led to the discovery of the surrounding walls of the tomb. In the dromos, a woman's grave was found in addition to accompanying artefacts; two mirrors, ornaments and beads. However, the inner burial chamber was found looted and empty. It has been also claimed that the tomb had no occupant at all given that the destruction of Mycenae that occurred sometime during the mid-to-late 13th century BCE.
Drake Winston at the temple of Hera at Olympia and Jürgen Ascherfeld on the far left, initially used by Leni Riefenstahl for Olympia. The Heraeum was one of the oldest sanctuaries of Greece. A scarab of Thothmes III has been found among its ruins, and the temple registers furnished a system of dating older than the reckoning by Olympiads. Here the Greeks acknowledged Agamemnon as commander in chief of the expedition to Troy, and the great Goddess never failed in loyal zeal for the success of the Grecian arms. The most interesting story connected with the Heraeum is the one told by Herodotus (i.31). When Solon was at the court of the Lydian king, Croesus, the king, after showing him his possessions, asked him who was the happiest man whom he had ever seen.
When Solon had provoked him by saying that the affairs of Tellus were so fortunate, Croesus asked who he thought was next, fully expecting to win second prize. Solon answered, “Cleobis and Biton. They were of Argive stock, had enough to live on, and on top of this had great bodily strength. Both had won prizes in the athletic contests, and this story is told about them: there was a festival of Hera in Argos, and their mother absolutely had to be conveyed to the temple by a team of oxen. But their oxen had not come back from the fields in time, so the youths took the yoke upon their own shoulders under constraint of time. They drew the wagon, with their mother riding atop it, travelling five miles until they arrived at the temple. When they had done this and had been seen by the entire gathering, their lives came to an excellent end, and in their case the god made clear that for human beings it is a better thing to die than to live. The Argive men stood around the youths and congratulated them on their strength; the Argive women congratulated their mother for having borne such children. She was overjoyed at the feat and at the praise, so she stood before the image and prayed that the goddess might grant the best thing for man to her children Cleobis and Biton, who had given great honour to the goddess. After this prayer they sacrificed and feasted. The youths then lay down in the temple and went to sleep and never rose again; death held them there. The Argives made and dedicated at Delphi statues of them as being the best of men.
The Heraeum was the scene of the well known tale of the philosopher Pythagoras and the shield of Euphorbus. Menelaus,after his return from Troy, dedicated in this temple the captured shield of Euphorbus, whom he had killed. In later years, Pythagoras entered the temple and selected this shield at once from the many votive shields hung on the walls. It proved to have the name of Euphorbus upon it. Now Pythagoras in teaching the doctrine of metempsychosis had always claimed to be a reincarnation of Euphorbus, and he announced that he had established the claim by his success in picking out the right shield.
Drake under the arched passage to the stadium  
My father sprinting from the ancient starting blocks
and Philippeion in the 1930s and today, the latter after Berlin's Pergamon Museum agreed to return its missing parts in situ, as well as attempting its restoration.
The Gymnasium
The Berlin Olympic Games of 1936 led to an intensification of the relationship between Germany and Greece on all levels: political, cultural, economic and military. Greek politicians and military staff made use of their visit to the games in Berlin to seal agreements on closer economic and military cooperation. The sports administrator Carl Diem helped raise awareness of Greek culture among the German public. He initiated the Olympic torch relay, with images of the Greek Konstantin Kondylis carrying the torch in 1936 going around the world. German travel literature about Greece became popular. Tourists travelled through the country, visiting ancient sites like Athens, Delphi, Delos and Olympia. The popularity of Greece had reached a peak. In 1936 Leni Riefenstahl made her film “Olympia”. In Greece she was advised by Walther Wrede. For the realisation of this film she received a total of 1.5 million Reichsmark (400,000 of which were her payment for the project).  The Olympic Games inspired the large-scale excavations at Olympia. These were described as the “Führer Excavation (Führergrabung)” and were personally financed by Hitler from the proceeds of his book “Mein Kampf” (50,000 Reichsmark a year from 1938 onwards). This prestigious project received extensive coverage in the German press. Archaeological research occupied the limelight as seldom before and enjoyed great esteem among the German public. The first official excavations during the Nazi era took place in spring 1937 under the guidance of Roland Hampe and Ulf Jantzen. In October 1937 Emil Kunze and Hans Schleif took over the reins, though the reasons for this change in personnel haven’t yet been established. Perhaps it was because the somewhat more senior pairing of Kunze and Schleif had more experience of excavations and better contacts in Greece. Schleif was responsible for technological and architectural history, while Kunze took care of the archaeological side of things. B The excavations were focused on the periphery of the sacred area of Olympia: the stadium as well as the Roman sites at Leonidaion and Kladeos. Schleif also got to work on publication of his book “Das Philippeion”.

The temple of Zeus, at the site of which is Drake Winston, was the largest temple in the sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia, where the Olympic Games were held. The sculptures in the pediments show racing and wrestling, but in mythological contexts. Here the subject is a battle between Lapiths and Centaurs, mythical tribes of northern Greece, which took place at a wedding feast. The Centaurs, half horse half man, had been invited to the wedding but drank too much wine and attempted to abduct the Lapith women. In the fight which followed, Apollo stands calmly at the centre while Peirithoös, the Lapith king and bridegroom, leads the attack on the Centaurs. Lapith women watch anxiously from the corners of the pediment. The sculptures contrast with the much more peaceful scene shown in the pediment on the other end of the temple.
Standing in front of the Apollon of Olympia, part of the group of sculptures found in the west pediment of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. Its original location also provides it with another name: the Apollon from the west pediment. It is one of the most important statues of the Severe style or early Classical style, dating from ca. 460 BCE. The statue is currently in the archaeological museum in Olympia.  The sculptures of the west pediment depicted the battle of the Lapiths against the Centaurs, following the wedding feast of Peirithous and Hippodamia. The battle of the Lapiths - legendary inhabitants of Thessaly - against the Centaurs - wild forest inhabitants with a human upper half and the body of a horse - frequently acted as a mythological metaphor for the conflicts between the Greeks and the Barbarians. Most of the figures in this turbulent battle scene were discovered during the German excavations of 1875, led by the archaeologist Georg Treu. Apollo stood in the centre of the pediment, directing his gaze toward the Lapiths. With his outstretched right arm, he seemed to order an end to the iniquity: the Centaurs had betrayed the Lapiths' hospitality, drunk to excess, and kidnapped their women. Nevertheless, his inclusion appears to be merely figurative; the combatants seem ignorant of his presence, with no other figure in the pediment referring, either in their motion or gesture, to the appearance of the god. 

With restored versions of the Hermes of Praxiteles from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica and Nike of Paionios with the original base in situ.
The burial mound at Marathon of the 192 Athenian dead which was erected near the battlefield showing how much the area has changed in the twenty years between the photos of me and with Drake Winston.
The Tymbos is now marked by a marble memorial stele and used to be surrounded by a small park as shown in the photo of me in 2000, but too has changed considerably both in base and site.
Under the slope of Dirphys we fell. This mound in our honour
Hard by Euripus stands, raised by our countrymen here.
Just was the tribute. We lost the early prime of our manhood,
We who holding our ground, met the rude cloud of the war."
Simonides, 89 Bergk.
At the Temple Of Apollo. Its ruins date from the 4th century BCE, and are of a peripteral Doric building. It was erected on the remains of an earlier temple, dated to the 6th century BC which itself was erected on the site of a 7th-century BCE construction attributed to the architects Trophonios and Agamedes.  The 6th-century BCE temple was named the "Temple of Alcmonidae" in tribute to the Athenian family who funded its reconstruction following a fire, which had destroyed the original structure. The new building was a Doric hexastyle temple of 6 by 15 columns. This temple was destroyed in 375 BCE by an earthquake. The pediment sculptures are a tribute to Praxias and Androsthenes of Athens. The temple had the statement "Know thyself", one of the Delphic maxims, carved into it. The temple survived until 390 CE, when Theodosius I silenced the oracle by destroying the temple and most of the statues and works of art in the intolerant name of Christianity. The site was completely destroyed by Christian fanatics in a savage attempt to remove all traces of Paganism.
Reconstruction of the serpent column built to commemorate the Greeks who fought and defeated the Persians at the Battle of Plataea in 479 BCE eventually relocated to Constantinople by Constantine the Great in 324. This bronze column in the shape of intertwined snakes was created from melted-down Persian weapons, acquired in the plunder of the Persian camp, and was erected at Delphi, commemorating all the Greek city-states that had participated in the battle, listing them on the column, and thus confirming some of Herodotus's claims. Most of it still survives in the Hippodrome of Constantinople. Plataea, with Mycale, have great significance in ancient history as the battles that decisively ended the second Persian invasion of Greece, thereby swinging the balance of the Græco-Persian Wars in favour of the Greeks, preventing the Persians from conquering all of Greece, although they paid a high price by losing many of their men. Whilst the Battle of Marathon showed that the Persians could be defeated, and the Battle of Salamis saved Greece from immediate conquest, Plataea and Mycale effectively ended that threat even though neither of these battles is nearly as well known as Thermopylae, Salamis or Marathon. The reason for this discrepancy is not entirely clear; it might, however, be a result of the circumstances in which the battle was fought. The fame of Thermopylae certainly lies in the doomed heroism of the Greeks in the face of overwhelming numbers and Marathon and Salamis perhaps because they were both fought against the odds, and in dire strategic situations. Conversely, the Battles of Plataea and Mycale were both fought from a relative position of Greek strength, and against lesser odds; the Greeks, in fact, sought out battle on both occasions.
German soldiers in June 1941 in front of the Athenian Treasury shown left, constructed by the Athenians to house dedications made by their city and citizens to the sanctuary of Apollo. The entire treasury, including its sculptural decoration, is built of Parian marble; Pausanias mentions the building in his account of the sanctuary, claiming that it was dedicated from the spoils of the Battle of Marathon, fought in 490 BCE.
The theatre at Delphi showing the foundations and restored columns and looking south-east over the lower sanctuary terrace (Marmaria), with a Temple of Athena, and to the pass leading east to Boeotia. The other approach led up from the Gulf of Corinth, at Itea, from the south west. The dramatic sanctuary site is built on a steep slope beneath Mount Parnassus. At the left is the gully with the sacred spring of Castalia. Built further up the hill from the Temple of Apollo giving spectators a view of the entire sanctuary and the valley below. It was originally built in the 4th century BCE but was remodelled on several occasions since. Its 35 rows could seat five thousand spectators.
At the theatre and my son nearly two decades later. On the right Drake Winston reciprocates with a photo of me at the stadium, shown during the 1930s and today.
Drake at the Tholos of Delphi, nestled amongst the ancient structures of the Sanctuary of Athena Pronaia. The circular temple shares the immediate site with other ancient foundations of the Temple of Athena Pronaia, all located less than a mile east of the main ruins at Delphi. The tholos is part of the Delphi UNESCO World Heritage Site. The architect of the "vaulted temple at Delphi" is named by Vitruvius, in De architectura Book VII, as Theodorus Phoceus (not Theodorus of Samos, whom Vitruvius names separately).  Externally, twenty Doric columns supported a frieze with triglyphs and metopes. The circular wall of the cella, the central chamber of the building, was also crowned by a similar frieze, metopes and triglyphs but to a lesser extent. Inside, a stone bench was positioned on which stood ten Corinthian style pilasters, all of them attached to the concave surface of the wall.  The manifold combination and blending of various architectural styles in the same building was completed through a natural polychromatic effect, resulting from the use of different materials. Materials used included Eleusinian thin slabs (titanolithos) and Pentelic marble in the superstructure and limestone at the platform. The building's eight-arched roof was also constructed of marble, and was decorated respectively by eight female statues carved in sharp and lively motion. The sculptured decoration of the dome was also beautifully crafted by hitherto unknown craftsmen. It is dated between 380 and 370 BCE. High reliefs ascribed the figures of the metopes, which contributed to being easily detached from the plates and be reused as building material and tomb covers in the early Christian years after they were smoothed over again. 
Following strenuous and time-consuming efforts of specialists who attempted to agglutinate the fragments around the monument, we can today have at least an incomplete picture of its original form and the stylistic and decorative elements of its relief representations. In the major metopes of the outer side there are scene representations from Amazon and Centaur battles, already known from mythology and very dear to Greek sculpture. In the inside, the figures of the frieze survived unfortunately at a very small scale and with high fragmentation. They allegedly portrayed labors, either by Hercules or Theseus.  Despite their fragmentary nature, the architectural reliefs on the Dome of Delphi reveal the great skill of their creators, as regards both the treatment of materials – especially marble – and catching details with vitality and excellent anatomical accuracy. All these novel compounds with unexpected combinations in the iconographic tradition of the 4th century BCE introduce an innovative artistic movement, resulting in a creative competition between the art of relief and sculpted plastic art. Particularly to achieve the above confrontational blending of antithetical elements, the discernible elements include the high relief which may be detached from the plate of the panel, the kinesiological freedoms of the sculptures achieved through their details, as well as the dramatic intensity reflected in the figures to demonstrate the passion and the fury of the conflict of enemies in lively battle scenes.
 Inside the Archaeological Museum of Delphi. Drake in front of the Sphinx of Naxos, a colossal 2.22 metre tall marble statue of a sphinx, which had stood on a ten metre high column that culminated in one of the first Ionic capitals, and was erected next to the Temple of Apollo in 560 BCE.  The first fragments had been excavated from the sanctuary of the Temple of Apollo in 1860 with the remainder found in 1893. It was originally set up on a stele around 560 BC as an offering to the Temple of Apollo by Naxos, one of the richest Cycladic islands at the time. It was carved from a large piece of Naxian marble; its solid construction combined elements that gave the statue a character of motion and vitality, such are the details that depict the hair, chest, and wings. It is also notable because it is an early example of carving in-the-round, as opposed to relief carving that was common during that time. On the base there was an inscription dated to 328-327 B.C., renewing the promanteia for the Naxians:  
(Delphi accorded the Naxians the right of Promanteia as before, at the time of archon Theolytos and Epigenes the Bouleutes)
Because of this, the Naxians had the right to acquire oracles first.
In front of the east frieze of the Treasury of Siphnos showing Achilles against Memnon during the battle of Troy and a colour reproduction. The inset shows the north frieze with the Battle of the Giants (Gigantomachy). First Hephaestus stands out with his short chiton, standing in front of his bellows. He is followed by two females fighting two Giants, then Dionysus (or possibly Heracles), and Themis on her chariot drawn by lions. A pair of gods who are shooting their arrows against the Giants have been identified as Artemis and Apollo. They are followed by the other gods, but these sculptures do not survive in good condition.
Drake beside the epitaph with Simonides' epigram, originally engraved on a commemorative stone placed on top of the burial mound of the Spartans at the top of the hill on which the last of them died. The original stone has not survived, but in 1955, the epitaph was engraved on a new stone.  Ὦ ξεῖν', ἀγγέλλειν Λακεδαιμονίοις ὅτι τῇδε κείμεθα, τοῖς κείνων ῥήμασι πειθόμενοι. Oh stranger, tell the Lacedaemonians that we lie here, obedient to their words.
Building the memorial to Leonidas and the 300 at Thermopylae in 1955 and today
At the battlefield of Thermopylae beside the hot springs from which the site receives its name, still there.
The ruins of the temple of Athena Alea at Tegea, where I taught for a year at modern-day Stadio, Tegeas. The grandest of all temples in the Peloponnese, Herodotus gives the following account of the time the Spartans tried to subdue the Tegeans only to once again misinterpret the Delphic oracle:
[R]egarding the Arcadians as very much their inferiors, they sent to consult the oracle about conquering the whole of Arcadia. The Pythoness thus answered them:
Cravest thou Arcady? Bold is thy craving. I shall not content it.
Many the men that in Arcady dwell, whose food is the acorn-
They will never allow thee. It is not I that am niggard.
I will give thee to dance in Tegea, with noisy foot-fall,
And with the measuring line mete out the glorious champaign.
When the Lacedaemonians received this reply, leaving the rest of Arcadia untouched, they marched against the Tegeans, carrying with them fetters, so confident had this oracle (which was, in truth, but of base metal) made them that they would enslave the Tegeans. The battle, however, went against them, and many fell into the enemy's hands. Then these persons, wearing the fetters which they had themselves brought, and fastened together in a string, measured the Tegean plain as they executed their labours. The fetters in which they worked were still, in my day, preserved at Tegea where they hung round the walls of the temple of Minerva Alea.