More Remaining Nazi Sites in Upper Bavaria

Landsberg am Lech
Alte Bergstraße hasn't changed much
The town is noted for its prison where Adolf Hitler was incarcerated in 1924. During this incarceration Hitler wrote/dictated his book Mein Kampf together with Rudolf Hess. His cell, number 7, became part of the Nazi cult and many followers came to visit it during the German Nazi-period. Landsberg am Lech was also known as the town of the Hitler Youth. Following the Second World War it was the location for one of the largest Displaced Person  camps for Jewish refugees and the place of execution for more than 150 war criminals after 1945. The Landsberg camp began as a Nazi concentration camp. By October 1944, there were more than 5,000 prisoners in the camp.  The camp was liberated on April 27, 1945 by the 12th Armoured Division of the United States Army. Upon orders from General Taylor, the American forces allowed news media to record the atrocities, and ordered local German civilians and guards to reflect upon the dead and bury them bare-handed. After the liberation of the camp it became a displaced person camp. Consisting primarily of Jewish refugees from the Soviet Union and the Baltic states, it developed into one of the most influential DP camps in the Sh'erit ha-Pletah. It housed a Yiddish newspaper (the Yiddishe Zeitung), religious schools, and organisations to promote Jewish religious observance. Tony Bennett was one of the soldiers who liberated the camp. A dramatisation of the discovery and liberation of the camp was presented in Episode 9: Why We Fight of the Band of Brothers mini-series.  A number of prominent leaders emerged from the camp, including Samuel Gringauz, who also became the chairman of the Council of the Central Committee of Liberated Jews in the American zone. The camp also served as the headquarters for the Jewish education and training organisation ORT. The camp closed on October 15, 1950.
Shown  in 1938 with a banner with a large swastika hanging from the roof when the structure served as a memorial to Hitler's incarceration, after the war when holding Nazi prisoners and today. Forty miles west of Munich, this is where, in 1924, Hitler spent 264 days incarceration after being convicted of treason after the failed Munich Beer Hall Putsch the previous year. During this time Hitler dictated and then wrote his book Mein Kampf with assistance from his deputy, Rudolf Hess. Hitler had taken the cell that had held Anton Graf von Arco-Valley who had murdered Bavarian prime minister Kurt Eisner in February 1919.

Posed propaganda shot by Heinrich Hoffmann and Hitler's return in 1934 after taking power.
Conditions were not actually so bad in this ‘cross between a spa hotel and a barracks’. Wooden partitions were erected to give the prisoners privacy. They were allowed to mix to such an extent that Hitler dictated Mein Kampf while there, and received visitors freely. Party insignia were hung from the walls and other Nazis stood to attention before dinner when Hitler entered the hall and took his seat. Perhaps helped by the singularly mild rules of the institution, Hitler was regarded by the warders as a model prisoner. Upon Hitler’s release in December 1924, the prison governor said that if anyone could save Germany, it would be this man.
Martyn Housden (57) Hitler: Study of a Revolutionary?

The gaol on December 30, 1924 after the release of the putschists and as it appears today. From the left are Gerhard Hoff, Walter Hebel, Hans Eduard Krüger, Julius Schaub and Rudolf Heß. The original caption recorded how the car came courtesy from Landsberger alderman and landowner Franz Strobl who met them upon their release.
Hitler's Chief Warder Franz Hemmrich posing outside the entrance to the prison.
For a thumb-nail sketch of Herr Hemmrich – he is a man perhaps at the end of the thirties. The face and especially the eyes are full of alert activity and energy. One gets the impression of an officer who has put in a good many years of responsible and exacting service. He wears a blue uniform with epaulettes, and an official cap.  “Before I start the story of Adolf Hitler’s detention here,” he tells me, as we prepare to make the tour of Landsberg, “you ought to know something of the place itself. It is, as you can see, fairly modern. It was built in 1909, and originally intended for none but ordinary convicts. It was planned to accommodate five hundred. Only since 1920 have we had political prisoners here – quite a different class. They don’t, of course, rank with criminals at all. We had no special accommodation to allot to them, so a wing was set apart for the purpose and called the ‘Festung.’ In 1920 Count Arco-Valley was sent here. He had been condemned to death for shooting the Bavarian Minister President Kurt Eisner, but his sentence was commuted to penal servitude for life. For a long time he was the only man we had in the ‘Festung.’... “Then, on November 11th, 1923, I remember, there was a regular storm raging. The wind howled and shrieked round the place and tore at the barred windows. Rain dashed against the panes as if it would break them. At that time I had a room within the prison. It was night, and I’d gone to bed. All was still save for the muffled tread of an officer going the rounds, or for the ticking when he clocked in.  “All of a sudden a bell rang through the corridor, and a moment or two later came a knocking on my door. ‘The Governor wants you. You’re to come at once,’ cried a voice without. I jumped into my clothes with all the speed I could, and hurried to the office. Herr Oberregierungsrat Leybold was chief at the time.  “‘See here,’ he said, and his face was as serious as his voice, ‘Hitler’s coming here to-night. He has been arrested at last, and he’ll certainly be sent along to us. We’ll have to be prepared for anything. His followers may make an attempt at rescue ––’ 
Heinz A. Heinz (169) Germany's Hitler
  
After his release, Hitler posed outside the town's Bayertor, built in 1425. He returned to pose in 1934 after taking power. 
The 'Hitler-Zelle'
From 1937 to 1945 the prison cell at Landsberg am Lech became the third central site of pilgrimage next to Munich , the "City of the movement" , and Nuremberg , the "City of the Party Rallies." Its slogan during the Third Reich was 'Landsberg - Town of youth' and became known additionally as the meeting place of the Hitler Youth- Following the party rallies of 1937 and 1938 delegations of the Hitler Youth marched across the German Reich as part of the "confessional march of the Hitler Youth" to Landsberg . It would culminate with swastika flags, banners and Hitler Jugend torchlight rallies at the Landsberger main square and in the atrium of the fortress prison. In the words of Reich Youth Leader Baldur von Schirach, Landsberg was a "pilgrimage of German youth" and the "station of National Socialist education." The gaol with its "Hitler cell" was to be converted into the largest youth hostel largest of the Reich.  The plan also saw the creation of a gigantic parade stadium, which would have had greater dimensions than the entire historic old town. As German troops invaded Poland September 1 1939 , the "Adolf Hitler march " was cancelled following the " Party Rally of Peace". As early as 1933 the city Lech marketed with all its available resources itself as the "Hitlerstadt" or "Stadt des Führers"and "Birthplace of the ideas of National Socialism." This "Hitler tourism" brought economic recovery and by 1938 100,000 tourists visited the 'Hitler cell.'
From the film „Der Marsch zum Führer" showing Hitlerjugend marching to commemorate Hitler's imprisonment in Landsberg am Lech, the final rally in the main square of the city and the address of the Reich Youth Leader Baldur von Schirach. Unlike the earlier Leni Riefenstahl Nuremberg documentaries, it does not focus on the Party congress itself, or on Nazi leaders, who are not shown until the very end of the film. Instead, it follows HJ boys from various parts of Nazi Germany beginning their journey, camping along the route, being taken in by helpful families on the way and marching through cities in formation, saluting and carrying the swastika banner.
From 1933 onwards, the city marketed itself using various sobriquets: Hitler City, City of the Führer, National Socialist Site of Pilgrimage and Birthplace of the Ideas of National Socialism. In 1938, 100,000 visitors came to Landsberg, most incorporating a glimpse of Hitler’s former prison cell into their tour. Eventually, the town received the official honorific City of Youth, because it welcomed thousands of Hitler Youth members in 1937 and 1938 for massive Adolf Hitler marches. The delegates also visited the prison – which had plans to become the biggest youth hostel in the Reich – and received a copy of Mein Kampf as a souvenir.
The Hauptplatz on September 19 1937 during a rally of Hitlerjugend and today. As early as 1933, the Lechstadt marketed itself with all the means at its disposal as a "Hitler city" or " city of the Führer;" a "National Socialist place of pilgrimage" and as the "birthplace of the ideas of National Socialism". From 1937 to 1945 Landsberg am Lech, next to Munich -the "City of the Movement"- and Nuremberg, -the "City of the Nazi Party Rallies,"- served as the third central site of National Socialism.  Landsberg was known during the Third Reich under the slogan "Landsberg - City of Youth" as a meeting place of the Hitler Youth; following the Nazi Party rallies in 1937 and 1938 delegations of Hitler Youth from across the Reich marched in the "confession march of the Hitler Youth" to Landsberg. Against a ghostly backdrop of swastika flags , HJ banners and torch lighting, the final rallies of the so-called "Adolf Hitler marches" took place on the main square of Landsberg and in the forecourt of the fortress detention centre. In the Hitler cell the Hitler Youth received copies of Mein Kampf. Landsberg had become the "place of pilgrimage of the German youth" and the "station of National Socialist education," as Reich Youth Leader Baldur von Schirach called it. The prison with its "Hitler cell" was to be converted into the largest youth hostel in the Reich.  Also planned was a gigantic Aufmarschstadion, which would have possessed larger dimensions than the entire historic old town core. 
In the city council meeting of May 4, 1937, the Nazi city council declared that "on the order of the Reichsführer ... in future every year - from September 19, 1937 - about 1,000 HJ flags and thus about 3,000 Hitler Youth will come to Landsberg, where in front of the Hitler cell and on the main square a mass rally of the Hitler Youth take place and in which the Reich Youth Leader will speak. The cost of the rally, whose decorative equipment alone requires considerable resources, must, in the opinion of the councillors and the mayor, be supported by the Reich leadership of the Hitler Youth. "  If the previous "Adolf Hitler marches" culminated in Nuremberg, by 1937 Landsberg would become the final destination of the Hitler Youth marches in order to "always be aware of its great task at that place and will be worthy of the tradition of National Socialism."
When German troops raided Poland on 1 September 1939, the "Reich Party Rally of Peace" planned for the next day was cancelled and the "Adolf Hitler March" that had already begun was broken off.  Landsberg did not get its exposed position in the " Third Reich " - as it is often claimed in official representations of the city - "imposed from outside". The "Hitler tourism" brought economic recovery; in 1938, 100,000 "Volksgenossen" visited Landsberg and the Hitler cell.
 
The "Schöner Turm" bedecked with swastikas in 1937 and today
 
as is the statue in front of the rathaus although here covered by the banners of the Hitlerjugend
Spöttingen cemetery in 1958, just before the final four prisoners were released from Landsberg prison and the running of the facility transferred from American control to West Germany, and today; the prison can be seen behind. During the occupation of Germany by the Allies, the US Army designated the prison as War Criminal Prison No. 1 to hold convicted Nazi war criminals, run and guarded by personnel from the U.S. Military Police. Following the occupation of Landsberg by American troops on April 27 and 28, 1945, and the subsequent release of most of the previous detainees, the detention centre gradually developed into the central "War Criminal Prison" (WCP).  Most prisoners held had been convicted in the so-called Dachau trials, the military courts have carried out since the end of 1945 against numerous Nazi and war criminals. The main groups of prisoners included concentration camp guards and those reponsible for the killing of crashed al pilots. The proximity of Landsberg to the former Dachau concentration camp , where most of the proceedings took place, was probably the decisive reason for choosing the location in addition to the size of the facility and its structural integrity. Among some prominent convicts were perpetrators such as Oswald Pohl; as head of the ϟϟ Economic and Administrative Main Office, he had been a leading figure in the organisation of the forced labour camp system and in the plundering of Jews murdered in the Holocaust.
 Between 1945 and 1946, the prison housed a total of 110 prisoners convicted at the Nuremberg trials, a further 1, 416 war criminals from the Dachau trials and 18 prisoners convicted in the Shanghai trials. In five and an half years, Landsberg prison was the place of execution of nearly 300 condemned war criminals. 259 death sentences were conducted by hanging and 29 by firing squad. Executions were carried out expeditiously. In May 1946 twenty eight former ϟϟ guards from Dachau were hanged within a four-day period. Bodies that were not claimed were buried in unmarked graves here in the cemetery next to the Spöttingen chapel. Of the death sentences from the Dachau trials and the Nuremberg successor trials, a total of 252 were executed on the gallows in the WCP in the years 1945 to 1949 and again for one day in 1951. Among the last seven executed - the West German abolition of the death penalty by the Basic Law did not apply to the US judiciary - was Oswald Pohl in 1951. In addition, over 33 people were executed in the late 1940s by firing squad. Altogether about 175 executed and deceased from the time of WCP are buried in this  cemetery.  
In 2003 the name boards were removed from each cross despite considerable protests given many were victims of the Nazis; 300 people are buried here of whom less than half- 140- were executed by the Americans after the war. Of these, it has been estimated that at least one fifth of the German soldiers sentenced to death after the war were innocent. Of the Nazi victims who share their anonymous resting places with Nazi war criminals include those who served prison sentences for political offences such as "treachery", "destruction of military forces" or "concealment of the Jews". In the last years of the war, more and more prisoners from other areas under Nazi control were transferred to Landsberg, as the institutions close to the front were evacuated because of the withdrawal of the German troops. Thus, these numbers include many Poles and Italians. As the war progressed conditions within the prison. Deaths increased as a result of the exhausting prisoner transports and the pressure of increasing occupancy, hard forced labour, especially in local armaments factories, inadequate food supply, as well as inadequate hygienic and medical conditions. Altogether according to the records of the official registers from the beginning of 1944 over 210 people died including ten inmates who were executed after attempted escape.
 
Roughly three thousand people protesting on January 7, 1951 at the Hauptplatz against further executions.


Just outside Landsberg in the town of Schwabhausen is this sign pointing to what is described as a concentration camp cemetery leading into the woods at the site where, on April 27, 1945, American strafers bombed what they had mistakenly believed to be a German military transport train. In fact, the train cars were packed with trapped Jewish prisoners from the Kaufering concentration camps who were being transferred to Dachau. About 150 prisoners were killed in the attack, and were buried in three mass graves in early May. Today the train still runs right beside them. The first grave contains the remains of about sixty of the dead, and graves 2 and 3 contain up to eighty remains in toto. Apparently only one of the dead is known by name today- Joschua ben Mosche Chaim Herzel from Hungary. The three gravestones were erected in the summer of 1946 and are nearly identical, differing only in height in order to symbolise the varying number of victims buried in each grave. They had been made by stonemason Franz Xaver Sepp from Landsberg. They all bear the same inscription in Hebrew, cast in metal letters:




לאות זכרון
כל עין עובר תדמה וכל לב
נמס ושאול ישאל מה הציון
הלו אשר אתה רואה זו היא
עצמות קדושים וטהורים אשר
אחרי עינוים קשים הומתו ביום
השחרור י’ד אייר שנת תש’ה
תנצב’ה


Dr. Grinberg’s first order was” Collect and bury all the dead!” With a group of healthier Jews, he himself began to dig three mass graves. They were aided by farmers from the vicinity and German army soldiers. About 150 Jews were buried there. For generations of Jews, burial has been a sign of a self-determined life… Israel Kaplan, Fun letstn  Churbn, no. 5, May 1947
Dr. Zalman Grinberg was a Lithuanian medical doctor with a specialty in radiology who was imprisoned in Dachau. He later served as the chairman for the Central Committee of Liberated Jews in the American sector of Germany and Austria after the war, dying August 8, 1983. 
Apparently the memorial site has been the repeated target of vandalism and desecration. 

On a sign board beside the first grave is the following In Memoriam: “Each eye of a passerby may cry and each heart may sorrow and ask what kind of memorial is it I am seeing here? These are the bones of the Holies and Pure who after cruel pain were killed on the day of redemption 14th of Adar 5705” (April 27, 1945)

Ingolstadt
Adolf-Hitler-Platz then and now.
During the First World War Ingolstadt was temporarily occupied with over 40,000 soldiers, its fortress buildings used as a prisoner of war camp and three military hospitals were established within the city. From 1916 there was a considerable shortage of food and by November 1918 a workers' and soldiers' council was formed. From the balcony of the town hall a Soviet Republic was called out at short notice. The Treaty of Versailles resulted in a sharp reduction of the German army, and the Ingolstadt armaments companies were forced to switch production. The production of spinning machines by Deutsche Spinnereimaschinenbau AG Ingolstadt (Despag) seemed particularly promising. However, due to the Wall Street Crash in 1929 60% of the workers were dismissed; five hundred remained.  The seizure of power by the Nazis took place on April 27, 1933, when the newly formed City Council elected two Nazi members as Second and Third Mayors. The Lord Mayor Josef Listl, who had been in office since 1930, remained in office until 1945. By the end of June, the city council members of the SPD and the BVP resigned. Nazi attacks were directed in the first months especially against politicians and members of the KPD , who lived mainly in the workers' settlements in the east of the city. The union house was destroyed. More than fifty people were deported to the Dachau concentration camp. During Kristallnacht in 1938 when the SA ravaged the synagogue in the Stegmeier house, 46 Jewish residents still remained in Ingolstadt. Half of the originally around hundred Jews from Ingolstadt had already left the city from the beginning of Nazi rule because of constant reprisals and boycotts. On the morning of November 10, 1938 the last Ingolstadt Jews had to leave the city within an hour's notice. 
The Bavarian King Ludwig III visiting Fort Prinz Karl (what is now the Polizeimuseum) during the First World War. During the Great War future French president Charles de Gaulle was detained here as a prisoner of war as was future Soviet marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky. Construction of the fort began in March 1877 and completed in August 1882 at a cost of almost 1.7 million reichsmarks. During the First World War, the fortress and others served as prison camps. The reason why it was not demolished like all other fortresses after the Second World War can only be guessed at but, given it stored large amounts of ammunition, the Americans were concerned that in the event of an explosion the neighbouring village of Katharinenberg would have been destroyed. Thus, Prince Karl was the only German fort to be completely preserved.
The former Platz der SA is now inaccessible
Theriesenstrasse seen from the church.
From 1943-1944, Bavarian towns were increasingly threatened by air raids by the Royal Air Force and the United States Army Air Force. Smaller towns like Ingolstadt were spared at first and it was only at the beginning of 1945 did the air warfare hit this city on the Danube and changed its cityscape. Although the city was the site of a garrison and numerous armaments factories, Ingolstadt remained largely spared from bombing until the end of the war when, from January 1945, Ingolstadt repeatedly became the target of Allied air attacks . In particular, the southern and eastern town centre and the area of the main station were badly affected with well over six hundred killed. Besides residential buildings, the bombs hit the Stadttheater, the Salzstadel, the Sankt-Anton-Kirche and the Gouvernementsgebäude although the most significant cultural historical loss was probably the baroque Augustinian church of Johann Michael Fischer, whose destruction left an hundred dead. The bombing raids on Ingolstadt claimed around 650 deaths. At least twelve Allied airmen were killed, one of them murdered by a Nazi official. 
After the landings in Normandy in June 1944 and Operation Dragoon in southern France in August 1944, the Anglo-American armies penetrated across France to near the German border. The summer offensive of the Red Army pushed the German troops back to the Vistula region and to the border of East Prussia. The airspace over the entire territory of Germany was almost completely controlled by the Allies at the beginning of 1945. Because of the ever weaker German defence, they could move from the less precise night attacks increasingly on the previously dangerous day attacks. It was then on September 10, 1944 that the USAAF hunter pilot Major John R. Reynolds was shot down over Ingolstadt. To avoid civilian casualties, he moved his crashing Mustang P-51 away from a residential area and jumped from a mere fifty metres from the ground with his parachute. Upon landing, he injured himself and was captured by police when the Ingolstadt Kreisleiter Georg Sponsel, a fanatical Nazi, shot him dead. This murder later resulted in the condemnation and execution of Sponsel after the war. 
The portal of the Liebfrauenkirche.    
On January 15, 1945 Ingolstadt experienced the first major air raid on the city. Already in the early morning hours, 640 long-range bombers and 782 fighters were made ready at the bases of the 8th US Air Force ( 8th Air Force ) stationed in the southeast of England. The daily service provided for air raids on shunting yards in southern Germany. For the attack target Ingolstadt put the 1st Bomber Division 111 bombers of the B-17 "Flying Fortress".  At 11:55 the Luftwarnstelle sounded the air raid alarm which was largely ignored because of a variety of previous false alarms from the population.  The extremely poor visibility affected the lead bomber scout which, finding dense cloud cover the target marker, released the first wave with  480 explosive bombs and 330 incendiary bombs. The fact that the marking bomb was set too early by only fractions of a second had devastating consequences for the village of Feldkirchen as the bulk of the bomb load fell on the old town centre in the vicinity of Marienplatz, with 70% of the buildings destroyed leaving 22 people dead. The actual goal, the Army Munitionsanstalt Ingolstadt at Desching - about a mile further north at today's location of the Esso refinery, was missed. 
The second wave then dropped 1278 fragment bombs over the southern part of the town between Haunwöhr and the flood dam, as well as on an undeveloped area. After another wave of bombing the final report of the local air defence chief reported 28 dead and 29 wounded, as well as the 22 dead and 7 seriously injured in Feldkirchen. On the following Friday, the 19th of January, the funeral service for the first victims of the bombardment took place where, in front of the funeral hall of the municipal cemetery, the coffins were drapped with Nazi flags. The Nazis staged this memorial service with great propaganda effort after representatives of the party, the state, the Wehrmacht, the city and even a chance Hungarian delegation taking part in the square in front of the Aussegnungshalle. Nazi speeches raged against the "Anglo-American murder flyers" and proclaimed allegiance to the "leaders, people and fatherland" accompanied by soft drum rolls the name was read by the Ingolstadt victims. After the numerous wreath-layings the funeral concluded with the singing of Nazi songs.
For Thursday, March 1, 1945, the 8th Air Force had actually planned strategic attacks on airfields of the dangerous new Messerschmitt Me 262 fighters. However, since the meteorologists announced bad weather, the planned targets had to be changed. Thus 253 Consolidated B-24 "Liberator" bombers of the 2nd US Air Division in eastern England were given the main attack target of the Ingolstadt station facilities with the Reichsbahnausbesserungswerk (RAW).  At 12:56, the air-raid warning centre for the Ingolstadt area gave the 183th air-raid alarm. In order to find the planned targets even when the cloud cover was completely closed, the bomber navigators used H2X radar equipment. The tightly closed formation of the four-engined B-24 flew from the west to Ingolstadt Central Station which was undefended as the Ingolstadt Flak forces had been moved from 1944 to such "air raids 1st order" such as Munich, Nuremberg and Augsburg. Between 13:31 to 13:35 the bombers from a height of about 5500 metres triggered in three short successive waves 603.3 tonnes of explosive and incendiary bombs as well as leaflets, counterfeit food tickets et cet.. The major attack took place in an extension of about ten miles along the railway line from Reichertshofen to Oberhaunstadt, with the main focus concentrated on the northern part of the old town which ended up in ruins. A total of 32 damaged sites were left buried. In addition to numerous residential buildings, the Kulturbauamt was completely destroyed. Out of the rubble of the severely damaged municipal hospital on Sebastianstraße, more than an hundred people, mostly seriously ill and the wounded, had to be rescued under the most difficult conditions. The air raid bunker on Rechbergstraße suffered a direct hit.  Extinguishing and salvage work continued throughout the night. The security forces had to secure collapsing buildings, recover furniture from damaged houses, clear roads of debris and mark and seal down sites of unexploded ordnance.  In total the attack left 197 dead and 107 wounded. The Chief of Staff of the 2nd Combat Bombardment Wing involved in this attack on Ingolstadt was the actor Jimmy Stewart.
Adolf-Hitler-Platz, the effects of the war clearly seen
During the 8th US Air Force's attack on April 5, 1945, a total of 1358 long-range bombers and 662 fighters were employed. The Heereszeugamt in Ingolstadt, one of the largest Wehrmacht magazines in Military District VII (Southern Bavaria), was assigned to the 1st US Bomber Division, which attacked with 211 "B-17 Flying Fortress" bombers and 201 P-51 "Mustang" hunters used as escorts. On this sunny and cloudless day three waves dropped, over the parade ground between Ringler and Ettinger streets, a total of 1575 bombs with a total load of 621.4 tonnes and numerous leaflets. The northern area of the target area resembled a single crater landscape with about 70% of the buildings of the Heereszeugamt on the Ringlerstraße as well as the adjoining parade ground destroyed. A direct hit completely destroyed one of the three new barracks blocks of the Max Emanuel barracks on Hindenburgstraße. The adjacent residential development was also affected. There were 52 dead, including 39 civilians in the vicinity of the parade ground, and 56 seriously injured and 170 homeless. 

Adolf-Hitler-Platz
Officially, no Allied air raid on Ingolstadt was scheduled for April 9, 1945, and yet this day was undoubtedly the most fateful day in the city's history of Ingolstadt. That afternoon tightly closed bomber formations flew over the town to operations on the Neuburg air base, the WIFO tank farm near Unterhausen and the airport Munich-Riem which hosted the German Air Force Hunting Association 44 under Lieutenant General Adolf Galland, stationed with Me-262 jet aircraft. On the return flight to their southern English locations, the flight route of these 212 "Flying Fortresses" at an altitude of about 7,000 meters once again led via Ingolstadt. An air-raid alert triggered at 17:09 prompted the few passers-by in the city to flee to the nearest air raid shelter. After the enemy bombers had almost over-flown the city area, suddenly at 17:15 clock ten B-17 bombers flew back in a U-turn. From a height of about 2500 metres, one of these aircraft set a smoke mark above the old city area. The remaining nine bombers arriving from the south-westerly direction promptly unleashed their comparatively low residual load of just 29 tonnes of explosive and incendiary bombs in under a minute, from 17:17 to 17:18. "Adolf-Hitler-Platz" was reduced into a landscape of rubble. Several direct hits on the Augustinerkirche and adjacent Franciscan monastery on Schutterstraße were particularly serious. In the basement of this rococo church dating from 1763, 73 people seeking protection, mostly refugees from Pomerania, died. Only a young woman who could only be rescued from the shattered monastery cellar after ten hours survived. The destruction of the Holy Ghost Hospital was similarly severe, since hardly any of the residents had visited the shelter, and during the bombardment they mostly stayed in their rooms or in the stairwell. Of the nearly hundred elderly people present, sixteen were killed. Further bombing destroyed the former Gouvernementsgebäude with the historic Salzstadel, the Stadttheater am Rathausplatz, the new municipal administration building on Schäffbräustraße, the newly built Donauhalle on Tränktorstraße, the Roli cinema, as well as numerous residential and commercial buildings in the area of Rathausplatz, Donaustraße, Münzbergstraße and Schäffbräustraße.  More than a thousand were made homeless due to the enormous building damage. The alarm ended on that day at 19:42 clock with the "all clear".  After the planes of the 3rd bomber division landed again on their English airfields, six B-17 bombers were missing and 42 were damaged. In addition, 56 crew members were missing and two men were reported as lost.
The entrance to the new schloss.
Two days later the 3rd US bomber division focused its main target on the Rangierbahnhof Ingolstadt and the Manching air base. In cloudless skies, the bombers found their targets from 6,000 metres above sea level. Coming from Donauwörth, the Bomber Federation flew into the Ingolstadt airspace at a strength of 21 waves, each with ten B-17 Flying Fortresses. Thirteen waves of the 4th Combat Bombardment Wing attacked first from 12:42 to 13:05 on the Manchinger air base in which 369 tonnes of bombs were dropped, destroying large parts of the airborne aerial installations, including the runway and the numerous aircraft of the German Air Force parked due to lack of fuel. Immediately after the beginning of the attack, the siren warning signal sounded in Ingolstadt at 12:53. In eight waves, the five groups reduced the station to rubble and ashes with a total of 237 tonnes of bombs. In addition to numerous residential buildings in Ringsee and Münchner Straße this attack, which lasted until 13.41, completely destroyed the St. Anton elementary school, the school barracks on Tillystrasse, and the administrative building of the Bavarian Insurance Chamber. In the renewed attack on the railway facilities, this ammunition train was hit hard again, whereupon hour after hour, one carriage after another began to explode. The damage to the tracks had completely interrupted transit traffic and did not allow the train to leave the danger zone. Because the rumour spread that the charge of the train consisted of "V-2 weapons" broke out, a mass panic took place involving thousands of women, children and elderly under cover of darkness to flee through open fields, gravel pits or the forests outside the town. It was determined that 35 people had been killed and anywhere from three to four hundred left homeless. 
The Hotel Zum Anker where I usually stay in town.
The air raid on April 21, 1945 was the last of its kind and Ingolstadt was left a ruined city. As a result of the burst supply lines, there was no water, gas or electricity. The most important traffic route, the railway, was completely interrupted. The multitude of bombed-out citizens, who went in search of a new home to relatives or acquaintances in the surrounding villages, had to travel this way with their last belongings on foot or at best by bicycle. Even the large siren system, now familiar in wartime life, had been shut down by a blasting bomb.  Nevertheless US fighter-bombers continued to fly with their on-board weapons attacks against Ingolstadt. Hardly anyone ventured out into the streets and whoever did risked paying with his life. In the last four days, no less than 28 fatalities had been reported by low-flying. But even from the other side, the US fighter-bomber pilots, this war in the attack area over Ingolstadt took several times its toll. Thus, on April 25, during a low-flying attack on the station area, the railroad aircraft stationed at the station hit a P-47 "Thunderbolt" from the 396th US fighter squadron on the wing. The machine then went into a jolt, lost altitude and finally crashed at the bridgehead at the Reduit Tilly. The 21-year-old pilot was killed.
The bridge over the Danube before the war and today
After the surrender of Nuremberg on April 20, the American offensive continued to roll on through Regensburg and Passau. Other US troops approached Ingolstadt from Württemberg. Since April 17, the 38th ϟϟ Grenadier Division "Nibelungen" advanced to the Danube. That day Heinz Greiner, the commanding general in the military district, declared the river a main battle line (HKL) and announced that he wanted to hold the city "to the last cartridge".  The Volkssturm and OT men and five hundred Hitler Youth, who had been recruited by the Nazi Gauleitung, were under the command of the local combat commander Major Paul Weinzierl. Weinzierl ended up ordering his troops towards the south in the vicinity of Hohenkammer as the military, Nazi officials and the population questioned if the city would be defended house-by-house. On the morning of April 24, soldiers of the 352nd Volksgrenadier Division, who had previously been involved in heavy defensive fighting west of Eichstätt, arrived in Ingolstadt. At the same time, the 86th US Infantry Division with the 342nd and 343rd US Infantry Regiments had crossed the Altmühl at various points. Since the Ingolstadt siren system had been destroyed in the last air raid on April 21, the bell of the Minster sounded the "Panzeralarm". Most of the population then went to the air raid shelters as, on the orders of the Generalkommando, retreating ϟϟ troops blew up the Danube bridges in Ingolstadt in the early morning of 26 April. 

After its destruction by the ϟϟ on April 26 as the Americans reached the Danube.
From 1.00 to 16.58, the motorway bridge, the railway bridge and the Donaustraßen Bridge collapsed. On the morning of the 26th of April, the "Volksgrenadiere" left for the south, whereupon it had become halfway "peaceful" throughout the city.  By noon, the US Army had covered the city from the west and reached the Danube. The German staff observed from the Brückenkopf barracks the deployment of the Americans on the northern bank of the Danube, but fighting no longer took place. Then American fighter-bombers attacked at low altitude along the southern shore several times. On the northern walls of the Reduit Tilly, damage to the façade caused by this low-flying attack is still visible today. At 21.20 pm, artillery grenades finally enabled the unimpeded passage of the river by soldiers of three companies of the 86th US Division in assault boats. At 23.00, another battalion of the 86th US Division hit the river downstream, crossing the blasted road and railway bridge over a spurce bridge over the Danube. Then at night succeeded in translating more troops with heavy equipment.  Only now did the Americans realize that there were still many German soldiers in the bridgehead. The Americans attacked and threatened to destroy the entire bridgehead with artillery and bombs before a white flag was seen on the morning of April 27, 1945 when the complete bridgehead crew assembled in front of the pioneer barracks on the bridgehead and moved to a prisoner of war camp the next day.  The 86th "Black Hawk" Infantry Division was able to advance to Manching on the same day. Another Danube crossing in the area between Donauwörth to Vohburg was successful, the way to the foothills of the Alps and to Munich open. On May 8, 1945, the headline of the Army newspaper "Stars and Stripes" announced: "Nazi Germany surrendered unconditionally".  The extent of the danger this day to the town is seen in the diaries of the 342nd US Infantry Regiment for April 26 when, at 6.00, an air raid on Ingolstadt was announced, only cancelled at 09.30.
The US Army occupied Ingolstadt after its capitulation by the city commander on April 26, 1945 without a fight. Before this, ϟϟ troops had blown up the Danube bridges. The arrival of about 5,000 refugees and displaced people additionally limited any living space. Fortress buildings were  temporarily used as emergency shelters and, after Würzburg and Regensburg, Ingolstadt had the densest housing occupancy in Bavaria in the post-war period. 
In the last year of the Second World War, Fort VIII near Manching was the branch of the destroyed Wehrmacht prison in Munich in which during 1944-1945 76 Wehrmacht soldiers were killed for desertion; today there is an honorary grove to them in the Westfriedhof.
 

Eichstätt
 
Cycling to Eichstatt with Willibaldsburg in the background with the Hofmühl. It was because Reichsstraße 13 going through Eichstätt had been the shortest road connection between Munich and Nuremberg, and on to Berlin that Hitler himself visited the city several times where he was often found at the Waldschlösschen restaurant. The popular belief had been that Hitler and its owner, Carl Eduard Matheis, had been regimental comrades during the Great War although after a complete review of the 14th Infantry Division's archives, shows Matheis did not; in fact, very few soldiers from the Ingolstadt region were. Hitler had first visited Eichstätt on 24 February 1923 and spoke in the parade hall which had stood next to the summer residence on the Hofgarten, and was later used as a gymnasium and factory hall before being demolished to build the new university buildings. The Nazis would attack the local paper, the Eichstätter Volkszeitung, for "spitting poison and bile against our movement."  
Hitler spent the Sunday, March 13, 1932 presidential election in Eichstätt; of note is the town's election result where Hindenburg received 3, 243 votes to Hitler's 1, 145. In fact, the Nazis at first found it difficult to establish a place in Eichstätt given that the biggest party in the town had long been held by the Bavarian People's Party. Thus, even after the so-called seizure of power the Nazis only managed in the parliamentary election 1, 558 votes in the March 5, 1933 national election compared to the Bavarian People's Party's 2,493. Nevertheless, on Hitler's birthday a torchlight procession in Mörnsheim was held as well as a significant birthday banner raised with the school square renamed Adolf-Hitler-Platz.  On Tuesday, July 18, 1933 the Eichstätter Kurier reported that "[a]fter five o'clock yesterday afternoon the news spread in our town that Herr Chancellor Adolf Hitler and his staff had arrived at the Waldschlösschen yesterday morning," being greeted joyfully with a child handing him flowers. The League of German Girls, the auxiliary police and the state police had served as a sort of honour guard as Hitler arrived after a meeting in Leipzig. The next recorded visit was Saturday, August 19, 1933 as Hitler was travelling to Nuremberg, lunching with his staff at the Waldschlösschen. He made a return visit on Wednesday, August 30, 1933, again stopping at the Waldschlösschen.
 Pfahlstasse
In December 1933 Hitler was awarded the honorary citizenship of the city. Hitler thanked the town council on December 12 and formally accepted it. On Friday, April 20, 1934, Hitler spent his birthday at the Waldschlösschen; after he drove off his car became stuck in a traffic jam during roadworks near Lohrmannshof where it was reported that  "he was the subject of a warm ovation from the construction workers."  Other visits Hitler made to Eichstätt were Sunday, March 18, 1934; Thursday, June 6 and Monday, June 17, 1935; and Tuesday, July 9, 1935, whilst travelling from Beilngries to Ingolstadt, apparently visiting the construction site of the highway shown above.  In 1935 the Nazis built the Eichstätter Thingstätte on the Geisberg in the then independent municipality of Wintershof, shown below, in which Gauleiter Julius Streicher was present at the inauguration ceremony on July 6, 1935 even though it was only completed in 1937. During the war in the eastern suburb of Eichstätt was located the prisoner of war camp Oflag VII B. In addition, on the Willibaldsburg from October 1944 to January 1945 there was the site of an external subcamp of the concentration camp Flossenbürg which held 22 inmates. Given the PoW camp, the war itself saw Eichstätt suffering no casualties and in contrast to the surrounding communities and towns, no significant war damage from Allied attacks was sustained before being occupied on April 26, 1945 by American troops. 
 
This Hitler Jugend haus, completed in 1938, is still a Youth Hostel. The inauguration of the extension was held April 16, 1939. Such is the build-up of suburbia around the site that a corresponding photograph couldn't be taken.
On the left, the cathedral in 1936 and today with, on the right, Westenstraße with Saint Walburg church in the background. During the Nazi era, Bishop Konrad Count von Preysing was the only Catholic bishopric of Germany to turn against the Reichskonkordat, which was agreed by the Holy See and the Reichsregierung in 1933.
Residenzplatz during the Nazi era and today. Eichstätt's stately and tranquil surroundings have witnessed a dark past. During the Thirty Years' War the city, which was considered the "stronghold of Catholicism", was conquered and looted by the Swedes. As a result, on February 12, 1634 much of the town's centre was almost completely destroyed. It wasn't until the end of the 18th century that the Baroque reconstruction of the city by Graubünden and Italian master builders, especially Gabriel de Gabrieli as seen in these pictures was completed. Although since the Middle Ages the area around Eichstätt was known for its winegrowing- the terraces are partly still visible today- through climate change and the devastation of the Thirty Years' War the wine was finally abandoned. As with Freising, from 1582 to 1723 at least 241 people- 211 women (88%) and thirty men (12%) were charged and arrested on suspicion of so-called witchcraft in Eichstätt. 222 of them (195 women, 27 men) were sentenced to death and executed in these witch trials , including Kunigunde Sterzl , Eva Hohenschildin and Helena Schneckin.
As for the rest, either their death sentences were commuted, they died during detention or were eventually released. The main phase of the witch persecution in Hochstift Eichstätt lasted from 1617 to 1630 and fell into the reign of Prince-Bishop Johann Christoph von Westerstetten. During these fourteen years, at least 185 arrests and trials and 167 executions of 141 women and 26 men for witchcraft had been conducted, of which between four and 25 death sentences were pronounced each year. The last known execution for witchcraft took place in Eichstätt in 1723.  
The consequences of the November Revolution ending Germany's involvement in the Great War also involved Eichstätt which saw a workers 'and soldiers' council form. After his conviction  writer and playwright, politician, and socialist revolutionary Ernst Toller was imprisoned from February 3, 1920 to July 15, 1924 in the provisional fortress prison of Eichstätt. On December 15, 1918, the Magistrate's Council decided to establish a vigilante group although its implementation took several more months. The Freikorps Oberland was founded in April 1919 in Ingolstadt and Eichstätt by Albert von Beckh and was closely associated with the right-wing Thule Society which in turn is seen as one of the main influences on the later Nazi party. The Freikorps was used in May 1919 in the battles against the Munich Soviet Republic. Parts of the Free Corps were then taken over with parts of the Free Corps Epp in the Reichswehr Brigade 21 and 1920 used as a closed association during the Ruhraaufstands.
Residenzstrasse
The Free Corps itself was formally dissolved on October 21, 1919 but many of its members joined a volunteer battalion in the organisation Escherich. In the suppression of the uprisings in Upper Silesia in 1921, the Free Corps was significantly involved in the storming of St. Annaberg in Upper Silesia where they formed a murder and kidnapping squad. The murderers of Matthias Erzberger- leader of the Zentrum Party and who had signed the Treaty of Versailles- Heinrich Tillessen and Heinrich Schulz  belonged not only to the Organisation Consul, but also to the "Arbeitsgemeinschaft Oberland". They are also believed to have been responsible for the murder of the USPD politician Karl Gareis. In 1923 under its company commander, veterinarian Friedrich Weber, was sentenced alongside Hitler to five years imprisonment for treason after the failed Beer Hall putsch. On 15 February 1934 Weber was appointed "Reichsführer of the German veterinarians," later being appointed Honorary Professor of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Berlin on July 26, 1939. He took the rank of ϟϟ group leader in 1944, bearing the Blood Order and the Golden Party badges.
 
The Willibaldsbrunnen shows a remarkably unchanged marktplatz in large part thanks to the town's youth:  "The brave boys instantly got their hoses and connected to the water, and it was a real pleasure to see the Pimpfe and Hitler-Jungen rush to the fire" according to the Eichstätter Heimatzeitung on March 13, 1943. Already in July 1940 the party announced: "7, 000 Hitler Youth are under the fireman's helmet." The average age was 16 years. The training lasted for six months, and the youth learned to operate all fire equipment, "so that they can collaborate with experienced firefighters at each deployment."
 
Along the canal looking towards the Altmühl
Overlooking Eichstätt from the remains of the Thingstätte, built in 1935 and opened on Saturday, July 6, 1935 that year. Such open-air theatres were built between 1933 and 1936 for the Thingspiele, events attempting to evoke an emotional and ethical emergence of the individual within the national community. For this reason, places of particular importance were selected as their sites; surrounded by forests, in waters embedded in hills or natural rocks, at ruins or other traces of local history. As a result they were exposed to the uncertainties of the weather. Given the lack of enthusiam by the general public they quickly fell out of use or were converted for use for political rallies.
It was declared at its formal opening service: "National Socialists of district Eichstätt! Our splendid Thingstätte on the holy mountain has received its consecration by the Frankenführer Gauleiter Julius Streicher. The day is a landmark in the history of our movement to which 18,077 working hours and 118 days have been donated. The Holy Mountain is to become a work worthy of the glorious location and the lofty aim of the movement. Forward with Hitler. Long live our leader and his glorious movement." 
The cornerstone was laid on April 6, 1935 by the Nazi district leader, Walter Krauss, mayor from 1934 to 1938. The SA and party members built the stage and the rows of spectators. The completion of the Thingstättenhaus (now Café and Hotel Schönblick) took place on September 5, 1935. For the Nazis the High Cross overlooking the site, which had been erected in 1854 to give thanks for the sparing of the cholera, was an issue. The removal of the Monument Cross, cast in the Obereichstätt smelting works, was prevented by the resistance of Christian-minded citizens from Wintershof and Eichstätt. Thus when the Nazis spoke of the "Holy Mountain", they did not refer to the High Cross.
Although in ruins today, immediately after the war on August 9, 1946, it was used for a choir meeting for the Latvian refugees living in Franconia attended by seven hundred singers who had previously celebrated a service in the Protestant church and then climbed up the mountain. In June 1963 the diocese of Eichstätt hosted the Diocesan Frogschartag iin which at least 1,200 girls between the ages of ten and fourteen from all over the diocese celebrated a church service. Finally in 1988 another attempt was made to revive the Thingstätte open-air stage through Martin Walser's "Eiche und Angora", performed as part of the Summer Games programme. The site was chosen intentionally for a play about a simple man in the last days of the war who never manages to recognise political changes in time. Its organiser, Heinrich Vergho, stated that "[o]f course, at first we had some reservations about acting on this site built by the Nazis. But the topic almost forced us to use the venue and it provided multiple impulses to the production. "


Mühldorf
 In the course of the so-called 1918 November Revolution, a workers 'and soldiers' council was formed in Mühldorf. On the evening of April 25 1919 Mühldorf was also occupied by a group of Spartakists; five days later the insurgents were brutally disarmed and arrested by government troops. Hitler gave a speech to 5000 here at the Mühldorfer Rennbahn in June 1931. His followers, including Ernst Rohm, were all dressed in white shirts as a march in the Braun shirt had been banned in the run-up. In 1933, the Mühldorf town council made Hitler an honorary citizen. As in the rest of the country, under the Nazis anti-Semitic measures began in Mühldorf although there were only two Jewish families in the city- the Michaelis family and the Hellmann family. Fritz Michaelis, a bearer of the Iron Cross as well as the wounded badge, had to close his business in April 1937. Horse merchant Hellmann was able to pursue his business until 1938, but finally had to close after being attacked in the pages of Der Sturmer. Nevertheless the city remained spared from the November pogroms in 1938.    
In 1944, the construction of a huge secret bunker complex for the production of the Messerschmitt Me 262 began, outlined below. In March 1945, the war came to Mühldorf for the first time- on March 19, seven hundred American planes, including 250 B-24 bombers, dropped 6,000 bombs over the city, mainly above the railway station, one of the largest transhipment stations in Bavaria, killing 129 people, including numerous children. A month later, on April 20, bombs were dropped again over the city and killed fifteen citizens. The two attacks destroyed about 40% of the entire residential area, numerous commercial and industrial plants as well as 330,000 m² of track systems, the real target of the attacks. On 25 April the forest camp was cleared and the prisoners removed. Around 44 American air personnel are thought to have perished during the return flight following one of these raids. Civilian casualties are believed to be much higher due to many aircraft crews being unable to identify their primary objectives. On May 2, American troops from the 47th Panzer Battalion of the 14th Division finally reached the city from the west. Mayor Gollwitzer was able to convince the Mühldorfer combat commander to refrain from defending the city, surrendering the city to the American battalion commander without any struggle. However, withdrawing German troops still blew up the bridge. After the war, 480 prisoners from a mass grave of the forest camp were buried at the concentration camp concentration camp in Mühldorf. On the day of the funeral, on June 2, 1945, a large part of the population, men, women and children had gathered in response to the US military administration, horrified by the disinternment  of hundreds of corpses whose coffins had been opened for inspection , The inhabitants were ordered to the cemetery, which was surrounded by tanks four times in June. The memorial stone on Ahamerstraße speaks only generally of victims and does not mention that they were murdered concentration camp prisoners. Due to increased activity of British and American bombing, Germany was forced to concentrate on fighter aircraft and the regime ordered all factories still producing bombers to immediately begin production of defensive fighter aircraft through what was known as known as the Jaegerprogramm. Under this plan, it was envisioned that the bunker in Mühldorf, once completed, would produce over 900 of the new Messerschmitt Me-262 jetfighters per month. To ensure this figure, the production of various Me-262 parts were to be divided amongst local workshops within the region. For example, the bunker here in Mettenheim was tasked with producing the engines and airframes while the final production and assembly would take place in the Landsberg bunker. From there, the aircraft could use the makeshift runway to take off and fly to their destination.  Germany’s civil and military engineering group, the Organisation Todt, planned and organised the secret project which was called "Weingut I".  A project of this scale required a large workforce. At the beginning of 1942, the Germans had forcefully recruited millions of people from occupied territories to work as labourers in the German armament industry. The man in charge of this was Fritz Sauckel, Generalbevollmaechtigten fuer den Arbeitseinsatz. Alone the bunker in the Mettenheim would require at least 8,000 workers. Organisation Todt supplied the engineers, management and master chiefs whilst the majority of the ten thousand labourers were composed of prisoners of war and concentration camp inmates from Dachau. Concentration camp inmates were classified as Hilfsarbeiter and "paid" sixty Pfennigs an hour at the end of each month; in fact, the inmates never saw the money. 
Despite the massive visible damage on the only surviving arch (twelve were originally planned), the structure permits some insight into the construction techniques used to build it. The original plans called for the bunker to be 400 metres in length from east to west. A single semi circular roof arch was to measure 33 metres in width and was separated from the next arch by a 30-centimetre gap, which was to be covered as soon as the bunker was completed. The entire width of the bunker arch was 85 meters. The thickness of the roof was precisely 3 meters to which another two metres of concrete were to be added upon completion for a total thickness of five metres. The top layer of the roof was to be covered with earth to promote tree and plant growth which would serve as natural camouflage against enemy aerial reconnaissance. A 5 metre thick wall was planned to cover both entrances which would add safety in case of air attacks and ground fire. Once the concrete foundations were planted, gravel and earth were shovelled over the closed Entnahmetunnel and foundations to help in the shaping of the arches. As soon as this was completed, the semicircular mound was smoothed and flattened and then covered with a 10 centimetre-thick layer of concrete.

Long metal rods were then inserted into the think concrete layer to act as the starting point for the three meter thick bunker roof. Most of the cement was created at the nearby cement mixing sites. Pumps pumping liquid cement were also employed in the building process.  It was originally planned that the bunker would have eight internal levels. Plans were also drawn up to add stairs, elevators and more pillars for added structural support although such plans were never realised given the war situation. By the end of April 1945, only seven arches had been completed due to disruptions in the supply of materials, air raids and lack of skilled workers. 

The bunker itself was never bombed by the Allies. American troops reached the Inn River on May 2, 1945 and occupied the bunker and appropriate construction sites. Interestingly enough, the Americans allowed the involved firms to reclaim their equipment – possibly as means of reparations. In the summer of 1947, the Americans began placing explosives inside the bunker and parts of the nearby air raid shelter for demolishing purposes. After numerous tries, the Americans finally succeeded using 120 tonnes of dynamite. It was found that the bunkers' arches were collapsed. 
From 1982 to 1983, a rumour began to circulate that there were still Wehrmacht supplies of a chemical nature being stored in the bunker. Only after an extensive cover-up did the government finally, in 1987, remove these chemicals. Under pressure from various groups, the bunker was eventually added to a Bavarian list of historic memorials which did not stop the Bundesfinanzministerium in 1991 from proposing to destroy the bunker site. Despite massive protests, demolition work took place in 1995-1996 with the tearing down of the nearby air raid shelter ruins. Due to this incident, the future existence of this historical site is questionable.


Weilheim
Weilheim
Adolf-Hitler-Platz then and now 

The Vier-Jahreszeiten-Brunnen at the former Adolf-Hitler-Platz and today


NS-Kreistag at the site on June 16, 1938 showing from the left NS-Kreisleiter Hausböck (Garmisch-Partenkirchen, NS-Kreisleiter Dennerl (Weilheim), Stellv. Gauleiter Nippold and Gauleiter Wagner. 
Weilheim played a role after the failed Beer Hall coup of November 9, 1923 when Hitler fled to Uffing am Staffelsee to hide under the protection of Helene Hanfstaengl, whose husband Ernst Hanfstaengl was also involved in the coup. Two days later on Sunday, November 11 Lieutenant Rudolf Belleville, the Commander in Chief of Landeswehr Weilheim, received the order to arrest Hitler at Villa Hanfstaengl at 16.20. In Uffing at the villa of Hanfstaengl's mother Katharina he searched with ten state police officers and a gendarme for an hour and a half. Only after a direct telephone conversation with Helene Hanfstaengl did he go to their villa. Shortly before their arrival Hitler dictated his political will.  According to Hanfstaengl's at times self-serving memoirs, Helene eluded Hitler's pistol. Hitler was finally arrested without resistance by Belleville, whom he had personally known. The group then drove back here to Weilheim where Hitler spent the night and at 10.45 the next day Hitler was taken by 39 guards to the fortress prison in Landsberg-am-Lech.



Otto Hoffmeister Haus  
Otto Hoffmeister Haus, used as a youth hostel during the Third Reich


Rosenheim
It was at the Marienbad Sanitarium in Rosenheim that Hermann Wilhelm Göring was born on 12 January 1893. The photo on the right shows the SA marching during the the April 1, 1933 boycott of Jewish-owned businesses. Their signs read: "Germans shop in German stores! The Jew is stirring up hate against Germany! Therefore, do not go to Jewish stores!" 
The number of Jews living in Rosenheim was high compared to other Bavarian cities. However, at the start of the 20th century, the Jewish community consisted of about 50 people. The request to the city council for establishment of a separate Jewish religious association, with reference to the Bavarian-Jewish legislation, was refused, so the Rosenheim Jews remained attached to the state capital, where their dead also had to be buried. Even the funeral of the First World War fallen son of a Jewish merchant based in Rosenheim at the city cemetery was refused and was "the biggest disappointment and the bitterest pain" for the father.  With the creation of the first local Nazi group outside of Munich in 1920, the Rosenheim Jews saw increasing hostility where the main centre of hate campaigns was the Rosenheim School. A scandal occurred in June 1920, after a reader accused the writer of a letter entitled 'Rosenheimer Jews' who wanted to repeal the provisions of the Versailles Treaty and hold military exercises at the Rosenheim School. Seven members of the high school and a member of the "Chiemgau" then raided a villa inhabited by Jews in the Herbststrasse. Rosenheim's college on July 29, 1920 came to the conclusion that "... it was regrettable that the people's movement to fight exploitative Jews[...], which certainly was justified in its nature, has been discredited."
Protests of the Bavarian Jewish Central Association were unsuccessful, only an unmistakable message of the Bavarian Interior Ministry September 1920 was able to maintain peace.  On April 1, 1933, shortly after the Nazi seizure of power, guards were set up in front of Jewish shops, warning against buying in these stores, but to desist assault and criminal damage. A large proportion of the population ignored these calls. The shops were therefore still frequented, much to the annoyance of Nazi activists who acted with the backing of then-Mayor Gmelch. Despite the support of the population, six of the eleven Jewish business owners gave up their businesses by 1937. The assassination of German diplomat vom Rath by the Jew Herschel Grynszpan on November 7 1938 in Paris, was taken as a final opportunity to strike against the Jews. The SA came on 10 November at 3–4 o'clock in the morning with 8 to 10 men to the last two Jewish shops and destroyed their inventory and merchandise.  The fate of many Rosenheim Jews is documented. Those who could, emigrated - mostly in the United States. However, many failed in their entry and exit applications and would end up murdered in concentration camps.

SA marching during the Party Congress in Rosenheim on 1 September 1929 with the same site on Max-Josefs-Platz today.  The number of Jews living in Rosenheim was high compared to other Bavarian cities. Although the Jewish community at the time of the turn of the century included about 50 persons, the application for the founding of a separate Israelite cult association was denied by the municipal authorities with reference to the Bavarian legislation on the Jews, so that the Rosenheim Jews remained connected to the state capital and bury their dead there Had to. Even the funeral of the son of a Jewish merchant in Rosenheim, who died in the First World War, in the city's cemetery, was not allowed "to the greatest disappointment and pain" of his father.  At the latest with the founding of the first Nazi locality outside Munich in 1920, the Rosenheim Jews were increasingly exposed to hostility. Thus, in June 1920, the scribe of a reader's letter reproached the Rosenheim Jews in the local press for betraying the Entente's military exercises against the provisions of the Versailles Treaty at Rosenheim Gymnasium. Seven members of the Gymnasium and a member of the "Chiemgau" fell upon a villa inhabited by Jews in the autumn road, but they could not storm. On July 29, 1920, the Collegium of the City of Rosenheim decided that "... it was unfortunate that the movement to fight a popular Jewry [...], which is certainly justified in its nature, will be discredited by such excesses." Protests Of the Bavarian Israeli Central Union remained unsuccessful, and an unmistakable communication from the Bavarian Ministry of the Interior of September 1920 could restore peace.  Within the scope of the November pogroms of the Reich, the SA entered the last two Jewish shops between 3 and 4 o'clock in the morning on November 10, 1938, and destroyed inventory and goods.  The fate of numerous Rosenheim Jews is documented. Who could emigrate - mostly to the USA. However, many entry and exit requests failed and many were assassinated in concentration camps.
Hitler giving a speech to a crowd on the 15th anniversary of the Nazi chapter in Rosenheim, the first major Nazi Ortsgruppe to have formed outside Munich, at Max Joseph Square on August 11 1935.
Hitlerjugend during Kriegstag in 1942.
From the beginning of bombing raids on German cities in the spring of 1942, Rosenheim was not spared. In November 1943 there were shelters for only 650 people for a city population of approximately 22,000. However, by February 1944 shelters had been built for about 6400 people and in conjunction with other shelters a total of 10,525 people could be protected.  During fourteen bomb attacks, 201 people were killed and 179 injured. The focus of the air attacks was the railway station and the railway tracks, as Rosenheim was an important transportation hub between Munich, Salzburg and Innsbruck. The neighbouring communities of Ziegelberg, Stephanskirchen, Westerndorf St. Peter and Oberpfaffenhofen were also hit. The first air attack on October 20, 1944 at lunch time from 12:47 to 13:17 with over a hundred aircraft, dropped 1,000 bombs, leaving 27 dead and 59 wounded. The heaviest air raid took place on 18 April 1945. From 14:40 to 14:55 around 200 to 1300 aircraft dropped bombs in the area around the station, resulting in 53 dead and 36 injured, in addition, this attack also made 800 people homeless. The station building was almost completely destroyed, railway tracks were destroyed over a length of 20 kilometres. The last air attacks were made on April 19 and 21, 1945. During the war the majority of at least 173 duds were recovered. In 1964, the Oberbayerische Volksblatt reported that the approximate location of 38 undiscovered unexploded ordnance was known.
 
The Flötzinger Bräustüberl, where Hitler spoke on April 21, 1921. The photo on the left shows owner Franz Xaver Simson in front of the window the year before. He celebrated his birthday here in 1925. Ten years later, after an operation to remove a polyp on May 23, Hitler spoke here for the first time on August 11, 1935. The NSDAP chapter in Rosenheim was celebrating its fifteenth anniversary; as mentioned above, it was the first major NS Ortsgruppe to have formed outside Munich. Hitler made use of the opportunity to rail against his domestic opponents and to support current action being taken against Stahlhelm members and former Centrists.

Traunstein
The kriegsgräberstätte Hallabruck hufschlag war cemetery. In 1951 Traunstein agreed to create a military cemetery on the district of Hohes Kreuz, established in agreement with the Bavarian State Government. Various renowned artists put their skills to prepare for the war dead of the Chiemgau a worthy final resting place. The solemn inauguration followed on May 30, 1954; a general renovation took place in 1994 her graduation. 1,037 war dead from 73 different communities found their final resting place here, including among them 26 soldiers of the First World War alongside 57 victims of the bombing attack on Traunstein on April 18, 1945. The cemetery is located on a slope of the steep bank high above the Traun allowing vistors to look over the city to the nearby Chiemgau Alps. A narrow footpath leads from the city up the slope, towards the wooden shingle-covered chapel. A colourful glass window lets subdued light into the high room, from whose centre the stone figure of the Archangel Michael protrudes. On the round wall of the chapel in Sgraffito the names of the dead buried in the cemetery are copmmemorated. On the slightly curved rows of graves rise from the plant dress of St. John's wort and lilies symbolic stone cross groups like the silent watch. The grave of each dead person is marked with a name plate of burned clay. Beech and oak trees arch their mighty tops over the square concluding with a ten metre high wooden cross framed by the foliage of the surrounding trees. 
< With the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 an active period of persecution for political dissidents and Jewish fellow citizens began. By November 1938 all Jewish residents of the town had been forcibly removed. Open political resistance during the war years was limited; the town priest, Josef Stelze, was placed briefly in custody, Rupert Berger, Bavarian People's Party representative and the first post-war elected Mayor of Traunstein, was for a period incarcerated in the Dachau concentration camp. In 1939 Traunstein had an estimated population of 11,500. By the end of the war 523 of that number were registered as killed as a direct result of the conflict, a further 73 registered as missing. During the later stages of the Second World War Traunstein was four times the target of American aerial bombardment: on November 11, 1944, on January 21, 1945, on April 18, 1945, and finally on April 25, 1945. It was in April 1945 that the heavy air raids destroyed much of the Traunstein station area, an event in which over an hundred people died. Shortly after on May 2, 1945, a train with Jewish concentration camp detainees passed through Traunstein. The following day 61 of the detainees were shot in Surberg, where a memorial commemorates them. The town surrendered without a struggle on May 3, 1945. During the war a subcamp of Dachau concentration camp was located here. 

Wartenberg
Now the Gasthaus Bründlhof, from a 1940 postcard when it was the Tirolerstube and had a photo of Hitler gracing the wall.

Niedernfels






Now the Franz von Sales School, a state-recognised private primary and secondary school in the pedagogical centre in Niedernfels Castle west of Marquartstein in the Chiemgau, during the Nazi era it served as the so-called Gaufhreschule of the Gaus Munich-Oberbayern.