Nazi Sites on Munich's Ludwigstraße

SSVT 1 "D" man in his Ausgehanzug walking down Ludwigstraße with the Feldherrnhalle behind. Berlin's Under den Linden and Munich's Ludwigstraße are comparable in regard to their historical development and their urban context. They show common neo-classical features typical of the early 19th century town planning. The type as well as the location of institutions along the two royal boulevards correspond to the idealistic concepts of the "via triumphalis" in the centre of the capitals of absolutistic states. All institutions, from the royal castle on the edge of the older part of the city to the university, founded by the king, to the military and ecclesiastical edifices, demonstrate the royal power and the authority of the state, thus outlining the character of the city in the pre-industrial age, immediately before political, social, aesthetic, and stylistic changes universally started to transform the functions and physiognomy of urban structures. Today both streets are situated on the edge of the central business district; they continue to be surrounded by public buildings housing the arts and sciences as well as governmental institutions.
Hitler paid tribute to this street which links the Feldherrnhalle, sacred to the Nazis, to the Siegestor, where Maxvorstadt spills over into Schwabing and which serves today as a symbol of peace, in a speech on May 22, 1938 in Munich where he declared
Do you think a Ludwigstrasse would ever have been constructed had it been up to the citizens and other institutions of Munich? Great architectural solutions can only come about through a central plan, and this is the way it will be once again today... when the Ludwigstrasse was built, Munich had scarcely 70,000 inhabitants. Today Munich has a population of more than 800,000 and Berlin has more than 4,500,000. Nobody shall dare to come up to me to say that the new streets we are building are too wide.
Although the street itself owes more to Maximilian I who dreamed of turning Munich into a city of art and culture, an ‘Athens on the Isar’  with its uniform and well- proportioned row of neoclassical architecture a credit to court architects Klenze and Gärtner, the Nazis left their mark.

Overlooking Odeonsplatz towards Ludwigstraße from the steps of the Feldherrnhalle then and now beginning with a demonstration against the terms of the Versailles treaty on January 6, 1921 and with my Grade 11 history class.
The photograph at top shows Hitler commemorating the tenth anniversary of his failed attempt to overthrow the Weimar Government. On November 8 that year, Hitler took part in various gatherings of Alte Kämpfer, including meetings in the Braunes Haus (Stosstrupp Hitler) and the Sternecker, the birthplace of the NSDAP. At midday on November 9, the march from the Bürgerbräukeller over the Ludwig Bridge here to the Feldherrnhalle—which had ended so badly in 1923—was reenacted. Hitler and the surviving members of the original march, including the Freikorps fighters (absenting General Ludendorff) silently trod the same fateful path through the streets of Munich.It was doubtless an impressive demonstration: the grave men clad in their brown shirts, the hushed masses, the burning pylons fronting the streets, and everything against the backdrop of a grey November day. The carillon in the City Hall was playing the Horst Wessel Song when the columns reached the Marienplatz. A salute was fired when their head arrived at the Feldherrnhalle, followed by one minute’s silence.The Reich’s and Bavaria’s rulers had gathered on the steps of the Feldherrnhalle, among them officers of the Reichswehr and officers of the Bavarian Police Force, which had fired the shots at Hitler’s followers a decade before. After being welcomed by Gauleiter Wagner, Hitler strode to the podium on the uppermost step of the Feldherrnhalle, gazed down at his Alte Kämpfer filling the large Odeonsplatz, and delivered the following commemorative speech:
Men of the German Revolution! My Old Guard!
When we first took up the political fight in 1919, we did it as soldiers. All of us had before honourably done our duty for Germany. Only when the homeland broke down and the political leadership pitifully surrendered what millions had paid for with their blood did we resolve to take up the fight in the homeland itself, based upon the conviction that the sacrifices of the soldier must be in vain if the political leadership becomes weak.
Because the Revolution of November 1918 violated the laws then in force, it could not expect us to acknowledge it as a legal and binding condition. At that time we men and political soldiers declared war on it, determined to overthrow those responsible for that November and, sooner or later and in one way or another, to call them to account for their actions.
Hence we marched in November 1923, filled by the faith that it could be possible to erase the shame of November 1918, to exterminate the men who were to blame for the unutterable misfortune of our Volk. Fate decided differently back then. Today, ten years later, we can make a dispassionate assessment of that period. We know that, at the time, we were acting according to the commands of Fate and that we were all probably tools of a force majeure.
It was not to be: the time was not yet ripe. What caused us the most pain back then was the rift which separated the powers which once had us, too, in their ranks, and the powers which the nation needed in order to become free once more.
Hitler on November 9 1934, speaking at the FeldherrnhalleAt that time the rift hurt, and we had only one hope: that time would heal this inner wound again, that the brothers who were hostile to each other at the time but, in the end, really wanted only to fight for one Germany, might grow once more to form the community we had experienced for four and a half years. Ten years have passed, and today it makes me happiest of all that yesterday’s hope has now become reality, that we are now standing together: the representatives of our Army and the deputies of our Volk; that we have again become one and that this unity will never again break apart in Germany. Only that has given the blood sacrifice a meaning, so that it was not in vain. For what we were marching for then is what has now become reality.
Were the dead of November 9 to rise again today, they would shed tears of joy that the German Army and the awakening German Volk have now joined to form a single unit. For this reason it is right to keep our memories of that time alive, and right to unveil this day a memorial to that time. Those of us whom Fate allowed to survive wish to couple our thanks to the comrades of that time with our thanks to the comrades of the four years preceding it, that we ourselves may now fulfil the yearning and the hope of that time by doing our own duty!
Fate has shown to us the path from which we will never stray. In this hour when we once again assemble for our Volk, we want to renew our faith in this German Volk, in its honour, in its equal rights, but also to renew its will for peace and its love of peace. It is painful to lose the best of a Volk; over and over again, the best have always been the ones who have had to meet the enemy in battle. And thus today we also wish to affirm, from our innermost conviction, our belief in the concept of peace; we want to be cognizant of how difficult the sacrifices are which the fight requires, but moreover we again want to couple this love of peace with our resolve to courageously defend at all times the honour of the nation, the freedom of the nation, and its equality of rights.
When unveiling this memorial, I wish to once more thank all those who have faithfully fought for the German resurrection throughout all these long years, each in his place; I wish to thank the tens and hundreds of thousands of comrades in the Movement, to thank the men of the other associations who, marching along other routes, came to join us in the end, and I also wish to thank those who led the Wehrmacht into the new State.
In uniting the entire power of the nation today, we are finally giving the dead eternal peace: for that is what they were fighting for, and that is what they died for! And with this in mind we shall now unveil the memorial.
A small bronze memorial was then unveiled which had been erected at the side entrance arch facing the residence. Hardly any of those present were not impressed and moved by this ceremony in some way. Doubtless it had its justification, and the old fighters of 1923 could not be blamed for honouring their dead now that they had gained the victory. Hitler, however, planned to make a permanent event of this commemoration ceremony, although it actually only made sense in 1933 and perhaps also in 1935 when the corpses were laid out at the Königsplatz.
The memorial march was to take place annually from 1935 onwards. Hitler needed this triumphant spectacle to quiet his inner pessimism, for it served to demonstrate how, against all odds, he had been able to recover from the catastrophic defeat of 1923 to win ten years later; consequently—so his logic—he would always win in the end. 
Hitler being driven down Ludwigstraße with the Feldherrnhalle in the background during his triumphal tour through Munich after returning from the occupation of Memel on March 26, 1939
Himmler (centre) at the funeral of NSKK (National Socialist Motor Corps) leader Adolf Huenlein on May 21, 1942
SA men marching on the corner of Ludwigstraße and Galeriestraße onto Odeonsplatz. It was here that Hitler spent most of his time before taking power of Germany in 1933.
The 'Bockerlbahn' in front of the destroyed Cafe Tambosi at Odeonsplatz. In October 1944 the authorities introduced an emergency lane to transport debris via this steam-powered locomotive. It appears on the right going through Wittelsbacher Platz.

Café Heck

Just off Odeonsplatz and overlooking the Hofgarten beside the Residenz, this was a main Hitler site. The photo on the left shows him with his main acolytes from Geoff Walden's Third Reich in Ruins.
According to Kershaw, much of Hitler's time 
was spent lounging around cafés in Munich. He specially liked the Café Heck in Galerienstraße, his favourite. In a quiet corner of the long, narrow room of this coffee-house, frequented by Munich’s solid middle class, he could sit at his reserved table, his back to the wall, holding court among the new-found cronies that he had attracted to the NSDAP. Among those coming to form an inner circle of Hitler’s associates were the young student Rudolf Heß, the Baltic-Germans Alfred Rosenberg (who had worked on Eckart’s periodical since 1919) and Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter (an engineer with excellent contacts to wealthy Russian émigrés).
 The same site July 26, 1933 with a visiting group of 411 Italian fascist youth and today. From the central station they marched here to the residenz where, in the ballroom, they were offered a ceremonial reception that began with a speech of welcome from ambassador Vittorio Cerutti. After Hitler's own speech, the Jungfaschists then visited the Brown House. Only months earlier on March 31, 1933 he had given Hitler a letter from Mussolini concerning the upcoming actions against the Jews the next day which Hitler had brusquely rejected. Cerruti warned Mussolini of the dangers of German Austria policy for Italy. On October 12, 1933 Cerruti visited Hitler and brought him Mussolini's proposals on the issue of disarmament; soon after Göring agitated for Cerruti's dismissal which Mussolini refused, probably because of the increasing German-Italian tensions over Austria. Tensions were not improved by the reading of the reports Cerruti gave to Rome that came from the German interception services listening in to his telephone calls. When Mussolini sent two Italian divisions to the Brenner Pass during the Austrian crisis of July 1934 with the assassination of Chancellor Dollfuss, Hitler blamed Cerruti for the decision. As early as June 21, 1935, Hitler had informed his liaison with Mussolini, former Italian Consul General Renzetti, of his desire to have Cerruti replaced. When Ambassador Cerruti was ordered back to Rome by Mussolini, Hitler had ordered that no party member appear at his departure for Italy on 13 August 1935.
Hanfstaengl with Hitler at Cafe Heck. The former wrote in his book Hitler: The Missing Years that "whenever he was in Munich, he was usually to be found with his inner circle at the Cafe Heck, in the Galleriestrasse, which became his Stammtisch after leaving Landsberg" (page 132).
In the dire Hitler: Rise of Evil, the unappealing Hanfstaengl is portrayed with considerable sympathy by Liev Schreiber, a rather problematic characterisation. In the film he is portrayed as a noble (and decent-looking) character who almost despises Hitler which obviously follows Hanfstaengl`s own gloss over view of himself which he gave in his biography after the war. In fact, Hanfstaengl was an anti-Semite completely in the thrall of Hitler.
In the September 4 entry of his diary, William Shirer described Hanfstaengl as
an immense, high-strung, incoherent clown who does not often fail to remind us that he is part American and graduated from Harvard, made the main speech of the day in his capacity of foreign press chief of the party. Obviously trying to please his boss ,he had the crust to ask us to“report on affairs in Germany without attempting to interpret them.” “History alone,” Putzi shouted,“can evaluate the events now taking place under Hitler.” What he meant, and what Goebbels and Rosenberg mean, is that we should jump on the bandwagon of Nazi propaganda. I fear Putzi’s words fell on deaf, if good-humoured, ears among the American and British correspondents, who rather like him despite his clownish stupidity.
Bayerisches Staatsministerium des Innern
Odeonsplatz  is named for the former concert hall, the Odeon, on its southwestern side. The Odeon was built in 1826–1828 on a commission from King Ludwig I of Bavaria and was originally a concert hall and ballroom. Klenze designed the exterior as an identical counterpart to that of the Palais Leuchtenberg, so that there was no outward indication of its function. The ministry itself was founded in 1806, whose core competencies include internal administration, the police and construction, despite considerable changes over time. With the establishment of the ministries for social welfare and agriculture, the interior department lost considerable competencies after the First World War, but the staff themselves were not replaced despite the revolution. From 1918 to 1920 the ruling SPD appointed the ministers of the interior followed from 1921 to 1933 by BVP politicians who then headed the ministry and who fought massively against the emergence of the Nazis. Nazi Interior Minister Adolf Wagner succeeded after 1933 in considerably expanding the responsibilities of his department. The Nazis also took over the previous officials, but were quickly able to infiltrate the authority with loyal party members.During the Nazi era, the ministry was responsible, among other things, for the mass killings of the mentally ill and disabled.The building was gutted in an air raid on the night of April 25, 1944. Beginning in 1951, it was rebuilt by Josef Wiedemann to house the Ministry of the Interior.
Ludwig I statue
Then and now, with the equestrian statue of Ludwig I
The statue is shown on the bottom left behind Hitler being greeted by Gauleiter Wagner with Goebbels on the left and, second from the right, the Italian Chief of General Staff Pariani at the opening ceremony of the Tag der Deutschen Kunst on July 10, 1938. The top left is from the year before showing Frau Troost, Joseph Goebbels, Hitler, Hermann Göring, Adolf Wagner, and Rudolf Heß.
 The interior before the war, after, and its reconstruction. Recreation of the façade took until 1954. The former auditorium became an interior courtyard. Numerous lovers of music and architecture asked for it to be restored as a concert space, but this was not technically or financially feasible. The preservationist and architect Erwin Schleich campaigned for it to be recreated on the site of the Palais Leuchtenberg, also destroyed in the war, but despite widespread support organised by the Arbeitskreis Odeon (Odeon Working Group) formed by Schleich in 1960, that plan was also rejected. It pitted preservationists who argued that such a recreation would be a "forgery" against those like Schleich who valued "social utility" over authenticity. In 2003–06, the courtyard was covered with a glazed roof (a gridshell) by the architecture firm of Ackermann and Partner, shown here.

Zentralministerium für den gleichgeschalteten bayerischen Staat
With the launch in 1933 of the Gleichschaltung, to unify all state institutions under Nazi control, the various Bavarian ministries were united into a central ministry which was moved here to Ludwigstraße 2 in 1940.  In place of four demolished houses by Leo von Klenze and the Reichsbank, the "Central Ministry of the State of Bavaria" was built from 1938-39 based on designs by Fritz Gablonsky on the corner of Ludwigs- and Von-der-Tann-Straße for the Ministry of Finance as well as the state chancellery. The original idea of building a building for all Bavarian ministries could not be implemented due to space constraints. The structure of the facade shows that the main entrance was intended for today's Galeriestrasse. Within ruled the two most powerful men in Bavaria- Ministerpräsident Ludwig Siebert and Gauleiter Adolf Wagner. When the former died in 1942 and the latter suffered an heart attack, Paul Giesler took over all posts to enjoy absolute power until the end of the Third Reich by which point he had attempted to have all the surviving inmates at Dachau murdered.
On the morning of April 28, 1945, the group Freiheitsaktion Bayern under Rupprecht Gerngroß attempted to occupy this building but was suppressed by ϟϟ units, an event commemorated by a plaque on the wall of the building within the inner court, put up in 1984 on the initiative of the Maxvorstadt District Committee shown on the left. The original application to have it mounted on the side of the building facing the street was vehemently rejected by the Bavarian Ministry of Agriculture. In 1946, a square near the English Garden in Munich was renamed Münchner Freiheit in honour of the “Freiheitsaktion Bayern” and those who lost their lives in the uprising.
After the war, this building served as the headquarters of the U.S. Military police and later the American Consulate General from where "Voice of America" was broadcast. In 1955 the building was returned to the Bavarian authorities and is now the official residence of the Bavarian State Ministry for Agriculture and Forestry. 

Landeszentralbank- Reich Bank Head Office in Bavaria

Ludwigstraße 13 was the site of the Herzog-Max-Palais, birthplace of Elisabeth of Bavaria, Empress of Austria and Queen consort of Hungary as the spouse of Franz Joseph I.
Two plaques on the house wall refer to the Herzog-Max-Palais as the birthplace of the later Austrian empress and Queen of Hungary 'Sissi' (shown left) and the completion of the current building by Carl Sattler after the war. The building had been demolished by 1937 to make way for Heinrich Wolff's commission on Hitler's request. The original purpose of the house, the construction work up to 1941 and the Nazi clients at that time are not mentioned, ignoring the fact that the building itself was built to serve the Nazis who had planned the building to serve as the branch office of the Reichsbank in Munich. It was constructed in the context of the planning of a traffic axis oriented from east to west. For the new building, the Herzog-Max-Palais (also known as Karl-Theodor-Palais and Herzog-Karl-Palais), built according to plans by Leo von Klenze from 1828 to 1830, was demolished in 1937-38. After three years of construction completed in 1941, work had to be stopped due to the war with only the first floor finished. The corner building at what was then Ludwigstrasse 8 between Von-der-Tannstrasse and Rheinbergerstrasse was built up to the first floor and was only completed from 1949 to 1951 on behalf of the Bavarian State Central Bank according to the old Nazi plans of Carl Sattler. Today it serves as the Bavarian State Central Bank.
The site six months after the fall of the monarchy when a demonstration took place in front of the Bavarian war Ministry in the afternoon 22 of April 1919, and the building today.
Heinrich Himmler (holding the Imperial German Army flag) and SA leader Ernst Röhm in front of the Kriegsministerium (now the Bayerisches Hauptstaatsarchiv und Staatsarchiv München) on Ludwigstraße during the Munich Beer hall Putsch. Himmler would later be instrumental in the latter's death on the Night of the Long Knives. 
The future overlord of the SS empire was at this time still in his twenties, a well-educated and intelligent former agricultural student who had briefly worked for a fertilizer firm and reared chickens. With his short-back-and-sides haircut, small moustache, round glasses, and unathletic build, he resembled a small-town bank clerk or pedantic schoolmaster. Whatever appearances might have suggested, he had, however, few peers in ideological fanaticism and, as time would prove, cold ruthlessness. The young nationalist idealist, already imagining dire conspiracies involving ‘the red International’, Jews, Jesuits, and freemasons ranged against Germany, had joined the NSDAP in the summer of 1923, influenced by the man whose murder he would orchestrate eleven years later, Ernst Röhm. It was at Röhm’s side that, on 8 November that year, the night of the putsch, he had carried the banner at the head of the Reichskriegsflagge unit engaged in attempting to storm the Bavarian War Ministry. 
Kershaw Hitler

Richard Rhodes goes further, describing how 

Himmler carried the flag, marching with his brother Gebhard and four hundred other men of the Reichskriegsflagge to the War Ministry, where Röhm ordered them to occupy the building and surround it with a barbed-wire barricade. It was for the purpose of rescuing the Reichskriegsflagge that Hitler and two thousand fellow putschists linked arms and marched into the Odeonplatz the next day, where a firefight started with the Munich police. Hitler dislocated his shoulder diving for cover (or being dragged down by the weight of the man shot dead next to him; accounts vary). At the War Ministry Röhm was arrested, but the rank and file, including the Himmler brothers, were merely disarmed and sent home. “Toward the authorities,” Smith reports of the aftermath, “Heinrich was very bitter, his mood alternating between imaginary fears of his own arrest and disappointment that the government was not interested in him.” He began to suspect that people were opening his mail.

Masters of Death, page 81 

After this 1934 purge, Röhm's face was eliminated from the photograph by painting in an additional barricade element obscuring his face as seen in this doctored version. 
Roehm, at the head of a detachment of storm troopers from another fighting league, the Reichskriegsflagge, had seized Army headquarters at the War Ministry in the Schoenfeldstrasse but no other strategic centres were occupied, not even the telegraph office, over whose wires news of the coup went out to Berlin and orders came back, from General von Seeckt to the Army in Bavaria, to suppress the putsch... By dawn Regular Army troops had drawn a cordon around Roehm’s forces in the War Ministry... Shortly after noon the marchers neared their objective, the War Ministry, where Roehm and his storm troopers were surrounded by soldiers of the Reichswehr. Neither besiegers nor besieged had yet fired a shot. Roehm and his men were all ex-soldiers and they had many wartime comrades on the other side of the barbed wire. Neither side had any heart for killing... Roehm surrendered at the War Ministry two hours after the collapse before the Feldherrnhalle.
Despite the friendly picnic-like atmosphere Shirer describes it, according to Ernst Röhm in his book Die Geschichte eines Hochverräters, Martin Faust and Theodor Casella, both members of the armed militia organisation Reichskriegsflagge, were shot down accidentally in a burst of machine gun fire during the occupation of the War Ministry as the result of a misunderstanding with II/Inf.Regt 19. The best account of the putsch I've found was in Anthony Read's The Devil's Disciples: Hitler's Inner Circle which states that "Two of Röhm's men were also shot dead as they tried to break through the army cordon around the War Ministry to join the battle." (100)
I can't find anything more than that about the incident; most books (of course) focus on Hitler's role and limit or ignore their examination of the peripheral events. This includes Evans's The Coming of the Third Reich which, despite a chapter entitled "The Beer-Hall Putsch", spends just over a single page on the actual events of that day (193-4).
Hard to reconcile such an image after the war with Ludwigstrasse today
The Bavarian State Library decked out in  swastikas in 1933 and today. Founded in 1558 by Duke Albrecht V, and built again by Gärtner, housing 9.1 million volumes, nearly 400,000 maps and subscriptions to over 42,000 periodicals; one of the largest libraries in the German-speaking world.On April 7, 1933 the Reich government issued the "Law for the Restoration of the Civil Service." This affected the state library because the scientific librarian Max Stefl, the candidate for the middle library service Paul Schumacher and the administrative assistant Marianne Lacher were dismissed, having been considered politically unreliable because they had spoken critically about the Nazis to colleagues. Likewise, the leading librarian Otto Hartig was also transferred in 1935 for political reasons to the State Library Bamberg.  Director General Georg Reismüller fell victim to an intrigue planned by his deputy Georg Leidinger, who had wanted to become general director himself. On March 23, the SD arrested Reismüller; his forced retirement went into effect from July 1, 1935. Then in October, Reismüller was interrogated in the State Ministry of Education and Culture under suspicion of having acquired and anti-Nazi writings and withheld pro-Nazi titles from library users. Reismüller fell seriously ill and died in 1936. 
Hitler at the Staatsbibliothek
The influence of the Nazi regime was not limited to personnel matters. Books could not simply be borrowed without first applying in advance whilst the order to exclude Jews at the German universities of 1938 denied Jewish users access to the academic libraries. Like all scientific libraries, the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek also had to comply with certain requirements when compiling and loaning out the books. In 1936, the Reichsschrifttumskammer published a list of harmful and unwanted literature, which was constantly updated. The publications concerned had to be set up separately and could only be submitted if the users could prove their political reliability and scientific interest. After Kristallnacht Jews were not allowed access for several weeks, but in March 1939 the new General Director, Rudolf Buttmann, instructed on October 1, 1935  "that in principle a review of the Aryan descent of the library users is ignored". Visitors were then only allowed to be asked if they were Jews if they had been offended by their behaviour. From September 15, 1941 when Jews had to wear the Jewish star, they were forbidden to use the Bavarian State Library. Nevertheless, newly published documents critical of the Nazis found their way into the library's collections under Buttmann, but these works were not accessible to library users. When Buttmann introduced the referral system in his house in 1939, he also neglected subjects such as "Literature of the NSDAP" and the "Jewish Question".
How the Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek appeared after the wartime bombing and today. In 1941, the search for places of refuge for the collection began and in 1942 Buttmann had the location directories filmed and the catalogues relocated to magazine rooms, which were classified by the Munich Land Office. Before the library building suffered the first heavy bomb damage on March 9-10 1943, tens of thousands of manuscripts had been brought to safety. On the other hand, Buttmann only arranged for the salvage of the large mass of books afterwards. About one-fifth of the total stock - between 400,000 and 500,000 books - had been destroyed by the bombing. As a result of the second major fire in the Bavarian State Library in April 1944, the rental and reading room business finally collapsed, and only the acquisition department continued to pursue its tasks. After the war in 1946 the reconstruction of the Bavarian State Library began with the library staff in the former Nazi buildings on Arcisstraße resumed its internal work in 1947. From 1948 books could be borrowed again and the administration and the main departments returned to the building on Ludwigstraße in 1952 along with the repatriation of books and documents.
The interior has since been extensively restored much to how it originally appeared
1949 photo of the thousands of books from the Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek in the Haimhauser Schlosskapelle; site of my school. During the 1944 bombing, the library's collection was distributed throughout 28 sites in Oberbayern.
The street leading off Ludwigstraße next to the Bavarian State Library is called Walter-Klingenbeck-Weg 31 in memory of the young resistance fighter Walter Klingenbeck. He had come from a Catholic family that moved from the Franconian town of Fechenbach / Main to Munich in the early 1920s. The Nazis' dissolution of the Catholic association for young people of St. Louis (Munich) in 1936 awakened his early dissident attitude and, together with his father, he listened to illegal broadcasts of Vatican Radio. In 1939, when his father stopped listening to the enemy channels that were forbidden at the beginning of the war, he continued on his own. In the spring of 1941 he and four apprentices, aged between 16 and 17, joined forces through similar political and religious attitude. Klingenbeck had been apprenticed to Rohde und Schwarz where he met intern Daniel von Recklinghausen. Hans Haberl was a high-frequency technician and shared a rented room with Erwin Eidel, who completed an apprenticeship as an aviation mechanic. The four friends had a great passion for technology, especially radio. By listening to German-language broadcasts from the BBC, the International Radio Vatican and other banned radio stations their resistance strengthened.  They distributed flyers, which, unlike those of the Helmuth Hübener Group in Hamburg, consisted only of short texts and images. At the same time another group had formed in Vienna, whose leader was Josef Landgraf. The three adolescent groups of four had formed independently and knew nothing about each other. The Klingenbeck circle met initially only for listening to unauthorised radio contributions. They were fascinated by the transmitter Gustav Siegfried 1 , who spread rumours such that  typhus had broken out on the Eastern front" or how "high officials would indulge in wild sexual debauchery." Finally, they tried to build their own black transmitter considering names for their station such as Radio Rotterdam to commemorate the destruction of the city by the Luftwaffe, "Sender der Freiheit" or "Gustav Siegfried 8". Their broadcasts appealed for the overthrow of the Nazi regime.  
Walter Klingenbeck mugshotMeanwhile, Klingenbeck also worked on a leaflet about the late dancer La Jana, wanting to spread the rumour that the woman had killed herself in order to escape overtures from Goebbels. In the summer of 1941, the BBC called for the V-mark to be used as an abbreviation for the English word "victory" in order to announce the victory of the Allies . In September 1941 Klingenbeck painted large V marks on black oil on about forty buildings in the south of Munich, in the Bogenhausen district and in front of the ϟϟ barracks in the district of Freimann. Recklinghausen was involved with standing guard.  Counteractions of the Nazi Regime. Out of sheer recklessness Klingenbeck bragged about this action, so that he was denounced and arrested on January 26, 1942 at the age of 17 years. A few days later, his friends were arrested. For eight months, they remained in custody until September 24, 1942, when they were put on trial at the People's Court Berlin, which was responsible for high treason. Although the age of majority was fixed at 21 years, the "order to protect against juvenile criminals" issued at the beginning of the war cleared the way since October 1939 to impose the death penalty on 16-year-olds. Vice President Karl Engert sentenced Klingenbeck to the death penalty. Hans Haberl and Daniel von Recklinghausen were initially also sentenced to death, Erwin Eidel to eight years in prison.

Amalienstraße 44, where Klingenbeck lived
Just over a year after the verdict on August 2, 1943, Haberl and Recklinghausen were pardoned for eight years imprisonment. The pardon request for Walter Klingenbeck, however, was rejected. About this he wrote:  "Dear Jonny! Earlier, I learned of your pardon. Congratulations! My application is rejected, however. There it goes. Do not take it tragically. You're through. That's worth a lot. I have just received the sacraments and am now fully prepared. If you want to do something for me, pray a few Lord's Prayers. Farewell." Three days after his friends' pardon on August 5, 1943 Walter Klingenbeck was guillotined at the Munich-Stadelheim Detention Centre aged 19. He is buried in Munich at the cemetery at Perlacher Forst.  The Allies released his friends from the detention centre at the end of the war. The 22-year-old Haberl set up a broadcasting workshop. Recklinghausen worked as a radio mechanic in a workshop of an American unit before emigrating to the United States.  Klingenbeck's parents returned to their home village Fechenbach (now Collenberg). In the 1950s Klingenbeck's name was added onto the memorial for the fallen of the Second World War beside to the parish church of St. Stephen.
Haslauer-Block einst und jetzt
The bombed Haslauer-Block and its reconstruction today at Ludwigstraße 6-10. Built for Ludwig I as  three private houses in 1827-1830 by architect Leo von Klenze behind a single Florentine façade. The building was heavily damaged during the war, so it had to be completely demolished and rebuilt by Erwin Schleich in 1960-1968. He followed the specifications of Klenze, but not the internal structure. Today office, residential and business premises are in the building and serves as the office of the Munich School of Political Sciences.
  Ludwigstraße 11; it can clearly be shown the legacy of the war in that the building on the corner has been completely removed.

 St. Ludwig Universitätskirche 
Model of the Haus der Deutsche Kunst at the "Glanzzeiten deutscher Geschichte (Great Events in German History)" parade on the 1937 "Day of German Art" in front of St. Ludwig’s church. The Ludwigskirche was badly damaged during the war, especially after water damage was recorded in the vaulted area after the vault of the south aisle had collapsed. In addition the windows were destroyed except for small remains, and the external plaster and numerous facade details were considerably damaged. Nevertheless, the American occupation forces confiscated the church and elevated it to a garrison church, which it remained until 1949.

Members of the Hitler Youth training as Firefighters in front on the right

Munich University
After the Great War in the early Summer of 1919, Hitler
became active in the Bavarian army persuading German troops that Communism was wrong. Part of his training consisted in attending a course at Munich University. At this point he became acquainted with the völkisch (i.e. radical nationalist and racialist) thinker, Gottfried Feder, who was helping to organise the event. The lectures Hitler attended there included titles such as: ‘Socialism in Theory and Practice’, ‘Russia and the Bolshevik Dictatorship’, ‘German History since the Reformation’, ‘Germany 1870–1900’, ‘The Meaning of the Armed Forces’, ‘The Connection between Domestic and Foreign Policy’, ‘Foreign Policy since the End of the War’, ‘Price Policy in the National Economy’, ‘The Forced Economy in Bread and Grain’ and ‘Bavaria and the Unity of the Reich’. Many of these topics could have served as headings for the talks Hitler himself gave in the early 1920s. They must have made a massive impression on a man who unquestionably absorbed information like a sponge.
The façade of the university after the war and today.
Within days he had been assigned to the first of the anti-Bolshevik ‘instruction courses’, to take place in Munich University between 5 and 12 June 1919. For the first time, Hitler was to receive here some form of directed political ‘education’. This, as he acknowledged, was important to him; as was the fact that he realised for the first time that he could make an impact on those around him. Here he heard lectures from prominent figures in Munich, hand-picked by Mayr, partly through personal acquaintance, on ‘German History since the Reformation’, ‘The Political History of the War’, ‘Socialism in Theory and Practice’, ‘Our Economic Situation and the Peace Conditions’, and ‘The Connection between Domestic and Foreign Policy’. Among the speakers, too, was Gottfried Feder, who had made a name for himself among the Pan-Germans as an economics expert. His lecture on the ‘breaking of interest slavery’ (a slogan Hitler recognized as having propaganda potential), on which he had already published a ‘manifesto’ – highly regarded in nationalist circles – distinguishing between ‘productive’ capital and ‘rapacious’ capital (which he associated with the Jews), made a deep impression on Hitler, and eventually led to Feder’s role as the economics ‘guru’ of the early Nazi Party. The history lectures were delivered by the Munich historian Professor Karl Alexander von Müller, who had known Mayr at school. Following his first lecture, he came across a small group in the emptying lecture hall surrounding a man addressing them in a passionate, strikingly guttural, tone. He mentioned to Mayr after his next lecture that one of his trainees had natural rhetorical talent. Von Müller pointed out where he was sitting. Mayr recognized him immediately: it was ‘Hitler from the List Regiment’.
Kershaw (67)

When the Americans marched into Munich on April 30, 1945, around 80% of the university was in ruins and around a third of all books in the university library were lost or destroyed.

This was also the site of the apprehension of Hans and Sophie Scholl of the White Rose (Weiße Rose), a non-violent resistance group in Nazi Germany, consisting of a number of students from the University of Munich and their philosophy professor. The group became known for an anonymous leaflet campaign, lasting from June 1942 until February 1943, that called for active opposition to Hitler's regime. The core of the group comprised of students from this university- Sophie Scholl, her brother Hans Scholl, Alex Schmorell, Willi Graf, Christoph Probst, Traute Lafrenz, Katharina Schueddekopf, Lieselotte (Lilo) Berndl, and Falk Harnack. Most were in their early twenties. A professor of philosophy and musicology, Kurt Huber, was also an associate with their cause.
The Scholls and Probst were the first to stand trial before the
Volksgerichtshof-the People's Court that tried political offences against the Nazi German state-on 22nd February 1943.

They were found guilty of treason and Roland Freisler, head judge of the court, sentenced them to death. The three were beheaded. All three were noted for the courage with which they faced their deaths, particularly Sophie, who remained firm despite intense interrogation (however, reports that she arrived at the trial with a broken leg from torture are false), and said to Freisler during the trial, "You know as well as we do that the war is lost. Why are you so cowardly that you won't admit it?"
On the right is the trailer for the multi-award winning drama Sophie Scholl: The Final Days. Academy Award Nominee for Best Foreign Language Film, Sophie Scholl is played by Julia Jentsch in a luminous performance as the young coed-turned-fearless activist. Armed with long-buried historical records of her incarceration, director Marc Rothemund accurately recreated the last six days of Sophie Scholl's life from arrest to interrogation, trial and sentence.
Denkmal Flugblätter Weiße Rose

Just in front of the entrance on Geschwister-Scholl- Platz is this memorial to the Weiße Rose showing biographies and reproductions of the last leaflets.
On February 18, nearly two thousand copies of this flyer were distributed by Hans and Sophie Scholl in broad daylight throughout the university building on Ludwigstrasse and were thrown over the balcony of the inner, glass-covered light well. They were observed by a caretaker, who immediately took them to the university rector, Professor Walther Wüst, a Colonel in the ϟϟ and an intimate of Himmler’s. Wüst held the two in his office until the Gestapo came to take them away. Hans and Sophie Scholl together with Christoph Probst were tried before the People’s Court on February 22. Graf, Schmorell, and Huber followed a few months later. (Schmorell had tried to flee to Switzerland, but had been hindered by deep snow. A former girlfriend, Gisela Schertling, allegedly betrayed him after recognizing him in a Munich air raid shelter. The sentence for all was death by guillotine. When Hans put his head on the block, he shouted: “Long live freedom!” Sophie said to her parents, who had come to say good-bye from Ulm: “This will make waves.” But as courageous as her remarks were at the time, they were not prescient.
Kater (129) Hitler Youth
As early as November 1945 and hence before the university forecourt on the western side of Ludwigstraße was renamed Geschwister- Scholl-Platz, the then Minister of Culture Franz Fendt announced the city’s intention to erect a memorial to the resistance group at this location. The plain plaque made of Jura marble and designed by Theodor Georgii was mounted the following year next to the entrance to the main assembly hall. The Latin inscription commemorates the seven members of the White Rose who were executed as martyrs and who had had to die an inhumane death because of their humanity. However, only the date reveals that they died under the Nazi regime. The text ends with a quotation from the “Epistulae morales” of the Roman philosopher Seneca: “It is only in this way that the true spirit can be tested, – the spirit that will never consent to come under the jurisdiction of things external to ourselves.” In 1957 the plaque was moved to the wall of the northern upper gallery – the place from which Hans and Sophie Scholl dropped their pamphlets into the inner courtyard and where another memorial was unveiled during the celebrations to mark the restoration of the courtyard the following year.
Demonstration at the Lichtof in the atrium of Munich University after which professors and students marched by torchlight to burn books on Konigsplatz May 10, 1933. It was in this atrium upon which the last leaflets had been dropped where today a permanent exhibition to them has been set up. In addition, a single memorial and a bust of Sophie School alone has been erected despite her questionable involvement in the resistance movement. The bust was created by Nicolai Tregor, initiated and financed by the Weiße Rose Stiftung e.V. and was unveiled on 22 February 2005, the anniversary of the execution of Hans and Sophie Scholl and Christoph Probst. The unveiling was done by the actress Julia Jentsch, who played Sophie Scholl in Marc Rothemund’s prize-winning film Sophie Scholl – Die letzten Tage (Sophie Scholl – The Final Days). Two of my students wrote their IBDP internal assessments on Sophie Scholl and the White Rose.

On the corner of the University building in the red brick wall of its library is another memorial- one of the "Scars of Remembrance" (also referred to as “Wounds of Memory”) showing bullet holes from the last days of the war. The work is part of a much larger European project by the artists Beate Passow and Andreas von Weizsäcker who in 1994/95 set out to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the Second World War by drawing attention to the holes made by bombshells and grenades that are still visible on streets and squares, buildings and works of art in a total of seven European countries. Using a series of square panes of glass the artists subtly alert us to the wounds of war in our everyday environment that one would otherwise scarcely notice.
Near Munich University at Franz-Joseph-Strasse 13 is where the Scholls had lived, with only a plaque on the wall serving to remind people. When Drake Winston and I visited, a white rose had been stuck under it:

 The members of the White Rose, particularly Hans and Sophie Scholl, have become the most famous and most admired members of the German resistance. Munich alone now has almost thirty sites to keep their memory alive, whether in the form of memorials and street names or institutions named after them. Since 1980 the Bavarian branch of the German Booksellers’ and Publishers’ Association and the city’s Department of Art and Culture have awarded an annual “Geschwister-Scholl Prize” whose prize-giving ceremony is held in the main assembly hall of the Ludwig Maximilian University.
Across from the University is the House of German Justice (Haus des Deutschen Rechts):
Constructed by Oswald Eduard Bieber and inaugurated in 1939, this served as Hans Frank's headquarters as Bavarian Minister of Justice and Reich Commissioner for the Gleichschaltung of jurisdiction in the Federal States before being made Governor-General of occupied Poland. To him the Haus des Deutschen Rechts was an "NSDAP ideal set in stone."
Located on what was then Ludwigstrasse 18 as part of a planned overall system, it was intended to have been expanded through three further construction phases with the existing Max Josephs Abbey being converted into a reading hall, and a boardroom building and a "German Law School" to have been constructed on the adjacent Schackstrasse.
Across from Munich University, the Nazi eagle has been removed, but everything else remains the same. The upper floor was largely destroyed in the Second World War but the original facade was restored unchanged. The rooms are now used by the Ludwig Maximilians University (economics, social and legal sciences).
Beside the University and Haus des Deutschen Rechts is the Siegestor (Victory Gate)
Hitler's paintings of the Siegestor. This gate, modelled on Constantine’s arch in Rome and looking like a miniature version of Paris’s Arc de Triomphe, was commissioned by King Ludwig I of Bavaria in 1840 and completed in 1852, in honour of Bavarian troops who had triumphed against Napoleon. Nevertheless, the question has always been to which victory the arch refers. Finally, in 1852, the Quadriga, long cast by Ferdinand von Miller, was hoisted on top in which a six-metre high Bavaria drives one of four lions (originally horses were intended). When Bavarian troops entered the solemnly decorated gate on July 16, 1871 after their victories in the Franco-Prussian, it was only properly consecrated. In 1918 defeated First World War soldiers marched through it, and then of course various Nazi associations.
It was through the arch and down Ludwigstrasse, shown from both sides with help from Drake Winston, that Hitler led the annual commemoration of the failed Beer Hall Putsch, past the burning pylons. It was doubtless an impressive ceremony, this laying out of the dead in the dark of night, witnessed by scores of honorary formations acting as guards of honour.

During the celebration of the Day of Brown Ribbon horse race on January 1, 1939.

Das Größere Opfer (the Greater Sacrifice) by Adolf Reich, 1943 and standing before the actual painting itself. As he was to depart for his self-imposed exile to Bolivia over his opposition to the Frontbann at the end of 1924, SA leader Ernst Roehm was said to have told Hitler
You have only to give me the word- "be at the Siegestor at 6 a.m. on such and such a day with your men" and I shall be there.
Heiden (198)
After the war
 Private First Class Lawrence W. Bartlett (1924-1985), Niagara Falls, New York, examines the four fallen lions which once adorned the top of the Siegestor June 13, 1945. Declared by the American occupiers as "fascist" and then as a "threat to public security", the badly damaged gate was to be demolished in July 1954. Thanks to the efforts of the State Office for Monument Conservation, it was patched up in 1956.  The destroyed southern facade was renewed by Otto Roth as a bare brick wall with slabs; he and Josef Wiedemann reconstructed the gate in a deliberately simplified manner under the influence of the destruction and further consequences such as expulsion and war guilt, and on the south side an additional inscription, written by Hanns Braun and designed by Franz Hart was inscribed: 
 Dem Sieg geweiht, vom Krieg zerstört, zum Frieden mahnend "Dedicated to victory, destroyed by war, reminding of peace". 

This inscription was suggested by the theatre professor Hanns Braun. The Quadriga could only return to its original place in the 1972 Olympic year. Bavaria and her chariot had to be cast again; only the four Bavarian heraldic animals are original. This gives Siegestor a new symbolic meaning: war not only brings victory but also suffering and destruction - it even destroys symbols of victory. Therefore, the solution can only be peace. 
Thus the Siegestor is also a peace memorial, similar to the tower of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gedächtniskirche in Berlin. In 1972 the Quadriga- a triumphant Bavaria piloting a team of four lions, reminiscent of the Brandenburg Gate- was restored by Elmar Dietz and placed atop the Siegestor. On the right is from the 94th Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron collection.
The remains are left haphazardly on display not far from the Munich History museum and synagogue; the four goddesses of victory and the stone medallions were only discovered in 1995 in an urban building yard and presented again to the public. The rubble today forms a “lapidarium”, a small, hidden historical open-air museum, between the city museum and the Viktulienmarkt.
The medallions represented allegories:
Upper and Lower Bavaria: Alpine cattle breeding;
Upper and Middle Franconia: Crafts and Livestock;
Unterfranken: wine, grain and shipping;
Rheinpfalz: wine and fishing;
District of Oberpfalz: Blacksmiths;
Swabia: Weaving.

 Akademie der Bildenden Künste München
In 1945 with the Siegestor in the background and today.
After the First World War the Academy, whose history dates back to the 18th century,  quickly lost its importance, and the suppression of the Munich Soviet Republic left a repressive climate. In 1924 German Bestelmeyer, as Government Commissioner, took over the supervision of the School of Applied Arts and accelerated the cooperation with the Academy. For the Nazis' cultural policy, the academy was an important place of activity after 1933. Nazi artists such as Adolf Ziegler and the sculptor Josef Thorak were called to the academy, whilst non-Aryan professors were dismissed. The largely disempowered President Karl Caspar retired in 1937, as the subsequent management removed so-called "post 1910 decadent art" was removed from the holdings of the Academy. Bestelmeyer died in 1942 and received a pompous state funeral. After his death Bernhard Bleeker provisionally took over the management of the academy. In a bombing raid in July 1944, the Academy building was largely destroyed, with extensive collections of art, plaster casts and costumes and the archive lost. The outsourced art library has been largely preserved and today with its roughly 90,000 volumes remains one of the best of its kind. However, it is intended only for internal use.  In 1945 with the Siegestor in the background and today. After the First World War, the Academy, whose history dates back to the 18th century,  quickly lost its importance, and the suppression of the Munich Soviet Republic left a repressive climate. In 1924 German Bestelmeyer, as Government Commissioner, took over the supervision of the School of Applied Arts and accelerated the cooperation with the Academy. For the Nazis' cultural policy, the academy was an important place of activity after 1933. Nazi artists such as Adolf Ziegler and the sculptor Josef Thorak were called to the academy, whilst non-Aryan professors were dismissed. The largely disempowered President Karl Caspar retired in 1937, as the subsequent management removed so-called "post 1910 decadent art" was removed from the holdings of the Academy. Bestelmeyer died in 1942 and received a rather pompous state funeral. After his death Bernhard Bleeker provisionally took over the management of the academy. In a bombing raid in July 1944, the Academy building was largely destroyed, with extensive collections of art, plaster casts and costumes and the archive lost. The outsourced art library has been largely preserved and today with its roughly 90,000 volumes remains one of the best of its kind. However, it is intended only for internal use. In October 1945, the the military government released former Nazi members and Nazi-era artists by as Adolf Schinnerer took over as acting director. In 1946, the Academy of Applied Arts was incorporated. In the post-war years the Munich Academy found it difficult to break away from its Nazi past as one controversial example of a missed denazification was Hermann Kaspar, one of the cultural celebrities of the Third Reich, who from 1956-1972 again worked as a professor of painting.