Das Parteizentrum der NSDAP

Königlicher Platz
Königlicher Platz by Josef Eglseder (1938), showing the Führerbau, Braunes Haus, Ehrentempel, and Verwaltungsbau der NSDAP with Albert Speer's lampposts in the foreground from the steps of the Glyptothek, and from the same position in 2015 with Drake Winston in the foreground. In 1948 trees were planted along the Arcisstrasse to screen the Nazi buildings from Klenze's nineteenth-century Königsplatz as can be seen here. In the mid 1930s the square was closed by a screen of four buildings running along the east side of the Arcisstrasse. The patron of these buildings was the Nazi party, whose headquarters, the so-called Brown House, lay just behind the new buildings. Their architect was Paul Ludwig Troost. The row of four buildings breaks into two pairs; at the north and south ends are two huge structures: the Führerbau, which housed Hitler's Munich office and apartments (the Munich Pact was signed here in 1938), and the Verwaltungsbau der NSDAP (Nazi Party Administration Building). These buildings, identical on the outside, are distinguished by their massive size, their elongated proportions (275-foot façade length and sixty feet in height), and their lack of elaborate ornament. The inner pair, comprising the identical Ehrentempel (Temples of Honour), were square structures of the Doric order, with a three-step podium and six square, fluted piers on each side. These piers supported a simple, classicising architrave instead of a full roof. Each temple had a square central well, filled with the bronze sarcophagi of the sixteen men killed in the failed 1923 Munich putsch, the first Nazi attempt to seize power.
Hitler at KönigsplatzMunich was officially designated by Hitler as the "Hauptstadt der Bewegung" (Capital of the Movement), and no spot in Munich was more central than the Konigsplatz. Hitler dedicated Mein Kampf to those killed in the putsch (whom he termed "blood witnesses of our movement") and noted that they had been denied common burial. In 1935 he arranged for their bodies to be moved to the Temples of Honour. According to a contemporary guidebook, this transformed the structures into "the national shrine of the German people." By the terms of Hitler's will, the Fuhrer himself wanted to be buried in the temples. The temples were also known as the Ewige Wache, the dead (it was believed) serving as "eternal sentries" for the Third Reich. Each sarcophagus was inscribed with Der letzte Appell (the last roll call) and hier, the imagined response of the dead to that call. Each year the November 9 anniversary of the putsch was commemorated. The march from the Bürgerbräukeller to the Feldherrnhalle was reenacted and thence to the Königsplatz, where a large crowd gathered. The names of the dead from 1923 were read; after each name the crowd shouted, "Hier." 
Both the Verwaltungsbau and Führerbau were built according to plans by Hitler's favourite architect Paul Ludwig Troost who never lived to see their completion in 1935 or of the entire building complex at Königsplatz which was completed by 1937. When he died his widow Gerdy, at only thirty years of age, continued his projects in cooperation with her late husband's long-time colleague Leonard Gall, focussing especially on the interior finish of the Führerbau. Her efforts were rewarded by Hitler with the title of Professor in 1937. To the right in front of the Propyläen is Hitler directing the construction of these buildings with Troost and Gall. Through them the place originally dedicated to the arts was converted into the "Teatrum sacrum" of the movement. and served as a stage for the pseudo-religious cult.
Leibstandarte-ϟϟ Adolf Hitler Showing the Leibstandarte-ϟϟ Adolf Hitler marching past the Propyläen. No other place in Munich is so closely connected with the Nazi movement and its public shows of power as Königsplatz. Its grand classicist ambience made the square the ideal backdrop for staging Nazi spectacles. In 1935 the square’s appearance was altered considerably as it was turned into a parade ground alongside two Temples of Honour built, along with other new buildings, on its eastern perimeter. By virtue of its size and central location, Königsplatz had already become a gathering point for political meetings during the 1920s, and even before 1933 the Nazis showed an interest in this public space sited so near its Brown House; the Nazis had already bought the Palais Barlow building near Königsplatz in 1930 and subsequently had it refurbished as the party headquarters. The distinctive neo-classical architecture of Königsplatz fitted perfectly with the Nazi leadership’s need for a grand setting for its activities. After 1933 a number of other key offices of the Nazi bureaucracy were housed in the area around Königsplatz. Making society conform with Nazi ideals and achieving the bureaucratic centralisation, documentation and control of all areas of life by means of a powerful and all-pervasive state and party apparatus – these were the goals of the Nazi leadership’s domestic policy. 
Röhm handing over the flag of the Freicorps Rossbach to the SA on November 8, 1933 at the Königsplatz.Showing Capt. Ernst Röhm, Hitler's chief of staff, after ceremonially handing over the flag of the Freicorps Rossbach to the SA on November 8, 1933 at the Königsplatz. Although after 1933 the Nazi centre of power was moved to Berlin, key offices of the Nazi Party and its associated organisations remained in the area around Munich's Königsplatz which became the central party quarter, where many Nazi offices and organisations were housed in over fifty buildings – from national offices responsible for the whole Reich down to regional branches. Sometimes as many as six thousand people were employed here. Alongside the party administration itself – such as, for example, the Reich Leadership of the NSDAP on Brienner Straße (the “Brown House”) – the head offices of many Nazi organisations were located here, including the Reich Youth Leadership, the Reich Treasury Department of the National Socialist Women’s Organisation, the Reich Leadership of the National Socialist German Students’ Association, the Reich Leadership of the ϟϟ (administrative offices and the ϟϟ court), the Supreme SA Leadership and central party institutions, such as the Reich Central Propaganda Office or the Reich Press Office. These institutions and authorities were tightly organised and centrally controlled, generally structured along the same lines as regional and district Nazi organisations which used them as highly effective instruments for bringing people into line ideologically and keeping them under surveillance and controlling their private lives.
Hitler's painting of the Propyläen taken from the NS Frauenwarte (Paper of the National Socialist Women's League), 1937 and on the right, a 16.5 x 24.5 centimetre watercolour on textured paper taken from the side of the Staatliche Antikensammlungen and signed "A Hitler" in brownish ink at the bottom right and labelled "München Propyläen" on the left. Under glass, framed. On the back is an handwritten owner's label reading "Herrn Generalmajor a.D. Schenk - Solln b. München - Terlanerstr. 19"- Schenk had been the head of the department for invalids' pensions and Landtag commissioner in Bavaria's War Ministry. He was promoted to Oberst and Commander of the 18th Bavarian I.R. in 1901 and would go on to become a respected military author, writing "The Bavarian Army over three centuries, 1618 – 1914."  It had been given to him as a gift from Ernst Röhm at Königsplatz itself shortly before the official ceremony for the Citizens' Defence in 1920. Schenk's son Walter was a friend of Ernst Röhm's and held an important post in the Organisation Escherich.
In 1934 for an appearance by Hermann Goering for which the site is adorned with an illuminated swastika and a banner reading "With Adolf Hitler for Germany." In Mein Kampf Hitler wrote how "[t] he geo-political significance of a focal centre for a movement cannot be overemphasised. Only the presence of such a place, exerting the magic spell of a Mecca or a Rome, can in the long run give the movement a force which is based on inner unity." Munich, officially designated by Hitler as the "Hauptstadt der Bewegung", was that central place for the Nazis. Joshua Hagen notes that, in the example of Munich's Königsplatz, the Nazi redesign presented a clash of ideological considerations. Whilst the plans to maintain that space fulfilled the desire for balance and harmony with the planned additional structures, its muted scale was in opposition to the equally strong desire for monumentalism. As a test project for further urban redesigns, including Berlin, the Munich Königsplatz was still envisioned to function within Nazi temporality: the space was designed with temples dedicated to the regime, in which heroes to the movement were interred, making Königsplatz, “an integral component of future commemoration."
The end of the 1980s saw the start of efforts in Munich to further neutralise or rather obliterate the architectural traces of National Socialism as when, in 1987-88, the Nazis' granite slabs were removed from Königsplatz, the largest Nazi construction element in terms of area in Munich, with the declared aim of getting rid of the architectural reminder of the Nazi era. Plans were also drawn up to build museums in the place of the plinths of the Nazi ‘Temples of Honour’. However, these plans to dispose of Nazi history were withdrawn after they met stiff resistance from many residents and in the following decade the confrontation with the city’s Nazi past shifted to the level of exhibitions, conferences, and publications. 
The American 45th Infantry Division marching through Königsplatz on May 17, 1945. Ironically enough,the division's original shoulder sleeve insignia, approved in August 1924, featured a swastika, a common Native American symbol, as a tribute to the Southwestern United States region which had a large population of Native Americans. However, with the rise of the Nazis in Germany with its infamous swastika symbol, the 45th Division stopped using the insignia. After a long process of reviewing design submissions, a design by Woody Big Bow, a Kiowa artist from Carnegie, Oklahoma, was chosen for the new shoulder sleeve insignia which featured the Thunderbird, another Native American symbol, and was approved in 1939. The division crossed the Danube River on April 27 and liberated 32,000 captives of the Dachau concentration camp two days later, accused of indiscriminately massacring surrendering German prisoners in retaliation for the scenes of horror they encountered. The division captured Munich during the next two days, occupying the city until V-E Day and the surrender of Germany.During the next month, the division remained in Munich and set up collection points and camps for the massive numbers of surrendering troops of the German armies. The number of POWs taken by the 45th Division during its almost two years of fighting totalled 124,840 men.

Original footage of the area
Königsplatz is the most significant square in Munich and is known as the Athens on the Isar with the Propyläen, Glyptothek and Antikensammlung on its three sides built in classical style, conceived by Ludwig I and built in 1817 by Klenze. Troost designed the square to make it a colossal parade ground with 22,000 slabs of concrete, the temples of honour, Führer building and the Nazi Party central office. Unlike Berlin with its Topography of Terror, Munich has managed to avoid building a memorial to the past. Today, the only thing that signifies the role of the Königsplatz square during the Third Reich is a paltry plaque displayed on the stone foundation of one of the former “Temples of Honour.” The former “capital of the Nazi movement” now claims itself the “Weltstadt mit Herz” (world city with a heart).
Königsplatz was the centre of the Nazi-government. The whole area was occupied by various Nazi organisations. It was the site of the May 10, 1933 book burning by the German Students’ Association, one of the first major public demonstrations of power. During this nationally organised book-burning, works by Erich Kästner, Heinrich Mann, Karl Marx, Erich Maria Remarque, Kurt Tucholsky, Theodor Wolff and many others were burned here. In 1935 twenty thousand granite paving slabs were laid on the square like Tiananmen Square after the 1989 massacre to better run over people with tanks, and had eighteen street lamps and two flag poles and it was equipped with a modern electrical system capable of providing theatrical lighting for public events. In Arcisstraße two Temples of Honour and two monumental party buildings flanked the whole ensemble. The square was thus turned into the central parade ground for mass rallies in Munich. The granite was removed in 1988 and grassed over.  Every year since 1995 the artist Wolfram P. Kastner has singed a patch of grass in front of the Antikensammlung as a token of remembrance of the public book-burning. Kastner’s symbolic action is accompanied each year by public readings from the “burnt books”. The first reading – staged by Brecht’s daughter, the actress Hanne Hiob, and pupils of the Luisengymnasium grammar school – took place in 1995 and is now a regular fixture in the city’s culture of remembrance
During a commemoration marking the anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch attempt from the Propylaea and from behind, showing what had been Haus Freundlich.
GIF: Königsplatz 1936 and today
1936 and today
With both 'temples of honour' in the foreground on the left and background on right. Albert Speer's lampposts, are gone, but can be found along Strasse des 17. Juni in Berlin:

 Albert Speer, writing in 1944, when the Nazis were close to defeat, took inspiration from their architectural form: “Our faith in victory is unshaken. The buildings of Paul Ludwig Troost, the first, strong stone symbols of the movement, are part of this. It is they, as much as anything, that strengthen our belief in victory and fortify our will to attain that victory."

During the annual commemorative march and today. An effective Gesamtkunstwerk is meant to collapse the differentiation provided by time and space. The mid-19th century viewer of Klenze's Königsplatz, for example, would have wondered whether he was in modern Munich or ancient Athens. The Nazi Königsplatz is a fine example of the Gesamtkunstwerk's eliding of difference, its ability to make everything seem a part of everything else. The ceremonies on the square blended 1923 with the present of the late 1930s, implying that the men in the sarcophagi were still "here" and suggesting that both the dead and those present in the square were sentries answering the same roll call. But the National Socialist Königsplatz went further, not only blending 1923 with the 1930s and 1940s, but also obscuring the line between the Nazi here and now and two other pasts that are the stock in trade of the Glyptothek: classical antiquity and Ludwig I's Munich.
A 1936 guidebook to Munich went so far as to claim that the hardness of the granite paving stones laid by the Nazis on the Königsplatz was a mirror of the spirit of the dead buried there. Joseph Goebbels summed up the square's exceptional symbolic importance in a lapidary 1935 diary entry: “Here the Führer wrote his will in stone." Such hyperbolic claims meant that the significance of the Königsplatz was overdetermined; not surprisingly, then, the square kept its meaning long after the defeat of the Nazis in 1945. According to Winfried Nerdinger, “[o]n the Königsplatz, old residents of Munich still hear thousands of voices shouting 'Here.”" Since the Nazi buildings on the Königsplatz were not damaged by the bombing that devastated Munich and that virtually destroyed the Glyptothek, the problem of how to de-Nazify the Königsplatz arose after the war. The slabs on the square, however, were preserved; the "royal square" of the National Socialists became the "royal parking lot," popularly dubbed "Lake Balaton". After initial proposals to remove the battered, broken and patched plates by the 1972 Olympic Games, the original condition was not reconstructed until 1988.The square is therefore representative of the reconstruction of Munich, in which most of the traces of National Socialism and war were erased through extensive reconstructions. As a result of the restoration, Königsplatz lost its role as a procurer of the old and a warning against new abuse. 
 Bavarian International School at the Glyptothek, MunichSwastikas on the Staatliche Antikensammlungen facade
The Staatliche Antikensammlungen before the war and today with my students from the Bavarian International School; the swastika motif alongside the entrance remains, seen behind Drake Winston. During the war the museum fought to protect its collection of Etruscan pottery in particular, which had been stored in the bombed Neue Pinakothek. 
Nazis marching past the Glyptothek in 1937Americans marching past the Glyptothek in 1945
Nazis marching past the Glyptothek in 1937 and the Americans returning the favour May 17, 1945.
Seen from the Propylaea in 1937 and with Drake Winston today. The building itself 
was the brainchild of Ludwig, whose love of classical art had been stimulated by the Grand Tour. One of the great collectors of Europe, Ludwig commissioned his favorite architect, Leo von Klenze, to design a museum worthy of his collection. Both the museum and its holdings were shrines to neoclassical taste. The Munich Glyptothek was also the first public classical archaeology museum. The Aegina marbles were its centerpiece, but agents of Ludwig like Wagner and Friedrich Thiersch purchased widely on the international art market, and in 1841 Ludwig laid the foundations there of what became one of the great European vase collections by acquiring choice examples of Greek vases from Lucien Bonaparte, the prince of Canino, who owned the site of Etruscan Vulci and was actively mining it for artifacts. 
Dyson  (135) In Pursuit of Ancient Pasts
The remains of the Glyptothek after the war with Drake Winston in front today. At the beginning of the war, the museum was closed and the ancient sculptures outsourced which was fortunate given that, whilst the neighbouring Nazi party buildings survived the war almost unscathed, the museums on Königsplatz were badly damaged by air raids. After the war, serious damage caused further damage. The destroyed roof of the Glyptothek was not restored, and the valuable wall and ceiling paintings that were preserved fell victim to the weather. Debates arose over whether the building should be restored to its original state, with its splendid neo-rococo decorations, or rebuilt in a more stark manner that reflected modernist sensibilities and the desire to highlight the original sculptures. The latter mode was selected in which the decoration, some of which was still preserved, was removed and the brick shell exposed, thus removing some problems. The conception of the sculptures had changed significantly compared to the pre-war state: the Egyptian and Assyrian monuments were now shown in the Residenz where the Egyptians now had two rooms. However, since the building ornamentation was based on the exhibited statues and reliefs, there would be no connection between the reconstructed interior and the exhibition.  In the event of a reconstruction, the restoration of the Cornelius frescoes would also be complicated: although there are sketches and black-and-white photos, there were no coloured representations of the frescoes.
 The interior in 1938 watercolours by Wilhelm August Hahn and today, including the Egyptian Room and after the war, necessitating the relocation of the Obelisk of Titus Sextius Africanus to the new Staatliches Museum Ägyptischer Kunst.
For Hitler, Greek sculpture had never been surpassed and one of his most prized possessions was the best surviving copy of Myron's Discobolus; Discus Thrower. In 1937 Hitler negotiated to buy it, and eventually succeeded in 1938 when Galeazzo Ciano, Minister of Foreign Affairs, sold it to him for five million lire, over the protests of Giuseppe Bottai, Minister of Education, and the scholarly community.  It was shipped by rail to Munich and displayed here in the Glyptothek where it was placed on exhibition with Hitler publicly praising it as an aesthetic model for all time. ‘May you all then realise how glorious man already was back then in his physical beauty,’ he told his audience. ‘We can speak of progress only if we have attained like perfection or if we manage to surpass it.’ It was eventually returned in 1948 after the American occupation authorities ordered its transfer 
to the Italian government, despite its having been legitimately purchased and exported. The American decision, over vigorous German protest, was guided by a desire to influence the outcome of the Italian general election that year in favour of the ruling Christian Democrats.
Spotts (209)
It is now in the National Museum of Rome, displayed at the Baths of Diocletian.
The Äginetensaal then and now, housing the marbles from the Late Archaic temple of Aphaia, comprising the sculptural groups of the east and west pediments.  After the building's destruction during the air raids on Munich in the Second World War reconstruction was finally begun in 1947 with the reopening taking place in 1972. The frescoes executed by Peter Cornelius between 1820 and 1830 such as Die Götter Griechenlands had been destroyed were not restored, but rather isolated fragments were preserved and are held in the National Gallery in Berlin. The Assyrian Hall built by Klenze in the courtyard in 1864 was not restored after the war; the eight Assyrian Orthostat reliefs from the palace of king Ashur-nasir-pal II and the Babylonian lion from the Ishtar Gate were moved into the Staatliche Sammlung für Ägyptische Kunst. The large column in the inner courtyard is from the former vestibule of the opposite building, which had sadly been reconstructed in the careless modern fashion.
 The Romersaal after its destruction and its less-august surroundings today
 The Barberini Faun in more extravagant surroundings in its pre-war restoration and today with the statue itself with its leg and left arm has been restored as well. This can be seen below during the war when it was being removed for safety from the bombing.
As it appeared in the opening of Leni Riefenstahl's Olympia and after being transferred to the Zentralministerium's Luftschutzkeller on Ludwigstrasse
Hitler and his followers were fascinated with antiquity (hence the classical style of Troost's party buildings). The Königsplatz was called Acropolis Germaniae (in a startling reminder of Ludwig's Athens on the Isar), and Hitler claimed, "Never has mankind been nearer to antiquity in appearance and sensibility than today." This last point was made visually in Hans W. Fischer's 1935 book Menschenschönheit, which juxtaposed works of art with photographs of contemporary people, mainly athletes. In one two-page spread, a warrior from the east pediment at Aegina was juxtaposed with a modern javelin thrower.
One of Hitler's first acts on attaining the Chancellorship was to order the construction of a massive stone Temple of Honour in Munich's Konigsplatz. Its construction lasted over two years, and the Celebration of November 9. 1935 was the event by which it was consecrated. Hitler commemorated the sixteen dead as “Heroes of the Movement” as soon as he took power by having twin Temples of Honour built on Königsplatz between the two main Nazi Party buildings. Twenty fluted columns towering 23 feet above the ground were arranged on two 70-foot-wide limestone pedestals and which supported an open roof of steel and concrete with etched glass mosaics decorating the underside. In a two-day ceremony, Hitler brought the dead to their final resting place. On November 7, 1935, twelve years after the attempted putsch, the bodies of Ehrlich and others were exhumed and taken to the Feldherrnhalle, escorted by SA storm troops. After the pallbearers ceremoniously carried the caskets up the massive steps, the crowd sang the Horst Wessel song. Soon after, Hitler appeared and individually saluted the dead men before pausing in front of each casket.
The next morning began with a 16-gun salute. The old comrades assembled around the “Bürgerbräukeller” and, commemorating the infamous march of 1923, silently retraced their steps to the Feldherrnhalle led by Julius Streicher behind whom were three men bearing the Blutfahne. Hitler was flanked by veteran fighters followed by members of the “Blutorden”, SA and ϟϟ troops, Hitler Youth, and paramilitary troops. A crowd of tens of thousands stood along the parade route lined by a cordon of SA soldiers. Accompanied by marching drummers, the Horst Wessel song blared from gigantic loudspeakers. Black smoke wafted from 400 blazing pylons along the route, each bearing the name of one of the “martyrs” of the movement in gold letters. Flag-bearing delegations from the Nazi administrative districts stood nearby. As Hitler passed each pylon, the immortalised name of each “martyr” was announced over the loudspeakers.
The caskets were then taken on carriages to Königsplatz square. The moment the first carriage arrived on the square, a shot was fired and the flags of the movement and of the Wehrmacht were lowered. Veteran fighters placed the caskets on the podium. Two large swastika banners were then raised in unison. The Völkischer Beobachter reported that Königsplatz had thus been transformed into “a mighty forum for the movement.” The heroes were now resting in the Nazi Party’s “holy sanctuary.” Hitler proclaimed: “Just as they marched fearlessly, so too shall they lie in the wind and weather, in the storms and rain, in the snow and ice, and in the sun, under the heavens. They will lie here in open as an eternal symbol of the German nation. For us they are not dead.”
It was in 1935 that the remains of the sixteen putschists were brought here on the anniversary. This had followed the purge of the SA during the Night of the Long Knives the year before. The bodies were exhumed from their graves and taken to the Feldherrnhalle where they were placed beneath sixteen large pylons bearing their names. The next day, after Hitler had solemnly walked from one to the next, they were taken down the monument’s steps and taken on carts, draped in flags to Paul Ludwig Troost’s new Ehrentempel monuments at the Konigsplatz, through streets lined with spectators bustling between 400 columns with eternal flames atop. Flags were lowered as veterans slowly and orderly placed the heavy sarcophagi into place. In each of the structures eight of the martyrs were interred in a sarcophagus bearing their name.
Each temple held the sarcophagi of eight 'martyrs' with two ϟϟ honour guards keeping vigil.
The martyrs of the movement were in heavy black sarcophagi in such a way as to be exposed to the elements from the open roof.
Designed by Professor Heinlein, the sarcophagi originally cast at the Wasseralfingen steel works in Baden-Württemberg and the eight columns weighing over 21 tonnes were recycled to make brake shoes for municipal buses. Weighing nearly 2,900 pounds, the metal caskets were converted to repair rail ties and electrical lines. Munich had discreetly rid itself of its former Nazi “heroes.” The bronze eagles designed by party member Kurt Schmidt-Ehmen were removed and the former Nazi buildings on Königsplatz are now used by music students and cultural institutions.
At the temples visitors were required to be silent, not wear hats and keep children from running over the centre of the temples. The Ehrentempel was made of limestone except for its roof which was made of steel and concrete with etched glass mosaics. The pedestals of the temples, which are the only parts remaining, are seventy feet wide. The columns of the structures each extended twenty-three feet. The combined weight of the sarcophagi was over 2,900 pounds.
Hitler and Mussolini beside one temple with the braune haus behind  
During the state funeral of Munich Gauleiter Adolf Wagner on April 27, 1944. When Gauleiter Adolf Wagner died from a stroke in 1944 he was interred metres away from the north temple in the adjacent grass mound in between the two temples. Wagner was buried behind one of the ehrentempels beside the Führerbau until after the war when it had been disinterred and reburied elsewhere. The funeral ceremony was shown in Die Deutsche Wochenschau 1944 № 713.
Standing in front of and atop the ruins of the Ehrentempels. Only the foundations are visible today after the temples had been blown up in January 1947; trees and bushes are growing on top.
The Führerbau behind one of the "temples of honour". The sunken area for the sarcophagi became a pool of water after the war. In a thread on Axis History Forum, pionier44 provided several photos of the area around Konigsplatz, including a few on top the Ehrentempels. In a couple are shown small holes which he suggests could have been used for drainage; indeed, he later asks "the only visible thing up top is some open stand pipes. Were these for the eternal flames?"
According to the Munich tourist board, the “Ehrentempeln” – or Temples of Honour – on Munich’s Königsplatz were “National shrines of the German people.” Millions of Hitler Youth and Nazi party members regarded the men buried there as role models of self-sacrifice. Ehrlich and the others had become National Socialist heroes. In 1945, Munich officials decided to eradicate this former Nazi shrine. Even Karl Meitinger, head of the city planning department under the Nazis, was busy thinking about the future. Speaking at the city council’s first postwar meeting in August 1945, he said: “We must strive to salvage the form and appearance of the old city centre at all costs.” He expressed the hope that, within a few decades, “our beloved Munich” would be restored to what it once was. The city would then be the focus of a new era of tourism, and its reputation as Germany’s city of the arts could once again flourish. To this end, he said that the Königsplatz would be “de-Nazified,” the Temples of Honour torn down. The bodies of Ehrlich and the other Nazi “martyrs” would have to be removed as discreetly as possible.
I had revisited the site on March 11, 2011 and found a glass candle holder and a bone (!) placed on top a stone:

From atop the other ehrentempel remains beside the Fuehrerbau, January 2012
As they appeared May 17, 1945, still intact.
On the night of July 5, 1945, the sixteen “martyrs” from the Temples of Honour were removed and quickly buried elsewhere.
Beside the grave of Andreas Bauriedl whose blood had supposedly consecrated the so-called blutfahne, and whose remains were relocated to the cemetery at Nordfriedhof.   The remains of Johann Rickmers were sent to the city crematorium but, as domestic mail services had been suspended by the Allies forces, his ashes couldn't be sent to their final resting place in Westphalia. All these burials were lonely affairs. On June 27, 1945, Mayor Karl Scharnagl, appointed by the American occupying forces, published the following decree: “Any public participation during the burials, or any kind of outward display whatsoever, must be avoided.” On July 12, the director of Munich’s municipal cemeteries submitted his report to the mayor: “On July 5, 1945, the bodies, or the remains thereof, were removed from the temples on Königsplatz square without incident. The bodies were placed in family gravesites or buried in common graves. This was carried out at a time of day when the cemetery was closed to the public.”
On January 9, 1947 the upper parts of the structures were blown up. The central portion was subsequently partially filled in but often filled with rain water which created a natural memorial. When Germany was finally reunited plans were made for a biergarten, restaurant or café on the site of the Ehrentempel but these were derailed by the growth of rare biotope vegetation on the site. As a result of this the temples were spared complete destruction and the foundation bases of the monuments remain intersecting on the corner of Briennerstrasse and Arcisstrasse. In the intermittent period of the 1947 destruction and 1990 handover basements (hitherto unknown to the Americans) were uncovered beneath the structures. The almost two-metre tall, 21 by 21 metre pedestals remained standing. At first, they were hidden behind a fence, and then in 1956, in light of the 800th anniversary of the city of Munich, they were covered over with plants. Grass grew over them and the pedestals disappeared from view – a veritable symbol of the repression and ‘politics of the past’ (Vergangenheitspolitik) of the early Federal Republic. In the conflicted post-war society of West Germany, the few opponents of the Nazi regime and its many accomplices and followers joined together in a sort of truce in order to reconstruct the destroyed nation. 
From the bizarre Nazi film Ewige Wache, showing the procession from the Feldherrnhalle to the Temples of Honour where the 'martyrs' are shown taken from their graves to be re-interred here. The film on the right shows footage of the site.
Führerbau (site of the Munich Agreement)
The former Führerbau was built between 1933 and 1937 according to the plans of the architect Paul Ludwig Troost in Arcisstraße 12 in Munich for Hitler. The first plans for the construction date back to 1931 and was completed three years after Troost's death by Leonhard Gall. During the Nazi era, the Führerbau served as a representative building. The building, along with the administration building of the Nazi Party, closed the Königsplatz in an urbanised direction eastwards. In 1938, the Munich Agreement was signed here. In the air-raid shelter of the Führerbau from 1943 stored about 650 mostly looted paintings to be destined for the pictures, predominantly robbery and for the proposed Führermuseum in Linz. Shortly before the invasion of American troops on the night of April 29-30, 1945 the cellar was plundered; more than 600 paintings, including many works from the Dutch Masters, disappeared. From 1945 onwards the former Führerbau was used by the American military government together with the administration building as a Central Collecting Point for the booty exploited by the Nazis throughout Europe during the Second World War, including Göring's art collection. From this point on, identified works of art were restored to the countries of origin. Today the building serves the University of Music and Theatre Munich. In 1954, the congress hall was converted into a concert hall (it today claims to be exorcising the dæmons of the past with music). The building is nevertheless in poor structural condition and needs a general renovation.
Hitler and Mussolini on the reviewing stand beside a temple of honour with the Führerbau behind during the latter's September 1937 state visit.
With Robert Harris at the very site which provided the setting for his bestseller Munich.
The Führerbau was barely a year old, the work of Hitler's favourite architect, the late Professor Troost- so brand new that the white stone seemed to sparkle in the morning light. On either side of the twin porticoes hung giant flags; the German and the Italian flanked the southern entrance, the British and the French the northern. Above the doors were bronze eagles, wings outstretched, swastikas in their talons. Red carpets had been run out from both sets of doors, down the steps and across the pavement to the kerb. Only the northern entrance was in use. Here an eighteen-man honour guard stood with their rifles presented, alongside a drummer and a bugler...
Its function was not entirely clear. It was not a government building, or a Party headquarters.  Rather, it was a kind of monarch's court, for the enlightenment and entertainment of the emperor's guests. The interior was clad entirely in marble- a dull plum colour for the floors and the two grand staircases, greyish-white for the walls and pillars, although on the upper level the effect of the lighting was to make the stone glow golden.  
From Robert Harris's latest thriller Munich, based on the events of the Munich conference.
Hitler and Mussolini at Führerbau
Hitler and Mussolini behind with the flags of the four participating countries at the 1938 Munich Conference hanging from the balconies.
Hitler stepping out of the Fiihrerbau after the first meeting, behind him Reichsfuhrer ϟϟ Himmler and ϟϟ Gruppenfuhrer Schaub.

Hitler and Mussolini walking past from stills captured from archival footage of the conference. On the right shows me standing at the door to Hitler's office where the conference concluded with the signing of the Munich agreement.
Standing at the foot of the staircase at the entrance
The side rooms have since been divided into smaller corridors as shown with me on the right.
Shortly before midnight, the Four-Power Agreement was signed in the Führerbau, crushing any hopes Hitler may have still entertained that an international agreement could be avoided. The contractual settlement was similar to the resolution applied to the Saar. Again international commissions were set up and plebiscites held under international supervision. The Saar experience, which had infuriated Hitler, showed that he despised such measures. His dilemma was that he had no option other than to sign. He had ventured too far by playing along with the conference to retreat now.
 Hitler's office where the Munich agreement was signed, then and now showing Hitler, Mussolini, Chamberlain, and Édouard Daladier, 
     the small, quiet, dapper premier of France, together with Ribbentrop, Weizsäcker, Ciano, Wilson, and Alexis Léger, State Secretary in the French Foreign Office, took their seats around a table in the newly constructed Führerbau amid the complex of party buildings centred around the Brown House – the large and imposing party headquarters – in Munich. There they proceeded to carve up Czechoslovakia.     
 Kershaw Hitler
Standing beside the actual desk where the agreement was signed at the Deutsches Historisches Museum in Berlin. 
Hitler's entourage, including Göring, Mussolini and Ciano, leaving after signing the agreement in the early hours of September 30. In the eyes of the world public at large, Hitler appeared to have scored an overwhelming success. Without firing a shot, he had gained huge territories and an additional 3.5 millions of people. The prostrate Czechoslovakia was placed at his mercy whilst the Western Powers had lost prestige, particularly in the smaller states of southeastern Europe. 
While others thought of the Munich agreement of 1938 as a sign of German triumph and as a symbol of weak-kneed acquiescence in aggression, Hitler looked on it as a terrible disappointment then and as the greatest error of his career later. He had been cheated of war and, after destroying what was left of Czechoslovakia anyway, he would move toward war in a manner calculated to preclude what he considered the disappointing outcome of 1938. 
Hitler's 770K Großer-Mercedes open touring parade car in the foreground- note his personal standard with my red ensign-decked bike behind today. Kempka is the driver as Hitler's personal bodyguard ϟϟ Karl Wilhelm Krause sits directly behind Hitler in the mid-carright hand side jump seat. An LSSAH Honour Guard is drawn up in front, with a grossly distorted Union Jack hanging in the background.
 The GIF below shows Hitler meeting with the Romanian head of government, General Ion Antonescu, at the Führerbau on the morning of June 12, 1941 just ten days before the launch of Operation Barbarossa. Before the meeting, Antonescu had laid wreaths at the monument on the Königlicher Platz. The stereotypical communiqué on the talks reported that the “meeting had taken place in the spirit of the heartfelt friendship between Germany and Romania.” Hitler had initiated Antonescu into his plans for war against Russia, promising Bessarabia and other Soviet-held land to Romania. Antonescu was delighted:
“Of course, I will be there from day one. If you go against the Slavs, you can always count on Romania.” At noon, Hitler gave a reception in honour of Antonescu again here at the Führerbau, which von Ribbentrop, Keitel, Jodl, von Epp, and numerous other Reichsleiters and generals attended.
Antonescu outlined his strategic goals at his third meeting with the Führer in Munich on 12 June 1941. He repeated his declaration, made at previous meetings between the two leaders, that the Romanian people were ready to march unto death alongside the Axis since they had absolute faith in the Führer’s sense of justice. The Romanian people had bound its fate to that of Germany because the two peoples complemented each other both economically and politically, and they had a common danger to confront. This was the Slav danger, which had to be ended once and for all. It was Antonescu’s opinion that a postponement of the conflict with Russia would prejudice the chances of an Axis victory. The Romanian people, he continued, wanted the moment of reckoning with Russia to come as soon as possible so that they could take revenge for all that they had suffered at the hands of the Russians. Ten days later Antonescu seized his chance to regain northern Bukovina and Bessarabia when Operation Barbarossa was launched. 

The Nazi eagle was later replaced by the American bald eagle as members of the American military are shown paying their respects as they enter the building.
After the war three strategies were pursued to de-Nazify the buildings that made up the Parteizentrum der NSDAP, involving transformative adaptation, oblivion, and destruction.
The most complex of the three is transformative adaptation. In 1948 a crude form of this was attempted: the Führerbau was converted into Amerika-Haus, an American cultural center. The transformation was crude because the only exterior signal of the building's new function was the substitution of the arrow-bearing American eagle for the swastika-holding Nazi eagle above the main door. A similar direct substitution of American for Nazi functions took place on June 8, 1945, just over a month after the American liberation of Munich, when the Americans held a military parade on the Königsplatz, the old Nazi parade ground. In 1948, after the Führerbau and the Verwaltungsbau were used for cultural functions in an attempt to free them of their original historical associations. Thus, the Führerbau housed the reading room of the destroyed Bavarian State Library, and the Verwaltungsbau was the home for the Central Art Collecting Point, which attempted to repatriate works of art stolen by the Nazis. This strategy of “artistic reeducation" (to quote Nerdinger) continues to this day: the Führerbau houses the Hochschule für Musik; the Verwaltungsbau, the Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, the Graphische Sammlung, and the archaeological institute of the University. 
William J. Diebold, The Politics of Derestoration: The Aegina Pediments and the German Confrontation with the Past
Führerbau bleibt Führerbau: Shockingly, on September 29, 2012 a rented room in the Musikhochschule was allowed to be decorated in slightly-defaced Nazi flags as part of an event entitled "Klassenkampf statt Weltkrieg" (Class Warfare instead of World War)
Now removed, for a brief period that began August 31, 2005 at 20.00 in the foyer of the building, the first twenty stolpertstein (stumbling blocks) of Cologne artist Gunter Demnig were installed through the initiative of Peter Weismann in order to commemorate the Nazi crimes of persecution, plunder and murder. The laying of these small brass plates in front of the homes of those deported and/or killed during the Nazi era- Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals, mentally and physically handicapped as well as those for political and religious reasons- had been banned in June 2004 by the Munich City Council. Since then 96 German cities have removed these symbols of collective memory. Today the only stolperstein still exhibited in Munich are the three in a building designed by Hitler himself. Munich removed the only two stumbling blocks laid on public land from the pavement on Mauerkircherstraße. The two removed stumbling blocks were brought here to the  Munich Music Academy as part of an artistic installation. Claiming to be acting in the interests of fire protection, the installation was removed in 2011. In Munich there are only stumbling blocks on private land. More than 200 stumbling blocks for Munich victims have already been made and cannot be relocated and have been stored in a cellar ever since. Terry Swartzberg and the Stumbling Blocks Initiative for Munich collected more than 80,000 signatures for their project by June 2015 but nevertheless on July 29 the Munich City Council spoke out against the stumbling blocks on public streets and squares.
Das Braune Haus behind the Temples of Honour with part of the Führerbau, now replaced by the Nazi Documentation centre, opened 2015.
On Meiserstrasse 10 (across from the offices of the Fuehrer's deputy) was the Nazi Party's Central Office, now the Museum für Abgüsse Klassischer Bildwerke München (Haus der Kulturinstitute); the remains of a 'temple of honour' now overgrown with vegetation. The two large blue banners above the entrances commemorate the building's 7oth anniversary. Identical to the Fuehrerbau to which it is linked by a 105 metre tunnel, this was the office of the Reich treasurer and where filing cabinets held the information for 8.5 million party members which would later prove crucial for the Americans' denazification process. It later held much of the stolen art eventually recovered. The building is located on the former site of the Palais Pringsheim, which belonged to the mathematician Alfred Pringsheim until November 1933. Pringsheim, a German Jew and father-in-law of Thomas Mann, was forced to sell his property after the Nazi seizure of power which then demolished his property to build in its place this neoclassical building near the Königsplatz by architect Paul Ludwig Troost. It served as a representative of the Nazis' administration building. Located on three floors, the offices were grouped around two courtyards. On the ground floor in the centre of the building was a library extending to the second floor which still serves its original purpose today. Under the basement there was another level where, among other things, a bunker system was found.
The reichsadler being removed and dismantled after the war and its empty plinth today
The Central Collecting Point in Munich was designated to primarily hold ERR loot, Hitler and Goering’s collections, and other works found in the Altaussee salt mine. The photos above from Robert Edsel's blog show the Munich Collecting Point before repairs were made in June 1945 and how it appeared during this period. 
Monuments Men creating an inventory of looted art in the Central Collecting Point in Munich in 1945. By early May that year Lt. Col. Geoffrey Webb, British MFAA chief at Eisenhower’s headquarters, proposed that Allied forces quickly prepare buildings in Germany in order to receive large shipments of artworks and other cultural property found in the numerous repositories. Eisenhower directed his subordinates to immediately begin preparing such buildings, ordering that art objects were to be handled only by MFAA personnel. Suitable locations with little damage and adequate storage space were difficult to find which led by July to American forces establishing two central collecting points within the American zone in Germany, Wiesbaden and here. Here at the Munich Central Collecting Point Lt. Craig Hugh Smyth established the MCP in July 1945 converting the site into a functional art depot complete with photography studios and conservation labs. This facility primarily housed art stolen by the ERR from private collections and Hitler’s collection found at Altaussee. Once an object arrived at a collecting point, it was recorded, photographed, studied, and sometimes conserved so that it could be returned to its country of origin as soon as possible. Whilst some objects were easily identifiable and could be quickly returned, others, such as unmarked paintings or library collections, were much more difficult to process.
Rodin's Burghers of Calais at the site after the war beside the building with the former Vatican consulate- the Black House- now gone. The bronze sculpture had been abandoned by the Nazis in the snow-covered forest surrounding Neuschwanstein, apparently because it was too unwieldy to manœuver up the mountain. According to Charles Parkhurst, who been involved in directing the transportation of 49 freight cars of art from the key Nazi repository at Neuschwanstein Castle for the Americans, 
I was heading for a remote castle in some woods, but I couldn’t get to it with the Jeep because it was perched high on a rock. So I got out and started walking through the forest. Soon I spotted some woodsmen who looked as though they were taking a break, standing around in a group talking. As I got nearer, it occurred to me they were standing quite close together and looked rather dejected … and they weren’t moving much. And if they were talking, they certainly were being quiet about it. Then in a flash I realized I had stumbled on The Burghers of Calais, Rodin’s famous bronze grouping of six men about to be martyred, just sitting in the woods!
Fittingly the building today serves as a museum for classical replicas:
Christmas 1937 and today- the building remains completely unchanged.
Even the light fixtures and foyer table remain in situ

After the war the building served the US Army as a central repository for works of art that had been confiscated or stolen by the Nazis after which it continued to serve a cultural use. Therefore, six cultural institutions are now housed in the building. It is the Department of Egyptology, the Institute of Classical Archaeology, the Central Institute for Art History, the administrations of the National Print Room, the National Antiquities Collections & Glyptothek Munich and the State Museum of Egyptian Art. Its furnishings and décor for the most part remain unchanged to this day.

Probably my favourite place to visit in Munich given the vast number of casts and classical replicas throughout, the collection had originally stored 379 casts at the Münzkabinett in the former Jesuitenkolleg near St. Michael before obtaining rooms in the northern court squares of the Residenz. By 1932 the collection became one of the three largest in Germany. In 1944, their 2398 casts fell victim to a bomb attack. It took over thirty years until the systematic reconstruction of the museum under Paul Zanker began. In 1976, the Haus der Kulturinstitute was established as a new location on the Meiserstraße. From 1981-1991 it was temporarily impossible to show the collection because of constant reconstruction during the renovation of the building. The museum has only been around for 10 years, and with its approximately 1780 casts is one of the four largest in Germany.
The library then, during a speech by Reichsschatzmeister Franz Xaver Schwarz on February 9, 1942 and today as the Bibliothekssaal des Zentralinstituts für Kunstgeschichte.  
The Karteisaal in 1935 with cabinets containing the Nazi member card index. The photo on the right shows Drake in the basement which has a tunnel linking the building to the Führerbau. According to Geoff Walden
there was a Verbindungsgang (service tunnel) running between the Führerbau and Verwaltungsbau, several metres beneath the ground surface. There was also a parallel tunnel for heating pipes running beneath both buildings and on to the main heating system beneath the building just to the south of the Verwaltungsbau.

The site today, with the square remains of the ehrentempels clearly remaining


In 1934 the Nazis bought this property on Meiserstraße 6-8 and erected new buildings which served as the „Zentraleinlaufamt und Zentralauslaufamt der Reichsleitung der NSDAP.“
Again according to Geoff Walden,
That building was a combination of new construction and remodelling done in 1934, and housed some of the main Nazi administration offices for the Party, that were not in either the Braunes Haus or the Verwaltungsbau. These offices included the Materialamt der Reichsleitung der NSDAP, Amtsartz der Reischsleitung der NSDAP, Hausinspektion der Reichsleitung der NSDAP, Postamt der NSDAP, and the Dienstwohngebäude der NSDAP - offices and living areas for the the sort of hands-on bureaucrats that actually got all the work done. The building also housed (and still does) the heating system for the surrounding complex, and associated things like tool rooms. There was a large air raid shelter beneath the front wing of the building.
It served as the eizkraftwerk, Pumpenhaus, Telefonzentrale, Kantine, Garage, Büroräume and Postamt. The bust above the vehicle entrance is very similar to those found in the rear of the Park Cafe, designed at the same time in 1934.
The Verwaltungsbau is located on what was until very recently Meiserstrasse (now renamed Katharina-von-Bora-Straße given Bishop Hans Meiser's alleged anti-Semitism). Directly across was the headquarters of the Bavarian Protestant Church; Meiser is shown saluting from the balcony October 1934. In the Protestant Church Hans Meiser, the Bishop of Bavaria, who came to office in May 1933, was initially close to the regime. Not only did the Protestant Church “bring itself into line” and agree to follow the Führer, Meiser also showed sympathy for the “German Christians” (Deutsche Christen), a group with ties to the regime. Although Meiser distanced himself from this position in 1933–34 and went over to supporting the “Confessing Church”, which was critical of the Nazis, he professed to Hitler that he belonged to his “most loyal opposition”. Moreover, there was no official protest by the Protestant Church against the injustices of the Nazi regime. he remained Bishop of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Bavaria up until May 1, 1955. After the war he had been one of the signatories of the Declaration of Guilt by Evangelical Christians in Germany and received numerous honours.
Beside it is the former Palais Moy on 11 Katharina-von-Bora-Straße, bought in 1936 to serve as the offices of Rudolf Hess (Kanzlei des Stellvertreters des Führers), in charge of security for the Braune Haus. The Führer’s deputy (from 1941 onwards the Party Chancellery) was in charge of control and leadership functions vis-à-vis the party and the state – for instance, in racial and personnel policy. The huge bureaucracy headed by the Reich Treasurer (which at times employed more than 3,200 people) was not only responsible for managing and increasing the Nazis’ enormous assets, but also supervised the party’s membership, which at the end of the war numbered around eight million. Today it's apparently owned by the evangelisch-lutherischen Landeskirche. Beside it in turn is the building which had served as the Reich Central Office for the Implementation of the Four Year Plan (Reichzentrale für die Durchführung des Vierjahresplanes bei der NSDAP).