Schloß Schleißheim and Haimhausen

It was through Geoff Walden's site Third Reich in Ruins that inspired my first trip through Germany in 2007, and in particular his section on Oberschleissheim in which he shows the following photograph of his father- 2nd Lt. Delbert R. Walden, who was stationed at the Oberschleissheim Airfield with the 344th Bomb Group in 1946 after it was occupied by the U.S. Army Air Forces in April 1945- posing "in front of the adjacent Schleissheim Palace (which had suffered bomb damage during the war)." His outstanding site built itself from the photos taken by his father whilst stationed in Germany as part of the Army of Occupation from December 1945 to July 1946.

Hitler visiting the airfield at Oberschleißheim, showing particular interest in the Udet U 12 Flamingo, an aerobatic sports plane and trainer aircraft developed in Germany in the mid-1920s. In February 1942 Hitler referred to his visit here in his Table Talk (273) when reminiscing about the chaos he found after the Great War:
I therefore went to Dachau with Goring. We had the impression we'd fallen into a bandits' lair. Their first concern was to ask us for the password. We were led into the presence of a woman. I remember her, for this was the first time I saw a woman with her hair dressed like a boy's. She was surrounded by a gang of individuals with gallows-birds' faces. This was Schäffer's wife. We drove the bargain, although not without my warning them that they wouldn't see the colour of my money until the weapons were in my possession. We also found, on the airfield at Schleissheim, thousands of rifles,mess-tins, haversacks, a pile of useless junk. But, after it had been repaired, there would be enough to equip a regiment.
schloss schleißheim
From a 1937 postcard. The New Palace was begun under Max Emanuel in 1701-1704 from designs by Henrico Zuccalli and completed from 1719 by Joseph Effner. Of the originally planned, monumental complex consisting of four wings, only the main wing was completed. The result is nevertheless an outstandingly beautiful Baroque palace. In 1912 the airfield beside the palace was built, which is the oldest active airfield in Germany. In the Second World War the air base was heavily bombed, which also led to considerable damage in the area and the schloß. The Altes schloß suffered severe damage during the war and was still in a ruinous state decades after the end of the war. A restoration took place from 1970 onwards, but not all of the historical interiors have been restored, but some of them have been modernised for museum use.
Before the war and today from the front and rear of the palace
 In 1930 and after the war when the Altes schloß was particularly damaged
Closer look at the damage
schloss schleißheim  
The schloß in 1933 and eighty years later
Kubrick's 'Paths of Glory' with Kirk Douglas was shot at Oberschleißheim, with the schloß serving as the French Army Headquarters. The soldiers were supplied by 9, 733 conscripts who had been born in 1937.
The court martial in the Great Hall (Grosser Saal) inside the Palace.

 Drake Winston standing in for Kirk Douglas with the same painting behind both
The execution of the WWI French soldiers was filmed in the grand garden of the new Palace (Gartenfassade des Neuen Schlosses).
The Großer Saal before and after the war, heavily damaged, and today with the wife. The room serves to glorify Max Emanuel as elector and victorious general against the Turks. On either side of the room are two paintings by Franz Joachim Beich showing the military exploits of Max Emanuel. The stucco decoration by Johann Baptist Zimmermann featuring draperies, weapons and trophies date from 1722. The ceiling is by Venetian Jacopo Amigoni showing the "Battle of Aeneas and Turnus for the hand of princess Lavinia" from which Aeneas emerges victorious; a metaphorical nod to Max Emanuel.
In the Gemäldegalerie
Before the war and today, extensively renovated. The magnificent interior decoration was the work of well-known artists such as Johann Baptist Zimmermann, Cosmas Damian Asam and Jacopo Amigoni. The Gallery Rooms contain masterpieces from the European baroque era.
The wife above the main staircase, shown then and now. This is architecturally the most significant area of the schloß and owes its inspiration to Henrico Zuccalli who created a division of stairways and landings within a high wide hall, which was soon recognised as exemplary and which would inspire Balthasar Neumann when he designed the staircases for the palaces at Brühl and Würzburg.  The dome fresco by Cosmas Damian Asam shows the representation of Venus in the Forge of Vulcan, in which the weapons are made for her son Aeneas. Again, Aeneas in the baroque pose with periwig bears unmistakable traits of Elector Max Emanuel. This presentation was the first secular theme painted by the famous Bavarian fresco painter Asam and finds its thematic continuation in the ceiling paintings with scenes from the Trojan War (according to Virgil's "Aeneid") in the neighbouring ballrooms.
The bedroom of Karl VII
 The bedroom of the Electress Maria Amalia, wife of Elector Max III Joseph, known as the "Yellow Apartment."
The wife in the Halle im Erdgeschoss whilst outside the Western door, produced by Franz Ignaz Günther, shows how much has been reworked since reconstruction around the door as the lion has since lost his sword.
The Altes schloß before the war on the left and in April 1945 on the right. This building began in 1598 as a renaissance country house and hermitage founded by William V close to Dachau Palace. The central gate and clock tower between both courtyards still date back to the first building period. The inner courtyard is called Maximilianshof, the outer one Wilhelmshof. Under William's son Maximilian I the buildings were extended between 1617 and 1623 by Heinrich Schön and Hans Krumpper to the so-called Old Palace. The rooms were decorated by Peter Candid. Maximilian's son and successor Ferdinand Maria died here in 1679. After heavy destruction in the Second World War the palace with its spacious buildings was reconstructed as shown here. Most of the stucco decoration of the chapel Wilhelmskapelle has been preserved.
The canal with the Lustheim behind, then and now.
The Lustheim was built by Enrico Zuccalli as a garden villa in Italian style in 1684-1688 for Maximilian II Emanuel and his first wife, the Austrian princess Maria Antonia.  It lies on a circular island at the end of the baroque court garden. The interior is dominated by the large banqueting hall in the middle of the building. The frescoes were done by Johann Anton Gumpp, Francesco Rosa and Johann Andreas Trubillio.  Since 1968 the palace has housed a grand collection of Meissen porcelain, only outranged by the Porzellansammlung in the Zwinger, Dresden. The palace once formed the centre point of a semicircle of round buildings. Two pavilions still exist: To the south of Lustheim Place the Renatus Chapel was erected in 1686 by Zuccalli in a pavilion. The northern pavilion houses the decorated stable which was built for the favourite horses of Elector Max Emanuel. The baroque court garden, laid out by Dominique Girard and others, is still largely in its original form.
The Schlosswirtschaft (palace restaurant) on April 1, 1937 during the commemoration of the air field's 25th anniversary with high-ranking Nazi officials and its façade today. The Schloßwirtschaft Oberschleißheim Biergarten is located on the palace grounds, with seating for 1,000 and its roots trace back to 1597, when the founder of the Hofbräuhaus brewery retired to a farm there. Following the building of the New Schleissheim Palace in the 17th century, the Schloßwirtschaft provided catering to its workers and servants.
 Hochmuttinger Allee being cleared in 1935 to further extend the airfield eastwards.

Nazi ceremony commemorating the airfield's 25th anniversary on April 1, 1937 and the following day on Heldengedenktag
The airfield during the war. Rudolf Hess's 
army personnel file records that on 7 May he joined a volunteer unit of Epp’s Freikorps; left it on 15 October; was temporarily recruited by the local airfield at Schleissheim on 29 March 1920; flew an aeroplane to a Bavarian unit stationed in the Ruhr on 6 April; and finally resigned his commission in Munich on the last day of April 1920.
Irving (8) Hess- The Missing Years
USAAF on a bombing run over Oberschleißheim and on the right, the resulting damage
After the war, the USAAF using the airfield for their own, here with a Canadian de Havilland DHC-3

A short section devoted to my school- the Bavarian International School at schloss Haimhausen in kreis Dachau
Schloss Haimhausen then and now
In 1281 schloss Haimhausen was listed as a castle (castrum) in a gazetteer of Upper Bavaria. It was destroyed in the Thirty Years War and rebuilt in 1660 as an ornate Baroque structure by Andreas Wolff.   In 1747 and ensuing years, Francois Cuvillies the Elder enlarged the villa by seven bays on each side and added two wings. The external form of the house, with the high roof typical of the region, has remained unchanged to this day.  Cuvilliés was also responsible for such famous buildings as the Munich Residenz (royal palace), the Residenz Theatre, the manor Amalienburg in the grounds of Schloss Nymphenburg, and rooms in Schloss Brühl, near Bonn. The ceiling murals in both the Golden Room and the Chapel were executed by the famous Augsburg artist, Johann Bergmüller in 1750. 
Haimhausen Schloss became the property of the family Butler v. Clonebough (called Haimhausen), after having been awarded to the Irish officer Walther Butler (known as the "Wallenstein murderer") in thanks for his fulfilling a contract to deliver Wallenstein "dead or alive" on February 25, 1634. Friedrich Schiller immortalised Wallenstein in the dramatic trilogy that bears his name (completed in 1799).  He did not enjoy his success for long, passing away in 1635 after being wounded.  The property was then passed from generation up until Theobald, who had a close relationship to Count Stauffenberg, fled in March 1945 by carriage to Neubrandenburg to rescue his wife and three children from the advancing Russian troops, but was too late.  Supposedly he poisoned his wife, then his 3 children, then set his house in flames, and shot himself.  So ended the line of the Counts of v. Clonebough gen. Haimhausen on 29 April 1945.
Haimhausen war memorial
 The war memorial on the high street is flanked by two flag poles, neither of which can hoist the flag under which those commemorated died for.
In 1904 and the Bavarian International School today
In the 1920s
Bavarian International School then and now
Showing the balcony erected in front of the chapel for owner Haniel's wife who had suffered an accident shown in 1939
Bavarian International School's chapel then and now.
Bavarian International School's chapel then and now. It owes its splendour to its ceiling painting, again by Bergmuller- the Salvator Mundi, dated 1750- as well as the delicate Rococo stucco work by Verhelst. 

Directly above is this fascinating representation of the return of Christ on the throne 0f the Trinity; the largest Salvator Mundi of its kind in which God holds the Flaming Sword of Judgement and has the left hand on the empty seat to his right whilst in the centre a kneeling Christ with the cross rises over a world in flames, depicting the four continents known at that time. But what makes this painting remarkable is the representation of the Holy Spirit in human form. This is expressly forbidden by the Catholic Church, as Pope Benedict XIV declared in October 1745 just before this painting was created, and and today is only permitted in the form of a dove. As a (Catholic) colleague remarked upon entering, "God is not present," noting the lack of a sanctuary lamp.
On the right is a close-up during the 650,000 euro renovation of the chapel completed in 2010.
An interesting touch on the ceiling is the expulsion from Paradise, showing Adam and Eve being followed by a dog and snake hopping along, and at the other end above the altar Christ on the Mount of Olives, with the snake making a reappearance with apple in mouth.
Books stored in BIS's chapel during the war

1949 photos of the thousands of books from the Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek that were stored for safety in the Haimhauser Schlosskapelle in today's Bavarian International School during the Second World War. During the 1944 bombing, the library's collection was distributed throughout 28 sites in Oberbayern.
Moving the books postwar from today's Bavarian International School
Moving the books postwar back to the Staatsbibliothek on Ludwigstraße showing the necessity for having relocated its collection. Between 1949 and 1975 the Schloss was used by the Bavarian Legal Aid School and later the Munich Police Academy. Between 1976 and 1986 the International Antiques Salon occupied all rooms with its period exhibits.
Bavarian International School logo
The role the schloss played in preserving  its past and passing it on to future generations free from war and violence makes Bavarian International School's logo particularly resonant.
In front of BIS's Golden Room  
In front of the Golden Room 
Daniel Barenboim performing in the Golden Room
Bavarian International School's Golden Room
Bavarian International School Golden Room 
Bavarian International School's 'Golden Room' today. This banqueting hall, with its ceiling painting of The Four Seasons by Bergmuller (dated 1750) and its two rare Nymphenburger porcelain stoves, forms the visual climax of the state apartments of schloss Haimhausen. 
The carriageway a centenary apart
Here's a link between Marlene Dietrich and Haimhausen! This picture shows Seyffertitz in the film "Dishonoured" in the centre with Dietrich on the left. Seyffertitz was the son of Countess Anna Clonebough Butler and her husband, Dr. Guido Freiherr von Seifferitz and grew up in our schloss. He worked as an actor, comedian, singer and director making him the "black sheep" of the family. He also acted alongside Ginger Rogers and Shirley Temple in "Change" in 1934 as well as small roles alongside Laurel and Hardy in "Swiss Miss" (where they try to man-handle a piano through the alps!) and John Barrymore in "Marie Antoinette." One of his last roles was in the comedy "Never Say Die," "Nurse Edith Cavell" about the martyred British nurse killed by the Germans during the Great War, and the last classic Frankenstein film for Universal, "Son of Frankenstein", all in 1939 the year the war broke out. Four years later he died on Christmas aged 81 at his home in California.
See: Reinhold Gruber: Haimhausen goes to Hollywood
The Israelites' Gathering of Manna on the ceiling
My classroom at Bavarian International School- a work in progress:
Bavarian International School
  Bavarian International School Bavarian International School
Bavarian International School Bavarian International School
The Schlossklause next to the Brauerei in front of Bavarian International School.
The  Schlossbrauerei during the Third Reich and today

The migrant centre visible in the background behind the BIS sign
Currently being constructed on the corn field next to the recycling centre directly across from our school is this refugee centre which will receive about 75 migrants to be accommodated in residential containers on the town outskirts between the recycling centre and the Amper river. 

A number of our students volunteer through our CAS programme at the Franziskuswerk Schönbrunn-  working with people with  physical and mental disabilities and at out- reach houses with those who are more independent. Schönbrunn belongs to the municipality Röhrmoos, but is a separate village with an unusual history. The village hosts a facility for people with disabilities; in the centre of the village is a small schloss which had been acquired in 1862 by an extraordinary woman: Countess Victoria Butler-Haimhausen.  Her aim was to create a home for old and dependent women and enable young women and girls through education and training.  To support this endeavour, she enlisted the help of a community of sisters from Munich, which later developed into the Congregation of the Franciscan Sisters of Schönbrunn.  
Photos by SS photographer Franz Bauer (known as Himmler's personal photographer) taken on 16 February 1934 of children at Schönbrunn suffering from Down's syndrome. From 1940 to 1945 a few hundred residents, mostly children and young people, were deemed lebensunwert ("unworthy of life") and killed. 
A recently inaugurated memorial at Schönbrunn located di­rectly to the south side of the church of St. Joseph con­sists of a stained glass cross be­hind which the names of the 546 chil­dren killed are listed. The names are in dif­fer­ent sizes and fonts to make the unique­ness of each per­son vis­i­ble, and every Jan­u­ary 27 the vic­tims of Na­tional So­cial­ism are commemorated.  
The building where such decisions were formulated is beside the current Israeli consulate on what had once been Adolf-Hitler-Strasse; the former Haus der Deutschen Ärzte at Brienner Straße 23:

After the war the second floor swastika and laurel wreath were removed and the stone plaque altered to read Haus der Muenchener Ärzte

 See separate entry for Bernstorf- The so-called German Troy

Located outside Dachau, this was where a labour camp for roughly 500 women were forced to work for the Todt organisation.

Krauss-Maffei Locomotive and Tank Factory
I took this unspectacular photo on the train to Dachau of the Krauss-Maffei Factory which produced various types of equipment for the Third Reich from 1937 such as locomotives, tanks, self-propelled artillery and sundry other armoured vehicles. It employed approx. 8,800 workers in 1942, among them approx. 3, 500 foreign forced labourers and 1,350 prisoners of war. By armament and hard labour the enterprise obtained high profits. Today Krauss-Maffei Wegmann GmbH and Co. KG continues to make armoured vehicles for Germany and other countries for which it remains Europe's market leader for armoured wheeled and tracked vehicles.
The Schlossanlage Schleißheim is located in the municipality Oberschleißheim in the district of Munich. It is a complex of three individual palace buildings of the 17th and 18th centuries, which are connected axially by a generous garden area. The area includes the west-facing Alte Schloss Schleißheim, the neighboring Neue Schloss Schleißheim and Lustheim Castle, which is located at the eastern end of the park. The building ensemble was built by the Bavarian Electors as a summer residence, but the complex remained unfinished. Schleißheim is one of the largest residences in the Munich area next to Nymphenburg Palace and is considered one of the most important Baroque sites in Germany. The palace complex is part of the Bavarian Administration of State Castles, Gardens and Lakes. All three castles and the park can be visited. In addition to the historical spatial sequences in the Old Castle changing exhibitions are shown, the castle Lustheim accommodates the Meissen porcelain collection Foundation Ernst Schneider. The New Castle serves as a baroque gallery of the Bavarian State Painting Collections. Map of the palace complex: in the west the old and the new castle, then the baroque garden and the Lustheimer island in the east The east-west-facing castle complex with its three main buildings and the park extends over more than a kilometer. The origin of Schleißheim's castles was a Schwaige acquired by Duke Wilhelm V of the Freising chapter in 1597 with a small chapel. From 1598 to 1600, the Duke had several outbuildings next to the farm, a simple mansion, and a few chapels built in the neighboring woods. 1616 took over his son, the future Elector Duke Maximilian I, the Schleißheimer good. He had the mansion of Schwaige replaced in the years 1617-1623 by today's Old Castle. Duke Maximilian's grandson Max Emanuel had the castle Lustheim built as a festive garden palace on the occasion of his wedding until 1688, some distance from the old castle building. In anticipation of the imperial crown, he also had from 1701 the New Castle design, which served as a residence after Versailles model and should accommodate a large court. The plans envisaged integrating the Old Palace in the planned as generous four-wing complex new building; However, the reduced designs could not be carried out for cost reasons, and so ultimately only the east wing of the planned plant was built. The huge torso of the new castle was rarely inhabited by the Wittelsbachs and was opened to the public in the 19th century as a museum palace. Garden façade of the Old Palace Old Palace, west view of the Wilhelmshof The Old Schleißheim Palace dates back to a simple manor house built in 1598 under Duke Wilhelm V (reigned 1579-1597) after his abdication in 1598, which formed the center of the extensive Schwaighof and called it Wilhelmbau has been. The modest facility near the Wittelsbach summer residence Schloss Dachau was to serve as a place of reflection and prayer for the Duke in his last years. Maximilian I (reigned 1597-1651), the son of Duke Wilhelm, had the building demolished in 1617 down to the cellar walls and instead built the present-day Old Palace. This unpaved area is typologically similar to the castle in Laufzorn, which was started by Maximilian's brother Albrecht the year before. There, too, a staircase leads up to the stately first floor. The late Renaissance style building, which was inspired by the Andrea Palladio villas, was completed in 1623. As executive builder probably Heinrich Schön the Elder was committed, Peter Candid performed numerous wall and ceiling paintings. In 1679 Maximilian's son and successor Elector Ferdinand Maria died (died 1651-1679) in the Old Palace. His son Max Emanuel took over the Schwaighof and planned to include the Old Castle in the extensive new construction of a Schleißheimer residence, the plans were never fully realized. After the construction of the New Palace, the older building was used less frequently. The large middle room served as Schleißheimer parish church from the 19th century. The Old Palace suffered heavy damage during the Second World War and was still in ruin for decades after the end of the war. A restoration took place from 1970, not all of the historic interiors were restored, but partly fed to a modern, museum use. Building [edit | Edit] The old Schleißheimer castle forms the starting point of an extensive court yard. West of the castle is the Maximilianshof, surrounded by residential tracts, which is separated from Wilhelmshof with its extensive commercial buildings by a cross-shaped cross building with a central clock tower. Only the clock tower dates from the first construction period. The Old Castle built in "Italian style" is a wide, plastered building with only one main floor on a cellar base. The building is divided by thirteen window axes, the middle section with the ballroom emerges as a risalit from the building. The entrance area is designed in the Palladian motif, the facades are sparingly decorated with renaissance decorative elements. The original spatial structure is preserved after the war destruction only in the southern half of the building. Particularly noteworthy is the Great Hall in the middle of the building, which today forms the foyer. Essentially, the stucco decoration of the former Wilhelmskapelle has been preserved. Collections [edit | Edit] Two exhibitions will be presented in the Old Palace, the Ecumenical Collection of Gertrud Weinhold "The Year of God and its Feasts", as well as the collection of regional studies of East and West Prussia, both branch museums of the Bavarian National Museum. The more than 6000 objects of the Weinhold Collection document the calendar feasts of the religious year and their customs, devotional materials and ritual objects in a worldwide comparison, while the collection of Prussia with 400 objects is dedicated to the history and culture of Prussia, beginning with proselytizing and colonization by the Teutonic Order to the products of the royal majolica and terracotta workshops in Cadinen and works by East Prussian artists such as Ernst Wichert, Max Halbe, Agnes Miegel and Lovis Corinth. Castle Lustheim [edit | Edit] History of the castle Schloss Lustheim - Western Front Ballroom of Schloss Lustheim Schloss Lustheim is located on the eastern edge of the Schleißheimer Park, just over a kilometer from the complex of the Old and New Castles. The building was built in 1684 on the occasion of the marriage of Elector Max Emanuel with the Austrian Emperor's daughter Maria Antonia in 1685. Lustheim served, as the name implies, as a pure pleasure and hunting lodge and was not permanently inhabited. The architect in charge of the building, built on the basis of the Italian villa suburbana, was Enrico Zuccalli. Building Lustheim Castle is located on a circular island and forms the point of the baroque Hofgarten as Point de vue. The floor plan of the castle is reminiscent of a stylized H, the central main building is followed by two wing-like Risalite. The brick-built and plastered building has two storeys, the central wing is surmounted by a belvedere, which allows a wide view of the surrounding landscape with the sight lines. The focal point of the castle is the large ballroom in the middle section, flanked on the side by the apartments of the Elector and the Elector. Upstairs there were simple rooms for the servants, the basement housed the castle kitchen and utility rooms. An art-historical fresco cycle in the ballroom and in the electoral apartments, executed by Francesco Rosa, Giovanni Trubillio, Antonio Maria Bernardi and Johann Anton Gumpp, depicts scenes from the myth of the hunting goddess Diana. After extensive renovation, Schloss Lustheim was established in 1971 as the first branch museum of the Bavarian National Museum. Since then, it houses the Meissen porcelain collection Foundation Ernst Schneider whose scope and importance is comparable only with the porcelain collection in the Dresden Zwinger. The presentation of over 2000 exquisite porcelains offers an insight into the impressive variety of products of the Meissen manufactory and theirs Collection [edit | Edit] After extensive renovation, Schloss Lustheim was established in 1971 as the first branch museum of the Bavarian National Museum. Since then, it houses the Meissen porcelain collection Foundation Ernst Schneider whose scope and importance is comparable only with the porcelain collection in the Dresden Zwinger. The presentation of the more than 2000 selected porcelains offers an insight into the impressive variety of products of the Meissen manufactory and their almost inexhaustible inventiveness in the first decades from its foundation in 1710 until the time of the Seven Years' War. The New Schloss Schleißheim was also built on behalf of the Elector Max Emanuel (reigned 1679-1726). At the turn of the eighteenth century, the Bavarian duke could hope for the imperial dignity and tried to underline his status with a residential building modeled on the French model. From 1696, the first plans for a summer residence of the Elector in Schleißheim were made. The monumental New Castle was built from 1701 to plans by Enrico Zuccalli, but the construction came to a halt in 1704 as a result of the Spanish War of Succession, the political goals of the Elector failed and he went into exile. The reconstruction of the construction work took place after Max Emanuel's return in 1715. It was not until 1719 that the façade and the interior decorations were executed according to plans by Joseph Effner. From the original intention, a four-winged Baroque residence including the Old Palace to build, had to be removed due to the precarious financial position of the builder and so was until the death of the Elector in 1726 - after several reductions of plans - only the main building completed. New castle with side wings Originally designed as a summer palace (only a few rooms have a fireplace) and new residence planned, the castle was only rarely inhabited due to the changeable fate of Max Emanuel; his successors preferred Nymphenburg Castle, which is closer to Munich. The son and successor of Max Emanuel, Karl Albrecht (reigned 1726-45), had only a few missing marble fireplaces, wall coverings and paneling and floor coverings complete, the grandson Maximilian III. Joseph (reigned 1745-77) had the Gardesaal expanded to the new dining room and was among other things in Ignaz Günther the richly carved portals in order. The Neue Schloss in Schleißheim, with its collection of paintings founded by Elector Max Emanuel, was made accessible to the public as a "gallery palace" at the beginning of the 19th century. By Leo von Klenze 1819 some changes were made to the facade, which should give the baroque building a more classical appearance; Among other things, he had the small gables above the Corps de Logis and the dwarf houses of the skylights removed. His classicist remodeling on the facades were not adopted during the reconstruction after the Second World War, the restoration was based on the original plans Effner. Between 1875 and 1879 Prince Otto was placed under surveillance in Schleißheim. The New Schloss Schleißheim is open to visitors today and can be visited. The garden facade of the New Castle The New Castle is a wide-ranging construction of more than 300 meters in length. The main building, the Corps de Logis, is divided on the garden side by 37 window axes, of which eleven axes fall on the central wing with the large staircase, the ballroom and the gallery. The thirteen-axis side tracts with Electoral dwellings adjoin the central tract articulated with colossal pilasters. The castle building is connected by seven arched arcades with two pavilions in the south and in the north, the southern one should serve as a guesthouse, the northern take up the pumping station for the water features. The central structure of the castle has three full floors, the side wings on two full, as well as a mezzanine and an attic floor. The upper floor of the central building is set back on the garden side, creating a large terrace there. This terrace is the result of a change in the designs after parts of the garden façade collapsed during construction due to insufficient foundations. Since the Baumangel could not be corrected without much effort, a complete three-storey extension of the garden facade was dispensed with, which makes it different from its courtyard-side counterpart. The monumental structure comprises a generous staircase that merges into the so-called White Hall and forms with it a Baroque spatial work of art, several ballrooms and the four parade apartments of the electoral pair and the couple of spa princes. Among other things, the apartments consist of an antechamber, the audience room, the parade bedroom and the grand cabinet. Artists like Charles Dubut, Jacopo Amigoni, Johann Baptist Zimmermann, Cosmas Damian Asam and Franz Joachim Beich contributed to the decor. The Red Cabinet (Hunting Room) in the Elector's Apartment, the Elector's Chamber Chapel and the Viktoriensaal are considered to be the most historically significant areas of art history. Of particular architectural significance is the Great Staircase Zuccallis. The staircases and pedestals lie within a high, wide hall, an idea which Balthasar Neumann later took up in the design of the castle staircases of Augustusburg in Brühl and the residence in Würzburg. The dome fresco by Cosmas Damian Asam depicts Venus in the forge of the volcano, where the weapons are made for her son Aeneas, who wears the features of Elector Max Emanuel. Between the wooden pillars of the dome in the room above the staircase stood the wind players who made music from here, when special festivities took place below. The hidden room itself is decorated with paintings, probably by Nikolaus Gottfried Stuber. [2] The staircase was completed only under King Ludwig I (reigned 1825-1848) using embedded original components by Leo von Klenze. The staircase leads to the white hall of the Great Hall, which extends over two storeys in the middle of the main building and is flooded with window light from both sides. The stucco is by Johann Baptist Zimmermann based on the designs of Joseph Effner. The colossal ceiling fresco by Jacopo Amigoni and two paintings on the narrow sides by Franz Joachim Beich depict the acts of war by Max Emanuel. Between 1703 and 1704, two monumental paintings were created that were firmly installed in the Great Hall of the castle. With a size of 5.10 × 9.69 m in size and a weight of about 1.5 t, the Relief of Vienna 1683 and The Battle of Mohács 1687 are the largest paintings in Bavarian state property (and probably the largest in Germany, which were not designed as a round painting). Also by Beich ten more battle scenes for Schloss Schleißheim were created in the adjoining the Great Hall Viktoriensaal 1720-1725, their richness of detail and the conscientiousness of Beich, who even visited the scenes of battles, make the paintings a valuable source of military knowledge. The sculpted Hercules Baths were designed by Robert de Cotte, the putti reliefs are by Dubut. For the layout of the Great Gallery on the garden side behind the Great Hall was also used Robert de Cotte. It has been restored to its original state as much as possible during recent renovations, even though its most significant masterpieces are now exhibited in the Alte Pinakothek. The six gilded console tables with their tabletops from Tegernsee marble are masterpieces of Munich court art under Elector Max Emanuel, who had them carved by the court sculptor Johann Adam Pichler for drafts by the Schleissheim palace architect Joseph Effner for the Great Gallery 1722-1725. In 1761 they were supplemented by another table pair. From the time of Max Emanuel's grandson Elector Maximilian III. Joseph also acquired the five monumental glass chandeliers, which are around 1.70 meters high and acquired in Vienna. The Maximilian Chapel or Great Chapel was built from 1720 to 1724. The chapel oratory on the upper floor was directly accessible from the Elector's master bedroom. The barrel vault of the chapel depicts the "Glory of St. Maximilian" by Cosmas Damian Asam, the marbled Tabernacle of the altar is from the workshop of Johann Adam Pichler. The original furnishing of the spatial sequences, if still present, is today for reasons of conservation largely stored or exhibited in the Munich Residence. The Flemish tapestries and tapestries that Max Emanuel had acquired during his governorship in the Spanish Netherlands were preserved. The unfinished palace complex [edit | Edit] The Schleißheim castle complex has remained unfinished. The ambitious plans of Elector Max Emanuel to build a large residence after Versailles model, had to be abandoned because of the associated financial difficulties. The designs for Lustheim Castle envisaged surrounding the building on a circular island with four gallery buildings built in a semicircle. [3] The buildings were to connect the buildings of the Schönen Stalls and the Renatuskapelle together with Schloss Lustheim to the ensemble of a large garden palace, in the circular buildings orangery, festival halls and guest rooms were planned. The project was only partially carried out and the circular buildings never completed. They were abandoned in the course of the 18th century and had to be demolished in 1741. Only the outer pavilions, artistically hardly less significant than the actual castle, remained intact. The New Palace was designed as a monumental, four-winged residence. [4] The present castle was planned as the main tract of the plant, which was to be connected via a northern and a southern side wing with the Old Castle. For the Old Palace and its courtyards a complete baroque transformation was planned, the current wing with the clock tower should be replaced by semicircular commercial buildings with a central triumphal arch. Schleißheim was called even for years in the vast hinterland only "the building", because even at the end still finished east wing of the New Palace due to the political complications of the Elector and lack of money for a long time remained unfinished. Also, the successors of Max Emanuel Schleißheim were only slightly interested, the heavy baroque construction was already in the Rococo as no longer "modern". Even if later only a few rooms were redesigned and finally many furnishings were removed, however, both the castle and the garden have been largely preserved in the original. Garden ground floor of the New Castle Central well system The large courtyard garden was designed by Dominique Girard, a pupil of André Le Nôtres, the basic structure of the area goes back to Enrico Zuccalli. The garden consists of several separate sections: the parterres with broderie beds in front of and behind the New Castle, the central axis as the absolute principle of order of the garden with the lateral bosquets, as well as the Lustheim island and a southern landscape area. The central axis was initially used as a lane for the popular at the court Paille Maille game, before the end of the 18th century, the Great Canal was created. The water has since formed the central element within the gardens. The Great Canal in the middle of the garden and the round ditch of Lustheim Island are connected to the Nymphenburg Castle Complex via the Nordmünchner canal system, a system of waterways. The Baroque garden has been largely preserved in its original form and was not, like many other castle gardens, transformed into a landscaped park during the 19th century. Next to the Großer Garten in Hannover-Herrenhausen, the Schleißheimer Park is regarded as the only baroque garden in Germany that still exists in its original basic structure, although its architectural decoration is today partly lost. Statue of Minerva by Giuseppe Volpini (1722/23) in the Hofgarten (northern side) Statue of Hercules, by Giuseppe Volpini (1717), in the Hofgarten (southern side) The northern pavilion At the transitions to Lustheim Island are two pavilions that form the remains of the unfinished circular buildings: the Renatus Chapel and the Beautiful Stable. They have been extensively restored in recent years, but are due to the salinization of the walls only limited access to the public. After ten years of renovation work, the Renatuskapelle, a major work of the Bavarian High Baroque, reopened in August 2005. [6] The small church, dedicated to St. Renatus, was built in 1688 by order of Elector Max Emanuel of Enrico Zuccalli. It replaced the old Renatus chapel, which was built by Duke Wilhelm V, and which in 1684 had to give way to the new building at Schloss Lustheim. The altarpiece of St. Renatus in front of the Madonna was created by Giovanni Trubillio, the dome fresco of the glory of St. Renatus Johann Anton Gumpp. The northern pavilion, known as the Beautiful Stable, was also built by Zuccalli following the Renatus Chapel. The ground floor consists of a large, completely frescoed hall, which at times served as a stable for noble riding horses. The wall frescoes are a fictional architecture with pilasters, window niches and statues, in the ceiling fresco with the deities Aurora, Apollo and Diana the times of the day morning, noon and evening are symbolized. The painting is attributed to Caspar Gottfried Stuber. In stark contrast to this is the stone pavement of the floor, which is typical for a horse stable, and which still retains the division into sixteen horse boxes. Since the renovation of the frescoes and the treatment of salinization are not yet completed, the hall can only be viewed in the summer months by a glass windscreen. Elector Max Emanuel had not only the intention to build a residence befitting his status, but also to connect his castles through a network of ways and channels and to present them - as an expression of absolutist power - at the center of their visual axes. Starting from the radially leading away from Lustheim Palace Allee, the northeastern visual axis pointed to the 20 km away Freisinger Domberg, the eastern along the Schleißheimer canal to about 6 km away tower of St. Katharina in Garching near Munich, the southeast to almost 8 km away parish church St. Valentin in Unterföhring, the southern on the Peterskirche in 12 km away Munich, the southwest on St. Peter and Paul in 5 km from Feldmoching in today's Munich district 24 Feldmoching-Hasenbergl, the western along the central axis of the park to the old or later to the New Castle and the northwest on St. Peter in Ampermoching. From the Old Castle goes a visual axis to the south on the Frauenkirche in Munich, which is also the end point of a visual axis of Schloss Fürstenried. Finally, the northern side canal has Dachau Castle as its destination. Of these visual axes, there are only the Schleißheimer canal, which is heavily overgrown by branches, the avenues and two forest roads that run radially from Schloss Lustheim, as well as the timberline of the Berglholz to Oberschleißheim, otherwise they are overgrown or blocked. Channel system [edit | Edit] View from the New Castle over the central canal to Lustheim Castle It is part of the Nordmünchner canal system. The Hofgarten is fed by the Würm and the Isar with water. Already Duke Wilhelm V. had his Schwaige supplied with water with the 1601 built old worm canal. In the Old Castle, the canal flows as Mühlbach north through the western part of the Wilhelmshof and its commercial buildings. A branch runs as Maschinenbach along the Effnerstraße by the Wilhelmshof and another branch crossed as Brunnbach the Maximilianshof and the surrounding residential buildings. After the construction of Lustheim Palace in 1687, Elector Max Emanuel had part of the water from the Würm Canal in the southern side canal along the Hofgarten along the east, in a semicircle around Schloss Lustheim and in the northern side canal back to the west. For the planned New Castle, the Schleißheimer Canal was built in 1689, with which Isarwasser was directed from the English Garden in Munich to the Hofgarten. In addition, in 1690/91 the Würm Canal was expanded and partially rebuilt. The Schleißheimer canal flows on the central axis coming from the east into the side canal surrounding Lustheim Castle. Immediately after the union of the two channels, part of the water is diverted to the inner ring canal around Schloss Lustheim. In addition, a pond is fed at the eastern end between the two channel rings, which should serve as a kind of docks for the court gondolas between the planned for Schloss Lustheim circular buildings. From the inner ring channel, the water flows through the central channel via the double cascade into the large basin in the eastern parterre, which is much lower than the side channels. Together with the water of the fountains it is drained underground and led under the northern side channel in northwest direction in the underground Isarbachl to the Gänsgraben. From the northern side canal, shortly before the New Castle, some water is released into the lower Berglbach. The New Castle provided water-driven pumps for the fountains. Brunnhaus over the Brunnbach In Brunnhaus, built only in 1867 by Carl von Effner north of the old castle, the side canal with a water wheel drove the pumps, with which water from the lower lying Brunnbach was passed via a pressure line to the fountains. The waterwheel and the pumps are still there, but today the fountains are powered by electric pumps. Immediately after the Brunnhaus was a lock, with which the boats could overcome the difference in height of 3 m to the 1691/92 Dachau-Schleißheimer canal. The lock has now been replaced by a long staircase, over which the water flows from the side channel, but the extended escape point in front of the lock chamber and the mouth of the machine creek are still present. The huge earthworks for these canal routes were carried out until the Peace of Karlowitz in 1699, partly by Turks captured by the Turks and then by troop units of the Munich garrison. The canals were used immediately after completion to load freight for the castle on the waterway; at the same time they were used for courtly rides, for which Venetian gondolieri were hired several times. In recent years, the Schleppjagdverein Bayern organized together with the Bavarian Equestrian and Driver's Association historic hunting and carriage galas in the park. Celebrities from politics, business and culture (about 1500 guests) meet at the annual summer festival of the Bavarian State Parliament. Each year, the Schleißheimer Schlosskonzerte takes place in the Great Hall. Film set [edit | Edit] In Schloss Schleißheim found shooting for the films Decision Before Dawn (1951) by Anatole Litvak, Paths of Glory (1957) by Stanley Kubrick, L'année dernière à Marienbad (dt .: Last year in Marienbad) (1961) by Alain Resnais and last The Three Musketeers (2011) by Paul WS Anderson with Orlando Bloom The castle was rebuilt after a fire in the Thirty Years' War in 1660 and has since expanded steadily. Under Count Karl Ferdinand Maria von and zu Haimhausen was from 1743 to 1749 a major reconstruction by François de Cuvilliés the Elder. Since then, the late-Baroque castle chapel Salvator Mundi with stucco work and altars by the Flemish artist Egid Verhelst and his sons as well as the ceiling painting by Johann Georg Bergmüller, which was made in 1750, represents a special jewel within the castle. At the end of the 18th century, the family and castle passed to the counts of Butler-Clonebough (later Butler-Haimhausen) through female succession. Viktorine von Butler-Haimhausen founded here in 1861 a poor girl house, but moved it in 1863 to Schönbrunn Palace. The last male heir of her line was childless and sold the property shortly before his death in 1892 to the - later ennobled - local industrialist family Haniel. Eduard James Haniel expertly refurbished the old Rococo palace by Prince Thurn und Taxis, Max Schultze, and converted it into an English country house. In 1997, the Bavarian International School bought the castle. Schloss Haimhausen is not open to the public to visit, but regularly take place in the castle chapel Protestant services. Organ [edit | Edit] The organ of the castle chapel was built in 1736 as organ positive by the organ builder Quirin Weber (Dachau) and is, with the exception of a register, original preserved. The organ prospectus was supplemented in 1750 by Rocaille carvings. The purely mechanical instrument has 8 manual registers (Covered 8 ', Gamba 8', Principal 4 ', Flute 4', Octav 2 ', Quint 11/3', Mixture III 1 ') and a Subbass 16' as Pedalregister.