Remaining Nazi Sites in Baden-Württemberg (2)

Adolf-Hitler-Straße in 1936, 1942 and today, its name reverted back to Hauptstraße. It was here during the Occupation of the Ruhr following the Great War that French troops had occupied Offenburg as it fell within the perimeter of the Kehl bridgehead. The French occupation forces entered the town in February 1923 and stayed until 1924, blocking any traffic on the Rhine Valley Railway between Offenburg and Appenweier.  During the Second World War the civilian population was exposed to various restrictions, such as evacuation measures after the war in 1939 and against the end of 1945, due to its proximity to the French border. In addition, parts of the population were involved in work related to the construction of the West Wall. In the course of the Second World War, the railway facilities in the north-east of the city of Offenburg were repeatedly the target of attacks by the Allied air forces. The heaviest air attack that hit Offenburg on November 27, 1944 was Operation 727 of the USAAF.  On April 15, 1945, the town suffered the humiliation of French troops marching into the city from the north and taking over the military and administrative force.
The war memorial when it was on Platz der SA on Adolf-Hitler-Straße. Following Hitler's rise to power in the 1930s the Jewish population fell victim to acts of repression that in the pre-war era culminated in the vandalism of the local synagogue in November 1938. After the war had begun, those members of the Jewish population that had not managed to emigrate were deported in October 1940 to the concentration camp of Gurs and in 1942 from there to Auschwitz. At least from the beginning of the 19th century, Jewish families were resident in the city. The inn "Zum Salmen" was converted into a synagogue in 1875. In the course of the November pogroms, the synagogue and a Jewish café were devastated on November 10, 1938, and items from the synagogue, such as the Torah, were burned in front of the town hall. All adult male inhabitants of Jewish faith were arrested and deported to the Dachau concentration camp. Before that, they were driven to the station by members of the ϟϟ in a one-half-hour march, during which they were humbled and beaten. On October 22, 1940, the last German Jews living in Offenburg were deported to the Camp de Gurs as part of the Wagner-Bürckel campaign. This is reminiscent of a monument in Neckarzimmern as well as a memorial built in 1990 at the Jewish cemetery. In the cemetery is also a memorial, with which is reminded of victims of forced labour. Towards the end of the Second World War, Gestapo officials committed murders in the Rammersweier Forest. On November 27, 1944, four French girls were murdered by their necks, and on the 6th of December, eleven family fathers who wanted to evade forced recruitment. It is also thought of as a monument. Since there was no longer a Jewish community in Offenburg after the war, the supreme council of the Israelis of Baden was selling the building of the synagogue. The front building was demolished in 1955 and a residential and commercial building was built. Today a memorial erected in 1978 recalls the events.
The memorial to Sir Francis Drake by sculptor André Friedrich which, for 80 years graced the centre of Offenburg, was eventually destroyed in 1939 by the Nazis. On 17 July 1853, the monument was unveiled at the Town Hall; 86 years later it was destroyed by Nazi fanatics angered that the rathaus, now on Platz der SA, had a monument to a foreigner (who gave his name to my son).
The rathaus then with the statue and today
Hitlerjugend at the Kinzigdamm with the town church in the background
 In World War II, owing to the geographical proximity to the French border, Offenburg was either exposed to temporary evacuations during the Battle of France in 1940 or artillery fire towards the final stages of World War II. Though only being a primary target on one occasion during World War II on November 27, 1944 when a force of more than 300 USAAF B-17 and Liberator bombers attacked the marshalling yards, many tactical attacks were flown during 1944 and 1945 against the railway installations.  

Schwäbisch Hall  
Nazi eagle decorating a branch of Sparkasse.
In 1934, Hall was officially named Schwäbisch Hall. During the Third Reich a Luftwaffe air base was built at Hessental. During Reichskristallnacht on November 9 1938, local Nazis burned the synagogue in Steinbach and devastated shops and houses of Jewish citizens. Approximately 40 Jewish citizens of Schwäbisch Hall fell victim to the Holocaust in extermination camps in Eastern Europe. In 1944 a concentration camp was established next to the train station Hall-Hessental. The train station at Hall was targeted by an American air raid on February 23, 1945, but the devastation was mostly limited to the suburbs of St. Katharina and Unterlimpurg. The town was occupied by US Army troops on April 17, 1945 without serious resistance; though several buildings were destroyed or damaged, the historical old town suffered comparatively little.
The Neues Krankenhaus Diakonie-Klinikum with swastikas and today
Some tough nuts suspected of major war crimes were kept in the old penitentiary in the pretty town of Schwäbisch Hall near Stuttgart. Here prisoners were subjected to some particularly nasty forms of interrogation. Old boys included SS commanders Sepp Dietrich, Fritz Kraemer and Hermann Priess, all of whom denied issuing orders to shoot prisoners of war. Seventy-four SS men were finally arraigned for the massacre of American servicemen at Malmédy, but many of their confessions were subsequently withdrawn because they said they had been extracted under torture. One of the last to break was the cigar-chewing SS officer Jochen Peiper, who was suspected of being chiefly responsible for the massacre. The Americans had used methods similar to those employed by the SS in Dachau. ...The screams of the prisoners in Schwäbisch Hall could be heard throughout the little country town. The torturers were not all American: they included vengeful Polish guards like those mentioned by Salomon. The archbishop of Cologne, Cardinal Joseph Frings, kept a tally of reports of American brutality.
 MacDonogh (406) After the Reich
March 21, 1943 and today showing the Wasserturm and decked with Nazi flags

The Nationaltheater just before its destruction in 1943 and today as it was rebuilt in 1957 at Goethe Place rather than in the same location as the original National Theatre, based on the designs of the architect Gerhard Weber.
 The schloss seen at the end of Kurpfalzstraße in 1943 and today. 
The Friedrich-List-Schule in 1941 and today.  It was here that Albert Speer was born and where, on December 9, 1945, in a relatively trivial automobile accident near Mannheim, Patton sustained a severe injury. His neck broken, the general was paralysed from the neck down. Pulmonary oedema and congestive heart failure developed, and George S. Patton Jr. died on December 21, 1945. During the Third Reich, at least 2,262 of Mannheim's Jews were despatched for extermination. Air raids on Mannheim almost completely destroyed the city during the Second World War. Since Mannheim was an important industrial centre for Nazi Germany, it was heavily damaged during aerial bombing by the R.A.F. and the U.S.A.A.F. In addition to bombing the important factories, the R.A.F. razed the city centre of Mannheim with night-time area bombing. Some sources state that the first deliberate so-called "terror bombing" of German civilians by the R.A.F. occurred at Mannheim on December 16, 1940.  The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Mannheim in late March 1945, which was potentially well-defended by German forces, however, they suddenly abandoned the city and the U.S. 44th Infantry Division entered unopposed on March 29, 1945. To this day a large American military presence in the Mannheim area remains.
The former Zeughaus (armoury) sporting two Nazi flags during the war in front and today after having reopened in 2007 to house on its three floors various aspects of art and cultural history from the ancient to Mannheim's city history and modern photography.
 The Jesuitenkirche on Schillerplatz in 1943 and today, swastikas replaced by a Canadian ensign on the back of my bike.
The Rosengarten under construction in 1900 and today. Hitler spoke here in 1928
The railway station then and now. In January 1935 during the plebiscite determined the Saarland's future; 90% of voters chose to return to Germany. The event filled the populations of both the Saarland and the rest of Germany with genuine enthusiasm which Hitler turned into a rather benign propaganda coup. Here is how Reich minister Hans Frank remembered the return of the region to Germany when Hitler arrived in Mannheim:
I remember stopping late in the evening in Mannheim [where] there was a stormy jostling all around [Hitler] and shouts of Heil. The masses rushed together around his window and grabbed for his hand. One lot of flowers after another rained down on him through the window, and there was no end to the enthusiastic celebration. He spoke with the people in simple, heart-felt words, always, asking if they were happy with him and his work. And the approval filled with thanks swelled up to the national hymn, which rang far and wide above and beyond the shining railway platform. It was the most genuine contact of a national leader with his nation which anyone can imagine. We experienced it. No one can persuade us otherwise, for we were his dumb eye and ear witnesses who were most deeply moved time and again.
H. Frank (209-11) Im angesicht des Galgens
Grillo Theater in 1941 and its current incarnation. The building was badly damaged in the Second World War and was restored with a much simpler façade and re-opened in 1950 with Wagner's opera Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg.   
The palace in 1938 bedecked in swastikas and today with my bike in the foreground, sporting the red ensign.

 Kloster Maulbronn

Hitler visited what has been described as the best-preserved Cistercian Monastery in Europe in 1927. Recorded in his 'Table Talk' on the "5th September 1942, midday", Hitler spoke of the monastery at Maulbronn as
 one of the most beautiful in existence, thanks chiefly to the fact that it ceased to be a monastery in the Middle Ages and has not, like so many others of its kind, been altered or modernised in any way. The rules of the Order, which I have read, were extremely severe. In winter the monks had but one room heated; this common room was built over a cellar, in which fires were lighted and from which pipes led the hot air into the room above. The Romans employed the same system two thousand years ago, and the remains of their heating installations are still visible in the castle at Saalburg.
The site would provide the location for the filming of one of "Hitler's Irish Movies", Mein Leben für Irland, a Nazi propaganda movie from 1941 directed by Max W. Kimmich, covering a story of Irish heroism and martyrdom over two generations under the occupation of the evil British. The movie was produced for Nazi-occupied Europe with the intent of challenging pro-British allegiances; instead audiences identified the Irish struggle with their own resistance against the Nazis.   

 Hitler spoke here to 60,000 people on April 9, 1932
The Friedensschule at Mozartstraße 12 dates from the 1930s and still sports the Nazi eagle
 The Burenhaus then and today. After taking power in 1933, the NSDAP used the building as its party headquarters. Given its location at the centre of the marktplatz, it was ideally suited for parades and national celebrations and party events. In common parlance, the building soon became known as the 'Brown House'. Its fuhrer balcony was created and remains today, the Nazi eagle still present in the grill.
 The Bickentor and St. Ursula school then and now

 The rathaus sporting the swastika and a portrait of Hitler on its façade. 

Heidenheim an der Brenz

Schloss Hellenstein looking over the town from a Nazi-era postcard and today. Erwin Rommel was born November 15, 1891 here in Heidenheim, Wurttemberg to schoolmaster Erwin Rommel, Sr. and his wife, Helene von Luz. 
 During the war, a subcamp of the Dachau concentration camp was located below in the town itself, providing slave labour to local industry. After World War II was over in 1945, a displaced persons camp was outfitted in the city to help relocate Jewish displaced persons. The camp, housing at times up to 2,300 individuals, was dissolved in August 1949.

St. Martin's church then, at a swastika-bedecked marktplatz, and now. From the spring of 1933 the democratic structures were dissolved in the course of the National Socialist takeover and public life was subordinated to the Nazi system. In 1937, the eastern part of the so-far independent municipality of Oberdorf was incorporated to give Langenargen more spatial development possibilities. In the Second World War a total of 168 inhabitants fell, a further 34 remained missing.  After 1945 the public life of Langenargens was characterised for many years by the punitive French occupying power, which was strongly resented there; the second escadron of the 13th Dragoons of the Dragons was held here until 1986.

The Hafenbahnhof, now the Zeppelin Museum. On 2 July 1900, the people  of Friedrichshafen witnessed a momentous  occasion - the first flight  of LZ 1, Count Ferdinand  von Zeppelin's first airship.  Although deemed a failure,  a succession of better craft (LZ 2 to 10) enabled the Zeppelin to expand into the consumer market of airship travel, whilst also providing military craft for the German Army and Navy. Friedrichshafen served the Nazis as a resort for workers. The presence of Zeppelin, Maybach, Dornier, and Zahnradfabrik also made it an important industrial centre for Germany during the Second World War. Between 1942 and 1945, these factories employed hundreds of concentration camp prisoners from Dachau and Dora-Mittelbau. They were housed first at Zeppelin's hangar and then, following its destruction during a raid, the V-2 factory Raderach. The prisoners were also used to dig underground tunnels near Friedrichshafen to protect production sites from the repeated bombing.  Between June 1943 and February 1945, the city was the site for eleven Allied bombing attacks. The most serious took place on April 28, 1944, and destroyed most of the old town centre. Approximately two-thirds of the city was destroyed over the course of the war.
Friedrichshafen Halle and its new incarnation

  The Basilica of St. Martin and Oswald. During Nazi Germany Weingarten was incorporated into Ravensburg; after the war, the rival cities were separated again.  

The Rathaus-Sitzungssaal  during the Nazi era and today with its Bürgermeisters, little changed


Swastikas in front of the rathaus and today. As early as the evening of December 11, 1922 some 30 members of the Nazi party tried to carry out their first public demonstration in Göppingen led by Max Weber from Munich who gave the speech "The NSDAP - Germany's Future" in the "Hotel zu den Aposteln" (now the Edeka on Untere Marktstrasse). The event was part of the offensive of the NSDAP in the early 1920s outside Bavaria with local groups and SA bands and was the first event of the Nazi Party in Württemberg. The day before, members of the Communist Party and trade unionists met to write an advertisement in the newspaper calling on all workers to "appear early in the assembly" to stand up to the Nazis. The next morning three Göppinger members of the SPD met at the city police office to have the demonstration banned. When the three were dismissed, the Nazi Ortsgruppenleiter Wilhelm Oesterreicher appeared to apply for police protection for his event. The Göppingen authorities decided not to do anything. In order to be able to carry out the event, Hitler sent 90 brownshirts from Munich for support, among whom was his later deputy Rudolf Hess. Before leaving, he gave a speech to the delegation, asking everyone to "do his utmost to ensure that the Göppingen event took place." 
Once in Göppingen, the Nazis marched openly and in formation from the station to the Apostel-Hotel, seen as a direct provocation by the left-wing Göppinger workforce and the Jewish community.  In the meantime the hotelier Friedrich Pfeifle  hanged a sign outside the door of his hotel entrance, which read: "The Nazi event must not take place." In front of the hotel, the incoming Nazis encountered Göppingen antifascists. The police intervened and announced the ban on the NSDAP event. The Nazis then moved across the Jebenhäusen Bridge to the restaurant "Walfischkeller", where the Werner-Heisenberg-Gymnasium stands today, singing and chanting. More and more counter-demonstrators arrived and threw snowballs at the Nazis. The police then left the Nazis on the bridge, but blocked the anti-Fascist workers and asked them to go home who then stormed the bridge armed with fencing plates. The Nazis made use of sharp firearms, after which the anti-fascists also used firearms. Four anti-fascists and five Nazis suffered gunshots and the police pushed the anti-fascists back and the Nazis back across the Jahnstrasse to the station.  In the evening there were more fights between anti-fascists and the Nazis. At the train station, three right-wing students from Stuttgart and Tübingen arriving late, were beaten to the hospital. Hitler referred to this day in the following way: "The NDSDAP has recently been spoken of as a raw, brutal, no-frightening band. This makes me very happy, for I am promising that my endeavours and my party will be feared and made known. "
The Nazi-era war memorial from 1938 which replaced the earlier pieta monument that had earlier stood at the spot since the end of the Great War. Despite calls that continue to be made to remove it, it remains with an information sign stuck in front of it.

The memorial to the Jews of Göppingen murdered in the Holocaust. At least since the 19th century, Jewish families had lived in Göppingen, which formed a close community and built a synagogue in the Freihofstraße. At the 1938 November Pogrom, this building was destroyed by SA men. In the Jewish cemetery within the municipal cemetery in Hohenstaufenstraße, a memorial tablet of the Jewish victims of the Holocaust is commemorated. Shortly before the end of the Second World War nearly 300 inhabitants were killed and 212 buildings were destroyed during an air attack on 1 March 1945. 

The market square with the rathaus in 1936 and today. After the law published on April 1, 1933 on Gleichschaltung of the Länder and municipalities, the Tübingen council had to be considered dissolved. According to calculations made that day, the new municipal council, which had to be formed by April 30, was to comprise of only 24 seats, with the Nazis getting 14 seats.  At the first meeting of the new municipal council with 13 National Socialist city councilors on 4 May 1933, Reich President v. Hindenburg, Chancellor Adolf Hitler, President Murr and Minister of Culture Mergenthaler were appointed honorary citizens . Mühlstraße was renamed Hitlerstraße, Neuestraße to Murrstraße, and Friedrich Ebert Street to Mergenthalerstraße. Already by May 15, 1933, the local council, probably one of the first in Germany, decided to ban the "Jews and strangers" from using the outdoor pool.

The rathaus then and now from the other side. In 1932 , the Jewish community still had 127 members. In 1937 there were only 25 members left. Like many other synagogues in Germany, the Tubingen synagogue in Gartenstrasse 33 was destroyed by SS men from November 9 to 10, 1938, during Kristallnacht (colloquially: "Reichskristallnacht") and then burned down on the orders of the Kreisleiter. The Jewish community was dissolved in 1939 , after the remaining Jews had to pay the demolition of their destroyed synagogue themselves. By 1942 the last 14 remaining Jews were deported and taken to extermination camps. Only two Tübingen Jews survived.
 The main railway station then and now. This was the station where 1,000 Württemberger Jews were deported to Stuttgart.
The University. After the Great War, many students and parts of the professorship proved to be propagandists of aggressive anti-Semitism. Partly, however, there were also among the Tübingen student connections critical voices against the National Socialist Agtitation, such as the later resistance fighter Wilhelm Roloff, a member of the fraternity Derendingia, and Dietrich Bonhoeffer , a member of the Academic Association Hedgehog . As early as 1920 , the National Students' Union, to which just under a third of the students in Tübingen belonged, decided to exclude Jews. Even before 1933, the university prided itself on being "pure Jew." In fact, in 1933 she did not have to dismiss a Jewish professor and only a few assistants and private lecturers, including physicist and later Nobel laureate Hans Bethe. Among other things, the religious philosopher Traugott Konstantin Oesterreich and the mathematician Erich Kamke were occupied with a professional ban.  Erwin Weinmann (brother of the above Tübingen Lord Mayor) was a medical student in Tübingen and from 1932 faction leader of the National Socialist German Student Union (NSDStB) in the General Student Committee (AStA) and a member of the SS. In the period from 1942 to July 1943 He was responsible for the mass murder of Jews in Ukraine as Chief of Sonderkommando 4a.  In addition to Weinmann, the following Tübingen students were members of the NSDStB and later members of the Reich Main Security Office and, as heads of SD special commands, were mainly responsible for the planning and execution of mass murder and war crimes in the former Soviet Union. 
Gerhard Kittel , Protestant theologian and pupil of Adolf Schlatter , took over his chair in 1926 in Tübingen. 
View from south of Tübingen towards Neckar and Galgenberg

Together with Karl Adam , Karl Georg Kuhn, Hans Fleischhacker and Robert Wetzel, head of the Nazi Teachers' Association, Kittel founded the so-called "Scientific Anti-Semitism", which provided the academic superstructure and justification for the planned final solution , the genocide of Jews in the period of the National Socialism formed.
 No German university theologian was as close to the Nazi extermination machine as Kittel. In his position as a scientist, Gerhard Kittel actively and consciously contributed to the final solution to the Jewish question in Europe propagated by himself through lectures, publications and expert reports on Jewish ethnic groups for the Reich Security Main Office.  Between 1934 and 1944, at least 1158, but probably 1243 people were forcibly sterilised at the University hospitals Tübingen. The directors of the Women's, Nerves and Surgical University Clinic carried out some sterilization even before 1933, even without a legal basis. After 1945, however, all participants were considered relieved. The victims of forced sterilisation often suffered psychologically and physically for the rest of their lives as a result of the operation, but despite low compensation payments, they have not yet been officially recognized as victims of Nazi persecution.

Münzgasse looking towards the Stiftskirche

Next to the museum on Wilhelmstraße 3 lived Hugo Löwenstein, the first Jewish business man in the city to sell is business in the autumn of 1933 after Nazi intimidation. He later emigrated to British Palestine.

The barracks gate of the Burgholzkaserne on Reutlinger Straße in 1939 and today. From 1873 onwards Tübingen became a military base, and an infantry barracks were set up south of the town, in which the 10th Württemberg Infantry Regiment, No. 180, was stationed. In 1938, the barracks were called Thiepval Barracks, named after the hamlet of Thiepval, located in the French province of Picardy, where soldiers of this regiment fought during the summer battle of September 1916. A panel on the barrack wall reminds us of this. In a French air attack in the First World War, 16 houses were damaged. From 1914 to 1916, a second barracks was erected, which was first called the New Barracks, and in 1938 it was given the name of Loretto Barracks to commemorate Lorettoschlacht. In 1935 a third barracks were opened, which in 1938 was renamed Burgholzkaserne in Hindenburg barracks.

 The hotel Zum Hanskarle on the corner of Kaiserstraße and Österbergstraße.
 The Tübinger post office on the corner of Hafengasse and Neuer Straße.
The lower Schlosstor with and without the weather vane
Looking at the old and new Neckar bridge
 The old brewery Waldhörnle on Schweizerstraße and its replacement today

 Grabenstraße has changed completely in the last century
Herrenberger Straße with the Guesthouse König with the university mental hospital where the wife and I stayed in 2007 overlooking the town. The Second World War left the city largely unscathed, mainly because of the peace initiative of a local doctor, Theodor Dobler. It was occupied by the French army and became part of the French occupational zone. From 1946 to 1952, Tübingen was the capital of the newly formed state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern, before the state of Baden-Württemberg was created by merging Baden, Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern. The French troops had a garrison stationed in the south of the city until the end of the Cold War in the 1990s.
After the war, Bebenhausen was a favourite place for Old Nazis to spend some of their life-time here. For example , August Heißmeyer (head of the "Dienststelle SS Obergruppenfuhrer Heißmeyer", inspector of the concentration camps and head of the Totenkopfstandarten and General of the Waffen-SS - ranked with Heydrich and direct report line to Himmler) lived until his death in the late seventies in Bebenhausen. Likewise the Reichsfrauenführerin in Nazi Germany Gertrud Scholtz-Klink lived after the war until her death in 1999 in Bebenhausen and died there. Regular visits by old Nazi greats in Tübingen and Bebenhausen, such as Konstantin Freiherr von Neurath (Reich Foreign Minister in Nazi Germany and Reich Protector in Bohemia and Moravia) and Gottlob Berger (in the Nazi Reich head of the SS Main Office, SS Obergruppenfuehrer and General the Waffen-SS and very close friend of Oskar Dirlewanger ), are further documented until the 1970s.


The Michael Fleiner Haus youth hostel in the late 1930s and today.

A reichsadler still remains above the doorway of an office building, its removed swastika inviting graffiti.
When Hitler's train stopped here on the way to the front at the start of the Great War, Hitler posted a card to his landlord, Joseph Popp, writing "best wishes from Ulm on my way to Antwerp."
It was at Ulm that, according to Martyn Housden (60) in Hitler: Study of a Revolutionary?, that
[t]he quintessence of Hitler’s deception of respectability became manifest during the trial of the Ulm officers which took place in September 1930. The episode showed that he remained as much of a revolutionary agitator as ever. It was one of the most important political events in the life of the Weimar Republic and a ‘milestone’ in the development of the party. At stake was much more than the actions of the three junior army officers who were accused of treason on account of setting up National Socialist cells within the army. Eventually the three received sentences of 18 months’ imprisonment. But in the midst of weighty accusations, Hitler took the stand. His testimony, made once again in the full glare of the national press, rambled across the history of his party. Its main thrust was as follows: "I have not created an instrument in order to implement a violent revolution. I have organised nothing to implement it. Our party is not the mouthpiece of a German revolutionary movement. The propaganda which we practise, is a mental/spiritual revolutionising of the German Volk, a transformation to a new ideology, which at the very least is as gigantic as the transformation to Marxist thinking or the transformation from feudal state to a democratic–parliamentary system. The NSDAP wants a perfectly new ideas world, to construct a completely new state. It cannot occur to me for one second to fight against a state with a consolidated army and a police force. Violence is not necessary for our movement."
Münsterplatz in 1935 and today. The First World War and the subsequent world economic crisis had hit Ulm particularly hard, as the city's business enterprises were designed to be export-oriented and as former armaments companies were directly affected by reparation claims and restrictions on the production of the Versailles Treaty. The radical reduction in the number of the military stationed in Ulm because of the defeat in the First World War also had an extremely negative effect on the local economy. In addition, the destruction of the currency by the 1922/1923 inflation, which led to a regional regional currency at short notice, came to Wära. The Nazis and their allies, who opposed democracy, made gains against those parties which supported the Weimar Republic by exploiting reparation commitments, the poor economic situation, and also in the dismantling of the military, combined with a high proportion of anti-Semitism in the town: The Jews were presented as the authors of all the negative events of the Weimar Republic. To this came the fight against the Communists, which the Weimar Republic itself rejected. Thus, in the late 1920s, the National Socialists won considerable support in Ulm.
The rathaus  with sporting Nazi propaganda on its façade reading Adolf Hitler für Deutschland. 
On the old city wall along the Danube is the seven hundred year old Metzgerturm (Butcher’s Tower) which constitutes one of the access points to the historical city centre. The inclination from the foundation to the top is 2.05 meters which is roughly 3.3 percent, almost as much as the leaning tower of Pisa at 3.9%.  One legend explaining such a tilt involves some obese butchers who had been imprisoned and awaiting trial after selling low quality products had tried to escape the wrath of the mayor after he entered the prison cell, by squeezing into the same corner causing the tower to slide.
Immediately after the Nazis took over power on January 30, 1933, the persecution of the Weimar Democrats, communists, and even the Jews began. This was initially carried out by the SA and ϟϟ on behalf of the NSDAP, later by the police officers. Many of the victims of this persecution were imprisoned and ill-treated in the concentration camp of Oberer Kuhberg, one of the fortifications of the federal fortress Ulm, from 1933 to 1935 without court proceedings. Later, the remaining prisoners were transferred to the Dachau concentration camp. Among them was Kurt Schumacher. At the same time, the democratic bodies and the democratic state were abolished. The actual rulers of Ulm were from 1933 the NSDAP-Kreisleiter Eugen Maier and his superiors in the NSDAP-Gau Württemberg-Hohenzollern.  In 1933, the Württembergische Politische Polizei set up an extermination agency in the Neue Bau, which functioned as a service of the Secret State Police from 1936 until the end of the war. From 1933 to 1935, the Oberer Kuhberg concentration camp consisted mainly of political prisoners in the Fort of the Ulm.
With a total height of 161 metres, the steeple of Ulm Münster is the tallest in the world. Construction began in the late 14th century, was suspended in 1553 and finally completed from 1844 to 1890. On April 22, 1934, oppositional representatives of the Evangelical Church from all over Germany (the German Reich) were able to make the Ulm Declaration here in the Ulm Cathedral in which they opposed the efforts to subordinate the independence of the Protestant Church to the National Socialist state. In 1938, the city became a circular city and also the seat of the Ulm County, which had its origins in the old town hall. New synagogue The town was reduced to rubble by Allied bombs in 1944, sparing the Münster.

The city's bomb damage from the cathedral and gargoyle from top of cathedral today. At the end of the war, especially as a result of the large-scale attack of 17 December 1944, 81% of the historic old town was destroyed, but the Münster was largely spared.

The synagogue before and after the Reichskristallnacht pogrom and its replacement. In the so-called "Reichspogromnacht" of the 9th-10th November 1938, the synagogue at am Weinhof 2, which was consecrated in 1873, was set on fire by an Ulm SA group. Members of the Jewish community were also abused, and other Ulm citizens also participated. 56 men were imprisoned in the Dachau concentration camp for several months. Two prisoners from Ulm did not survive their torture there. The municipal fire brigade quickly extinguished the fire of the synagogue, but not to prevent the fire of the sanctuary of the Jewish community, but because it wanted to prevent an attack on the neighbouring buildings. In order to complete the National Socialist pogrom, the city administration ordered the demolition of the building a few days later and forced the Jewish community to finance it itself. After the "Reichskristallnacht", the remaining people living in Ulm were forced into Jewish houses. From 1941 to 1942, the remaining Jews from Ulm were transported to the extermination camps in the east to assassinate them. Only a few of the deported Ulm Jews survived. At the end of the stairs of Sparkasse Neue Strasse 66, a memorial placard to the persecuted and murdered Jews of Ulm and their Gotteshaus was recalled from the year 1990 to the construction of the synagogue on the Weinhof. The memorandum of the Federal Archives for the victims of the National Socialist persecution of Jews in Germany (1933-1945) records, in particular, 198 Jewish inhabitants of Ulm who were deported and largely murdered. The central database of the names of the Holocaust victims (Beta) of Yad Vashem records in particular a total of 452 Jews who are associated with Ulm, including 281 Jewish citizens of Ulms, most of whom were murdered.
 Anti-fascists vs. neo-Nazis in Ulm during May Day 2009. During the Nazi era there had been isolated opposition to the Nazi state. In 1942, a group of high school graduates around Hans and Susanne Hirzel and Franz J. Müller formed the Ulmer offshoot of the well-known Munich resistance group Weiße Rose, in which the two Ulmer Hans and Sophie Scholl were active. Both resistance groups were taken in 1943. Their members were partly sentenced to death, partly to imprisonment. In 1945, the Dachau concentration camp underwent ϟϟ-Arbeitslager Ulm in the district of Söflingen with 30 to 40 prisoners to build submarine parts at Klöckner-Humboldt-Deutz.

Schloss Lichtenstein 

Lichtenstein Castle is a castle situated on a cliff located near Honau, shown during the Third Reich and today

The rathaus before its 1944 fire. On December 16 1944, the "Kramers' house", which was until 1849 was the home of Altvogt Scheffelt, before becoming converted into the old town hall, was completely destroyed by bombing. The two world wars left deep traces within the population: in honour of the fallen of the Great War soldiers Freiburg architect Hans Geiges built the war memorial within the former cemetery of Petruskirche in 1935 where the names of the fallen were held on eight sandstone panels. After the end of World War II the memorial had to be extended by a further thirteen plaques.

The public swimming pool, sporting the swastika and today

Stadttor Dilsberg

The Stadttor Dilsberg then, serving as a youth hostel flying the swastika and now

The home of Rommel from where, linked to the failed July Plot against Hitler,  he was forced to commit suicide with a cyanide pill in return for assurances that his family would not be persecuted following his death. He was given a state funeral, and it was announced that Rommel had succumbed to his injuries from an earlier strafing of his staff car in Normandy. As his son related after the war,
 Shortly before twelve o'clock, my father went to his room on the first floor and changed from the brown civilian jacket which he usually wore over riding-breeches, to his Africa tunic, which was his favourite uniform on account of its open collar.
Rommel's grave in the town cemetery
At about twelve o'clock a dark-green car with a Berlin number stopped in front of our garden gate. The only men in the house apart from my father, were Captain Aldinger, a badly wounded war-veteran corporal and myself. Two generals- Burgdorf, a powerful florid man, and Maisel, small and slender- alighted from the car and entered the house. They were respectful and courteous and asked my father's permission to speak to him alone. Aldinger and I left the room. "So are not they  are not going to arrest him," I thought with relief, as I went upstairs to find myself a book.
A few minutes later I heard my father come upstairs and go into my mother s room. Anxious to know what was afoot, I got up and followed him. He was in the middle of the room, his face pale. "Come outside with me," he said in a tight voice. We went into my room. "I have just had to tell your mother", he began slowly, "that I shall be dead in a quarter of an hour." He was calm as he continued: "To die by the hand of one's own people is hard. But the house is surrounded and Hitler is charging me with high treason. ' In view of my services in Africa'", he quoted sarcastically, "I am to have the chance of poison. The two generals have brought it with them. It's fatal in three seconds. If I accept, none of the usual steps will be taken against my family, that is against you. They will also leave my staff alone."
"Do you believe it?" I interrupted.
"Yes," he replied." "I believe it. It is very much in their interest to see that the affair does not come out into the open. By the way, I have been charged to put you under a promise of the strictest silence. If a single word of this comes out, they will no longer feel themselves bound by the agreement."
I tried again. "Can't we defend ourselves..." He cut me off short. 
 "There's no point,"  he said. "It's better for one to die than for all of us to be killed in a shooting affray. Anyway, we've practically no ammunition." We briefly took leave of each other. "Call Aldinger, please", he said.
Liddell Hart (503) The Rommel Papers
Breisach am Oberrhein

Adolf Hitler Straße then and now. During World War II, 85% of Breisach was destroyed by Allied artillery as the Allies crossed the Rhine. The St. Stephansmünster was also heavily damaged. 

The rathaus on the day Hitler was appointed Chancellor- January 30, 1933 and today. Hitler had visited the town on July 29 the year before.
The war memorial on Luisenplatz (formerly Horst-Wessel-Platz) still retains the Nazi ideological characteristics it had when first inaugurated May 22, 1938. As late as the 1970s it was used as the site for former ϟϟ members to rally and honour their comrades of the Waffen-ϟϟ. On the centenary of the start of the Great War for which this fascist-style memorial was intended to commemorate, Mayor Monika Laule had an explanatory text panel of glass erected nearby, stating that the Nazis had turned the memorial of a day of remembrance for the dead to one of hero worship.
The church Unserer Lieben Frau then and now

 The war memorial from a 1935 postcard, unchanged today

The monument overlooking the town was built in 1933 and officially inaugurated in 1937. Shortly before the war ended the swastika was removed and in 1952 replaced with a cross. Since the Thirty Years' War there has been a Jewish community in the city for 300 years, initially under the protection of the Knights of Malta and Maltese, which temporarily constituted half of the population. In 1932 the Jewish inhabitants of Rexingen had shrunk to a few hundred. A third of the victims of the extermination camps, ten families and several unmarried young men (adopted in the Rexinger synagogue on February 6, 1938) succeeded in emigrating in 1938-39, mainly to Palestine and the United States. The Israeli Moshaw Shawe Zion was founded by Jews from the town.  The former Rexingen synagogue managed to survive the Nazis and is now a memorial and evangelical church. Another memorial site is the town's Jewish cemetery.

Schloss Sigmaringen 
Following the Allied invasion of France, the French Vichy Regime was moved from France into Schloss Sigmaringen. The princely family was forced by the Gestapo out of the castle and moved to Schloss Wilflingen. The French authors Louis-Ferdinand Céline and Lucien Rebatet, who had written political and anti-semitic works, feared for their safety and fled to Sigmaringen with the Vichy government. Céline's 1957 novel D'un château l'autre, describes the end of the war and the fall of Sigmaringen on 22 April 1945. The book was made into a German movie in 2006, through the German media companies ZDF and Arte, called Die Finsternis. Removed to Sigmaringen, Germany, in the summer of 1944, the Vichy government no longer had any relevance.  On September 7, fleeing the advance of the Allied troops in France whilst Germany was in flames and the Vichy regime no longer existed, a thousand French collaborators (among whom were a hundred officials, a few hundred members of the French militia and militants of the collaborationist parties and the editorial staff of the journal Je suis partout), came here. Marshal Pétain and Pierre Laval were led away according to what they said had been "against their will" by the Germans in their retreat in August 1944 and resided there until April 1945. The government commission, chaired by Fernand de Brinon and supposed to incarnate the continuity of the Vichy regime, was formed, composed of former members of the Vichy governments, but some who followed Petain to Sigmaringen refused to participate. This commission was surrounded by a collaborative Areopagus, including Louis-Ferdinand Céline. Visitors were even obliged to present a piece of identification, since they were entering French territory. This "Sigmaringen government" lasted until April 1945. Petain, his suite, and his ministers, though on "strike," lodged in the castle of. Petain apparently chose a suite not too big hoping it would prove cold whilst the rest were housed in schools and gymnasiums, transformed into dormitories, and in the few guest rooms and hotels in the city, such as the Bären or Löwen, which received the most prestigious guests, including the writer Louis-Ferdinand Céline in the book D'un château l'autre. The militia leaders sought to recruit new members to inflate the size of the Franc-guard from sympathisers, especially in labour camps with the aim of realising the ideal of a real national revolution by actively preparing the clandestine struggle through maquis. Operation White Maquis consisted of parachuting political agitators who, in due course, were to sow panic and prepare future maquis, such as intelligence agents who could infiltrate more easily than German agents.  The exiles in the city's shanty houses were hardly able to live in summer, but especially in the winter under the rumbling of Anglo-American bombs and an intense cold which reached -30 ° C in December 1944. Precarious housing, insufficient food, lack of hygiene, numerous illnesses (influenza, phthisis) and a significant mortality in children ensued with only two French doctors to treat the group- Doctor Destouches, aka Louis-Ferdinand Céline and Doctor Ménétrel.  On the approach of the Allies in April 1945, most of them exiled themselves: Petain was taken by the Germans in a fashion to the Swiss border, Laval fled to Spain, Brinon took refuge in the surroundings of Innsbruck, whilst others found refuge in Northern Italy.
Postwar, some 10,000 French were executed for collaboration with the Germans, including Laval. Pétain, stripped of his rank, was condemned to death, but de Gaulle commuted the sentence to life in prison. Despite de Gaulle’s ridiculous efforts to cast France during the war as a nation of resisters, the four-year-long Vichy regime left a legacy of shame and controversy that still shames France today. 

Irving in Goebbels: Mastermind of the Third Reich (30) writes how Goebbels played "the huge cathedral organ" in the cathedral shown in the background in 1918 for two other students he had travelled the area with.During World War II Ravensburg was strategically of no relevance. Ravensburg did not harbour any noteworthy arms industry (unlike nearby Friedrichshafen with its large aircraft industry), but was home to a big aid supplies centre belonging to the Swiss Red Cross; so no air raid destroyed the historic city centre. During the Nazi era 691 patients from the Weißenau psychiatric clinic were murdered as victims of "euthanasia." The Sinti resident in the city were first interned in the Gypsy Forced Labour Camp, thirty-six Sinti were deported in 1943 with 29 of them murdered in Auschwitz. The few Jews who had settled in Ravensburg were forced to flee with some murdered as victims of the Holocaust.
The town hall then and now, with Nazi functionaries in front of the entrance in 1938 and today

Nazis intimidating those thinking of shopping at the Jewish-owned Kaufhaus Landauer, and stolperstein at the site today, remembering the murdered Landauers.

Flughafen Böblingen. On April 9, 1932 Hitler spoke at this airport that was later used by the USAAF after the war. Some buildings remain, on the right is the reception building dating from 1925. In the First World War, the Böblingen military airfield was inaugurated on August 16, 1915. Subsequently, it was of decisive importance for the further development of the town that Böblingen became the seat of the Landesflughafen for Württemberg in 1925. Böblingen was the „Brücke zur Welt“ (bridge to the world). At the end of the airfield, Böschinger aviation pioneer Hanns Klemm set up his company "Leichtflugzeugbau Klemm" at the end of 1926. Until the Second World War, this became the most important industrial city in the city.
The St. Dionysius church in 1943 and today. The air attack by Allied air forces in the night of October 7-8 1943 destroyed most of the old town with the town church, the castle and the town hall. There were many dead and injured. Through this and other bombings, about 40 per cent of the built-up area had been destroyed during warfare and nearly 2,000 people were homeless.

The schlossplatz in front of what is now the Erfatal-Museum 


 The courtyard in use by the Wehrmacht and today. In 1921, Ludwigsburg became the largest garrison in southwest Germany.

The synagogue in the town was destroyed by the Nazis during Reichskristallnacht, the pogrom of November 1938. Two years later the Nazi propaganda film, Jud Süß, was filmed in Ludwigsburg. The film was based on a historical figure, Joseph Süß Oppenheimer, who was executed in Stuttgart in 1738; Oppenheimer lived in Ludwigsburg. 
During World War II, the city suffered moderate damage compared to other German cities. There were 1500 deaths. It was the home of the prisoner-of-war camp Stalag V-A from October 1939 till April 1945. After the war, there was a large displaced persons camp which housed several thousand mainly Polish displaced persons until about 1948. After 1945 until the middle of 1946, there was also an allied internment camp for war criminals in Ludwigsburg and the U.S. Army maintained the Pattonville barracks on the edge of town, large enough to have its own American high school. The land was returned to Germany in 1994. 

The memorial to the Franco-Prussian War remains between the town hall and the church
The rathaus at the turn of the century and today, appearing as it did when redesigned in 1933/34.
The former site of the town's Jewish cemetery; the last burial had been of Gustav Bloch from nearby Rheinbischofsheim in 1939. Due to declining membership, the Jewish communities in Freistett and Rheinbischofsheim were combined in June 1935 and the synagogue attended Freistetter Jews was henceforth in Rheinbischofsheim. The synagogue in Rheinbischofsheim was finally demolished in 1953.

Nazi flags flying from the town hall then and now when Sonnenstrasse had been renamed Adolf-Hitler-Straße. Like most communities, when the Nazis took power Ebingers failed to show any visible resistance when communists and trade unionists disappeared, the few Ebinger Jews were driven out, and autonomous clubs and parties were allowed to move to dissolution. One of the few upright figures is the manufacturer Fritz Haux, who was active in fighting for liberal values and was therefore temporarily in prison.  The Second World War brought more than 1600 forced labourers into the city, half of them Russians. The war itself did not intrude into the town until July 11, 1944 in the form of a bomb attack on Ebingen, where sixty-one were killed and 37 houses were destroyed in the town centre.  During the Nazi era Emil Hayer became Mayor of Ebingen since 1934. He was first replaced by Eugen Rilling in 1944, but was again mayor in 1945. After the war, Albert Walker became mayor, who was already replaced by Fridolin Reiber in 1946, who was in office until 1948.

Schloß Kapfenburg
During the time the castle served as a Gauschule, which was a training centre for local government employees, in this case for the NSV (NS-Volkswohlfahrt, the Nazi welfare organisation).

The Gasthaus zum Röss'l sporting the Nazi flag during the war and today

The stadttor on the former Robert Wagner Straße, named after the Gauleiter of Baden. In July 1940 Robert Wagner, now in charge of Alsace, and Josef Bürckel, Gauleiter of the Saar-Palatinate and Chief of the Civil Administration in Lorraine, both pressed Hitler to allow the expulsion westwards into Vichy France of the Jews from their domains. Hitler gave his approval. Some 3,000 Jews were deported that month from Alsace into the unoccupied zone of France. In October, following a further meeting with the two Gauleiter, a total of 6,504 Jews were sent to France in nine trainloads, without any prior consultation with the French authorities, who appeared to have in mind their further deportation to Madagascar as soon as the sea-passage was secure.

 Café Binoth, now the Drei König, on the former Adolf Hitler Straße. Early during the period of the Weimar Republic, there was growing social unrest in Lörrach starting on the 14th of September, 1923 which left three dead, many injured, and several examples of hostage abuse. The economic slump also led to the authorities and the administration being unable to carry out urgent construction projects. It was around this time the Nazis grew in support. The Nazi Party in Lörrach had existed since 1922. However, during the 1920s the Weimar Republic was rather difficult to gain a foothold, although there was also anti-parliamentary propaganda in Lörrach with the German nationalist journal Der Markgräfler run by Hermann Burte. After the Nazi seizure of power, Reinhard Boos was appointed mayor of Lörrach in 1933. Boos, who built and strengthened the NSDAP in Lörrach with great enthusiasm, subsequently taking part in the defeat of the trade unions and the opposition parties. From 1938 onwards, Boos played a leading role in the actions against the Lörrach Jews. During the November pogroms of 1938 several men gained access to the synagogue and destroyed them. The destroyed Gotteshaus was then demolished. Lorrach remained comparatively undamaged during the Second World War thanks to the geographical distance to the fronts. On April 24, 1945, French troops occupied Lörrach, adding to its humiliation.

Adolf Hitlerplatz and today 

The Hotel Post on Adolf Hitler Straße and today.  As early as 1924, Nagold was a Nazi base of support in which, according to voting statistics, 19.4% of the population voted for the Nazis that May. Comparatively, the Nazis captured just 6.5% of the vote nationwide, and a mere 4.1% in Baden and Württemberg during the same election.