Schleißheim

Oberschleißheim
It was through Geoff Walden's site Third Reich in Ruins that inspired my first trip through Germany in 2007, and in particular his section on Oberschleissheim in which he shows the following photograph of his father- 2nd Lt. Delbert R. Walden, who was stationed at the Oberschleissheim Airfield with the 344th Bomb Group in 1946 after it was occupied by the U.S. Army Air Forces in April 1945- posing "in front of the adjacent Schleissheim Palace (which had suffered bomb damage during the war)." His outstanding site built itself from the photos taken by his father whilst stationed in Germany as part of the Army of Occupation from December 1945 to July 1946.
Hitler visiting the airfield at Oberschleißheim, showing particular interest in the Udet U 12 Flamingo, an aerobatic sports plane and trainer aircraft developed in Germany in the mid-1920s. In February 1942 Hitler referred to his visit here in his Table Talk (273) when reminiscing about the chaos he found after the Great War:
I therefore went to Dachau with Goring. We had the impression we'd fallen into a bandits' lair. Their first concern was to ask us for the password. We were led into the presence of a woman. I remember her, for this was the first time I saw a woman with her hair dressed like a boy's. She was surrounded by a gang of individuals with gallows-birds' faces. This was Schäffer's wife. We drove the bargain, although not without my warning them that they wouldn't see the colour of my money until the weapons were in my possession. We also found, on the airfield at Schleissheim, thousands of rifles,mess-tins, haversacks, a pile of useless junk. But, after it had been repaired, there would be enough to equip a regiment.
schloss schleißheim
The schloß in 1933 and eighty years later. The New Palace was begun under Max Emanuel in 1701-1704 from designs by Henrico Zuccalli and completed from 1719 by Joseph Effner. Of the originally planned, monumental complex consisting of four wings, only the main wing was completed. The result is nevertheless an outstandingly beautiful Baroque palace. In 1912 the airfield beside the palace was built, which is the oldest active airfield in Germany. In the Second World War the air base was heavily bombed, which also led to considerable damage in the area and the schloß. The Altes schloß suffered severe damage during the war and was still in a ruinous state decades after the end of the war. A restoration took place from 1970 onwards, but not all of the historical interiors have been restored, but some of them have been modernised for museum use.
 
Before the war and today from the front and rear of the palace
 
Closer look at the damage

Kubrick's 'Paths of Glory' with Kirk Douglas was shot at Oberschleißheim, with the schloß serving as the French Army Headquarters. On the occasion of Douglas's hundredth birthday in 2016, the legendary actor spoke of what he described his “peculiar” friendship with Kubrick stating how “[h]e was a bastard! But he was a talented, talented guy.”  Their partnership began in 1955, when Douglas hired Kubrick to direct the film “Paths of Glory and it didn't take long for the two to begin clashing, a result of Kubrick having made major script rewrites without Douglas’ approval or knowledge. In the end, Douglas forced the director to use the original version.  “Difficult? [Kubrick] invented the word,” Douglas complained.
 
Considered one of the best anti-war films ever, it in fact only casually discusses the cruelty and futility of the war. An anti-militarist film, above all it is a bitter parable on governance structures and a commitment against the death penalty. With this film Kubrick achieved the final international breakthrough. Kubrick initially struggled to find a production company for the project until Kirk Douglas agreed to star in and produce the film with his own company Bryna and support from United Artists.
The film was made between March and May 1957 in the Bavaria Film Studios Geiselgasteig and here in Schloss Schleißheim with the battle scenes filmed in a field near Puchheim. It waas during the filming that Kubrick met his future third wife Susanne Christiane Harlan, who sings he German folk song The Faithful Hussar in the final scene. At first, scriptwriter Jim Thompson had developed a softer, positive ending in which General Broulard pardoned Dax at the last second and punished the three soldiers with only thirty days imprisonment instead of execution. Kirk Douglas and the third scriptwriter Calder Willingham convinced Kubrick, however, to give the film a negative and thus commercially less promising, but more credible end. The soldiers were supplied by 9, 733 conscripts who had been born in 1937. Although they could handle weapons, they sprang from the trenches far too cautiously and heroically.  On September 18, 1957, the film premiered in Munich.
Drake Winston standing in for Kirk Douglas
The court martial in the Great Hall (Grosser Saal) inside the Palace. In France, the film was seen as an attack on the honour of the French army; indeed, the film was not shown there until 1975. This despite the fact that the movie, based on the novel by Humphrey Cobb is based on a historical event when, on March 10, 1915, the soldiers of an already heavily decimated company had refused to climb out of their trenches again in a militarily hopeless situation and once again attack a heavily fortified German position in Souain in the Département Marne. The commanding French General Géraud François Gustave Réveilhac had then ordered his artillery to open fire on their own positions, which the responsible artillery commander Colonel Bérubéden refused. A week later, on March 16, 1915, four randomly selected corporals (the so-called Caporaux de Souain ) were sentenced to death in a day-long court martial for insubordination and shot the following day to make an example of them. In the cemetery of Sartilly there stands a monument to one of them, Théophile Maupas. This monument had been erected in 1925, even before the executed on March 3, 1934 were officially rehabilitated. In addition, the scandalous mutinies in the French army in 1917 form the historical and moral background for the novel.
Whilst the movie was never officially banned, as similar massive protests were expected from military personnel and, on the other hand, students demonstrating against the Algerian war, as in Belgium (which often led to performance stops in Brussels), no attempt was made by the distributor to submit it to the censorship authority. The title sequence of the film is underlaid at the beginning with the Marseillaise. However, when the French government protested against the use of the national anthem, it was replaced by percussion instruments in countries considered particularly Francophile. In the French sector of Berlin, the responsible city commander issued in June 1958 a performance ban. He also threatened to withdraw the French festival contributions from the Berlin International Film Festival if Paths of Glory were to be shown in West Berlin cinemas during the festival. Governing Mayor Willy Brandt publicly described this as a "step back to 1948". After appeals by the Berlin Senate, United Artists finally took the film from the festival programme. Provided with an embarrassing preface stating how the incidents shown in the film were not to be considered representative of the army or the people of France, the film was allowed to finally premiere in November in the French sector.
In this scene one can see how Kubrick often creates a harsh dichotomy between the misery on the front to the luxury of baroque castles. The narrowness of the trenches is in contrast to the vastness of old castles.  When shooting this scene Kubrick used high-key technology in which the lighting is surprisingly bright. On the checkerboard-like floor where the court martial is held, the actors act like playing pieces. In contrast the dark prison, filmed in the stable of the castle, was filmed with few bright hatches sharp contrasting contrasts.  The judgment of the judges in the procedure is left out, instead a black aperture appears. This same ballroom later transforms after the trial into the place where General Broulard, together with other high-ranking people, celebrates a splendid ballnight.  

The Großer Saal before and after the war, heavily damaged, and today with the wife. 
The room serves to glorify Max Emanuel as elector and victorious general against the Turks. On either side of the room are two paintings by Franz Joachim Beich showing the military exploits of Max Emanuel. The stucco decoration by Johann Baptist Zimmermann featuring draperies, weapons and trophies date from 1722. The ceiling is by Venetian Jacopo Amigoni showing the "Battle of Aeneas and Turnus for the hand of princess Lavinia" from which Aeneas emerges victorious- a metaphorical nod to Max Emanuel who too frequently found himself in exile. The room extends over two storeys in the middle of the main building and is flooded with window light from both sides. The stucco is by Johann Baptist Zimmermann based on the designs of Joseph Effner.
After its bombing and today

The colossal ceiling fresco by Jacopo Amigoni and two paintings on the narrow sides by Franz Joachim Beich depict the acts of war by Max Emanuel. Between 1703 and 1704, two monumental paintings were created that were firmly installed in the Great Hall of the castle. With a size of 5.10 x 9.69 metres in size and a weight of about 1.5 tonnes, the Relief of Vienna 1683 and The Battle of Mohács 1687 are the largest paintings in Bavarian state property (and probably the largest in Germany). Outside the world of art the Elector Max Emanuel of Bavaria has been the victim of consistently bad press and he is perhaps best known to the English-speaking world as the German princeling who backed the wrong horse and was soundly defeated at the Battle of Blenheim, the most famous victory of John Churchill, 1st duke of Marlborough, whose most notable descendant and biographer would of course be Sir Winston Churchill. This view of Emanuel is epitomised by the dismissive statement in the Encyclopaedia Britannica that he "had a restless character and was full of schemes which were of little benefit to his country." Nevertheless, throughout the schloss one can see Emanuel constantly being likened to Æneas and celebrated as a successful military commander over the Ottomans and the Allies during the War of Spanish Succession.


The room also served as the office of Christoph Waltz's Cardinal Richelieu in The Three Musketeers (2011) . 
Standing in the Viktoriensaal, adjacent to the Great Hall, looking towards Jacopo Amigoni's painting Max Emanuel Receiving the Turkish Ambassadors (1721-1722). The room's additional ten battle scenes of Max Emanuel during the Turkish Wars of 1683-88 by Beich were created between 1720-1725. Both their rich detail and Beich's conscientiousness- he even visited the scenes of battles- make the paintings a valuable source of military knowledge. Surrounding the room from above are sculpted Hercules busts designed by Robert de Cotte with putti reliefs by Dubut. Considered one of the most beautiful interior decorations of the Baroque period, its three narrow high wall cupboards, which are embedded in the eastern wall, used to contain Turkish flags captured at the time by the Elector. The Viktoriensaal also served as a dining room. Its ceiling fresco "Dido receives Aeneas" was also painted by Amigoni and shows Æneas exiled from burning Troy being received by Queen Dido of Carthage whilst in the sky Venus, accompanied by cupids, forges a love affair. It has been argued that Max Emanuel primarily commissioned these paintings as a means of whitewashing the political mistakes that he had made during the War of the Spanish Succession, instead strategically focusing his contemporaries' attention on his earlier conquests over the Turks and away from his former, scandalous alliance with the French, which had caused him to be banned from the Empire and forced him into exile in Belgium and France. Besides serving the Elector's propagandistic political aims, Amigoni's pictorial program equally expressed Max Emanuel's life-long dynastic goals of attaining Bavarian kingship and advancing the claims of the Wittelsbach House to the Imperial throne. Whilst the Elector's motivations in commissioning these paintings spoke to his own specific concerns, they broadly evolved alongside contemporary French and Austrian diplomatic relations with the Ottoman Empire.
The Great Gallery before the war and today, extensively renovated. The magnificent interior decoration was the work of well-known artists such as Johann Baptist Zimmermann, Cosmas Damian Asam and Jacopo Amigoni. The Gallery Rooms contain masterpieces from the European baroque era. For its 57 metre-long layout the garden side behind the Great Hall was also employed by Robert de Cotte. It has been restored to its original state as much as possible during recent renovations, although its most significant masterpieces are now exhibited in the Alte Pinakothek. The six gilded console tables with their tabletops from Tegernsee marble are masterpieces of the Munich court art under Elector Max Emanuel, who had them carved 1722-1725 by court sculptor Johann Adam Pichler to designs by the Schleißheimer palace architect Joseph Effner for the Great Gallery. In 1761 they were supplemented by another table pair. From the time of Max Emanuel's grandson Elector Maximilian III. Joseph also acquired the five monumental glass chandeliers, which are around 1.70 metres high, and have been acquired in Vienna.
 The wife above the main staircase, shown then and now. This is architecturally the most significant area of the schloß and owes its inspiration to Henrico Zuccalli who created a division of stairways and landings within a high wide hall, which was soon recognised as exemplary and which would inspire Balthasar Neumann when he designed the staircases for the palaces at Brühl and Würzburg.  The dome fresco by Cosmas Damian Asam shows the representation of Venus in the Forge of Vulcan, in which the weapons are made for her son Aeneas. Again, Aeneas in the baroque pose with periwig bears unmistakable traits of Elector Max Emanuel. This presentation was the first secular theme painted by the famous Bavarian fresco painter Asam and finds its thematic continuation in the ceiling paintings with scenes from the Trojan War (according to Virgil's "Æneid") in the neighbouring ballrooms. 
The movie also provided the setting for the enigmatic Last Year in Marienbad (1961) 

The movie won the Golden Lion at the 1961 Venice film festival whilst at the same time decried as an "aimless disaster" by Pauline Kael. It has been  included in both Michael Medved’s "The Fifty Worst Films of All Time (And How They Got That Way)" and Steven Shneider’s “1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die” which demonstrates how much the film has continued to divide contemporary critics and audiences. Schleissheim's castle and grounds helped create one of the most exquisite films of all time, fitting the opening monologue's description of the site which seems to foreshadow Kubrick's The Shining:
Silent rooms where one’s footsteps are absorbed by carpets so thick, so heavy, that no sound reaches one’s ear, as if the very ear of him walks on… once again along those corridors, through these salons and galleries in this edifice of a bygone era, this sprawling, sumptuous, baroque, gloomy hotel, where one endless corridor follows another, silent empty corridors, heavy with cold, dark woodwork, stucco, moulded panelling, marble, black mirrors, dark-toned portraits, columns, sculpted door-frames, rows of doorways, galleries, side corridors, that in turn lead to empty salons, salons heavy with ornamentation of a bygone era…as if the ground were still sand or gravel or flagstones over which I walked once again…as if in search of you between walls laden with woodwork…among which even then I was waiting for you…far from this setting in which I now find myself standing before you waiting for the man who will not be coming now, who is not likely to come now to part us again, to tear you away from me. Will you come?
The opening scene of Last Year in Marienbad begins with a scan of the ceiling of the vestibule- the Halle im Erdgeschoss. Later the room makes a reappearance, shown today with the wife.
 
The staircase as it appears in Last Year in Marienbad and with the wife today.
 
The room also provided the set for the film's hotel lobby 
 
The bedrooms of Karl VII and of the Electress Maria Amalia, wife of Elector Max III Joseph, known as the "Yellow Apartment."
New copies of the doors on both sides of the schloss now in place. The Western door on the left in particular, showing how much has been reworked since reconstruction  as the lion has since lost his sword and the facade has been considerably altered in style. In general the neoclassical facades intended by Leo von Klenze in his 1819 plans, intended to give the baroque building a more classical appearance, were not adopted during the reconstruction of the building after war but instead was based on the original plans by Effner. The doors, produced by Franz Ignaz Günther, had been weathered over two and a half centuries by wind and rain, leaving the reliefs to appear sanded down. A small putto even had nails in its cheeks because it had been repaired with small pieces of wood many years ago which led the Bavarian Palace Department to decide ten years ago to replace the Günther portals with copies at an eventual cost of about  € 140,000. Plans have been made to have it disassembled and replaced by copies by Oswald Senoner and his colleague Margaretha Binapfl using 3D scanning. This has led to ironic surprises. Firstly finding  suitable wood was difficult, as in order to rework the 450-kilogram door sections, oak wood was needed that was 70 centimetres wide, ten centimetres thick and four metres long. The restorers found what they were looking for in France but when the company's specialists worked the wood to get it into the shape of a door, they discovered a fragment of shrapnel was embedded in one piece; "a small revenge from the Ardennes campaign," according to project manager Heinrich Piening. At the moment the copies are in Nymphenburg Palace within the Restoration Centre's workshops.
How the grounds appeared in Paths of Glory, standing in as the French headquarters, with the schloss forming the backdrop for the execution of the French soldiers. Kubrick intended that this form of punishment in itself would be shown as inhumane. The execution scene itself is a combination of military rites with the biblical story of the crucifixion- past the press and the regiment, including officers standing in a trellis, the condemned go to the three execution stakes that symbolise the three crosses of Golgotha. In addition, the priest recites the Golgotha chant from the Bible (Luke xxiii.39-43). Kubrick positioned himself early against the death penalty with this film; until the 1970s films against the death penalty were very rare.
The Altes schloß before the war on the left and in April 1945 on the right. This building began in 1598 as a renaissance country house and hermitage founded by William V close to Dachau Palace. The central gate and clock tower between both courtyards still date back to the first building period. It was built in "Italian style" as a wide, plastered building with only one main floor on a basement floor and inspired by the Andrea Palladio villa. Completed by 1623, the building is divided by thirteen window axes, the middle section with the ballroom emerges as a risalit from the building.
1971 and today
The entrance area is designed in the Palladian motif, its facades sparingly decorated with renaissance decorative elements. The inner courtyard is called Maximilianshof, the outer one Wilhelmshof. Under William's son Maximilian I the buildings were extended between 1617 and 1623 by Heinrich Schön and Hans Krumpper to the so-called Old Palace. The rooms were decorated by Peter Candid. Maximilian's son and successor Ferdinand Maria died here in 1679. After heavy destruction in the Second World War the palace with its spacious buildings had been left in ruins for decades until a restoration took place in 1970. Not all of the historic interiors were restored, but enough to allow it use as a modern, museum use. The reconstruction as shown here was limited to the southern half of the building. Most of the stucco decoration of the chapel Wilhelmskapelle has been preserved although only its clock tower dates from the first construction period. Particularly noteworthy is the Great Hall in the middle of the building, which today forms the foyer. Essentially, the stucco decoration of the former Wilhelmskapelle has been preserved.
The canal with the Lustheim behind, then and now.
The Lustheim was built by Enrico Zuccalli as a garden villa in Italian style in 1684-1688 for Maximilian II Emanuel and his first wife, the Austrian princess Maria Antonia.  It lies on a circular island at the end of the baroque court garden. The interior is dominated by the large banqueting hall in the middle of the building. The frescoes were done by Johann Anton Gumpp, Francesco Rosa and Johann Andreas Trubillio.  Since 1968 the palace has housed a grand collection of Meissen porcelain, only outranged by the Porzellansammlung in the Zwinger, Dresden. The palace once formed the centre point of a semicircle of round buildings. Two pavilions still exist: To the south of Lustheim Place the Renatus Chapel was erected in 1686 by Zuccalli in a pavilion. The northern pavilion houses the decorated stable which was built for the favourite horses of Elector Max Emanuel. The baroque court garden, laid out by Dominique Girard and others, is still largely in its original form.
The Schlosswirtschaft (palace restaurant) on April 1, 1937 during the commemoration of the air field's 25th anniversary with high-ranking Nazi officials and, as I later found out by chance, as it appeared in Paths of Glory. The Schloßwirtschaft Oberschleißheim Biergarten is located on the palace grounds, with seating for over a thousand guests. Its roots can be traced back to 1597, when the founder of the Hofbräuhaus brewery retired to a farm there. Following the building of the New Schleissheim Palace in the 17th century, the Schloßwirtschaft provided catering to its workers and servants and later supported a royal brewery followed which, along with the introduction of a railway link to Landshut, allowed the Schloßwirtschaft to gain popularity. With the establishment of the airfield in 1912 the Schloßwirtschaft became a regular meeting place amongst pilots although the brewery itself has since closed.

Nearby in the same grounds is this memorial to downed airmen of the Great War. Military aviation was a completely new discipline during the First World War, and Schleißheim was its centre in Bavaria. When the Great War broke out in 1914, the first motorised human flight was just eleven years old. In 1912 the Kingdom of Bavaria had still retained an independent army and entered military aviation. A "Luftschiffer- and Kraftfahrabteilung" of the army was formed and stationed by order of the war Ministry of March 15, 1912 with a "flying company" in Schleißheim. The first biplane landed on extensive areas of the state-owned Remonte depot, a training centre for military horses, on April 16. Three tents and rebuilt buildings of the Remonte depot formed the nucleus of the airfield.  With Germany's mobilisation on August 1, Schleißheim found itself the only flier replacement section of the Bavarian Army with 44 officers, 52 NCOs and 239 men under the command of Hauptmann, later Major Friedrich Stempel. From the beginning of the war until the end of 1916, all flight personnel were trained here and all machines were serviced and sent to the front. From then until the end of the war, it remained the center and most important aviation location. As early as 7th August, the first three aviation departments, together with 16 aircraft, set off for Lorraine in support of infantry on the western front.  The aircraft were disassembled in their home companies, stowed on railroad cars and transported to the front, where they were reassembled and placed in tents. Maintenance and repair then took place again in the aviation replacement departments. Aircraft were intended in the war strategy 1914 exclusively for reconnaissance. A pilot and an observer stared out of the air or shot photos, which were then sent to the High Command for strategic planning. Only during the course of the war suitable armament systems were developed, and thus the discipline of fighter flying established, which now produced with the "Avenger Assen" a completely new type of modern war hero. One of the most famous, Ernst Udet, was incidentally by the Bavarian Fliegerkompanie in Schleißheim than rejected too small; he had to join the Prussian flyers. In Schleißheim 900 pilots and 735 observers were trained during the World War. In average three-month courses, the pilots were trained and certified after a cross-country flight of at least 250 kilometres to completion as front-compatible. The observers, who had to be qualified given their strategic tasks in contrast to the pilots in the officer rank, had initially only the camera to use, but later also the on-board weapon, usually a mounted on the fuselage machine gun.  As fast as the new war technology developed, the capacities in the flying company in Schleißheim had to keep pace feverishly. The first fortified building on the new airfield, a workshop building with guard and commandant, was built by 1913 and is now part of the German Museum. It included two wooden aircraft hangars. Even in peacetime, two team barracks, an officer's dorm, a pump house and a sewage treatment plant, a stable, a vehicle garage and two other aircraft hangars were built. By 1916, when the "Hindenburg Programme" expanded armaments and especially aviation exponentially, the strength of the Fliegerersatzabteilung in Schleißheim tripled. Gigantic expansion plans however were never fully implemented. The soldiers had to be quartered privately in the village; in inns, in the schoolhouse, and even in unused rooms of the castles. At the end of 1917, 245 officers were stationed in Schleißheim. In addition, 273 women provided auxiliary services as typists, travelling daily by train from Munich due to the lack of remaining accommodation in Schleissheim.  From mid-1916, six other flying schools were built in Bavaria, end of 1917, a second flyer replacement department in Fürth. Observer training was reserved exclusively for Schleißheim and the airfield was now listed as MilFlSch (Military Aviation School), FlBeobSch (Fliegerbeobachterschule), FlFuSch (Fliegerfunkerschule) and Libist (Lichtbildstelle).  The Observer School, the core of the Bavarian military flight training, received its own building on the west side of the Würm Canal in early 1917 with the increasing requirements imposed by the war. The showpiece was a state-of-the-art artillery and bomber classroom with a flight simulator, in which the flight attendants were able to practice shooting with on board machine guns. Crashes in and around the airfield were documented repeatedly.  The exhibition halls of the museum were built around the historic Kommandantur, the oldest surviving relic of the airfield from the time of the Royal Bavarian Air Force. At the end of the war Schleißheim served as a location of a free corps in the process of eradicating the Munich Soviet Republic. In the plans of the government for the construction of a Reichswehr of the German Reich Schleißheim received the status of a Reichswehr pilot station. On January 10, 1920 however, the Treaty of Versailles came into force, which demanded the complete demobilisation of the German Air Force. On May 8, 1920, the Bavarian Air Force was dissolved.  In Schleißheim airfield buildings were demolished or dismantled and delivered to France. The new shipyard, which was started in 1918 and was under construction until the end of the war, was completed, but then leased as a cattle shed following the ban of the Treaty of Versailles. Rudolf Hess was stationed here after the Great War, and his
army personnel file records that on 7 May he joined a volunteer unit of Epp’s Freikorps; left it on 15 October; was temporarily recruited by the local airfield at Schleissheim on 29 March 1920; flew an aeroplane to a Bavarian unit stationed in the Ruhr on 6 April; and finally resigned his commission in Munich on the last day of April 1920.
Irving (8) Hess- The Missing Years

The airfield during the war
After the Nazis came to power, it was expanded into a Luftwaffe air base in the course of the Nazis' armament efforts. The construction work was planned and supervised by the architects of the so-called post office building school. This architectural style, which was unusual for the Nazi era, is also known as "Bavarian Modernism". The flight control building, designed by Robert Vorhoelzer in 1933-34 and demolished in December 2007, was the archetype of this architectural direction in air force construction.  From 1938 the Schleißheim aviation school was built in the southern part of the airfield. The accommodation area of ​​the school was used from 1945 to about 1953 as the Schleissheim DP camp (Feldmoching). Under the code name Minotaur, a bunkered control center for day and night hunting in southern Germany was built in 1943. The bunker was blown up in 1971. 
From 1939 to 1946 there was a prisoner of war camp in the southeastern airfield area. French and later Soviet prisoners of war were initially housed here under air force supervision.  After the war, the USAAF used the airfield for their own, here with a Canadian de Havilland DHC-3. At first the Americans used the prisoner-of-war camp to intern former SS members. In the nearby Gut Hochmutting was a satellite camp of the Dachau concentration camp with eleven concentration camp prisoners from a bomb clearance command.

Nazi ceremony commemorating the airfield's 25th anniversary on April 1, 1937 and the following day on Heldengedenktag
USAAF on a bombing run over Oberschleißheim and on the right, the resulting damage

A short section devoted to my school- the Bavarian International School at schloss Haimhausen in kreis Dachau
Schloss Haimhausen then and now
Haimhausen
In 1281 schloss Haimhausen was listed as a castle (castrum) in a gazetteer of Upper Bavaria. It was destroyed in the Thirty Years War and rebuilt in 1660 as an ornate Baroque structure by Andreas Wolff.   In 1747 and ensuing years, Francois Cuvillies the Elder enlarged the villa by seven bays on each side and added two wings. The external form of the house, with the high roof typical of the region, has remained unchanged to this day. Cuvilliés was also responsible for such famous buildings as the Munich Residenz, the Residenz Theatre, the manor Amalienburg in the grounds of Schloss Nymphenburg, and rooms in Schloss Brühl, near Bonn. The ceiling murals in both the Golden Room and the Chapel were executed by the famous Augsburg artist, Johann Bergmüller in 1750. 
Haimhausen schloss became the property of the family Butler v. Clonebough (called Haimhausen), after having been awarded to the Irish officer Walther Butler (known as the "Wallenstein murderer") in thanks for his fulfilling a contract to deliver Wallenstein "dead or alive" on February 25, 1634. Friedrich Schiller immortalised Wallenstein in the dramatic trilogy that bears his name (completed in 1799).  He did not enjoy his success for long, passing away in 1635 after being wounded. The schloss was rebuilt in 1660 after a fire in the Thirty Years' War and has been expanded ever since. Under Reichsgraf Karl Ferdinand Maria von und zu Haimhausen, from 1743 to 1749 a major renovation was carried out by François de Cuvilliés the Elder. Since then, the late baroque chapel Salvator Mundi with stucco work and altars by the Flemish artist Egid Verhelst and his sons and the ceiling painting by Johann Georg Bergmüller, which was made in 1750, has been a special gem within the castle.
The property was then passed from generation up until Theobald, who had a close relationship to Count Stauffenberg, fled in March 1945 by carriage to Neubrandenburg to rescue his wife and three children from the advancing Russian troops, but was too late.  Supposedly he poisoned his wife, then his three children, then set his house in flames, and shot himself.  So ended the line of the Counts of v. Clonebough gen. Haimhausen on April 29, 1945.
Haimhausen war memorial
 The war memorial on the high street is flanked by two flag poles, neither of which can hoist either flag under which those commemorated died for.
Bavarian International School then and now
 During the turn of the century and as the Bavarian International School today
Showing the balcony erected in front of the chapel for owner Haniel's wife who had suffered an accident shown in 1939
 
Bavarian International School's chapel then and now. It owes its splendour to its ceiling painting, again by Bergmuller- the Salvator Mundi, dated 1750- as well as the delicate Rococo stucco work by Verhelst. 

Directly above is this fascinating representation of the return of Christ on the throne 0f the Trinity; the largest Salvator Mundi of its kind in which God holds the Flaming Sword of Judgement and has the left hand on the empty seat to his right whilst in the centre a kneeling Christ with the cross rises over a world in flames, depicting the four continents known at that time. But what makes this painting remarkable is the representation of the Holy Spirit in human form. This is expressly forbidden by the Catholic Church, as Pope Benedict XIV declared in October 1745 just before this painting was created, and and today is only permitted in the form of a dove. As a (Catholic) colleague remarked upon entering, "God is not present," noting the lack of a sanctuary lamp.
On the right is a close-up during the 650,000 euro renovation of the chapel completed in 2010.
 
An interesting touch on the ceiling is the expulsion from Paradise, showing Adam and Eve being followed by a dog and snake hopping along, and at the other end above the altar Christ on the Mount of Olives, with the snake making a reappearance with apple in mouth.
1949 photos of the thousands of books from the Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek that were stored for safety in the Haimhauser Schlosskapelle in today's Bavarian International School during the Second World War. 
During the 1944 bombing, the library's collection was distributed throughout 28 sites in Oberbayern.
Moving the books postwar from today's Bavarian International School
Moving the books postwar back to the Staatsbibliothek on Ludwigstraße showing the necessity for having relocated its collection. Between 1949 and 1975 the Schloss was used by the Bavarian Legal Aid School and later the Munich Police Academy. Between 1976 and 1986 the International Antiques Salon occupied all rooms with its period exhibits.
   
The role the schloss played in preserving our shared past and passing it on to future generations free from war and violence makes Bavarian International School's logo particularly resonant. In 1944 the Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek was bombed along with most of Munich’s centre. Fortunately, just before, it had distributed its collection of books to 28 different sites around Oberbayern. One of those sites was our Schloss chapel used today in the service of our students.  I always felt it rather touching to think that the logo was a representation of this- that something vital and profound was preserved for future generations even after this country’s darkest period when none knew what would be left at null stunde when there was nothing left to believe in. And there it is- our Schloss, like Pandora’s box in stone, from which a single book is presented in hope and expectation to inspire success.  What a lovely proud logo that was- it couldn’t have been designed for any other school on earth. Sadly, it was decided to replace it, at considerable expense, with a thoughtless logo that any Grade 6 child could have designed in a single lesson. Fortunately the outcry was great enough that the old logo returned, albeit with the Mussoliniesque motto "Believe, Inspire, Succeed."
In front of BIS's Golden Room

In front of the Golden Room  and inside today.  
This banqueting hall, with its ceiling painting of The Four Seasons by Bergmuller (dated 1750) and its two rare Nymphenburger porcelain stoves, forms the visual climax of the state apartments of schloss Haimhausen.
  
Daniel Barenboim performing in the Golden Room
 
The carriageway a centenary apart

Here's a link between Marlene Dietrich and Haimhausen! This picture shows Seyffertitz in the film "Dishonoured" in the centre with Dietrich on the left. Seyffertitz was the son of Countess Anna Clonebough Butler and her husband, Dr. Guido Freiherr von Seifferitz and grew up in our schloss. He worked as an actor, comedian, singer and director making him the "black sheep" of the family. He also acted alongside Ginger Rogers and Shirley Temple in "Change" in 1934 as well as small roles alongside Laurel and Hardy in "Swiss Miss" (where they try to man-handle a piano through the alps!) and John Barrymore in "Marie Antoinette." One of his last roles was in the comedy "Never Say Die," "Nurse Edith Cavell" about the martyred British nurse killed by the Germans during the Great War, and the last classic Frankenstein film for Universal, "Son of Frankenstein", all in 1939 the year the war broke out. Four years later he died on Christmas aged 81 at his home in California.
See: Reinhold Gruber: Haimhausen goes to Hollywood
The great German director Werner Herzog speaking to our students on Spetember 11, 2015.
A dozen reasons for why I was particularly deeply honoured by his presence:
 
The Israelites' Gathering of Manna on the ceiling. A reference to Exodus XVI (and possibly supplemented through Josephus’s Jewish Antiquities III), it relates the story of the Israelites travelling en masse across the desert after having left Egypt and crossing the Red Sea when, famished, they were miraculously provided with water, quails, the fine, white manna which covered the ground like a heavy frost. Although manna was lifesaving, it was also an ordeal, because the Israelites were given strict instructions as to how they were to obtain and use it. If they failed to follow those instructions, then they would go without. The Israelites thus had to put total trust in God, and be completely obedient.  Manna fell overnight, and had to be collected from the ground the following day.  The Israelites quickly accepted these rules, the manna fell reliably, apparently sufficient to keep them alive and well for the forty years they spent in the wilderness, and they put their trust in Moses, Aaron, and of course God.  The fall of manna also has potential metaphorical interpretations. Apparently its distribution and the effort needed to collect the manna varied considerably, suggesting that it might be a symbol for the God-given ‘talents’ of individuals, and for life more generally. Thus it can be seen as an indication of the need for individuals to accept what they are given, rather than always wishing for more or better.
My classroom at Bavarian International School- a work in progress:
Bavarian International School
  Bavarian International School Bavarian International School
Having the honour of welcoming Mr. Bill Glied to my school January 28, 2013. In April 1944, he was deported with his family to Auschwitz-Birkenau from his home in Serbia. In June that year he was transferred to the Dachau concentration camp where he worked as a slave labourer. He was liberated by the Americans on April 29, 1945 and moved to the Dominion of Canada as an orphan in 1947 where he married an Hungarian Holocaust survivor. He would regular talks to schools; in fact, he recently spoke to his grandson Josh’s Grade 9 class in Ontario. Recently he testified at the trial of former ϟϟ sergeant Oskar Gröning, the so-called 'Bookkeeper from Auschwitz,' who helped keep guard as thousands of Jews were led to the gas chambers at Auschwitz.

The Schlossbrauerei next to our school during the Third Reich and today. Founded in 1608 when Duke Maximilian I granted Theodor Viepeckh the right to build a brewery in Haimhausen. The building was demolished around 1750 because it had become dilapidated due to war and neglect. Karl Ferdinand von Haimhausen rebuilt it in he 18th century on the site that still exists today. Under Theobald Sigmund Butler, the brewery became a worry again because he had previously invested heavily in new brewery technologies and was running out of money. The brewery only experienced an upswing again with Theobald Graf Butler-Haimhausen. After years of good economic development, he sold it in 1890 to the Haniel family. The brewery has remained in the family since, however after 400 years, it ceased production at the end of 2019 owing to the drop in sales in addition to the increased costs due to the oversized operating space as well as the ancient building and machinery. After no investor was found to invest in the brewery, the municipality is now trying to ensure that the site does not degenerate into a disused industrial building, especially as large parts of the company are under monument protection.

Schönbrunn
Schönbrunn
At the end of the 18th century, the schloss passed to the Counts of Butler-Clonebough (later Butler-Haimhausen) through female succession. Viktorine von Butler-Haimhausen founded a poor girl's house here in 1861, but moved it to Schönbrunn Palace in 1863. A number of our students volunteer through our CAS programme at the Franziskuswerk Schönbrunn-  working with people with  physical and mental disabilities and at out- reach houses with those who are more independent. Schönbrunn belongs to the municipality Röhrmoos, but is a separate village with an unusual history. The village hosts a facility for people with disabilities; in the centre of the village is a small schloss which had been acquired in 1862 by an extraordinary woman: Countess Victoria Butler-Haimhausen. Her aim was to create a home for old and dependent women and enable young women and girls through education and training.  To support this endeavour, she enlisted the help of a community of sisters from Munich, which later developed into the Congregation of the Franciscan Sisters of Schönbrunn. 
Photos by SS photographer Franz Bauer (known as Himmler's personal photographer) taken on 16 February 1934 of children at Schönbrunn suffering from Down's syndrome. From 1940 to 1945 a few hundred residents, mostly children and young people, were deemed lebensunwert ("unworthy of life") and killed. 
A recently inaugurated memorial at Schönbrunn located di­rectly to the south side of the church of St. Joseph con­sists of a stained glass cross be­hind which the names of the 546 chil­dren killed are listed. The names are in dif­fer­ent sizes and fonts to make the unique­ness of each per­son vis­i­ble, and every Jan­u­ary 27 the vic­tims of the Na­zis are commemorated.