Other remaining Nazi sites in southern Bavaria

 Füssen
Standing in front of the Generaloberst-Dietl-Kaserne now renamed the Allgäu Kaserne and currently used by the Gebirgsartilleriebataillon 225. Named after Eduard Wohlrath Christian Dietl who served as a Generaloberst during the war, commanding the 20th Mountain Army and ending up a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords. The barracks were named in his honour in May 1964 and the following year his military rank "Generaloberst" was added to the name.  In January 1982, on the occasion of the renaming of a street in Dietl's birthplace of Bad Aibling, the public battle began over the use of his name. In July 1987, a citizens' initiative in Kempten called for the renaming of "General Dietl-Straße" followed in February 1988 with Pax Christi calling for the renaming of the "Generaloberst-Dietl-Kaserne" in Füssen. Furious reactions followed wherein anyone who took a public position for its renaming came upon resistance in the form of anonymous calls, letters and even murders. The Petitionsausschuss of the Bundestage, on the other hand, recommended raising awareness of the renaming of the barracks by informing the troops that it would serve as a contribution to the "reworking of the recent German past". On the other hand, the local CSU deputy, Kurt Rossmanith, deaclred how "Generaloberst Dietl was and still is a model for me in humanity and soldiery."  On November 9, 1995 the then-Federal Minister of Defence, Volker Rühe, finally decided to recruit the Generaloberst-Dietl-Kaserne in Füssen and the General-Kübler -Barracks in Mittenwald which met with bitter criticism from the comrades' circle of the mountain group.
The building still displays the Second World War soldier on its façade belonging to the German mountain corps, part of the German armed forces specially trained and equipped for the battle in difficult terrain and under extreme climatic conditions.  The German alpenkorps was the first large association of the German mountain group set up according to the Austro-Hungarian model in 1915, used primarily in the Alpine area and the Balkans in the First World War. The Reichswehr, Wehrmacht, and the Waffen-ϟϟ set up their own mountain groups and their successes were used by the Nazi regime as propaganda and sometimes overestimated or exaggerated so that Generaloberst Dietdu (a Nazi member since 1921) was hailed by Propagandaminister Goebbels as "the hero of Narvik." In the Second World War they would be involved in a series of war crimes such as the massacre on Kefalonia and, in this context, the tradition of the mountain group is accused of ignoring its own role in the Third Reich explaining the disquiet over such remaining artwork.
During the war, a subcamp of the Dachau concentration camp was located in the town. Steve McQueen's motorcycle stunts and many other scenes in The Great Escape were filmed in and around the town.
St. Mang behind the wife and baby Drake Winston and the same spot in the film The Great Escape when James Coburn is seen at Café Suzette (built for the film) before the assassination of these German officers. The cafe was in the area now holding flagpoles, and Coburn was sitting against the stone wall, now a metal railing. The bridge too has been replaced but otherwise the 1963 film location is easily recognisable on the south bank of River Lech. The black car above is actually a 1947 Citroën 11 Légère 'Traction' in a movie set in 1944. 
The river Lech in the film and the same scene today. Based loosely on a true story based on Paul Brickhill's 1950 book about the real-life mass escape by British Commonwealth PoWs from Stalag Luft III in Sagan (now Żagań, Poland). The first part of the film focuses on the escape efforts within the camp and the process of secretly digging an escape tunnel. The second half of the film deals with the massive effort by the German Gestapo to track down the over seventy escaped prisoners individually attempting to make their way to England. Serving in large part as a Steve McQueen vanity project, his character Hilts was based on an amalgamation of several real-life individuals including Major Dave Jones, a flight commander during Doolittle's Raid shot down and captured and Colonel Jerry Sage, who was an OSS agent in the North African desert when he was captured. Sage managed to don a flight jacket and pass as a flier otherwise he would have been executed as a spy. Another inspiration was probably Squadron Leader Eric Foster who escaped no less than seven times from German prisoner-of-war camps. In fact, during the filming the town's police had set up a speed trap near the set in which several members of the cast and crew were caught, including McQueen. Apparently the Chief of Police told McQueen "Herr McQueen, we have caught several of your comrades today, but you have won the prize [for the highest speeding]." McQueen was arrested and briefly gaoled.
Richard Attenborough caught on the corner of Hutergasse and Brunnengasse by  Untersturmführer Steinach, played by Karl Otto Alberty. There is a continuity error in this scene as Attenborough's character Bartlett tries to walk nonchalantly along the pavement. When the German yells at Bartlett from his car to stop Bartlett does so, still on the pavement. However when cut to a different angle it appears that Bartlett has in fact stopped in the middle of the street. Such individual incidents in the film were mostly based on fact, but rearranged both chronologically and regarding the people involved as noted at the start of the film. In reality, of the 76 who escaped, three had managed to succeed whilst fifty were murdered in reprisal, but in small groups and not all at once. As one sadly expects from American films, the nationality of most of the prisoners were changed to emphasise the role of Americans at the expense of British Imperial heroes. Indeed, the real escape was by British and other allied personnel, none by Americans. Whilst Americans in the PoW camp did initially help to build the tunnels and work on the early escape plans, they were moved to their own compound seven months before the tunnels were completed. A large part had been played by Canadians, especially in the construction of the tunnels and in the escape itself. Of the 1,800 or so PoWs in the compound of whom 600 were involved in preparations for the escape, 150 of these were from the Dominion of Canada; Wally Floody, an RCAF pilot and mining engineer who was the real-life “tunnel king”, was engaged as a technical advisor for the film. Fourteen Germans were executed after the war for their roles, which ended up being among the charges at the Nuremberg War Crimes trial. Another actor, Donald Pleasence, had actually been an RAF pilot who had been shot down, held prisoner and tortured by the Germans. After offering advice to the film's director John Sturges, he was politely told to mind his own business.
Later, when another star informed Sturges that Pleasence had actually been a RAF Officer in a Stalag camp, Sturges requested his technical advice and input on historical accuracy from that point forward. Other actors had been PoWs- Hannes Messemer in a Russian camp and Til Kiwe (playing the German guard "Frick" who discovers the escape) and Hans Reiser were prisoners of the Americans during the war. Kiwe had been a German paratrooper officer who was captured and held prisoner at a PoW camp in Colorado and himself had made several escape attempts, being captured in the St. Louis railway station during one such attempt. He won the Knight's Cross before his capture and was the cast member who had actually done many of the exploits shown in the film. Former PoWs in fact requested that the filmmakers exclude certain details about help they received to prevent the film jeopardising future escapes, a request which was honoured. 
MacDonald and Bartlett fleeing the Gestapo down Hintere Gasse.
The train station that appears in the film when David McCallum is killed on the tracks, enabling Attenborough to escape, was demolished recently in 2015 after having been purchased by the company "Hubert Schmid Bauunternehmen GmbH" for roughly 300,000 euros with the intention of replacing it with a modern convenience centre.

Neuschwanstein
 
Hitler with Hitlerjugend and today, visiting with wife and son.  
On August 12, 1933 Hitler took part in a Richard Wagner Celebration at Neuschwanstein, at which he was given the freedom of Hohenschwangau. Expressing his gratitude in an address, Hitler described himself, as he did in regard to all great Germans, as having consummated the plans of Ludwig II. He expressed his conviction that despite all criticism of these structures built by Ludwig II, the fertilisation of the arts and the stimulation of tourism had nonetheless given rise to much good, which meant that the work of the King deserved recognition: “It was the protest of a genius against wretched parliamentarian mediocrity. Today we have translated this protest into action and finally eliminated this regime.” In fact, Ludwig II had admired Jews and forced Wagner to allow Hermann Levi to conduct the premiere of ''Parsifal.'' Wagner had fought until the last moment but was forced to relent as he had been patronised by the King who in addition was paying for the premiere. Wagner ended up treating Levi sadistically, ordering him to convert. Levi refused.
Neuswchwanstein castle was used by the Nazi party as a depository of pillaged artwork from all over Europe, primarily France. The artwork stored at Neuschwanstein was catalogued and evacuated by one of the great museum curators of the 20th century, James Rorimer, functioning as a "monuments man" -- one of the many US and British art experts appointed to a special wartime military section charged with protecting and then repatriating art stolen by the Nazis. Near the end of the war gold was stored there also. In 1945, the ϟϟ had plans to blow up the castle to prevent the Allies from retrieving the contents. This did not come to pass; eventually Nazi forces surrendered an undamaged castle and contents to the Allies.
Two paintings of Neuschwanstein castle by Hitler himself. In a 2015 auction organised by Weidler Auctioneers of Nuremberg, that on the right was sold to a Chinese buyer for £71,000 (about 100, 000 euros). 
The Oberjochpass, a 1178 metre-high mountain pass roughly 800 metres west of the border with Austria in the Allgäu Alps, as seen from the Bundesstraße 308 with the Breitenberg, Rotspitze, Entschenkopf and Imberger Horn peaks in the background. During the Third Reich, the Oberjochpass was renamed Adolf-Hitler-Pass. During the war and post-war period, the care of the Jochstraße had been neglected leading it to fall into a deplorable state until the spring of October 1952 when it was renewed to a well-maintained road.
The Deutschland flying the Nazi flag at Meersburg am Bodensee. It was in this town that the attempted assassin of Hitler, Georg Elser, lived from 1930 to May 1932 with the Dreher family on Am Stadtgraben whilst working for the watch manufacturer Rothmund in Meersburg. This would offer him the experience in making the bomb with which he so nearly killed Hitler in November 1939. During the war Polish forced labourers and prisoners of war were housed in the town's riding stables until 1941. Contemporary witnesses tell of a prisoner of war camp in the barracks in the summer valley, where refugees were housed after the end of the war. The war saw a constant shortage of housing and food in Meersburg upon the establishment of the Reich Finance School, the Kälte armaments factory setting up headquarters in the Hämmerlefabrik and providing forced billeting for the Wehrmacht and  deportations to Kinderland of bombed out and evacuated people. Towards the end of the war, with the retreat of the German troops, companies, Wehrmacht agencies and authorities tried to find accommodation in Meersburg. From the middle of April 1945 ship traffic, including on April 26, 1945 the ferry service between Meersburg and Konstanz-Staad shown in this postcard, was stopped. Meersburg was barricaded with anti-tank barriers. French tanks approaching on April 29, 1945 were shelled. It was only because the French were able to bypass the barricades via a forest path through Gehautobel and Hirtlehöhe that  Meersburg was saved from destruction.
Lindau
Adolf Hitler Straße then and now, renamed Maximilianstrasse. Lindau is located near the meeting point of the Austrian, German and Swiss borders and is nestled on the lake in front of Austria's Pfänder mountain. In 1922 the independent districts of Aeschach, Hoyren and Reutin merged with the Lindau district. Its Oberbürgermeister, Ludwig Siebert, was later appointed the first Nazi mayor within Bavaria and at the beginning of the Nazi regime in 1933 became the Bavarian minister-president. It was whilst mayor of Lindau that in 1931 Siebert left the Bavarian People's Party to join the Nazi Party from the. As Bavarian prime minister Siebert didn't have the power or authority his predecessors had in the Weimar Republic and would find himself constantly engaged in a power struggle with the Reichstatthalter of Bavaria, Franz Ritter von Epp, which he would win. Siebert also held the posts of Minister of Finance and for the Economy, initiating the so-called "Siebert Programme" to fight unemployment in Bavaria. The programme turned out to be insufficient to create new employment due to lack of funds within the Bavarian government and support from the German government. Siebert also had personal orders from Hitler to look after the restoration of all castles in Germany and was especially interested in the restoration of the historical town of Rothenburg ob der Tauber from 1937 to 1941. His brother was a highly decorated officer in the Wehrmacht, Generalmajor Friedrich Siebert.
From a Nazi-era postcard with Adolf-Hitler-Straße stamped out. It would take 72 years for Lindau to symbolicaly strip Hitler of his honorary citizenship. It was here in Lindau that many landing pioneer units of the Wehrmacht were put up, receiving their training on and around Lake Constance. Lindau served as a garrison for military pioneers including divisions of the 19th infantry regiment and the 488th infantry replacement battalion. After the war, Lindau suffered the humiliation of falling to French troops on April 30, 1945 who occupied Lindau without a fight. The town and the county were separated from the rest of American-occupied Bavaria as part of the French occupation zone and received a state special status. During the next ten years, the area served as a bridge between the French occupation zones in Germany and Austria. It was not until September 1, 1955, that Lindau was re-integrated into the Free State of Bavaria. 
 
During the Third Reich and today

Schloss Linderhof
Hitler in 1935 at the entrance to the smallest of the three palaces built by Ludwig II of Bavaria and the only one which he lived to see completed. Hitler had had a rather ambivalent relationship with the castles and their creator who, as a strong individualist with apparent homoerotic tendencies, did not fit into the ideology of the national socialists. Ludwig II's royal palaces were however unaffected during the Second World War by combat and bombing and as early as 1946 they were again accessible to the public. Hitler himself had declared on August 12, 1933 whilst taking part in a Richard Wagner Celebration at Neuschwanstein that
despite all criticism of these structures built by Ludwig II, the fertilisation of the arts and the stimulation of tourism had nonetheless given rise to much good, which meant that the work of the King deserved recognition: “It was the protest of a genius against wretched parliamentarian mediocrity. Today we have translated this protest into action and finally eliminated this regime.”
 
The bedroom and the schloß and its grounds during the Third Reich era. The wife and son are in front of the bed which was positioned on steps in the alcove closed off by a gilded balustrade giving it the appearance of an altar and thereby glorifying Ludwig II as he slept during the day. The glass candelabra above has 108 candles. In imitation of Versailles, the bedroom is the largest chamber of Linderhof Palace although the model for this room was not Louis XIV's bedchamber in Versailles but the bedroom of the Rich Rooms in Munich's Residenz. Completely rebuilt in 1884, it was not finished until the king's death two years later.


Mittenwald
The town hall was built in 1939. Enlarged by a story, the paintings on the façade have now been removed.
 The Obermarkt then and now. On April 29, 1933 the then Reich Chancellor Adolf Hitler, together with Reich President General Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and the Minister of State of the Interior, Gauleiter Adolf Wagner, were appointed honorary citizens along with Ritter von Epp, Councilor of Justice Dr. Walter Luetgebrune and Professor Albrecht Penck. Luetgebrune had voluntarily returned his honorary citizenship in a letter dated January 8, 1947 whilst Penck, who died on March 7, 1945, had never been a member of the Nazi Party. Nevertheless, it wasn't until 2017 that Hitler's citizenship was symbolically stripped- symbolic, given such an honour expires upon the recipient's death.
 
Goethe House is pretty much unchanged
In the 1930s, Mittenwald became the garrison and training centre of the Wehrmacht mountain group. It was here in Mittenwald that one of the "evacuation transports" from the Dachau concentration camp ended at the end of April 1945.  After the war Mittenwald belonged to the American occupation zone. From April 1946 until the end of January 1952, the military administration established a DP camp for Jewish and Ukrainian Displaced Persons. Among the refugees were some homeless foreigners and members of the Vlasov army, Poles, Belarusians and Russians among them. The East European DPs were placed in the mountain huntsmen camp and in the Luttensee camp (today's Luttensee barracks), and some Mittenwalder hotels were requisitioned for the Jewish DPs. The White Russians erected a monument to the participants of the Sluzker insurrection near the Luthenese Barracks. From 2002-2009 leftist antifa demonstrators protested against commemorations by veterans of the Wehrmacht mountain group on Pentecost at the memorial on the Hohenbrendten.
The Ludendorff Kaserne in 1940 and today. Ludendorff had owned an holiday house in the neighbouring town of Klais and  may have passed through the barracks with its vast mountain tours in the Karwendel. On January 16, 1938, cornerstones for the first Adolf Hitler Schools were laid here at Mittenwald, as well as Waldbröl near Cologne, Hesselberg, and at various other locations. Astonishingly, in May 1964 the barracks were renamed after General Ludwig Kübler, a German General of the Mountain Troops during the war who was executed as a war criminal in Yugoslavia in 1947. It was not until November 1995 that Volker Rühe, then the German Minister of Defence, changed the name "General-Kübler-Kaserne" into "Karwendel-Kaserne".

Garmisch-Partenkirchen
This was the site of the Winter Olympic Games in 1936. The Summer Games for 1936 had already been awarded to Germany in 1931, after Berlin had already been scheduled for the 1916 Summer Games , but these did not take place because of the First World War. This gave Germany the privilege to host the Winter Games as well. At that time there was no suitable winter sports resort in Germany, and it wasn't until 1933 that the conditions for such an event were created. Other candidate cities were Montreal and St. Moritz. On January 24, 1933, the founding meeting of the German Olympic Organising Committee was held, initially under the patronage of President Paul von Hindenburg but, after his death, assumed by Hitler on November 13, 1934. An Olympic Propaganda Committee was formed to be responsible for public relations of the games. The German Olympic Organising Committee was subordinate to both the Ministry of Propaganda and the Ministry of the Interior - the former for the area of public appearance, the latter for the sports department. Such a dependency on government agencies represented a violation of the IOC statutes and was concealed from the outside. 
Ludwigstraße decked out in Nazi flags for the Games. Karl Ritter von Halt, appointed President of the German Organising Committee of the Winter Games in 1936, saw in May 1935 "with growing concern" - as he reported in a letter to Oberregierungsrat Hans Ritter von Lex and the Reich Ministry of the Interior in the run-up to the veils - "... in Garmisch-Partenkirchen and the surrounding area a planned anti-Semitic propaganda ”and “ ... especially on the highway from Munich to Garmisch-Partenkirchen ”. He had belonged to Himmler's circle of friends and concluded by stating that "you also know very well that I am not telling you these worries of mine to help the Jews, it is exclusively about the Olympic idea." On December 3, 1935 the Nazi government issued an order to “remove all signs and posters relating to the Jewish question” in the region of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, so as not to endanger international support for the Berlin Games. Prior to the Winter Games, the Garmisch-Partenkirchen town council passed an order to expel all Jews in its jurisdiction, but it wait until after the Olympics to implement the antisemitic decree. Anti-Jewish signs were temporarily removed.
On September 25, 1935, time began as a garrison of the Wehrmacht with the first groundbreaking ceremony for the Jägerkaserne and later the artillery barracks. Hitler had intended to take full advantage of the staging of the 1936 Winter Olympic Games in Garmisch- Partenkirchen and the summer games in Berlin to divert the attention of the German public and the international community as an whole from his military and political activities, in particular his goal of extending the military sovereignty of the Reich to the Rhineland and of prolonging the one-year compulsory military service to two years, having earlier chosen the shorter term of service only to make its introduction politically and psychologically more acceptable. The town hall, constructed by Oswald Bieber by 1936. Bieber was responsible for a number of Nazi buildings including  the Munich-based ϟϟ-Standarte 1 „Deutschland“ and the Haus des Deutschen Rechts. Ironically, today the town's police chief has declared that "the blacks are now in charge"of the town as 'refugees' from Africa have taken over the Abrams complex, a former American Army site that now houses around 250 supposed asylum seekers which the mayor in her appeal for help from the authorities is claiming is affecting tourism and the health of her residents.
 It was to Garmisch that Göring fled after the failed Beer Hall Putsch attempt. Franz Thanner, who chauffeured the Görings on this trip and was a member of the National Socialist Driver Corps (NSKK), drove them to the Partenkirchner Villa of Major Friedrich Schueler van Krieken on the afternoon of November 9. Like Goering, he had been an officer in the German air force during the Great War. Van Krieken had served in the Feldfliegerabteilung 23 with Göring serving in the Feldfliegerabteilung 25; in 1916 van Krieken became the flight commander of the 5th (Ottoman) Army. From there he received the order at around 22.00 to drive Göring and his wife across the border from Griesen to Tyrol, accompanied by Dr. Richard Meyer, doctor in the prestigious Partenkirchner sanatorium “Dr. Wiggers Kurheim ”. During passport control, it was discovered who the wounded occupant of the car was. The official on duty refused Goering to cross the border, but did not arrest him because no arrest warrant had yet been issued. Accompanied by the state police, Göring was driven to the district office in Garmisch. There he was told again that he should not cross the border and remained under police surveillance. He was sent on to the Kurheim Wiggers in Partenkirchen.   
The winter games provided the occasion to unite the two neighbouring Bavarian communities Garmisch and Partenkirchen on January 1, 1935 to form the market town of Garmisch-Partenkirchen. This was not without controversy among the population, the Garmisch-based composer Richard Strauss rejected the collection of a new council tax on the grounds that he was not even thinking of “financing this sport nonsense”. The Garmisch municipal council initially resisted the merging of municipalities, after which Gauleiter Adolf Wagner ordered Garmisch's mayors and councillors to Munich from where he threatened them with imprisonment in the Dachau concentration camp and left the council to decide on the merger with Partenkirchen that same evening.
 


Wagner would be honoured by Garmisch with its main square, now Marienplatz, being renamed in his honour. At the end was the former Nazi headquarters in Garmisch. In the course of 1935, this "House of the National Socialists" was opened in the former town hall of the Garmisch market on Adolf-Wagner-Platz 13, shown below. Its location, facilities and personnel apparatus made it the local political centre of the Nazi dictatorship. From here, the population was indoctrinated, mobilised and terrorised. It was until 1945 the seat of the four Kreisleiters- Hans Hartmann, Johann Hausböck, Jakob Scheck and Heinrich Schiede.


The games seemed endangered by the lack of snow, but it had started to snow just in time. On February 3, the message went beyond teletype: “Snowfall in Garmisch-Partenkirchen; Winter Olympics secured!” Up until February 4, the snow cover in the valley had been approximately 20 centimetres. And after a short break, it began to snow around noon the next day, continuing overnight. Meanwhile, just days before the opening of the Winter Games, there had been the acute threat of violent attacks on the Jewish population after David Frankfurter's assassination of Nazi regional leader Wilhelm Gustloff on February 4 in Switzerland. Minister of the Interior Wilhelm Frick the next day sent out the following notice: "Subject: Prevention of riots due to the murder of NSDAP group leader Gustloff in Switzerland :... I agree with the deputy of the leader Rudolf Heß that individual actions against Jews on the occasion of the murder of the leader of the Swiss national group Wilhelm Gustloff in Davos absolutely have to be avoided. I ask to take action against any such actions and to maintain public safety and order. "At the same time, Nazi propaganda raised Gustloff to the “ martyrs of the movement ” and had his coffin brought to the German Reich by special train. Hitler also limited his funeral speech to what was described as "relatively reserved"and "moderate".
Hitler arriving at the start of the Games on February 6, 1936 in the new Skiing Stadium. He is seen leaving via the the Gasthof Olympiahaus. After Garmisch was awarded the contract for the IV Winter Olympics, this stadium had to be built for the opening ceremony. This led Mayor Scheck to order the renovation and expansion of the old Gudibergschanze by architect Arnulf Albinger. It was quickly built that same year and consisted of earthworks and terraced wooden bleachers that could accommodate 40,000 guests at the northwest end of the Großen Olympiaschanze. In fact, it was designed to allow as many as 60,000 people to enter the stadium. Since the ski stadium offered more places than the more central Olympic ice stadium, the organising committee recommended that the opening and closing ceremony be held here in the ski stadium instead of in the ice stadium, as was previously the case. They also recommended using the ski stadium as the start and finish of the 18-kilometre cross-country ski run, the fifty kilometre endurance run and the 4 × 10-kilometre relay race. The then IOC President De Baillet-Latour described the stadium with the jumps as "the most beautiful winter sports facility in the world". Arnd Krüger remarks in his book The Nazi Olympics (236) that "[e]ven as late as 1996 the city of Garmisch-Partenkirchen celebrated the sixtieth anniversary of their Olympics, as if this had been nothing but a big happy sports meet. So much for the long-term effect of efficient propaganda."
Hitler opening the 1936 Olympic ski jump events from the Olympiahaus terrace on February 6, 1936. The ceremony began at 11.00 and took place in biting frost and heavy snow. Even beforehand, the motorcades and streams of people were directed by a huge contingent of well-trained and precisely instructed police officers on various well-groomed roads into the huge stadium on Gudiberg. At 10.00 the access roads were closed and the crowd was let in by uniformed officers. The Nazis' youth organisations consisting of about a thousand boys stood disciplined, bareheaded and freezing, in the deep snow, which was growing ever more. At 11.00 Hitler's special train with government representatives arrived about 100 metres from the stadium. Hitler was greeted with tremendous jubilation when he entered the official here on the terrace of the Olympiahaus. Accompanied by marching music, the Olympic participants, starting with Greece with its two skiers, followed in alphabetical order  culminating in Germany as the host country. The Austrians, in red sweaters and matching white hats and gloves, were accompanied with a storm of applause that never stopped. At the end of their long procession there were three groups of ice shooters in Tyrolean costumes.


Hitler saluting the athletes from the terrace during the opening ceremony. According to the usual practices at the Olympic Games, these were conducted under the auspices of the head of state of the host nation, meaning Hitler in this case. The President of the German Olympic Organising Committee, Karl Ritter von Halt, entered the speaker's gallery and gave a short speech concluding with how "[w]e Germans also want to show the world in this way that we will, true to the orders of our Fuhrer and Reich Chancellor, make the Olympic Games a true celebration of peace and sincere understanding between the peoples." This sounded particularly defencive at the time given the political background; it looked as if the Nazi regime had to fight against resistance in the implementation of the Olympic Winter Games. The games were officially opened with a single sentence by Hitler “with resounding clarity,” as the German News Bureau phrased it: 
I hereby declare the Fourth Winter Olympics of 1936 in Garmisch- Partenkirchen open to the public! 
Later he himself congratulated every victorious German athlete by sending a telegramme.
The sounds of music, gun salutes and the hoisting of the Olympic flag. Wilhelm Bogner spoke the athlete's oath. Before it noon, the ceremony, which was carried out without any particular pomp, was over. The stadium emptied relatively quickly during a wind storm.
 Germany also hosted the Summer Olympics the same year in Berlin. 1936 is the last year in which the Summer and Winter Games were both held in the same country (the cancelled 1940 games would have been held in Japan, with that country likewise hosting the Winter and Summer games). In the six months between the Winter and Summer Games, the Nazis prepared to host a variety of athletic and cultural events and selected the German athletes who would participate. 
At the ski run at the Olympia Skischanze and as it appeared in 1936. Of personal interest as a Winnipegger, neither Canada nor the United States, both heavy favourites, even appeared in the final which Britain won against the German team as the commentators described the action on the ice as if they were reporting from a theatre of war. Ten of Britain's twelve players came from the Dominion of Canada, which is why the ice hockey congress had met before the opening day for their approval. 
The closing ceremony took place in the Olympic Stadium and was connected with the award ceremony carried out by Dr. Ritter von Halt for the last competitions. Hitler and his entourage also took part. To the sound of a parade march, the standard-bearers of all nations moved in, followed by the competitors. The flags went up on the masts, still remaining today, whilst gun salutes were fired, the national anthems were played and the torches lit as darkness fell. Ritter von Halt decorated all banners with an Olympic ribbon. Then IOC President Henri de Baillet-Latour entered the speaker's platform and closed the games with a speech. The Olympic flag was lowered, the fire went out and the participants left the stadium. 
The International Olympic Committee was so satisfied with the implementation of the Games that it unanimously awarded Germany the right to host the Winter Olympics in 1940 after the cancellation of Sapporo in July 1938 and St. Moritz in June 1939, despite the breach of the Munich Agreement by Germany after annexing the rest of the Czech Republic in March 1939. - unanimously again awarded to Garmisch-Partenkirchen. The IOC, as it would later show by kowtowing to the Chinese regime in 2008, believed that a state that received a pledge from it for the 1940 Winter Games would not go to war. And that, although three weeks after the end of the 1936 Winter Games, German troops marched into the Rhineland. 
After 1945 the recreation facilities of the American Army (later Armed Forces Recreation Centre) were used on the site of numerous units.   
Reliefs remaining from the time. As David Clay Large argues, it is 
such surviving artifacts from Olympia 1936 [that] may also serve to remind us that these games are among the few undertakings of the Nazi era that many Germans even today believe reflect a more “positive” side of Hitler's Germany (the Autobahnen would be another such example). Anchoring this overly favorable view of the games is a widespread belief that the 1936 Olympics were largely untainted by Nazi ideology and represented a brief moment of tolerance and good feeling—a kind of oasis of decency—in the twelve-year nightmare of National Socialist rule. This was the main theme of the public commemorations in Berlin and Garmisch-Partenkirchen in 1986, marking the fiftieth anniversary of the German games. These festivities were full of nostalgic ruminations about the technical competence and innovative brilliance of the organizers, the orderliness and conviviality of the proceedings, and the "idealism” of the athletes in comparison to "the spoiled professionals of today.” On these occasions many of the athletes themselves hotly disputed the notion that the Hitler regime had in any way “misused” the games for political purposes. Their cry was then taken up by some conservative journalists and sports historians, one of whom, Willi Knecht, argued that it was simply "ignorant” for historians to posit extensive ties between the Hitler regime and the '36 games.
Nazi Games: The Olympics of 1936 (14)
 
These aren't the only Nazi reliefs in Garmisch; on an elevated water tank in the Kramer area incredibly remains this huge relief of a man, right arm stretched out in the Hitler salute with the remains of a chain hanging from his left arm, apparently having freed himself from the democracy of the Weimar Republic. Dated 1933-1934, the original swastika was long removed. Apparently it has since been scrubbed; like the swastika the man has been chiselled down but his outline is obviously discernible.
   
The Bräustüberl in 1937 Hotel Husar in 1939 and today


Kempten
 
Also in the Allgäu is this town where Hitler visited a number of times, speaking here at the Kornhaus on March 24, 1928. His July 30, 1932 speech at the Allgäuhalle produced the following line used as a Wochenspruch later in the opening weeks of the war: “I do not believe in any right that is not protected by force." According to police, about 15,000 to 18,000 people attended Hitler's thirty minute speech although the Völkische Beobachter made the ridiculous claim that the number was actually double that. According to detainees, 200 people would later be imprisoned here, including Yugoslavs, Poles, Russians, Czechoslovaks and Italians, working for the armaments production of "Helmut Sachse KG" fighter planes, in which BMW was involved.
St.-Lorenz-Kirche then and now
Between 1943 and 1945 the concentration camp Kottern-Weidach, subcamp of the Dachau concentration camp, was installed in the nearby Weidach for 1000 to 2000 prisoners. Concentration camp prisoners were accommodated, among other things, in the livestock nursery used for livestock. They had to carry out forced labour for the Messerschmitt factory in the production of aircraft. A further outside camp had already existed at Keselstrasse 14, where between 500 and 600 prisoners had to work for U. Sachse KG. The production of warring parts was shifted to Kempten, because the large cities like Munich were more threatened by air raids than the rural Allgäu.  Even the few Jews in Kempten were not spared. Jewish shops were boycotted and closed, almost all Jews were deported to concentration camps and murdered there. In Kempten, only two Jewish women and eight so-called half-Jews experienced the end of the war.
Kempten had been bombed from 1942 to 1945. On 23 October 1942 British and American planes threw 200 firebombs on the station Kempten-Hegge. Southwest of Kempten, Allied and German airplanes fought on July 18, 1944, and the Allies attacked Kempten the following day. Bombardments were made, where Messerschmitt's production was housed. 29 people were killed and some houses destroyed. On August 3, 1944 bombers attacked the southern Illerbrücken as well as the nearby spinning and weaving mill. In addition to destroyed houses there were also death sacrifices. On February 22 and April 12 and 16, 1945, the Allies attacked the railway station, as well as defence and armament systems, among them also the barrack barracks were destroyed. The largest number of bombs were reported in July and August 1944, with 146 dead and 79 seriously injured in these bomb hits. Even today, in the little cultivated south of Kempten, many bomb centres in the district of Adelharz remind of these bombshells. The building fabric of Kempten was destroyed by 1.8 per cent during bomb attacks. By comparison, during the air raids on Munich about 50 percent of the city was destroyed. On April 27, 1945 American troops from the north occupied the city, liberating more than 4,000 foreign workers and political prisoners in Kempten and its surrounding area. National Socialist rule was put to an end.

Chiemsee   

The Raststätte Chiemsee, the first large service area on the Autobahn, since 2011 the Klinik Medical Park Chiemseeblick (Psychosomatik). It is located on the A 8, the Chiemsee motorway, between Munich and Salzburg in Bernau directly on the south bank of the Chiemsee. The Rasthaus was opened on August 27, 1937 with 520 seats. In 1942 the building was completed, but then only used as an hospital. The Munich architect Fritz Norkauer oriented himself to the large Chiemgau courtyards with their sloping saddle roofs. Fritz Todt supervised the construction personally. The site became so popular as an excursion site that it had to be closed temporarily in the summer of 1939 because of overcrowding. The restaurant was designed for 350 persons, the terrace of the café for 1300 guests and the outdoor swimming pool for 1450 people. It took 800 workers a year to build the rest-stop on the lake shore given the difficulty of the site. For the main building, 1436 to 14 meter long reinforced concrete piles were placed in the alluvium. The 250-meter-long building also stands in watertight concrete tubs, so that would not flood in the spring. In its three wings was a restaurant, bathing establishment and an hotel with 53 rooms. The house technology was modern with the Radiolautsprecher behind the wall lamps, exhaust air slots in the ceilings and the radiators in the windows. There was also an extension for yachts and excursion steamers. South of the motorway, connected with the rest house by an underpass were, among other things, gas station, workshops, apartments for 160 employees, laundry, butcher and heating centre. On the terrace is the Bronze statue Die Schauende by Fritz Klimsch.
Hitler and, returning from his meeting with Hitler at the Obersalzberg that led to the Munich Agreement, Neville Chamberlain (between Herbert von Dirksen and Joachim von Ribbentrop) on September 15, 1938.  
Of this project, Adolf Hitler, Bilder aus dem Leben des Führers would claim how Hitler merited full credit:         
 The Leader is regularly informed of the progress of the work by the Inspector General. In the course of these briefings The Leader intervenes decisively in many details to influence the basic attitude of the coworkers to this work according to his will. In these discussions over the details, it has happened again and again that a decision made by The Leader has proved itself to be the only possible solution in the course of time. An example of this was the decision about the lines of the section on the southern bank of the Chiemsee in Upper Bavaria. Between this lake and the rising mountains, there is a moor which is several kilometres wide. The crossing of this moor had caused severe difficulties for the railroad. The first design of the line for the Reich Autobahn avoided the moor in a wide arc to the side of the bank towards the south. The Leader did not agree to this line, which offered the road neither a view of the lake nor a view of the mountains. He requested that further and more thorough investigations should be made to determine whether a possibility could still be found to put the road closer to the lake. At his instigation further extensive drilling was carried out in the vicinity of the lake. To everyone's great surprise these further investigations revealed a rocklike ledge close to the lake. This ledge was just wide enough to enable the road to be built close to the side of the lake in accordance with The Leader's wishes. 

During the Nazi era and today. On the wall outside the entrance is this plaque offering its own history of the site:     
The Resthouse on Lake Chiemsee was designed by order of Adolf Hitler under supervision of the General Inspector for German roads, Dr. Todt, interior and exterior by Prof. Norhauer. Construction was in the hands of the Supreme Construction Office of the Reichsautobahnen in Munich. Construction was commenced on 3 July 1937 and the Resthouse was opened 1 September 1938.

Murnau
 
The town hall during the Nazi era and today
Nazis marching through the town in the summer of 1933. Murnau was the home of many prominent Germans across its cultural and political landscape from the Nazi economic theorist and early supporter of Hitler Gottfried Feder to Nahum Goldmann, who would later become the founder and longtime president of the World Jewish Congress. It was one of the former's lectures, delivered in 1919 in the Sterneckerbrau, that drew Hitler into the party; he ended up dying in the town in 1941. Three days later on September 27 he was buried in Munich with Gauleiter Wagner placing a wreath from Hitler; relations between the two had cooled by then and Hitler had failed to order a state funeral. In addition, the American-Jewish patron James Loeb, responsible for inestimable Loeb Classical Library- he also founded a local hospital built in 1932 before dying in Murnau on May 27, 1933. Other notable citizens included the painter Gabriele Münter, the writer Ödön von Horváth and White Rose member Christoph Probst. The latter would be tried and sentenced along with the Scholl siblings at the Volksgerichtshof by the notorious judge Roland Freisler on February 22, 1943, all of whom were guillotined on the very same day at Stadelheim Prison. Hitler, Himmler and Julius Streicher all made a stop here. 
Nazi officials in front of the King Ludwig II monument in the town at an assembly of the Hitler Youth at Pentecost in 1933. After the Great War Murnau was impacted by the revolution and the Munich Soviet Republic which led to the people of Murnau seeking to protect themselves against further revolutionary efforts through a local militia. When it was disarmed, it was soon replaced by the Bundes Oberland, members of which took part in the Hitler putsch in Munich in 1923; there was even an attempted coup in Murnau itself. That same year a local Nazi Party branch was founded before being banned until 1926. From 1924, national and nationalist parties won the majority of Murnau's votes in elections. In fact, whilst the Nazis managed a paltry 2.6% of the national vote during the 1924 election, they obtained nearly 33% of the vote in Murnau. Since the late 1920s, nationalist groups including the Nazis viewed Murnau as their stronghold, which they defended against political opponents, often through violence, as in the Murnau Saalschlacht in 1931.  In the Reichstag elections of March 1933, 55.8% of the voters of Murnau voted for the Nazi party- compared to 44% nationwide. When the Nazis took power Murnau and the surrounding area served as a backdrop for Nazi projects such as the Hitler Youth highland camp in 1934, the 600th anniversary celebration in 1935 or the 1936 Winter Olympics. The construction of two barracks in 1938 suggested the harbinger of the next war, in which, like in the First World War, many young Murnau men were killed. During the war, bombed-out, evacuated and refugees needed all rooms in hotels and restaurants that had previously accommodated tourists.
Outside the Werdenfelser barracks comparing the scene taken by American photographer Lieutenant Edward C. Newell on Sunday, April 29, 1945 showing ϟϟ-Hauptsturmführer Max Teichmann (other sources state it shows instead Generalmajor der Waffen-ϟϟ Ernst Otto Fick; both men are buried besuide each other in the war cemetery in Obermeitingen-Schwabstadl) and his driver lying dead on the ground after being shot by troops of the American 12th Armoured Division that was on their way to liberate the Polish POWs of Oflag VII-A. At around 15:00 with the Americans approaching Murnau from the north, a small group of cars with ϟϟ-men approached from the opposite direction. where they collided with a dozen armoured vehicles of the 1st tank Division of the United States here outside the front gate of the camp gunfire erupted resulting in most of the ϟϟ cars turning around and fleeing back to town. The lead car opened fire drawing concentrated fire from the Americans. Colonel Teichmann and Captain Widmann died. Prisoners proceeded to climb onto the front fence as they watched the action whilst cheering the Americans on. 2nd Lieutenant Alfons Mazurek was killed by a stray bullet during this exchange of fire. Two of the American tanks pursued the ϟϟ-cars fleeing back into the town of Murnau as another tank entered the camp through the main gate. The camp itself had been established at the very start of the war in September 1939. It consisted of a 660 foot square enclosure, surrounded with barbed wire and guard towers. Immediately after the German invasion of Poland, roughly a thousand Polish officers were imprisoned here. On April 27, 1942, additional Polish PoWs were transferred here from the so-called "Generals' Camp" Oflag VIII-E in Johannisbrunn, Sudetenland (now Janské Koupele, Czech Silesia). After the failed Warsaw Uprising and "Operation Tempest" more prisoners were brought there from Poland. By the time the Americans arrived the number of PoWs held in the camp reached over 5,000.

The American Twelfth Armoured Division entering the town April 29, 1945. The Wehrmacht had dubbed the 12th Armoured Division the "Suicide Division" after its fierce defensive actions during Operation Nordwind in France, and they were nicknamed the "Mystery Division" when they were temporarily transferred to the command of the Third Army under General George S. Patton, Jr., to cross the Rhine River. It was one of only ten American divisions (and only one of two American armoured divisions) during the war that had black American combat companies integrated into the division. One of the black American soldiers, Staff Sergeant Edward A. Carter, Jr. was awarded The Distinguished Service Cross for gallantry in combat later awarded the Medal of Honour posthumously. Rare footage of elements of the 12th Armoured Division liberating prisoners from the Oflag VII-A Murnau German Army POW camp for Polish Army officers can be found here. Among the footage includes the American entry into the town as they moved through the streets without encountering any opposition whilst the civilians watched  in scenes that include a long shot of the prison camp featuring Polish army prisoners greeting the American troops from behind the camp enclosure, American troops encountering a group of uniformed Germans with arms raised in surrender, the corpses of two executed SS men lying in the street, regarded by men in civilian dress and German Major General Alfred Petray surrendering his garrison.


Schloß Herrenchiemsee
It was at the Kloster Herrenchiemsee, founded in around 765, that the eleven leaders of the western German states sent delegates to this small island in 1949 to draft the 'Grundgesetz', or German constitution. An only slightly modified version of this 'Grundgesetz' would later go on to become the 'Verfassung,' or the German constitution as it is known today, and a museum dedicated to its creation can be found within the Old Palace.    
[T]he constitutional discussions at Herrenchiemsee and in the parliamentary council proved contentious as the renunciation of independent armed forces shifted the defence of the new state to the victorious powers or to an international security system whose reliability remained unpredictable. The Social Democratic Party’s demand for a complete outlawing of war collided in principle with the Christian Democratic Party’s advocacy of the possibility of a national defence. The result was an ambiguous compromise, which in article 26, paragraph 1, declared unconstitutional all “acts tending to and undertaken with intent to disturb the peaceful relations between nations, especially to prepare for a war of aggression.” Barring special permission from the federal government, the production of weapons of war was likewise forbidden, while a right to conscientious objection to serving in the military was written into the constitution. The first constitution of the GDR also proclaimed the principle of peacefulness, although secret remilitarisation by means of the people’s police was already under way.
 Jarausch (36-37)
Looking across at Fraueninsel in 1939 and today from Herrenchiemsee. A cenotaph to Alfred Jodl, army general and executed war criminal, is located on the island. The name "Alfred Jodl", his military rank "Generaloberst" and his day of death "16.10.1946" stand proudly on the man-sized tombstone in a cruciform shape. In the early morning hours of that mortal date, the Nazi war criminals sentenced to death in Nuremberg were executed, including Alfred Jodl who had been found guilty on all the charges made against him- conspiracy to commit crimes against peace; planning, initiating and waging wars of aggression; war crimes; and crimes against humanity. The principal charges against him related to his signature of the criminal Commando and Commissar Orders. Given their ashes were dumped into in a tributary of the Isar, Hitler's supreme military strategist could not be buried here making the name on the stone cross a scandal. On the stone of the family grave, in which his two wives have found their final resting place, he may "live on."  It was only when architect Georg Wieland filed a petition at the Bavarian State Parliament a few years ago, drawing attention to the "inappropriate handling of the Nazi period" and demanding that at least an explanatory information board were placed next to the grave that momentum came into the debate. Munich-based action artist Wolfram Kastner poured red paint over the tombstone in red paint, enraging Jodl's descendants. Although tenure over the rights to the grave was to have expired on January 25, 2018, the grave remains.
 
Standing in front of schloß Herrenchiemsee, a replica (although only the central section was ever built) of Louis XIV's Palace of Versailles, was meant to outdo its predecessor in scale and opulence - for instance, at 98 meters the Hall of Mirrors and its adjoining Hall of War and Peace is slightly longer than the original. The palace is located on the Herren Island in the middle of the Chiemsee Lake. Most of the palace was never completed once the king ran out of money, and Ludwig lived there for only ten days in October 1885, less than a year before his mysterious death. Ironically tourists come from France to view the recreation of the famous Ambassadors' Staircase as the original Ambassadors' Staircase at Versailles was demolished in 1752.


Hitler outside the building accompanied by Göbbels and being escorted through the stunning Grosse Spiegelgalerie within. This tunnel of light runs the length of the garden (at 98 metres, it's ten metres longer than that in Versailles). It sports 52 candelabra and 33 great glass chandeliers with 7,000 candles, which my tour guide informed me took seventy servants half an hour to light. 
Also within the palace is the König-Ludwig II-Museum, where one can see the king’s christening and coronation robes, the Speisezimmer shown here then and now, more blueprints of megalomaniac buildings that would inspire Hitler, and his death mask. Here I am beside it and Wagner's.

Starnberger See
At the steamer pier in Starnberg and around 1907 with the saloon steamer Bavaria.  
Before Hitler had even joined the DAP, the swastika had been introduced to the party in 1919 by Friedrich Krohn, a dentist from Starnberg. Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, in his book The Occult Roots of Nazism, claims that Krohn had proposed that the party adopt a leftward-turning swastika with curved arms as used by both theosophist groups and the Germanenorden. Theosophy had adapted this leftward form of the swastika from Buddhism, but Goodrick-Clarke suggests that after joining and assuming control of the party, Hitler preferred and eventually insisted in committee discussions on a straight-armed, right-ward-turning swastika. In Mein Kampf, Hitler writes how 
I myself - as Leader - did not want to come out publicly at once with my own design, since after all it was possible that another should produce one just as good or perhaps even better. Actually, a dentist from Starnberg did deliver a design that was not bad at all, and, incidentally, was quite close to my own, having only the one fault that a swastika with curved legs was composed into a white disk I myself, meanwhile, after innumerable attempts, had laid down a final form; a flag with a red background, a white disk, and a black swastika in the middle. After long trials I also found a definite proportion between the size of the flag and the size of the white disk, as well as the shape and thickness of the swastika. (48) 
Such an account of the design of the swastika is careful to place his own contribution centre-stage.
Starnberg's mayor Franz Xaver Buchner played a major role within the Nazi Party, related in his 1940 book "Kamerad! Halt aus! Aus der Geschichte des Kreises Starnberg der NSDAP." which utilised log books and documents from Nazi district archives, which had mysteriously disappeared after the war. Under his rule Jewish villa owners gradually sold their homes, their fears justified by such passages in Buchner's book as "We do not want to beat and incapacitate, we want to destroy them - we want to destroy them! Eradicate! Violence is broken with a fist! Look away, aesthetes, when you get sick!" In 1926 Buchner branch of the Nazi Party organised a "German Day" to which Adolf Hitler was invited. As Nazi fortunes rose, so did his own position. He became Gauleiter, deputy mayor of Herrsching from 1929 -1932, member of the Reichstag and from 1933 to 1945 State Secretary within the Reich Ministry of Finance. It was reported after the war how in March 1933 Buchner erased votes in the polling station held at the Gasthaus zur Eisenbahn, replacing them with the word 'Yes'. The former Gasthof zur Eisenbahn" on Maximilianstraße, later demolished and rebuilt as the Bayerischer Hof. Located directly across the railway station, Hitler had spoken here in the autumn of 1921 which by then had become known as the the clubhouse of the Nazi Party in Starnberg, remaining thus throughout the period of the Third Reich. The formula "Jews are not allowed", which has been used for all calls to the assembly since 1921, was used for the first time in Starnberg in the advertisement for this major event. Admission now cost one Reichsmark, compared to the 50 pfennigs it had cost half a year earlier.
In Tutzing on Lake Starnberg is the former home of General Ludendorff. Retired General of the Infantry, Ludendorff celebrated his seventieth birthday in this house on April 9, 1935. He and his co-conspirator of the 1923 Putsch, Hitler, had not been on friendly terms since 1925. Although their ideas did coincide, each felt superior to the other. General Ludendorff had been one of the parties essentially responsible for spreading the legend of the “stab in the back.” This propagandist allegation had it that the munitions workers’ strike in October 1918, just as the German Army was purportedly at the threshold of victory, had been the cause of the dishonourable defeat of the invincible German forces. Although it might be understandable that Hitler and others who had fought in the war held this view, there is no excuse for Ludendorff’s support of such an obvious fallacy. He had not experienced the war from a corporal’s perspective, as the later dictator had, but been instrumental in waging it as Quartermaster General from 1916 to 1918. In September of 1918, together with Hindenburg, he had petitioned the German Government to conclude an armistice within twenty-four hours in order to circumvent the otherwise inevitable military collapse. However, this did not prevent him from subsequently claiming, against his own better knowledge, that Marxists, Jews, Freemasons, and the Catholic Church had connived to bring about Germany’s collapse. 
At the site of Ludendorff's grave. In 1923, Ludendorff and Hitler had been on the same side; from 1925 Ludendorff rejected his former companion as being not sufficiently radical; strange as this may sound today, he viewed him as an “ultramontane” and a Judenknecht (slave to the Jews). Ludendorff’s attitude naturally rankled Hitler, and his vanity would not allow that anyone in Germany of standing or reputation was not wholly—and publicly—supportive. Moreover, he intended to have Ludendorff enter into Valhalla when he died, just as he had sent Hindenburg to the great hall dedicated to the war heroes in Norse mythology. Thus he enlisted all of his powers of persuasion to move Ludendorff to desist and adopt a modus vivendi of mutual respect. A reconciliation of sorts had come about between the two former comrades in arms by the time of Ludendorff’s death in 1937; however, in 1935 Hitler’s attempts in this direction were fruitless despite his belief that his foe would finally come to view him as Germany’s saviour for having reinstituted military service. Consequently he issued an “order” on April 8 in which he lauded Ludendorff as the “greatest German commander in the World War.” This “Order of the Führer and Reich Chancellor”—no one was quite sure to whom it was addressed—read as follows:
Tomorrow, on April 9, General Ludendorff is celebrating his seventieth birthday. With sentiments of deepest gratitude, the German Volk recalls on this occasion the immortal accomplishments of its greatest commander in the World War. In the grasp of this sentiment of a national debt of gratitude, I order that all state buildings exhibit flags on April 9.  Adolf Hitler


On that day Hitler had an honour guard appointed to the celebrant and dispatched the Reich Minister of Defence, von Blomberg, and the Chief of Army Command, von Fritsch, to relay his congratulations in Tutzing. Blomberg was also instructed to present the marshal’s baton to Ludendorff, but the latter, the victorious commander per se, rejected the appointment. Naturally the German public heard nothing of this affront, although it was rather obvious that the reports on the birthday festivities in Tutzing made not a single mention of the Chancellor. Following the “order” of April 8 and the military favours Hitler had bestowed upon Ludendorff, the absence of any word of thanks from the latter did appear curious.
Standing at the site of Ludwig II's mysterious death.


On the afternoon of June 13 1886, Ludwig, accompanied by his personal physician Dr Gudden, strolled within the grounds of the castle. They were accompanied by two attendants. On their return Gudden expressed optimism to other doctors concerning the treatment of his royal patient. Following dinner, at around 18.00 Ludwig asked Gudden to accompany him on a further walk, this time through the Schloß Berg parkland along the shore of Lake Starnberg. Gudden agreed; the walk may even have been his suggestion, and he told the aides not to accompany them. His words were ambiguous (Es darf kein Pfleger mitgehen, "No attendant may come along") and whether they were meant to follow at a discreet distance is not clear. The two men were last seen at about 18.30; they were due back at 20.00 but never returned. After searches were made for more than two hours by the entire castle staff in a gale with heavy rain, at 22.30 that night, the bodies of both the King and von Gudden were found, head and shoulders above the shallow water near the shore. The King's watch had stopped at 6.54. Gendarmes patrolling the park had heard and seen nothing.  Ludwig's death was officially ruled a suicide by drowning, but the official autopsy report indicated that no water was found in his lungs. Ludwig was a very strong swimmer in his youth, the water was approximately waist-deep where his body was found, and he had not expressed suicidal feelings during the crisis. Gudden's body showed blows to the head and neck and signs of strangulation, leading to the suspicion that he was strangled although there is no evidence to prove this.

Lambacher Hof

Another favourite of Hitler's was the Lambacher Hof on the Chiemsee and which has changed very little since.
Hitler usually ordered preparations for the drive to "the mountain"-Obersalzberg. We rode over dusty highways in several open cars; the autobahn to Salzburg did not exist in those days, although it was being built on a priority basis. Usually the motorcade stopped for coffee in a village inn at Lambach am Chiemsee, which served delicious pastries that Hitler could scarcely ever resist. Then the passengers in the following cars once more swallowed dust for two hours, for the column rode in close file.
Speer (46) Inside the Third Reich


Bad Tölz
Looking down the High Street during the Nazi era through postcards from the time and today. The aims of the regime in controlling the population was openly expressed in a speech to civil servants at the Party's indoctrination centre for civil servants in Bad Tolz in June 1938, Helmut Friedrichs, the head of Department II for Party Affairs in Rudolf Hess's office emphasised that
 The struggle for existence and the ethnic self-assertion of a nation is a process which eternally repeats itself. In this struggle for existence the nation must be turned into a body capable of resistance through education, work and the supervision of its morale. This body must be immune to all kinds of bacteria and external influences. The party is the barometer[sic!]. It must know the state of health of this body. It must examine what benefits and what damages the nation. It must analyse and get to know its innermost being and then draw practical con- clusions. The party represents the link between the leadership and the retinue, prepares the ground among the people for the leadership to introduce those measures which are beneficial to the nation.
A parade of SA men with ski equipment marching down Marktstrasse in 1932. 
The first local branch of the Nazi Party in Tölz was founded in June 1922, and an SA group was probably founded around the same time. Its members regularly marched in front of what was then Park Hotel which was frequented mainly by Jewish guests stayed.
This was the site on July 6, 1932 of Hitler's first genuine campaign speeches aimed at the presidential election on July 31. He spoke on a meadow near the train station, but because of a long thunderstorm with heavy rain, the speech was not considered successful.
When the Bavarian resort of Bad Tölz mistakenly included its limitations on ‘non-Aryan’ spa guests within a brochure it sent to a prospective visitor from the Netherlands, it hurried to assure him that such restrictions did not apply to foreigners.
Semmens (147)
A torchlight procession on January 30, 1933 in Bad Tölz took place on the day of the seizure of power. In another torchlight procession on March 5, 1933 - the day of the last semi-free Reichstag elections in which the Nazis received 42.8 percent in Tölz, the various conservative parties actually  sent their own delegations. On top of this, relatively little resistance was shown when the SA stormed the town hall on March 10 and hoisted the Nazi flag. The mayor of Tölz, Alfons Stollreither, immediately joined the Nazi Party as SA Brigadefuhrer Hans Höflmayr was deployed as a "special commissioner" on behalf of the SA. The Nazis would establish a symbolic heroic cult on the Heiglkopf, which they renamed "Hitlerberg" on May 21, 1933.
Himmler spoke in the town on a number of occasions, giving speeches on February 18, 1937 at the ϟϟ-Gruppenführer Conference and on March 11, 1938, November 23, 1942 and May 27, 1943, all at the ϟϟ Training Facility shown here with the ϟϟ Junker School Bad Tölz in 1942 and today, with the arch demolished and site converted to a shopping centre. Such ϟϟ Junker schools were war schools introduced in 1937, which were tasked with the training junior military leaders for the Waffen-ϟϟ. Their graduates formed the junior executives in the ϟϟ-Verfügungstruppe  the Ordnungspolizei, the concentration camps and ϟϟ-Totenkopfverbände and the SD. In addition to military training, an holistic sense of life was taught in accordance with the ϟϟ.  The leadership of the later Waffen-ϟϟ considered the ϟϟ Junker schools to be an equivalent for the German military schools of the Wehrmacht or the army. About 15,000 ϟϟ leaders completed this training according to Nazi ideology from a racial point of view. A so-called Aryan certificate dating back to the 18th century and a medical certificate had to be presented. Of course, ϟϟ leadership schools were also a place of political indoctrination. By 1937, around 90% of the participants had left the churches in common with the members of the ϟϟ of whom, from 1938, about 80% belonged to any religious community. Trained officers of the ϟϟ troops and the Waffen-ϟϟ were to be a military and racial elite. 
Until 1936, attendance within a Junkerschule counted neither as military service nor protected him from being called by the Wehrmacht. Because of the socially heterogeneous composition of the leading candidates and their highly divergent education as well as military qualifications, it was the task of this institution to standardise the level of training and social behaviour as much as possible.  During the course, students continued to wear their own uniforms and not, like participants in the driving schools, uniforms. Upon graduation all participants returned to their base units as ϟϟ-Standartenjunker (ϟϟ-Scharführer) or as ϟϟ-Standoberjunker (ϟϟ-Hauptscharführer). There they were quickly promoted to ϟϟ Untersturmführer (active) or to the ϟϟ Untersturmführer (reserve).
When American General Patton  was made military governor of Bavaria, he
set up his HQ in the former ϟϟ officer training school in Bad Tölz. On 22 September he blotted his copy book by appointing Nazis to administrative roles within his Bavarian command and marginalising their criminality – all in defiance of JCS 1067. He backtracked a little, saying that he was employing Nazis because he needed to retain his own men to fight, and because they hadn’t yet found anyone better. A week later, Eisenhower relieved him of his command. 
MacDonogh (229)

Mangfallbrücke Nazi stamp
The Mangfallbrücke is part of the federal motorway between Munich and Rosenheim north of Weyarn the Mangfalltal. The 288 metre-long continuous girder bridge was completed in January 1936 and was one of the first large bridges of the autobahn network. Its construction as part of the Reichsautobahn Munich-Salzburg began in March 1934 and its installation was accompanied in detail by Nazi propaganda as shown by this 1936 stamp in the series of modern buildings of the German Reich for the winter welfare organisation.

Gradually the network of highways spread. They followed routes that engineers had previously claimed impassable, for example across broad moors like the south shore of Lake Chiemsee in Bavaria. Long viaducts like the Mangfall bridge, 200 feet high, were personally selected by Hitler from seventy competing designs, for their simple but solid lines: "What we’re building," he explained, "will still be standing long after we’ve passed on." He toured the sites and spoke with the workers. "When I’m as old as you," he flattered one seventy-year-old labourer at Darmstadt, "I’d like to be able to work like you now." In November 1936, he gave orders that the Reich’s western frontiers were to be marked on the autobahns by monuments 130 feet high. Hitler's War (21)

Hitler at Mangfallbrücke
Hitler below the bridge in 1935 and today, the third pylon being added after the bridge had been blown up on May 1, 1945 by members of the Waffen-ϟϟ  in the face of approaching American troops. The superstructure and the western pier were destroyed and the eastern pier heavily damaged. This photograph comes from Adolf Hitler, Bilder aus dem Leben des Führers claiming extravagantly:


One of the first great bridges to be tackled was the Mangfall Bridge near München, with a length of approximately 300 metres and a height of approximately 60 metres above the base of the valley. From a contest which resulted in about seventy entrants, The Leader decided on the design to be used, and thereby determined the type of major bridge which afterwards was to be built at various other places. The lines and shapes of the constructions which The Leader himself determined are clear and simple, and at the same time ambitious and daring. Besides the shape, his decision is greatly influenced by the question of the soundness of the construction. Cheap construction parts, such as hollow pillars and pylons, are rejected by The Leader as they raise doubts about the unlimited durability.
The steel construction of the three-span girder bridge was designed and executed by MAN's Gustavsburg plant under the formal advice of its architect Wilhelm Haerter, as chosen by Hitler from several designs. November 24 saw its topping-out ceremony of the pillars was celebrated followed on January 6, 1936, five days before the handover of the section Holzkirchen-Weyarn, by Hitler driving down the first structure with its four lanes.  

Oberstdorf
 
Located in the Oberallgäu, the Alpenhotel Schönblick, shown flying the Nazi flag and today, is in Germany's southernmost village.