Schleißheim

Oberschleißheim
It was through Geoff Walden's site Third Reich in Ruins that inspired my first trip through Germany in 2007, and in particular his section on Oberschleissheim in which he shows the following photograph of his father- 2nd Lt. Delbert R. Walden, who was stationed at the Oberschleissheim Airfield with the 344th Bomb Group in 1946 after it was occupied by the U.S. Army Air Forces in April 1945- posing "in front of the adjacent Schleissheim Palace (which had suffered bomb damage during the war)." His outstanding site built itself from the photos taken by his father whilst stationed in Germany as part of the Army of Occupation from December 1945 to July 1946.
Hitler visiting the airfield at Oberschleißheim, showing particular interest in the Udet U 12 Flamingo, an aerobatic sports plane and trainer aircraft developed in Germany in the mid-1920s. In February 1942 Hitler referred to his visit here in his Table Talk (273) when reminiscing about the chaos he found after the Great War:
I therefore went to Dachau with Goring. We had the impression we'd fallen into a bandits' lair. Their first concern was to ask us for the password. We were led into the presence of a woman. I remember her, for this was the first time I saw a woman with her hair dressed like a boy's. She was surrounded by a gang of individuals with gallows-birds' faces. This was Schäffer's wife. We drove the bargain, although not without my warning them that they wouldn't see the colour of my money until the weapons were in my possession. We also found, on the airfield at Schleissheim, thousands of rifles,mess-tins, haversacks, a pile of useless junk. But, after it had been repaired, there would be enough to equip a regiment.
 
Before the war and today from the front and rear of the palace. In the Second World War the air base was heavily bombed, which also led to considerable damage in the area and the schloß. The Altes schloß suffered severe damage during the war and was still in a ruinous state decades after the end of the war. A restoration took place from 1970 onwards, but not all of the historical interiors have been restored, but some of them have been modernised for museum use.
 
Closer look at the damage

Kubrick's 'Paths of Glory' with Kirk Douglas was shot at Oberschleißheim, with the schloß serving as the French Army Headquarters. On the occasion of Douglas's hundredth birthday in 2016, the legendary actor spoke of what he described his “peculiar” friendship with Kubrick stating how “[h]e was a bastard! But he was a talented, talented guy.”  Their partnership began in 1955, when Douglas hired Kubrick to direct the film “Paths of Glory and it didn't take long for the two to begin clashing, a result of Kubrick having made major script rewrites without Douglas’ approval or knowledge. In the end, Douglas forced the director to use the original version.  “Difficult? [Kubrick] invented the word,” Douglas complained.
 
Considered one of the best anti-war films ever, it in fact only casually discusses the cruelty and futility of the war. An anti-militarist film, above all it is a bitter parable on governance structures and a commitment against the death penalty. With this film Kubrick achieved the final international breakthrough. Kubrick initially struggled to find a production company for the project until Kirk Douglas agreed to star in and produce the film with his own company Bryna and support from United Artists.
The film was made between March and May 1957 in the Bavaria Film Studios Geiselgasteig and here in Schloss Schleißheim with the battle scenes filmed in a field near Puchheim. It waas during the filming that Kubrick met his future third wife Susanne Christiane Harlan, who sings he German folk song The Faithful Hussar in the final scene. At first, scriptwriter Jim Thompson had developed a softer, positive ending in which General Broulard pardoned Dax at the last second and punished the three soldiers with only thirty days imprisonment instead of execution. Kirk Douglas and the third scriptwriter Calder Willingham convinced Kubrick, however, to give the film a negative and thus commercially less promising, but more credible end. The soldiers were supplied by 9, 733 conscripts who had been born in 1937. Although they could handle weapons, they sprang from the trenches far too cautiously and heroically.  On September 18, 1957, the film premiered in Munich.
Drake Winston standing in for Kirk Douglas
The court martial in the Great Hall (Grosser Saal) inside the Palace. In France, the film was seen as an attack on the honour of the French army; indeed, the film was not shown there until 1975. This despite the fact that the movie, based on the novel by Humphrey Cobb is based on a historical event when, on March 10, 1915, the soldiers of an already heavily decimated company had refused to climb out of their trenches again in a militarily hopeless situation and once again attack a heavily fortified German position in Souain in the Département Marne. The commanding French General Géraud François Gustave Réveilhac had then ordered his artillery to open fire on their own positions, which the responsible artillery commander Colonel Bérubéden refused. A week later, on March 16, 1915, four randomly selected corporals (the so-called Caporaux de Souain ) were sentenced to death in a day-long court martial for insubordination and shot the following day to make an example of them. In the cemetery of Sartilly there stands a monument to one of them, Théophile Maupas. This monument had been erected in 1925, even before the executed on March 3, 1934 were officially rehabilitated. In addition, the scandalous mutinies in the French army in 1917 form the historical and moral background for the novel.
Whilst the movie was never officially banned, as similar massive protests were expected from military personnel and, on the other hand, students demonstrating against the Algerian war, as in Belgium (which often led to performance stops in Brussels), no attempt was made by the distributor to submit it to the censorship authority. The title sequence of the film is underlaid at the beginning with the Marseillaise. However, when the French government protested against the use of the national anthem, it was replaced by percussion instruments in countries considered particularly Francophile. In the French sector of Berlin, the responsible city commander issued in June 1958 a performance ban. He also threatened to withdraw the French festival contributions from the Berlin International Film Festival if Paths of Glory were to be shown in West Berlin cinemas during the festival. Governing Mayor Willy Brandt publicly described this as a "step back to 1948". After appeals by the Berlin Senate, United Artists finally took the film from the festival programme. Provided with an embarrassing preface stating how the incidents shown in the film were not to be considered representative of the army or the people of France, the film was allowed to finally premiere in November in the French sector.
In this scene one can see how Kubrick often creates a harsh dichotomy between the misery on the front to the luxury of baroque castles. The narrowness of the trenches is in contrast to the vastness of old castles.  When shooting this scene Kubrick used high-key technology in which the lighting is surprisingly bright. On the checkerboard-like floor where the court martial is held, the actors act like playing pieces. In contrast the dark prison, filmed in the stable of the castle, was filmed with few bright hatches sharp contrasting contrasts.  The judgment of the judges in the procedure is left out, instead a black aperture appears. This same ballroom later transforms after the trial into the place where General Broulard, together with other high-ranking people, celebrates a splendid ballnight.  

The Großer Saal before and after the war, heavily damaged, and today with the wife. 
The room serves to glorify Max Emanuel as elector and victorious general against the Turks. On either side of the room are two paintings by Franz Joachim Beich showing the military exploits of Max Emanuel. The stucco decoration by Johann Baptist Zimmermann featuring draperies, weapons and trophies date from 1722. The ceiling is by Venetian Jacopo Amigoni showing the "Battle of Aeneas and Turnus for the hand of princess Lavinia" from which Aeneas emerges victorious- a metaphorical nod to Max Emanuel who too frequently found himself in exile. The room extends over two storeys in the middle of the main building and is flooded with window light from both sides. The stucco is by Johann Baptist Zimmermann based on the designs of Joseph Effner.
After its bombing and today


The colossal ceiling fresco by Jacopo Amigoni and two paintings on the narrow sides by Franz Joachim Beich depict the acts of war by Max Emanuel. Between 1703 and 1704, two monumental paintings were created that were firmly installed in the Great Hall of the castle. With a size of 5.10 x 9.69 metres in size and a weight of about 1.5 tonnes, the Relief of Vienna 1683 and The Battle of Mohács 1687 are the largest paintings in Bavarian state property (and probably the largest in Germany). Outside the world of art the Elector Max Emanuel of Bavaria has been the victim of consistently bad press and he is perhaps best known to the English-speaking world as the German princeling who backed the wrong horse and was soundly defeated at the Battle of Blenheim, the most famous victory of John Churchill, 1st duke of Marlborough, whose most notable descendant and biographer would of course be Sir Winston Churchill. This view of Emanuel is epitomised by the dismissive statement in the Encyclopaedia Britannica that he "had a restless character and was full of schemes which were of little benefit to his country." Nevertheless, throughout the schloss one can see Emanuel constantly being likened to Æneas and celebrated as a successful military commander over the Ottomans and the Allies during the War of Spanish Succession.




The room also served as the office of Christoph Waltz's Cardinal Richelieu in The Three Musketeers (2011) . 
Standing in the Viktoriensaal, adjacent to the Great Hall, looking towards Jacopo Amigoni's painting Max Emanuel Receiving the Turkish Ambassadors (1721-1722). The room's additional ten battle scenes of Max Emanuel during the Turkish Wars of 1683-88 by Beich were created between 1720-1725. Both their rich detail and Beich's conscientiousness- he even visited the scenes of battles- make the paintings a valuable source of military knowledge. Surrounding the room from above are sculpted Hercules busts designed by Robert de Cotte with putti reliefs by Dubut. Considered one of the most beautiful interior decorations of the Baroque period, its three narrow high wall cupboards, which are embedded in the eastern wall, used to contain Turkish flags captured at the time by the Elector. The Viktoriensaal also served as a dining room. Its ceiling fresco "Dido receives Aeneas" was also painted by Amigoni and shows Æneas exiled from burning Troy being received by Queen Dido of Carthage whilst in the sky Venus, accompanied by cupids, forges a love affair. It has been argued that Max Emanuel primarily commissioned these paintings as a means of whitewashing the political mistakes that he had made during the War of the Spanish Succession, instead strategically focusing his contemporaries' attention on his earlier conquests over the Turks and away from his former, scandalous alliance with the French, which had caused him to be banned from the Empire and forced him into exile in Belgium and France. Besides serving the Elector's propagandistic political aims, Amigoni's pictorial program equally expressed Max Emanuel's life-long dynastic goals of attaining Bavarian kingship and advancing the claims of the Wittelsbach House to the Imperial throne. Whilst the Elector's motivations in commissioning these paintings spoke to his own specific concerns, they broadly evolved alongside contemporary French and Austrian diplomatic relations with the Ottoman Empire.
The Great Gallery before the war and today, extensively renovated. The magnificent interior decoration was the work of well-known artists such as Johann Baptist Zimmermann, Cosmas Damian Asam and Jacopo Amigoni. The Gallery Rooms contain masterpieces from the European baroque era. For its 57 metre-long layout the garden side behind the Great Hall was also employed by Robert de Cotte. It has been restored to its original state as much as possible during recent renovations, although its most significant masterpieces are now exhibited in the Alte Pinakothek. The six gilded console tables with their tabletops from Tegernsee marble are masterpieces of the Munich court art under Elector Max Emanuel, who had them carved 1722-1725 by court sculptor Johann Adam Pichler to designs by the Schleißheimer palace architect Joseph Effner for the Great Gallery. In 1761 they were supplemented by another table pair. From the time of Max Emanuel's grandson Elector Maximilian III. Joseph also acquired the five monumental glass chandeliers, which are around 1.70 metres high, and have been acquired in Vienna.
 The wife above the main staircase, shown then and now. This is architecturally the most significant area of the schloß and owes its inspiration to Henrico Zuccalli who created a division of stairways and landings within a high wide hall, which was soon recognised as exemplary and which would inspire Balthasar Neumann when he designed the staircases for the palaces at Brühl and Würzburg.  The dome fresco by Cosmas Damian Asam shows the representation of Venus in the Forge of Vulcan, in which the weapons are made for her son Aeneas. Again, Aeneas in the baroque pose with periwig bears unmistakable traits of Elector Max Emanuel. This presentation was the first secular theme painted by the famous Bavarian fresco painter Asam and finds its thematic continuation in the ceiling paintings with scenes from the Trojan War (according to Virgil's "Æneid") in the neighbouring ballrooms. 
The movie also provided the setting for the enigmatic Last Year in Marienbad (1961) 

The movie won the Golden Lion at the 1961 Venice film festival whilst at the same time decried as an "aimless disaster" by Pauline Kael. It has been  included in both Michael Medved’s "The Fifty Worst Films of All Time (And How They Got That Way)" and Steven Shneider’s “1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die” which demonstrates how much the film has continued to divide contemporary critics and audiences. Schleissheim's castle and grounds helped create one of the most exquisite films of all time, fitting the opening monologue's description of the site which seems to foreshadow Kubrick's The Shining:
Silent rooms where one’s footsteps are absorbed by carpets so thick, so heavy, that no sound reaches one’s ear, as if the very ear of him walks on… once again along those corridors, through these salons and galleries in this edifice of a bygone era, this sprawling, sumptuous, baroque, gloomy hotel, where one endless corridor follows another, silent empty corridors, heavy with cold, dark woodwork, stucco, moulded panelling, marble, black mirrors, dark-toned portraits, columns, sculpted door-frames, rows of doorways, galleries, side corridors, that in turn lead to empty salons, salons heavy with ornamentation of a bygone era…as if the ground were still sand or gravel or flagstones over which I walked once again…as if in search of you between walls laden with woodwork…among which even then I was waiting for you…far from this setting in which I now find myself standing before you waiting for the man who will not be coming now, who is not likely to come now to part us again, to tear you away from me. Will you come?
The opening scene of Last Year in Marienbad begins with a scan of the ceiling of the vestibule- the Halle im Erdgeschoss. Later the room makes a reappearance, shown today with the wife.
 
The staircase as it appears in Last Year in Marienbad and with the wife today.
 
The room also provided the set for the film's hotel lobby 
 
The bedrooms of Karl VII and of the Electress Maria Amalia, wife of Elector Max III Joseph, known as the "Yellow Apartment."
New copies of the doors on both sides of the schloss now in place. The Western door on the left in particular, showing how much has been reworked since reconstruction  as the lion has since lost his sword and the facade has been considerably altered in style. In general the neoclassical facades intended by Leo von Klenze in his 1819 plans, intended to give the baroque building a more classical appearance, were not adopted during the reconstruction of the building after war but instead was based on the original plans by Effner. The doors, produced by Franz Ignaz Günther, had been weathered over two and a half centuries by wind and rain, leaving the reliefs to appear sanded down. A small putto even had nails in its cheeks because it had been repaired with small pieces of wood many years ago which led the Bavarian Palace Department to decide ten years ago to replace the Günther portals with copies at an eventual cost of about  € 140,000. Plans have been made to have it disassembled and replaced by copies by Oswald Senoner and his colleague Margaretha Binapfl using 3D scanning. This has led to ironic surprises. Firstly finding  suitable wood was difficult, as in order to rework the 450-kilogram door sections, oak wood was needed that was 70 centimetres wide, ten centimetres thick and four metres long. The restorers found what they were looking for in France but when the company's specialists worked the wood to get it into the shape of a door, they discovered a fragment of shrapnel was embedded in one piece; "a small revenge from the Ardennes campaign," according to project manager Heinrich Piening. At the moment the copies are in Nymphenburg Palace within the Restoration Centre's workshops.
How the grounds appeared in Paths of Glory, standing in as the French headquarters, with the schloss forming the backdrop for the execution of the French soldiers. Kubrick intended that this form of punishment in itself would be shown as inhumane. The execution scene itself is a combination of military rites with the biblical story of the crucifixion- past the press and the regiment, including officers standing in a trellis, the condemned go to the three execution stakes that symbolise the three crosses of Golgotha. In addition, the priest recites the Golgotha chant from the Bible (Luke xxiii.39-43). Kubrick positioned himself early against the death penalty with this film; until the 1970s films against the death penalty were very rare.
The Altes schloß before the war on the left and in April 1945 on the right. This building began in 1598 as a renaissance country house and hermitage founded by William V close to Dachau Palace. The central gate and clock tower between both courtyards still date back to the first building period. It was built in "Italian style" as a wide, plastered building with only one main floor on a basement floor and inspired by the Andrea Palladio villa. Completed by 1623, the building is divided by thirteen window axes, the middle section with the ballroom emerges as a risalit from the building.
1971 and today
The entrance area is designed in the Palladian motif, its facades sparingly decorated with renaissance decorative elements. The inner courtyard is called Maximilianshof, the outer one Wilhelmshof. Under William's son Maximilian I the buildings were extended between 1617 and 1623 by Heinrich Schön and Hans Krumpper to the so-called Old Palace. The rooms were decorated by Peter Candid. Maximilian's son and successor Ferdinand Maria died here in 1679. After heavy destruction in the Second World War the palace with its spacious buildings had been left in ruins for decades until a restoration took place in 1970. Not all of the historic interiors were restored, but enough to allow it use as a modern, museum use. The reconstruction as shown here was limited to the southern half of the building. Most of the stucco decoration of the chapel Wilhelmskapelle has been preserved although only its clock tower dates from the first construction period. Particularly noteworthy is the Great Hall in the middle of the building, which today forms the foyer. Essentially, the stucco decoration of the former Wilhelmskapelle has been preserved.
The canal with the Lustheim behind, then and now.
The Lustheim was built by Enrico Zuccalli as a garden villa in Italian style in 1684-1688 for Maximilian II Emanuel and his first wife, the Austrian princess Maria Antonia.  It lies on a circular island at the end of the baroque court garden. The interior is dominated by the large banqueting hall in the middle of the building. The frescoes were done by Johann Anton Gumpp, Francesco Rosa and Johann Andreas Trubillio.  Since 1968 the palace has housed a grand collection of Meissen porcelain, only outranged by the Porzellansammlung in the Zwinger, Dresden. The palace once formed the centre point of a semicircle of round buildings. Two pavilions still exist: To the south of Lustheim Place the Renatus Chapel was erected in 1686 by Zuccalli in a pavilion. The northern pavilion houses the decorated stable which was built for the favourite horses of Elector Max Emanuel. The baroque court garden, laid out by Dominique Girard and others, is still largely in its original form.
The Schlosswirtschaft (palace restaurant) on April 1, 1937 during the commemoration of the air field's 25th anniversary with high-ranking Nazi officials and, as I later found out by chance, as it appeared in Paths of Glory. The Schloßwirtschaft Oberschleißheim Biergarten is located on the palace grounds, with seating for over a thousand guests. Its roots can be traced back to 1597, when the founder of the Hofbräuhaus brewery retired to a farm there. Following the building of the New Schleissheim Palace in the 17th century, the Schloßwirtschaft provided catering to its workers and servants and later supported a royal brewery followed which, along with the introduction of a railway link to Landshut, allowed the Schloßwirtschaft to gain popularity. With the establishment of the airfield in 1912 the Schloßwirtschaft became a regular meeting place amongst pilots although the brewery itself has since closed.

Nearby in the same grounds is this memorial to downed airmen of the Great War. Military aviation was a completely new discipline during the First World War, and Schleißheim was its centre in Bavaria. When the Great War broke out in 1914, the first motorised human flight was just eleven years old. In 1912 the Kingdom of Bavaria had still retained an independent army and entered military aviation. A "Luftschiffer- and Kraftfahrabteilung" of the army was formed and stationed by order of the war Ministry of March 15, 1912 with a "flying company" in Schleißheim. The first biplane landed on extensive areas of the state-owned Remonte depot, a training centre for military horses, on April 16. Three tents and rebuilt buildings of the Remonte depot formed the nucleus of the airfield.  With Germany's mobilisation on August 1, Schleißheim found itself the only flier replacement section of the Bavarian Army with 44 officers, 52 NCOs and 239 men under the command of Hauptmann, later Major Friedrich Stempel. From the beginning of the war until the end of 1916, all flight personnel were trained here and all machines were serviced and sent to the front. From then until the end of the war, it remained the center and most important aviation location. As early as 7th August, the first three aviation departments, together with 16 aircraft, set off for Lorraine in support of infantry on the western front.  The aircraft were disassembled in their home companies, stowed on railroad cars and transported to the front, where they were reassembled and placed in tents. Maintenance and repair then took place again in the aviation replacement departments. Aircraft were intended in the war strategy 1914 exclusively for reconnaissance. A pilot and an observer stared out of the air or shot photos, which were then sent to the High Command for strategic planning. Only during the course of the war suitable armament systems were developed, and thus the discipline of fighter flying established, which now produced with the "Avenger Assen" a completely new type of modern war hero. One of the most famous, Ernst Udet, was incidentally by the Bavarian Fliegerkompanie in Schleißheim than rejected too small; he had to join the Prussian flyers. In Schleißheim 900 pilots and 735 observers were trained during the World War. In average three-month courses, the pilots were trained and certified after a cross-country flight of at least 250 kilometres to completion as front-compatible. The observers, who had to be qualified given their strategic tasks in contrast to the pilots in the officer rank, had initially only the camera to use, but later also the on-board weapon, usually a mounted on the fuselage machine gun.  As fast as the new war technology developed, the capacities in the flying company in Schleißheim had to keep pace feverishly. The first fortified building on the new airfield, a workshop building with guard and commandant, was built by 1913 and is now part of the German Museum. It included two wooden aircraft hangars. Even in peacetime, two team barracks, an officer's dorm, a pump house and a sewage treatment plant, a stable, a vehicle garage and two other aircraft hangars were built. By 1916, when the "Hindenburg Programme" expanded armaments and especially aviation exponentially, the strength of the Fliegerersatzabteilung in Schleißheim tripled. Gigantic expansion plans however were never fully implemented. The soldiers had to be quartered privately in the village; in inns, in the schoolhouse, and even in unused rooms of the castles. At the end of 1917, 245 officers were stationed in Schleißheim. In addition, 273 women provided auxiliary services as typists, travelling daily by train from Munich due to the lack of remaining accommodation in Schleissheim.  From mid-1916, six other flying schools were built in Bavaria, end of 1917, a second flyer replacement department in Fürth. Observer training was reserved exclusively for Schleißheim and the airfield was now listed as MilFlSch (Military Aviation School), FlBeobSch (Fliegerbeobachterschule), FlFuSch (Fliegerfunkerschule) and Libist (Lichtbildstelle).  The Observer School, the core of the Bavarian military flight training, received its own building on the west side of the Würm Canal in early 1917 with the increasing requirements imposed by the war. The showpiece was a state-of-the-art artillery and bomber classroom with a flight simulator, in which the flight attendants were able to practice shooting with on board machine guns. Crashes in and around the airfield were documented repeatedly.  The exhibition halls of the museum were built around the historic Kommandantur, the oldest surviving relic of the airfield from the time of the Royal Bavarian Air Force. At the end of the war Schleißheim served as a location of a free corps in the process of eradicating the Munich Soviet Republic. In the plans of the government for the construction of a Reichswehr of the German Reich Schleißheim received the status of a Reichswehr pilot station. On January 10, 1920 however, the Treaty of Versailles came into force, which demanded the complete demobilisation of the German Air Force. On May 8, 1920, the Bavarian Air Force was dissolved.  In Schleißheim airfield buildings were demolished or dismantled and delivered to France. The new shipyard, which was started in 1918 and was under construction until the end of the war, was completed, but then leased as a cattle shed following the ban of the Treaty of Versailles. Rudolf Hess was stationed here after the Great War, and his
army personnel file records that on 7 May he joined a volunteer unit of Epp’s Freikorps; left it on 15 October; was temporarily recruited by the local airfield at Schleissheim on 29 March 1920; flew an aeroplane to a Bavarian unit stationed in the Ruhr on 6 April; and finally resigned his commission in Munich on the last day of April 1920.
Irving (8) Hess- The Missing Years
At the end of the 1920s the German commercial aviation school (founded in 1925 in Berlin) opened a branch in Oberschleissheim. Bypassing the Versailles Treaty, hundreds of flight students were specifically prepared for military use. Soon after the Nazis seized power when, in 1935, the rearmament of Germany was announced, Schleißheim became an air force base for the Luftwaffe and the German commercial aviation school became an official fighter pilot school. During the Second World War, Schleißheim became an important training centre, for example for fighter pilots, aviators, radio operators. Technical developments have now made "blind flight" possible; The "Night Hunting School" was founded in 1942. It was not until 1943 that a combat unit was stationed at Oberschleissheim airfield for the first time.

The images on the left show a Nazi ceremony commemorating the airfield's 25th anniversary on April 1, 1937 and the following day on Heldengedenktag, bottom. During the Third Reich the airfield facilities were continuously expanded. In 1934, for example, the “Junkershallen” were built, which still serve as hangars for the flying clubs based in Schleißheim. Later the runway was also fortified; before it had only consisted of grass. The war was also the darkest chapter in the history of Oberschleissheim airfield. Forced workers from the nearby Dachau concentration camp and Russian PoWs were used for construction and clearance work. When the Americans took over the site after the war they used the prisoner-of-war camp to intern former SS members. In the nearby Gut Hochmutting was a satellite camp of the Dachau concentration camp with eleven concentration camp prisoners from a bomb clearance command.  
After the Nazis came to power, it was expanded into a Luftwaffe air base in the course of the Nazis' armament efforts. The construction work was planned and supervised by the architects of the so-called post office building school. This architectural style, which was unusual for the Nazi era, is also known as "Bavarian Modernism". The flight control building, designed by Robert Vorhoelzer in 1933-34 and demolished in December 2007, was the archetype of this architectural direction in air force construction.  From 1938 the Schleißheim aviation school was built in the southern part of the airfield. The accommodation area of the school was used from 1945 to about 1953 as the Schleissheim DP camp (Feldmoching). Under the code name Minotaur, a bunkered control centre for day and night hunting in southern Germany was built in 1943. The bunker was blown up in 1971.  The airfield was repeatedly attacked by the Allies; the images on the right show the USAAF on a bombing run over Oberschleißheim and the resulting damage. On December 21, 1942, the first major attack by the British troops took place, which not only hit the airfield, but also large parts of the municipality of Oberschleissheim. Numerous other attacks should follow.In the post-war period, the American military initially took over the site and used the site, among other things, to train helicopter pilots for their use in the Vietnam War. French and German military units were also temporarily stationed at the airfield. The tower west of the airfield was built by the Americans and still bears witness to that time. However, it is only used for special events. The Americans left Schleißheim in 1973 and handed the place over to the Federal Republic of Germany. Military use ended in 1981. 

In the district of Unterschleißheim is Lohhof, the nearest station to my school. The population of Unterschleißheim itself exploded between 1933 when it had 753 inhabitants to 1939 with 1,737 inhabitants when the Nazis focused on housing construction in Lohhof. In 1937 a forced labour camp was set up in Lohhof near the train station to extract flax for the textile industry, called "flax roasting", in which hundreds of French and Polish women were used for forced labour. From 1941, Jewish women were also deployed, whilst at the same time deportations began from the Lohhof flax roastery until the camp was closed in 1942.
Behind the .50-cal. Machine Gunner on the Squad Halftrack from a series of photos by Sergeant C.O. Witt (HQ Platoon, B CO., 65th AIB) showing the American 20th Armoured Division leaving Haimhausen travelling towards Lohhof on April 29, 1945. By this time at least two thousand members of the Waffen-SS and a last contingent of adolescent flak helpers and older men from the "Volkssturm" had gathered for the defence of Munich. A bloodbath awaited them all. First, several American tanks were destroyed. Flight support was denied to the units due to fresh snow and fog. Only by around 9.30 did infantrymen from the Rainbow Division, an elite unit, come to the rescue from Schleissheim airfield. Bulldozers simply rolled over the trenches, with numerous German defenders buried. The nearby barracks continued to fight hand to hand until 15.00. Besides Lohhof, the SS also resisted in Feldmoching, Freimann and Schleißheim. In Planegg, fanatical soldiers of the SS fought fiercely after the occupation. During the "Battle of Lohhof" about an hundred were killed, forty of whom were Americans.

The site of the assault then and now. Lohhof's subsequent growth after the war can be seen here in the GIF showing the site on November 1, 1943 and today. Everything looked peaceful from the Maisteig on what is now the B 13 as white flags fluttered in Lohhof. However, units of an SS army corps had taken up positions in Lohhof at night, hiding in the bushes on the railway embankment, in houses in Hollern and in the flax roast in Unterschleissheim. When the Americans advanced, the German soldiers first let two tanks pass, then opened fire on the crew trucks behind them. The tanks were almost on Kreuzstrasse before they were forced to react leading to a bitter struggle. The tanks fired and the American soldiers crawled up to the occupied houses, threw petrol cans into them and fired on them to set them on fire. The flax roast also burned and the guesthouse beside the station ended up being badly damaged by shelling. Whilst nearly on the German defenders were killed, on the American side seven have been named, including the commander and his driver along with forty dead and wounded. Apparently if the artillery had not won the fight, aircraft would have been called to bomb Unterschleissheim. 
As it is, the fighting had continued into the early evening. The part of the air base crew stationed in Unterschleissheim had surrendered without a fight and were collected in the school yard for transport. The Americans then searched the houses because they feared more ambushes. Three young SS soldiers had fled and were hiding in the straw with a farmer. The Americans stabbed the haystacks with pitchforks but didn't find the three who were eventually rescued from the straw four days after the Americans left - almost starved and thirsty.
Much of the information and images for the Battle for Lohhof come from Rich Mintz and his remarkable Facebook group 20th Armored Division in World War II. The image on the left relates to colonel Newton W. Jones, Commander of Combat Command B (CC-B), who was the first casualty in the ambush in Lohhof, killed by a sniper as he led his troops whilst standing in his Jeep. The photograph and caption is from 1st Lieutenant Felix E. Mock, commander, 3rd Platoon, B CO, 65th AIB. That on the right is of 1st Lieutenant Samuel F. Barnes of 2nd Platoon, B CO, 65th AIB (Task Force 20), who too was killed in action in a German ambush April 29, 1945. The letter is the death notification to Mrs. Barnes from B CO. Commander, CPT George Jared, 65th AIB.
The Brauerei Gasthaus Lohhof today (where the wife and I first stayed when we moved to Germany from China) and as it appeared April 29, 1945 with the Americans after the battle for the town. On the right is how it appeared three years later. Here the Americans celebrated their victoryand "decimated the beer stores", as Christoph says. The group advanced to Munich meeting resistance, in Hochbrück, in Neuherberg. Fighting raged on the tank meadow and around the SS barracks in Freimann, the Americans lost  tanks there alone, 70 of their soldiers died, and several were wounded. On the afternoon of April 30, the day Hitler committed suicide, resistance in the barracks was broken. Munich was occupied from May 1st. The Nazis were then picked up by the Americans in Unterschleissheim, Pötsch reports and then taken to a camp in Moosburg.
Lohhof was the site of a flax processing plant owned by the Lohhof Flax Processing Company (Flachsröste Lohhof GmbH.) which was, in effect, a forced labour camp. Located on what is now (possibly appropriately) Siemensstraße, today it is the site of the refugee centre to which my students at Bavarian International School visit as part of their service commitments. Administratively, it was a satellite camp of Dachau. The location was chosen due to its proximity to Munich and to the local train station. The camp premises consisted of residential barracks, barns, retting pits and an initial processing plant. The municipal Aryanisation Department (Arisierungs-Dienststelle) of Munich instigated and supervised the forced employment of three hundred Jews at the camp. Among these, 110 were women and they worked at the plant; 68 of them were sent from Lodz, and other women had to arrive each day from Munich, primarily from the assembly site at the Berg am Laim monastery, and return at night using trains and streetcars. Lohhof also served as an assembly site where Jews from Munich were assembled prior to their deportation. Additionally, during the war, over 100 foreign workers from Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Russia, Poland and the Ukraine were employed at the plant. When the mass deportations of German Jews began in November 1941, the Jewish workers were sent away from Lohhof to the Milbertshofen camp, and from there they were deported to Kaunas (Kowno), Piaski, Theresienstadt (Terezin), and Auschwitz. The last Jewish women who worked at the camp were transferred on October 23, 1942, and were in all likelihood deported to Auschwitz on May 18, 1943. During the last few weeks of the war, the plant was damaged; afterwards, it was rebuilt. Of the 300 Jews who worked at Lohhof, only thirty survived the war.
Max Strnad has researched the camps for Jews in Munich in some detail. A special case there was the Lohhof Jewish Labour Detachment (Jüdisches Arbeitskommando). The Lohhof camp was established in June 1941 on the orders of the Munich Aryanization Authority (Arisierungsstelle), a radical antisemitic office of the Munich/Upper Bavarian Regional Headquarters (Gauleitung) of the Nazi Party. This was the third residential and work camp for Jews established in Munich, after the Milbertshofen "Jewish Settlement" (Judensiedlung) and the Berg am Laim "Home Facility" (Heimanlage). The Aryanization Authority set up this camp system in 1941, as a multipurpose instrument of terror against the Jewish population. The camps served, apart from their central function of forced labor, to remove Jews from rental accommodation and put them into separate Jewish residences, for better supervision and also to assemble them ready for deportation. In Lohhof, mainly Jewish women between fourteen and forty-five years old were deployed there in June 1941, but later much older Jewish women and men were included. Until the fall of 1942, about 250 Jews were employed there altogether. The Jewish work force numbered on average about 110 people. Some seventy women were accommodated in barracks on the factory grounds, while the remainder had to travel daily from Munich. After Gauleiter Adolf Wagner's decree forbidding the use of trams by Jews in September 1941, the daily trip to Unterschleissheim became an exhausting journey lasting several hours. On November 20, 1941, sixty-three people, comprising more than half of the Jewish forced labourers, were deported to Kaunas in Lithuania. In the middle of December 1941, the Lohhof Flachsröste (flax factory) was sent sixty-eight young Jewish women, who had been working on other flax-roasting farms in Bavaria for several months, but who all originally came from the Łódź (Litzmannstadt) ghetto. These Polish Jewish women remained in Lohhof until the fall of 1942, when they were transferred to Augsburg, where they stayed as a group in another camp, before being deported to Auschwitz in 1943.
 Simone Gigliotti, Hilary Earl (268) A Companion to the Holocaust
A short section devoted to my school- the Bavarian International School at schloss Haimhausen in kreis Dachau
Schloss Haimhausen then and now
In 1281 schloss Haimhausen was listed as a castle (castrum) in a gazetteer of Upper Bavaria. It was destroyed in the Thirty Years War and rebuilt in 1660 as an ornate Baroque structure by Andreas Wolff.   In 1747 and ensuing years, Francois Cuvillies the Elder enlarged the villa by seven bays on each side and added two wings. The external form of the house, with the high roof typical of the region, has remained unchanged to this day. Cuvilliés was also responsible for such famous buildings as the Munich Residenz, the Residenz Theatre, the manor Amalienburg in the grounds of Schloss Nymphenburg, and rooms in Schloss Brühl, near Bonn. The ceiling murals in both the Golden Room and the Chapel were executed by the famous Augsburg artist, Johann Bergmüller in 1750. 
Haimhausen schloss became the property of the family Butler v. Clonebough, after having been awarded to the Irish officer Walther Butler (known as the "Wallenstein murderer") in thanks for his fulfilling a contract to deliver Wallenstein "dead or alive" on February 25, 1634. Friedrich Schiller immortalised Wallenstein in the dramatic trilogy that bears his name (completed in 1799).  He did not enjoy his success for long, passing away in 1635 after being wounded. The schloss was rebuilt in 1660 after a fire in the Thirty Years' War and has been expanded ever since. Under Reichsgraf Karl Ferdinand Maria von und zu Haimhausen, from 1743 to 1749 a major renovation was carried out by François de Cuvilliés the Elder. Since then, the late baroque chapel Salvator Mundi with stucco work and altars by the Flemish artist Egid Verhelst and his sons and the ceiling painting by Johann Georg Bergmüller, which was made in 1750, has been a special gem within the castle.
The property was then passed from generation up until Theobald, who had a close relationship to Count Stauffenberg, fled in March 1945 by carriage to Neubrandenburg to rescue his wife and three children from the advancing Russian troops, but was too late. This at least is how the local newspaper describes it. Supposedly he poisoned his wife, then his three children, then set his house in flames, and shot himself.  So ended the line of the Counts of v. Clonebough gen. Haimhausen on April 29, 1945.
Haimhausen war memorial 
 The war memorial on the high street is flanked by two flag poles, neither of which can hoist any flag under which those commemorated died for. Further down the high street on the right is the memorial to both world wars.
Bavarian International School then and now
 During the turn of the century and as the Bavarian International School today
Showing the balcony erected in front of the chapel for owner Haniel's wife who had suffered an accident shown in 1939
 
Bavarian International School's chapel then and now. It owes its splendour to its ceiling painting, again by Bergmuller- the Salvator Mundi, dated 1750- as well as the delicate Rococo stucco work by Verhelst.

Directly above is this fascinating representation of the return of Christ on the throne 0f the Trinity; the largest Salvator Mundi of its kind in which God holds the Flaming Sword of Judgement and has the left hand on the empty seat to his right whilst in the centre a kneeling Christ with the cross rises over a world in flames, depicting the four continents known at that time. But what makes this painting remarkable is the representation of the Holy Spirit in human form. This is expressly forbidden by the Catholic Church, as Pope Benedict XIV declared in October 1745 just before this painting was created, and and today is only permitted in the form of a dove. As a Catholic colleague remarked upon entering, "God is not present," noting the lack of a sanctuary lamp.
On the right is a close-up during the 650,000 euro renovation of the chapel completed in 2010. An interesting touch on the ceiling is the expulsion from Paradise on the right, showing Adam and Eve being followed by a dog and snake hopping along, and at the other end above the altar Christ on the Mount of Olives, with the snake making a reappearance with apple in mouth.
  
During the 1944 bombing, the library's collection was distributed throughout 28 sites in Oberbayern. The photos above from 1949 show the thousands of books from the Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek that were stored for safety in the Haimhauser Schlosskapelle in today's Bavarian International School during the Second World War.
Moving the books postwar from today's Bavarian International School
Moving the books postwar back to the Staatsbibliothek on Ludwigstraße showing the necessity for having relocated its collection. Between 1949 and 1975 the Schloss was used by the Bavarian Legal Aid School and later the Munich Police Academy. Between 1976 and 1986 the International Antiques Salon occupied all rooms with its period exhibits.
   
The role the schloss played in preserving our shared past and passing it on to future generations free from war and violence makes Bavarian International School's logo particularly resonant. In 1944 the Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek was bombed along with most of Munich’s centre. Fortunately, just before, it had distributed its collection of books to 28 different sites around Oberbayern. One of those sites was our Schloss chapel used today in the service of our students.  I always felt it rather touching to think that the logo was a representation of this- that something vital and profound was preserved for future generations even after this country’s darkest period when none knew what would be left at null stunde when there was nothing left to believe in. And there it is- our Schloss, like Pandora’s box in stone, from which a single book is presented in hope and expectation to inspire success.  What a lovely proud logo that was- it couldn’t have been designed for any other school on earth. Sadly, it was decided to replace it, at considerable expense, with the kind of thoughtless logo that any Grade 6 child could have designed in a single lesson shown in the centre. Fortunately the outcry was great enough that the old logo returned, albeit with the Mussoliniesque motto "Believe, Inspire, Succeed."
In front of BIS's Golden Room
In front of the Golden Room and inside today. This banqueting hall, with its ceiling painting of The Four Seasons by Bergmuller (dated 1750) and its two rare Nymphenburger porcelain stoves, forms the visual climax of the state apartments of schloss Haimhausen. 

At the start of the 2019 school year I received the following remarkable email from Mr. Tim Gillespie of Oregon whose father had been stationed at our schloss after the war before being in charge of American forces in the Dachau camp, guarding SS prisoners before the upcoming war crimes trials, charged with guarding the books from the state library that were being protected from wartime bombing here in our school's chapel: 
In going through some long stored-away boxes of my parents after they passed away, I recently found some photographs of Schloss Heimhausen [sic].
My father, Claud Schmidt Gillespie (whose mother's family were Schmidts who emigrated from Germany to the United States in the late 1800s), was in the U.S. Army during World War II. After the war was over, he was in charge of a company of U.S. soldiers that was stationed there. In the box of photographs I found this note, hand-written by my father: "Schloss Heimhausen is in Germany--not too far from Munich--where I lived for awhile (with my rifle company) in 1945 after the war was over. Our mission was to protect hundreds of books stored in the schloss by the Germans to protect them, most from libraries in Munich. (We also kept an eye on the German civilians, especially the teenagers.)" I should also tell you that during that time my father was also put in charge of the U.S. Army's command of the Dachau concentration camp. After its survivors were liberated and taken away by the Red Cross, the Dachau camp was used as a temporary prison for SS officers--many thousands of them--being tried in the postwar trials. My father was in charge of running the camp and guarding the SS prisoners. He came home in 1946. Needless to say, he had very powerful memories of his time in Germany during the war and after the war. In any case, in the box were over 40 photos (most less than a foot or 30 centimeters in length) of various indoor and outdoor scenes from Schloss Heimhausen. [sic] These were not war photos but appear to be formal photographs showing the Schloss in its glory days before the war, with ornate furniture and decorations---and no people shown at all. Though none of them are dated or labelled, they are quite remarkable and in pretty good condition. 
In thinking of what to do with these old photos from 1945, I did not want to simply throw them away, so I did some research on Schloss Haimhausen and happily discovered that your school is now using the site. These were clearly photos that my father took to remind him of his time there, but he is long gone. The most appropriate place for them is to be returned to the site itself, I think. If you are interested, I would be very happy if you would like to become the custodians of these historic photos. 
 A selection of extracts from his father's letters home relating to the schloss with assorted GIFs I made from the photographs he kindly donated to the school: 

Sunday 30 Sept 1945
Dearest Phyl:
            Our new home, the Castle, is really beginning to look better. Friday I told the boys to fix up the ballroom for our “Day Room” where the boys can read + write. So the Sgt in charge put a Polish GI on the job. Now this boy is one of those who looks + talks like a rather rough character but he must have the soul of an interior decorator because it’s the fanciest job I’ve ever seen. He took the rugs off all the stairways + completely covered the floor. Then he found furniture - beautiful chairs, settees + tables + little desks - all of which go beautifully with the way the ballroom is decorated - and arranged them so it looks as grand as anything I ever saw…It always amazes me the hidden talents that all men have if you happen to give them a chance to show such talent…
            You’d go nuts if you could see the things still left in the castle - even after it seems that it has been looted. It’s unbelievable how grand the place must have been. All the walls in the main room are covered with very luscious cloth instead of paper or paint. And the drapes are still hanging in many windows and though I know nothing of cloth etc it’s not hard to see they’re almost priceless. And there are still about 20 paintings - all huge and most of them dated in the 1700s. 
Some rooms have murals on the walls - the ballrooms has one huge painting covering almost the entire ceiling. And there are dozens of small, medium, + huge tables + cabinets - hand carved, inlaid with mosaic, marble topped + very finely polished. Joe Schroeder [a fellow officer and close friend] and I were looking around today + found large supplies of fancy china, glassware (gold rimmed) and vases ’n stuff. I found us 5 fancy metal “swizzle sticks” to mix our drinks. Much of the stuff is too fancy to suit me but if it were possible to send you stuff we could furnish about half our house without any trouble. I get socialistic ideas when I see such evidence of wealth surrounded by many countryfolk who have so little. For example the other day I took the chief electrician for the town…over to see about repairs and he spotted a fancy fireplace screen which he claimed was worth “fil” (many) dollars. [He meant “viel” in German.] In fact he said thousands of dollars. And his weekly wage is about $7.00.
            Still have the problem of getting the water + heat fixed but they’re doing pretty good considering that the place is over 800 years old + has had much alteration + repair. Had to dig one main water pipe out of walls which were about 4 feet thick - there was a leak. Guess I told you we had a fire that burned out about 25 feet of roof - defective chimney…

Oct. 6 1945
            Made a trip to our castle this p.m. + things are going pretty good. Look like we might get our water system working OK + we now have most of the parts to fix the heating system. Big problem now is to find a cable to run from a power house for our electricity. Pretty hard to find - the big stuff -  about 1 inch, I think, + we need about 600 yards of it. Have the roof almost completely repaired now where we had the fire. And our officers quarters are shaping up beautifully. Wish you could see some of the fancy china + glassware we located + may use to throw a party some day. Have some scouts out now to try and get some coffee cups + some silverware…
            It’s just 7 p.m. + the radio program has changed to a hillbilly program (like the Saturday Barn Dance program)  and it’s coming from the Hofbrau Keller in Munich (of all places - that’s where Hitler planned his original “putsch” - + and it is now made over into a Red Cross club). Podden me whilst I change to another station. You’d be amazed at the dozens of stations you can get over here now. It seems so strange at times to tune in on some good American music + then when the record stops to hear some Kraut announcer talk in German…I can get programs in English, German, Italian, French, Spanish, Polish, Russian, and one which sounds like Chinese or Japanese. The Krauts play a lot of waltzes and what sound like Polkas + Schottischen. Have seen some of these dances + they look like they’d be fun - slapping their knees + feet ’n stuff. Right now they’re playing something and some Kraut is talking like he was calling a square dance…
            I’m still looking for lace but it’s kinda hard now. Except in large places, outside of Germany, you don’t see anything like that. May be able to arrange to have the local natives make me some. We cannot buy at stores here, and except for foodstuffs I’ve seen no stores anyway. I suppose it’s hared to imagine towns or cities without things like department stores but that’s the way it is. In places large enough to have such stores the bombing has destroyed most of them…
            [Later] As I write this I’m listening to the 5th game of the World Series coming by short wave from the States…


Thursday
11 Oct 1945
            Today and yesterday have been beautiful days - clear and sunny- and very welcome after two weeks of almost continuous rain and cold. Sunday and Monday night we had very heavy frosts which have quickly changed the leafed trees into huge masses of red, gold, and brown. It is comparatively warm yet there is a crispness in the air. It reminds me of the fall football days back in Nebraska.
            This week has included the usual daily training and more intense work on the new castle. There sure is a lot of work necessary to do on that place just to get the facilities - light heat + plumbing - in order. Today I made a trip down near Munich to try and pick up my cable for the electricity but got stymied. I had an order from General Ladd but they wouldn’t come through as they claimed that they had orders from General Ike himself to let nothing go out of the place. It was formerly the Bavarian Motor Works [BMW] (made good cars) and in spite of much bombing there is still a tremendous amount of material there - much of it underground. So tomorrow I’m going to try a place near Augsburg as our Ba Cmdr says we will move in next week - lights or not. Wish me luck, Bub.
            Did I tell you that our castle has an organ? It’s in a huge and very beautiful chapel. Unfortunately the organ does not work and the chapel is now full of thousands of books from the Munich libraries…
            The grounds on our estate have not been damaged nor has the building. Only damage was caused by vandals + looters who broke in here and there and tried to burn it in one place

Sunday 14 October
            this p.m. went to Dachau to arrange to get two trucks to pick up a big electric cable tomorrow.
            That’s about the last thing we need to complete repairs on our castle as they now have most of the plumbing fixed. Tomorrow they try the central heating system + keep your fingers crossed for me, honey. Yesterday they pumped water into the system (it’s hot water type heat) and about a dozen leaks sprung out + almost flooded the place. The plumber got those fixed but left the pressure on + this p.m. another leak started and partially flooded all three floors but now he thinks he has that fixed too. All this has been with cold water + tomorrow they put heat on + then - holy mother, I hope it works! In any event, we move Wednesday because a week from today we start on maneuvers [sic]for one week + must be moved before then. 


Saturday 20 Oct 1945
            ..How do you like this for stationery? [Letter written on quality blue paper with embossed initials FH under a little crown and Haimhausen München at the top]  The former owner of the castle placed this at my disposal recently. Ho-hum! -wonder what the poor people are doing today…


Haimhausen 
Monday night 29 Oct 1945
            Our town of Haimhausen is just about 4 miles closer to Dachau than we were before. We’re about 15 miles from Munich. [Draws map]


Sunday Nov 4 1945
            We’ve been trying to get settled in the castle since we returned from maneuvers a week ago. Wed it was announced that we would have to take over the area of the 3rd Battalion while they went on maneuvers. So yesterday I took about 95 of my men to Freising - about 45 minutes northeast of here + set them up to guard a couple of DP (displaced person) camps - mostly Polish people. I’ve been tearing over there and back here trying to keep both places running…
            Honey, I miss you so much it gets under my skin at time. And I have a fairly tough hide. Soon it will be our 11 month anniversary [since he proposed just before he left for his overseas duty]. Irv + I were talking about how long it has seemed + we both agreed that we probably shouldn’t kick too much as so many of our buddies will never go back…
            Freising is a large place - about 25000 + they have 2 movies [theaters?] which the boys really go for. They also have “fil” (many) [viel] frauleins and polsky which in plain language means that the German + Polish gals are plentiful + very good looking + the boys also go for that. They spaziren (walk) + dance with the gals although I personally can’t see most of them - they are all mostly interested in seeing how much food or cigarettes they can chisel…as for me I’ll take any American gal in preference but mainly one in particular - guess who?…
            You should see the desk I am writing on. It’s another little number they had around here and shows much work + probably cost a young fortune. It has very fancy metalwork on inlaid wood on the front and a carved leather top…
The dining room with the Israelites' Gathering of Manna on the ceiling. A reference to Exodus XVI (and possibly supplemented through Josephus’s Jewish Antiquities III), it relates the story of the Israelites travelling en masse across the desert after having left Egypt and crossing the Red Sea when, famished, they were miraculously provided with water, quails, the fine, white manna which covered the ground like a heavy frost.
My classroom at Bavarian International School- a work in progress:
Bavarian International School
Having the honour of welcoming Mr. Bill Glied to my school January 28, 2013. In April 1944, he was deported with his family to Auschwitz-Birkenau from his home in Serbia. In June that year he was transferred to the Dachau concentration camp where he worked as a slave labourer. He was liberated by the Americans on April 29, 1945 and moved to the Dominion of Canada as an orphan in 1947 where he married an Hungarian Holocaust survivor. He would give regular talks to schools; in fact, he recently spoke to his grandson Josh’s Grade 9 class in Ontario. Recently he testified at the trial of former ϟϟ sergeant Oskar Gröning, the so-called 'Bookkeeper from Auschwitz,' who helped keep guard as thousands of Jews were led to the gas chambers at Auschwitz.

The Schlossbrauerei next to our school during the Third Reich and today. Founded in 1608 when Duke Maximilian I granted Theodor Viepeckh the right to build a brewery in Haimhausen. The building was demolished around 1750 because it had become dilapidated due to war and neglect. Karl Ferdinand von Haimhausen rebuilt it in he 18th century on the site that still exists today. Under Theobald Sigmund Butler, the brewery became a worry again because he had previously invested heavily in new brewery technologies and was running out of money. The brewery only experienced an upswing again with Theobald Graf Butler-Haimhausen. After years of good economic development, he sold it in 1890 to the Haniel family. The brewery has remained in the family since, however after 400 years, it ceased production at the end of 2019 owing to the drop in sales in addition to the increased costs due to the oversized operating space as well as the ancient building and machinery. After no investor was found to invest in the brewery, the municipality is now trying to ensure that the site does not degenerate into a disused industrial building, especially as large parts of the company are under monument protection.

Schönbrunn
Schönbrunn
At the end of the 18th century, the schloss passed to the Counts of Butler-Clonebough (later Butler-Haimhausen) through female succession. Viktorine von Butler-Haimhausen founded a poor girl's house here in 1861, but moved it to Schönbrunn Palace in 1863. A number of our students volunteer through our CAS programme at the Franziskuswerk Schönbrunn-  working with people with  physical and mental disabilities and at outreach houses with those who are more independent. Schönbrunn belongs to the municipality Röhrmoos, but is a separate village with an unusual history. The village hosts a facility for people with disabilities; in the centre of the village is a small schloss which had been acquired in 1862 by an extraordinary woman: Countess Victoria Butler-Haimhausen. Her aim was to create a home for old and dependent women and enable young women and girls through education and training.  To support this endeavour, she enlisted the help of a community of sisters from Munich, which later developed into the Congregation of the Franciscan Sisters of Schönbrunn.  
Photos on the left by ϟϟ photographer Franz Bauer, Himmler's personal photographer, taken on February 16, 1934 of children at Schönbrunn suffering from Down's syndrome. From 1940 to 1945 a few hundred residents, mostly children and young people, were deemed lebensunwert ("unworthy of life") and killed. It wasn't until a few years ago that a memorial was erected at Schönbrunn located di­rectly to the south side of the church of St. Joseph con­sists of a stained glass cross be­hind which the names of the 546 chil­dren killed are listed. The names are in dif­fer­ent sizes and fonts to make the unique­ness of each per­son vis­i­ble, and every Jan­u­ary 27 the vic­tims of the Na­zis are commemorated.