Remaining Nazi Sites in Lower Franconia

Birthplace of Colonel General Alfred Jodl, born 1890; Chief of Operations Staff of the OKW (the High Command of the Armed Forces) during the war and eventually sentenced to death and hanged in Nuremberg in 1946. Birthplace too of Gottfried Feder, born 1883, author of the pamphlet, Brechung der Zinsknechtschaft, State Secretary in the Reich Ministry of Economics from 1933 to 1934, died in 1941 in Munich.

Looking down Domstraße towards the Grafeneckart-Turm of the rathaus and looking towards the other direction towards the cathedral. In 1934 Würzburg became a major city. Under the Nazis, the city played an important role in the so-called Action T4, in which more than 100,000 psychiatric patients and disabled people were systematically murdered by ϟϟ doctors and nurses. Werner Heyde, professor of psychiatry and neurology at the University of Würzburg, as well as head of the "medical department" of the "euthanasia" centre and chief witness of the euthanasia action, was the central figure. In this context the KZ-Außenlager Würzburg was established.
 Inauguration of Adolf-Hitler-Strasse, 1933; today it is Theaterstraße.
It was here in the capital of Lower Franconia on October 16 1932 that Hitler declared:
I do not believe that the struggle will ever really come to an end. Just as the peasant must till his field year after year, so must a statesman till his Volk over and over again. I see nothing burdensome, nothing forced in this struggle, but something very natural and necessary, and I am looking forward to duelling with these gentlemen.
When Hitler himself visited the town, the Würzburger Hof was his hotel of choice, now rebuilt
The Stadttheater during the Third Reich and today 
The Residenz during the Nazi era and today.

Large demonstration of the DAF in July 1936 at the Residenzplatz. Hitler spoke at a mass rally on this square in front of the Würzburg Residenz the following year on June 27, 1937. In the course of the “party narrative,” Hitler called the National Socialist Revolution one of the most ingenious and important of all times. According to him, the Revolution had never transgressed the boundaries of legality.
Hence a new Volk was born—painfully, just as everything which is born can only be born in pain. Yet I believe that we can say, as history is our witness, that in no other case in history was this painful process carried out more intelligently, more reasonably, more cautiously, and with more feeling than here.
The future will one day describe this process as one of the most intelligent— and I may say so myself—one of the most brilliant ever to take place. As one of the most tremendous revolutions ever, the course of which did not abandon the premise of unconditional legality for a single second.
Hitler then proceeded to use the incidents in Spain to again vent his anger at international organisations. Toward the end of his address, Hitler spoke of the “resurrection of an entire nation,” which was visible on a reduced scale in the city of Würzburg. It was the third time Hitler had spoken there since 1932, although he had never particularly liked the town. Ignoring the official reception which had been prepared at the City Hall, he abruptly returned to his car and proceeded to the military airport on the outskirts of town.
The bombed building and today
The Weinhaus Kette from a 1938 postcard and today, the flag not being the only change.
Sanderglacisstraße officially renamed Schlageter-Straße on May 26
When a Duisburg bridge was blown up and nine people in a Belgian compartment on a train were killed, seven Germans were tried before a French military court and shot. In an Essen hotel, a young German, Albert Leo Schlageter, was arrested, taken for trial, tried, and executed. Despite the Nazis’ general dislike of the Ruhr resistance as not being aimed at the proper enemy (the Weimar government in Berlin), Schlageter was adopted by the movement to serve as a martyr for the cause. 
The Gauhaus.The former Hotel "Crown Prince" was purchased in 1934 by the Nazi Party and expanded with an honorary hall and flags. In January 1935 the management of the Gau of Franconia moved here, and on 13 June 1935 the building was officially opened by Reichsleiter Rosenberg. It served as the seat of government of Gauleiter Dr. Hellmuth. 
The so-called Villa des Gauleiters, private villa of Gauleiter Dr. Otto Hellmuth at Rottendorfer- (at the time Ludendorff-) Straße 26. Over most of his term as Gauleiter, Hellmuth was not an impressive personality with Joseph Goebbels describing him as "a most retiring unassuming Gauleiter in whom one had not too much confidence." However, Hellmuth defended his Gau vigorously in the spring of 1945, as Goebbels noted in his diary on April 2. In 1947, Hellmuth was accused of complicity in the murders of Allied aircraft pilots. He was tried at Dachau and sentenced to death. This sentence was later commuted to life imprisonment. He was released in 1955 and died in Reutlingen in 1968. 
The concrete bunker was located in the immediate vicinity of the Villa des Gauleiters beside the normal air-raid shelter. It served during the war as a command post in the district leadership. The bunker was demolished in June 1988.
In the Hall of Honour, the names of the movement's 'martyrs' from the Gau Franconia were commemorated and the names of the Würzburg Olympic champions recorded. The photo on the left shows Gauleiter Dr. Hellmuth welcoming Dr. Ley in the Hall of Honour on the occasion of the Gauhauses the selection of candidates for the training castle on March 22, 1936.  
The Standortlazarett, a large military hospital complex, was built in 1937, becoming one of the most noted works of this period. After taking power, the Nazis knew how to quickly establish good relations with the former Reichswehr. Würzburg was an old garrison town since the time of Balthasar Neumann and a connection with military traditions gave the system support the national bourgeoisie. The first Würzburg hospital was set up in the late 1920s and early 1930s. By 1933 it had a capacity of 55 beds, which was expanded to 95 beds in 1934.  With the expansion of the Wehrmacht, Würzburg needed a larger hospital. A new military hospital was built on the northeast side of the Galgenberges hill. The site belonged to the Mariannhill Institute. Initially it was planned as a 300 bed house. The foundation stone was laid on December 24, 1935. Construction began on January 7, 1936. The new hospital was opened on November 11, 1937. The hospital was part of the Würzburg medical squadron. Initially, this was subordinate to the medical department 15. When it was moved to Frankfurt, the relocation of the squadron relocated to the medical department 17 in Nuremberg. From July 1938 the squadron then belonged to the medical department 40, which was stationed in the Red Building in Würzburg. In 1939 the hospital was reclassified to the reserve hospital. The number of beds increased from 300 to 700. Towards the end of the war, the bed size had increased to 2,000.
During the Nazi era with its Reichsadler on the façade and today. After the war it was taken over by the American 107th EVAC Hospital and as it appears today.
'Dr. Goebbels-Haus'- the headquarters of the Nationalsozialistischer Deutscher Studentenbund which had been founded in 1926 as a division of the Nazi Party with the mission of integrating University-level education and academic life within the framework of the National Socialist worldview. The building had been completed in 1937 as the NSDStB camaraderie house and was dedicated to Goebbels because he had studied for some time before 1922 in Würzburg before moving on to Heidelberg. He had attended lectures and seminars with men as diverse as the liberal professor of civil law, Robert Piloty, and the conservative historian Julius Kaerst, who invited the students to his home in Friedenstrasse 45. Whilst Goebbels was unimpressed by Piloty, the more reactionary Kaerst might have influenced him; the history professor openly sympathised with the radical right-wing movement, speaking in December 1919 to student members of the German-Ethnic Protection and Protection Association, the largest forerunner of the Nazi Party, which was founded in Würzburg in 1922. In fact, on October 8, 1918, a month before the end of the First World War, he enlisted at the Würzburg residents' registration office only to be rejected as "unfit for war" on the registration sheet, which is still in the city archives. Organised strictly in accord with the Führerprinzip as well as the principle of Machtdistanz (or "power distance"), the NSDStB housed its members in these Kameradschaftshäusern and, from 1930, had its members decked out in classic brown shirts and its own distinctive Swastika emblems. 
After a wing had been added to the north side of the building on what is now Jahnstrasse in 1937 and inaugurated on November 28, the extension building also served the National Socialist Student Union (NSStB) as a "student family house". The city of Würzburg had also given the land free of charge for this. The "Dr.-Goebbels-Haus", as it was now called was described as "the powerful fighter for Germany's freedom." A larger-than-life, naked young man made of limestone was let into the corner of the house.
The Neue Universität, when it served the Association of university professors under the leadership and control of the Nazis, and today. University teachers were controlled by the Nationalsozialistische-Dozentenbund (NSDB—Nazi Lecturers League), a professional association of university lecturers designed to keep them in line with Nazi ideology. 
Site of the NS-Lehrerbund - Lehrerhochschule, completed in 1936.
Teachers were encouraged to join the Nazi Party and all of them had to be members of the Nationalsozialistische Lehrerbund (NSLB—Nazi teacher league). The monolithic NSLB, formed in November 1935, rejected the democratic heritage of the Weimar regime, and subjected all teachers to strict Nazi Party control. It had a newspaper, Der deutsche Erzieher (German Educator) and took charge of services to the teaching profession. After 1938, teachers were indoctrinated at a special, compulsory, one-month training course of drills and lectures where they learned what knowledge to pass on the pupils. By 1939 the forty-one NSLB training camps had prepared 215,000 members for their educational tasks—these being spirit of militarism, paganism, anti–Semitism, and the cult of the perfect “Aryan” racial type—by means of ideological instruction, propaganda courses, conferences, group travel, paramilitary physical training and field sports. There was also the Reichslehrerbund (RLB—Reich Teachers’ League), an organisation of teachers devoted to the ideals of Nazism, carefully watched by high Nazi officials. 
Palais Thüngen, the 'Braunes Haus' of the SA and offices of the Kraft durch Freude at Wilhelmstraße 5
Fritz-Schillinger-Haus, headquarters of the NS-Volkswohlfahrt (People's Welfare). Building on it started May 3, 1936 with the topping out ceremony taking place on 10 October 1936.
The former Gauschule der NSF which served to train those who would become leading functionaries.
 Headquarters of the NS-Frauenschaft, the Nazi Women's League. Their appointed tasks were to promote recycling within the Saar Palatinate, community support, business honorary service (replacement of workers on the machine by women and girls), sewing rooms, Harvest Help and patchwork bag action (repairing garments), and supporting the Kindertransport.  During the war their service for the Wehrmacht involved hospital care, soldiers' care, socks and glove supply, army kitchens, assistants for government agencies, facilitation for domestic helpers in Bad Kissingen, and
construction of hospital lights. Nevertheless, as Kater (74) wrote in
Hitler Youth,
As much as women might busy themselves in the service of Hitler’s movement, the popular consensus was that politics was a man’s game and they had better stay out of it. Thus conditioned, they acquiesced when Deputy Führer Rudolf Hess told comrades at the Nuremberg Party rally of 1938: “Talk to your wives only about such matters which are expressly designated for public discussion.”
The hauptbahnhof after being bombed by the RAF in 1945 and its current incarnation.
The attack on Würzburg on March 16, 1945, was far more ferocious—ninety percent of the city lay in ashes on the next morning. Würzburg was destroyed to a disproportionate extent, far greater than any other city in Germany. The outcome was all the more horrendous, as neither of the cities was prepared for such an attack at this late stage in the war. There is no substance to rumours then in circulation relating that the raids had been prompted by the extraordinary concentration of refugees at these sites. Neither do the facts support any of the other speculations current at the time, for instance the claim that the Soviet Union had a particular, though mysterious, interest in the destruction of these two sites and had pressured the Allies to make a last determined offensive there. 
Domarus (3243)
The remains of the Falkenhaus and its remarkable reconstruction 
 The site of Ecke Theatre on Kapuzinerstraße then and now
Hof Seebach then and now
The Bechtolsheimerhof on Hofstraße in 1959 and the birthplace of rococo sculptor Johann Peter Wagner on Stephanstraße in 1958 and today
Schottenkirche (Scots Church) after the war and the site today
The kriegerdenkmal then and now, unchanged. The memorial in the Husarenwäldchen was created between 1925 and 1931 by the sculptor Fried Heuler and initially dedicated to the fallen of the First World War. According to Josef Kern, the stone monument dedicated on All Saints Day in 1931 was initially rejected by the Nazis before being adopted by them as an "hero's memorial". Today it is considered a memorial to the fallen soldiers and memorial to peace. In contrast to many other war memorials that were created during this time, the monument in the Hussar grove presents itself as neither particularly martial nor heroic - but its size radiates a certain majesty. It consists of a group of shell limestone sculptures of six soldiers carrying a fallen comrade on a stretcher. Their steel helmets weigh heavily on their faces and they wear long, heavy military robes. Their appearance looks uniform - the sculptor deliberately avoided details. Wearing the dead man on their shoulders symbolises strength on the one hand, and their kneeling positions on the other hand appear wistful and respectful. Every Memorial Day ("Sunday of the Dead") the soldiers of the wars are remembered here at a commemoration ceremony when government representatives and various associations place wreaths in front of the sculpture group. The mayor speaks and representatives of the Catholic and Protestant churches together offer prayers. The monument itself is flanked by four Bundeswehr soldiers with torches. There have been disturbances of the commemoration as well as desecration of the war memorial by extreme leftist groups who see in the commemoration and the monument an "historical revisionist mentality."
The Studentenstein, honouring the so-called kindermord at Langemarck during the First Battle of Ypres (which Hitler refers to in Mein Kampf), was later altered to sport swastikas and other Nazi iconography during the Nazi era. It consists of a 22-tonne block of Odenwald granite and was was unveiled on July 17, 1927 on the occasion of the tenth German Students' Day. The stone had a pyramidal roof upon which was a gilded eagle with splayed wings. The front of the stone block showed hands that - arranged in a semicircle - reached for a sword shown on the left with the reverse bearing the inscription: ""Deutschland muß leben, und wenn wir sterben müssen. Die deutsche Studentenschaft ihren Gefallenen" in memory of the fallen in the First World War students. Below was a symbolic oak with war years 1914-1918.  During Nazi era the Studentenstein was celebrated as a so-called "Langemarckstein" and used as a destination for party marches. A swastika was attached and the eagle enlarged- both have been removed along with the base. It is shown on the right after its desecration on January 27, 2012 after damage costing roughly 300 euros by left-wing extremists. More desecration occurred on the night of January 13, 2013 by more extremists. Here it is shown with graffiti declaring "Deutsche Täter sind keine Opfer" (Perpetrators are not victims). 

 Americans marching away German PoWs in front of the bombed Löwenbrücke with Festung Marienberg behind on the left with identical views of the city from the fortress overlooking the same bridge immediately after the war and today.

The bridge over the Fränkische Saale river during the war and today, located about thirty miles downstream from Würzburg. During the war numerous Soviet prisoners of war were involved in forced labour in facilities that were important to the German war effort. An Allied air raid on March 16, 1945 by American fighter-bombers and involving artillery shelling on April 4 and 5, 1945 destroyed two-thirds of the town. The extensive destruction affected the entire western and central area of the old town, which had buildings from the 16th and 17th centuries (market square with town hall, fish market, Badgasse, Kärrnersgasse and Wirthsgasse). The parish church of St. Peter and Paul, the Hexenturm, Mühltor, the historic town hall (completely demolished after the occupation in April), the Adelmann house and the Wurzgarten house were destroyed. The reconstruction after planning 1946-1950 in the old town area was carried out involving simple plaster buildings. The street layouts were changed significantly with the town hall on the market square not rebuilt. The old town itself was extensively renovated in the 1980s.


Ochsenfurt is located on the left bank of the River Main and its 11,000 inhabitants make it the largest town in Würzburg district. During the Second World War the main bridge was partially destroyed, but the old town was spared. At the end of the war in 1945, the city was occupied by the Americans.

Bad Kissingen 
The swastika flying at the Marktplatzecke with the former Hotel Wittelsbach in the foreground then and now. The site on July 10 1866 of fierce battle between Bavarian and Prussian troops, Kissingen is where Iron Chancellor Otto von Bismarck narrowly avoided assassination by Eduard Franz Ludwig Kullmann in 1874. Bismarck’s former home in Kissingen is now the Bismarck Museum. During the Nazi era, the New Synagogue of the Jewish Community Promenadenstraße 1 was destroyed at the November 19ogrome in 1938, reminding a memorial plaque. The Jewish community, which had counted among the ten largest Jewish communities in Bavaria with 171 reported Jews in 1933, expired, a total of 69 Bad Kissinger Jews had been deported and murdered. The physicist Nobel laureate Jack Steinberger, born in Bad Kissingen, had already fled to the United States in 1934.  Due to political developments in Germany, after 1933 many foreign visitors stayed away from the city. The number of spa guests declined to 13,828 in 1944. The Bad Kissinger music business was also affected when the two Jewish members of the orchestra, concertmaster Carl Snoeck and violinist Josef Lengsfeld, were dismissed from their posts in 1934, and no works by Jewish composers could be played from 1937 onwards. Lengsfeld took his life shortly after Pogromnacht. For international protests, the "Schwimmbadaffäre", when Jews were denied access to the municipal bathing establishment; The entry prohibition label was only removed when it was demolished. Pater Reinisch Monument at the former barracks site  In order to give new impetus to the urban economy, Bad Kissinger Lord Mayor Max Pollwein tried to set up a military in the city from December 1934 onwards. In 1937, after a one-year period of construction, the Manteuffel barracks, named after the general field marshal Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel, were built. After the Catholic Pallottine Father Franz Reinisch had denied Hitler's flag in the Manteuffel barracks, he was murdered in 1942 in the Zuchthaus Brandenburg-Görden. A memorial stone on the Pater-Reinisch-Weg on the former barracks grounds points to this. By 1945 there were 30,000 wounded in 30 hospitals but since Bad Kissingen was not declared a hospital town, which would have been excluded from direct warfare under the Geneva Conventions, Colonel Karl Kreutzberg, with the support of General von Obstfelder, initiated Bad Kissingen's surrender on April 7, 1945. The city had been spared major war damage apart from the explosion of the Ludwig Bridge a few hours before surrender.
Shortly prior to the war, Manteuffel Kaserne (Manteuffel Barracks) was established at the eastern edge of the Bad Kissingen town centre by the German military as part of Hitler's program to expand the German "Wehrmacht" (Army). In 1945, the American military entered the town peacefully, and took over the Kaserne, which was renamed Daley Barracks in 1953.

Hitler was not particularly popular in the early 1930s in Schweinfurt, although he still enjoyed a not inconsiderable number of followers.  When he visited Schweinfurt for the second time on October 16, 1932, a huge tent with a capacity of 15,000 people had been built on the Schützenplatz. However, there were only about 8,500 visitors in a large catchment area without the 500 SA and ϟϟ persons. Hitler had just come from Coburg, where 70,000 to 80,000 people had heard him. Hitler was said to have been extremely displeased about the bad visit, especially since he had been accompanied by many "phony" calls at the entrance to Schweinfurt. At the time unemployment was enormously high in Schweinfurt - as it was throughout the entire territory of Germany. Many had to repeatedly sign up as a jobseeker; the demand for work and the receipt of support had to be proven by a registration card. Social hardship blinds many people. Social misery and the feeling of being worthless provide fertile ground for extremism. The vast majority therefore ran after a "strong leader", which ultimately led Germany into even greater misery.
The rathaus on March 9, 1933. On the following day the Nazi seizure of power was manifested at 6:30 am when the Social Democratic mayor and several city councillors of Schweinfurt were arrested and taken into so-called "protective custody". After the 1933 Reichstag election, all provincial and municipal parliaments were simply "brought into line", according to the Nazi language. In Schweinfurt, they arbitrarily increased the number of Nazi city councillors from two to nine. Five of the then thirteen SPD city councillors were expelled from the council and of the remaining half had already been taken into "protective custody."A mere two months later the newly-elected Nazi mayor Pösl declared that seven of the SPD city councillors had announced their resignations from the City Council. The eighth was Georg Groha who was on the wanted list of the Nazis and had already fled to France, where he died in 1941.  
In 1939 Schweinfurt produced most of Nazi Germany's ball bearings, and factories such as the Schweinfurter Kugellagerwerke became a target of Allied strategic bombing during the war to cripple tankand aircraft production. Schweinfurt was bombed 22 times during Operation Pointblank by a total of 2, 285 aircraft. The Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission caused an immediate 34% loss of production and all plants but the largest were devastated by fire. Efforts to disperse the surviving machinery began immediately and the Luftwaffe deployed large numbers of interceptors along the corridor to Schweinfurt. Bombing also included the Second Raid on Schweinfurt on October 14, 1943 (called Black Thursday because of the enormous loss of sixty aircraft and over six hundred lives) and Big Week in February 1944. Although losses of production bearings and machinery were high and much of the industrial and residential areas of the city were destroyed, killing more than a thousand civilians, the factories were restored to production and the industry dispersed. Although German planners initially thought it essential to purchase the entire output of the Swedish ball-bearing industry, losses in the production of bearings were actually made up from surpluses found within Germany in the aftermath of the first raid. The decentralised industry was able to restore output to 85% of its pre-bombing level. Hitler made restoration of ball bearing production a high priority and massive efforts were undertaken to repair and rebuild the factories, partly in bomb-proof underground facilities. The American 42nd Infantry Division entered Schweinfurt on April 11, 1945 and conducted house-to-house fighting.
1938 city map showing Nazi-era street names such as Adolf-Hitler-Straße and Horst-Wessel-Straße
Westend Apotheke at Luitpoldstraße 20 in 1933 with Nazi flags and slogans reading "Mit Hitler gegen Rüstungswahnsinn der Welt" (With Hitler against the world's armament mania). 
The same chemist's after the war.
This was in support of a "YES" vote in the referendum for the withdrawal from the League of Nations on November 12, 1933, as well as the Reichstag election taking place. The Nazi government was assisted by leading public figures and the campaign began on October 26, 1933 with a published vow of faithful allegiance through which the 88 writers of the German Academy of Poetry promised Hitler their unconditional support. On November 1, the same association called explicitly for the election of the "People's Chancellor Adolf Hitler" and for a "yes" to the withdrawal from the League of Nations. On November 11, Reich President Paul von Hindenburg called for approval in one of his rare radio speeches. That day in Leipzig the confession of the German professors to Hitler took place, with which high-ranking German scholars and scientists pointedly put themselves behind Hitler. Support was also provided by the surgeon Ferdinand Sauerbruch, the philosopher Martin Heidegger and the writer Gerhart Hauptmann. Even the leaders of the economy and the churches called for a vote. In the case of the Catholic Church, the conclusion of the Reich Concordat between the Holy See and the German Reich in July 1933 helped the bishops to call for a "joyful vote for the Fiihrer". Even some national opponents of the regime were in agreement, because they wanted to support a national foreign policy. The rooms of the General German Trade Union Confederation were on the first floor.
In front of the town walls

Comparison views from a 1934 local flyer and today:
Salvatorkirche and Johanniskirche 
The Schrotturm the alte Gymnasium

  Adolf-Hitler-Straße, now once again Spitalstraße. The Zeughaus is at the end of the road.
 Marktplatz then and now

The former Hitlerjugend schule still has its Nazi eagle above the door...

... as does the former entrance to the Willy-sachs-Stadions

Keßlergasse 22 with the original Jewish-owned establishment (note shield of David on façade), after its 'aryanisation', and today. At the beginning of the Nazi era, the municipal council of the Jewish community consisted of six people with Dr. Moses Hommel serving as its president. In 1933, there were 363 Jewish inhabitants, making up 0.9% of a total of 40,176 locals. Due to the consequences of the economic boycott, increasing deprivation of rights and reprisals, some of them have moved or emigrated from Schweinfurt in the following years. Other Jewish people (from rural communities) are still partially moved in Schweinfurt. On April 1, 1935 318 Jewish inhabitants were counted, in January 1936 319, in January 1937 308, in January 1938 260.  In 1942, the community was dissolved. Until then, about 225 were able to emigrate the Jews who lived or moved there in 1933. In 1942, 30 Jews were deported via Würzburg to the transit camps Krasniczyn and Izbica near Lublin. In September 1942, sixty Jews were sent to Theresienstadt. Three Jewish persons were able to survive in Schweinfurt because of their "privileged mixed marriage". 

The former Schrannengebäude, now used by the Sparkasse bank, after the war and today- its entrance still graced with the eagle dating from 1935

Meanwhile a memorial to the destroyed synagogue is hidden away in the rear. During the November pogrom of 1938, Jewish inhabitants - including the sick and elderly - were taken from their homes and dragged through the streets of the city under insults and stone throwing. Significant damage was done to Jewish homes and buildings.  On the evening of November 9, 1938, some 2,800 Nazis marched with anti-Jewish slogans from Marienbach to the market square. That evening a national memorial service was planned for the murdered embassy secretary Ernst von Rath in front of the brewery, to which all Nazi members were obliged to attend. The next morning, the synagogue was smashed and torah scrolls thrown into the dirt and trampled. The police seized a number of  valuable items that were transferred from the communities Arnstein, Gochsheim and Ebelsbach to Schweinfurt. Only a few prayer books and Torah robes could be saved. Shop windows of Jewish shops were smashed and furniture was thrown out of the houses of Jewish citizens. On Theresienstraße, the bakery of the Jewish baker Max Schlorch was destroyed. Jewish citizens were stoned, some were arrested and about thirty men were taken to the Dachau concentration camp. 
The Zeughaus amidst the destruction and today. The Anglo-American bobming of Schweinfurt began in 1943 and would rival the earlier catastrophes the town had previously endured in 1250 and 1554. On October 14, 1943, the US Air Force flew a devastating air strike whilst suffering their most grevious losses during the war. The 8th US Air Force had already attacked Schweinfurt in August and she now returned to complete the work of devastation. First, the bomber squadron was expecting a large number of fighters, which already decimated the fleet. Part of the big bomber squadron was destroyed and as the bomber squad approached the city, they expected a massive barrage of air defence.  On no day of the war did the Americans lose as many bombers as on October 14, 1943, which entered the American Air War history as "black Thursday." Sixty flying fortresses were shot down, twenty others returned as wrecks, and 600 crew members were either dead or trapped. As far away as Würzburg one could see the columns of smoke above the burning town. For Schweinfurt, the attack was terrible: many homes were destroyed, 198 German civilians, nine Wehrmacht members, 43 foreigners and 45 foreigners who could no longer be identified were killed. February 1944 saw the "Big Week" - the biggest attacks on Germany. Although German fighters shot down 226 bombers and 28 fighter planes, killing 2,600 Americans that week, attacks continued unabated. Schweinfurt experienced on February 24, 1944, the "black Friday", violent attacks during the day and at night, as the Allies wanted to make the Schweinfurt ball bearing industry the utter annihilation. 1,100 four-engined bombers were deployed to three massive attacks and brought the city the third city spoilage. It did not just hit the city. The surrounding communities near the industrial area were almost completely destroyed. 3,600 blast bombs and 32,500 fire and phosphorous bombs fell on the city and surrounding communities.
Maxbrücke, blown up on April 11, 1945, before the arrival of the Americans, and the same scene today. A last swastika flag hanging over the ruins was handed over to the 8th US Air Force, which had flown heavy bombing raids on the city. The dedication was: The Rainbow Division has avenged your losses over Schweinfurt. "
On April 12 an internment camp at Goethe-Schule held male civilians aged 16–60.
 Clearing up the debris on the Marktplatz April 1945 and today
Keßlergasse now reconstructed
Johanniskirche from an engraving by Johann Herman dating from 1646, after the war, and today and, on the right, Johanniskirche from the ruins
The Fichtel & Sachs factory on Ernst-Sachs-Straße after heavy bombing, and today, now the ZF-Sachs factory.
 Spitalstrasse then and now
[P]recision attacks could go wrong precisely because the Germans could work out where to expect them - as the Americans discovered to their cost when they attacked Schweinfurt, a centre of ball-bearing production in northern Bavaria, on August 17 and October 14, 1943. In the first raid, thirty-six B-17S were shot down out of an initial strike force of 230; twenty-four were lost the same day in a similar attack on Regensburg. In the October attack -the 8th Air Force's 'Black Thursday' - sixty out of 291 B-17S were shot down and 138 badly damaged. 
Ferguson (566) War of the World
On the Schweinfurt raids, see Thomas M. Coffey, Decision over Schweinfurt: The U.S. 8th Air Force Battle for Daylight Bombing (New York: McKay, 1977); Friedhelm Golücke, Schweinfurt und der strategische Luftkrieg 1943: der Angriff der U.S. Air Force vom 14. Oktober 1943 gegen die Schweinfurter Kugellagerindustrie (Paderborn: Schöningh, 1988); Martin Middlebrook, The Schweinfurt-RegensburgMission (New York: Scribner, 1983). See also Hinsley, British Intelligence, 3/1: 293-96, 308-16; Murray, Lufiwaffe, pp. 164-68. 

The Adolf Hitler military barracks during the Third Reich and today, after the American army finally relinquished control. Nevertheless a Nazi eagle remains on the façade of a barracks building as seen clearly on the right of the period photo.

The swastika-bedecked townhall and today, with the fountain in the background. During World War II, Hammelburg was the site of the PoW Camps OFLAG XIII-B and Stalag XIII-C, as well as the attempted rescue of PoWs from these camps by Task Force Baum in 1945. The American television sitcom Hogan's Heroes (which ran on CBS from 1965 to 1971), featured a fictional Luft-Stalag 13, said to be near Hammelburg. The German Army's Infantry School (Infanterieschule) is located in this town.


Nazi flag suspended beside the Hotel Zum Riesen, described on this Nazi-era postcard as the oldest guest house in Germany and known as the "Fürstenherberge". The inn is proud to have hosted emperors such as Emperor Barbarossa (1158), Emperor Frederick III, King Ludwig the Bavarian (1314, shortly after his election), Emperor Charles IV (February 1368) and Empress Maria Theresia. The legend that Martin Luther convinced the Count Erbach of Protestantism in Miltenberg comes from the book "Martin Luther and Grafenbach" by Hermann Nietschmann under the pseudonym Armin Stein. During the Thirty Years' War, Gustav II. Adolf, Pappenheim, Piccolomini and Wallenstein spent the night. In the 20th century Richard Strauss, Theodor Heuss, Hans Albers, Heinz Rühmann and Elvis Presley were among the guests.

Portraits of Hitler no longer grace the walls of the Hotel Fränkischer Hof. On February 23, 1945, a sunny winter day, a squadron of four-motor bombers from the USAAF approached the city from the east and began bombarding Kitzingen from an altitude of about 2,500 to 3,000 metres. This was followed by a second, approximately 180 aircraft, after about half an hour. It was estimated that 2,500 heavy explosive bombs were dropped.  The attack took place within the framework of the Operation Clarion, a series of air raids on southern German long-distance and rail connections, with the stated objective of disturbing or preventing the transfer of troops within southern Germany. In Kitzingen, the Reichsstraße 8 (now the B8) and the railway line Nuremberg-Würzburg crossed the Main and yet whilst the destruction of the bridges and the railway station was the stated goal, none of the four main bridges were hit, and the damage on the station ground was not so great that after a few days the long-distance traffic could not continue. On the other hand, the inner city and buildings were largely destroyed near the railway station. 809 residential buildings with a total of 2020 apartments were destroyed, including 206 buildings with 520 apartments total, 30 public buildings, three industrial facilities and sixty auxiliary buildings. Among other things, the upper school for boys was razed to the ground, although it served as a hospital and was marked as such. Schloss Friedenstein was also destroyed with only the lookout tower, the Deusterturm, preserved in the former castle grounds. More than 700 fell victim to the attack in Kitzingen, including all children and carers of a kindergarten; 2/3 of the approximately 48 boys who had lessons on that day were killed whilst the Luftwaffe barracks on the western edge of the city and the Kitzingen airfield east of the city were not bombed. About a month later the airfield was attacked on March 22. Eight bomber units with a total of 168 aircraft flew from the south. Due to the eastern location of the airfield, no damage occurred in Kitzingen. The bombs destroyed the rolling field, only a few buildings were damaged. Only a few of the Bf 110 night-hunters stationed on the airfield and the new jet fighters Me 262 were hit.

The Pompejanum (or Pompeiianum) is an idealised replica of a Roman villa, located on the high banks of the river Main in Aschaffenburg, Bavaria, Germany. It was commissioned by King Ludwig I and built in the 1840s. The Pompejanum was not intended as a royal villa, but as a demonstration that would allow art lovers in Germany to study ancient culture. The building is a symbol for the enthusiasm for antiquity in the 19th century. The villa is a replica of a house in ancient Pompeii, the so-called House of Castor and Pollux (Casa dei Dioscuri), so named after a wall drawing, which was found in the entrance area of the ruined building. During the Second World War it, along with much of Aschaffenburg, was heavily damaged by Allied area bombing and work was started in 1960 to restore it. Since 1994, the Pompejanum houses original Roman art works from the collections of the Staatliche Antikensammlungen and the Glyptothek in Munich. The building also hosts temporary exhibitions. In addition to Roman marble sculptures, small bronzes and glasses as well as two rare marble goddesses make up the most valuable exhibits. Upstairs, Roman-style utensils, which can be seen in display cases, give an insight into the life of a Roman family. Since July 2014, the Munich State Antiquities Collection has issued a Roman military diploma consisting of two bronze plates which testify to the award of Roman citizenship in 78 CE to the soldier Octavius from his station at Moesia Cohors I Cantabrorum.
 After the bombing and today, restored.
An antiques dealer made the find of a lifetime at a Texas Goodwill store that had a direct connection to this site-: a 2,000-year-old priceless work of Roman art that she scooped up for a mere $35.  Laura Young, of Austin, Texas found the 52-pound Roman bust at the thrift store in her hometown in 2018 and figured it was worth such a modest investment. The earliest record of this Roman bust appears in an 1833 inventory of King Ludwig I of Bavaria's art collection. It was displayed in a courtyard in the Pompejanum near the tablinum and probably depicts Sextus Pompey, according to a Roman art specialist at the San Antonio Museum of Art. The bust disappeared after the war and its location was unknown until 2018, when Young ound it in a Goodwill Store. After the war the American Army established various military installations in Aschaffenburg, many of which remained until the end of the Cold War, and most likely a returning soldier brought the sculpture to Texas. Ms. Young notified the German government of the portrait's surprising rediscovery and made arrangements to return it to its rightful owner. According to her agreement with the Bavarian Administration of State-Owned Palaces, Gardens, and Lakes, the bust will remain on display at the San Antonio Museum of Art until its return to Germany in 2023.
See my special page on Pompeii!