Nazi Sites Around Munich's Marienplatz


When American soldiers from the 42nd Rainbow Division arrived here at the town hall on Marienplatz on the afternoon of April 30, 1945, it marked the end of the Nazi era in the ‘Capital of the Movement’ and the beginning of the confrontation with what Thomas Mann called the city’s “tattered past” which is still reflected in the way the city chooses to remember it. Here is the view immediately after the war and today taken from the top of the Neues Rathaus next to the Marienplatz showing the roofless Altes Rathaus looking up Tal road. It was at the old town hall where, on November 9, 1938 Joseph Goebbels gave his infamous speech initiating the infamous nationwide Kristallnacht pogroms. The roofless Heilig-Geist-Kirche is on the right of the photo and its spire, without the copper top, is behind the church. The Talbruck gate tower had been completely destroyed by 1945 at which time just under 3% of Munich’s buildings remained unscathed from Allied carpet bombing, which had targeted the city centre. Approximately 45% of the city's buildings had been destroyed, including more than 85,000 residential units which meant that 300,000 Munich residents were left homeless. 
Hitler's painting of MarienplatzHitler's painting of Marienplatz
Hitler's paintings of Marienplatz. The GIF on the right shows the square after the war and today with Drake Winston.
From the time of the so-called Beer Hall Putsch and whilst taking a school group from Naples, Florida on a tour. Julius Streicher, later publisher of the “Stürmer”, is shown speaking in support of the putsch. The bus in the foreground transporting armed Nazis to Munich reads Hofbrauhaus F[reising].
At the Marienplatz the Nazi column encountered a large crowd which was listening to an exhortation of Julius Streicher, the Jew-baiter from Nuremberg, who had rushed to Munich at the first news of the putsch. Not wishing to be left out of the revolution, he cut short his speech and joined the rebels, jumping into step immediately behind Hitler.
The neues rathaus with Nazi banner from 1933 and the altes rathaus on November 9, 1938 on the night of Kristallnacht.
Hitler being driven through MarienplatzHitler being driven through Marienplatz  whilst on his way to the state funeral of Dr. Gerhard Wagner, the Reich Medical Leader (Reichsärzteführer). Wagner was co-founder and later leader of the National Socialist German Physicians' Federation (NSDÄB), and from 1933 was a member of the Palatinate Landtag. He had also served as "The Führer's Commissioner for National Health." At the 1936 Nuremberg Rally, he discussed the racial laws.  In 1937 when he was promoted to SA Obergruppenführer before dying at only 50 for reasons unknown. Wagner had been jointly responsible for euthanasia and sterilisation carried out against Jews and the handicapped, and showed himself at the Nuremberg Party Congress in 1935 to be a staunch proponent of the Nuremberg Laws, and thereby also of Nazi Germany's race legislation and racial politics. Under Wagner's leadership, the Nazi killing institution at Hadamar was established. After the war at the Nuremberg doctors’ trial, Dr Karl Brandt, former Reichskommissar for Health, testified that “[i]n 1935 Hitler told the Reich Medical Leader, Dr Gerhard Wagner, that, if war came, he would take up and carry out this question of euthanasia because it was easier to do so in wartime when the church would not be able to put up the expected resistance” whilst also providing much-needed hospital space for the wounded.
The entrance when serving as the American occupation HQ and today. On the right is an example of Nazi propaganda on a street car August 19, 1932 whilst within is a recently added  inscription condemning National Socialism with this forced statement:
The National Socialist war of extermination and conquest led the world into disaster. Through the injustice of expulsion and by escape millions left their homelands. After 1945 Munich became for more than 143,000 refugees their new place of residence. They contributed considerably to the reconstruction and life of our city.
Only a few steps away from the inscription, next to the staircase leading to the first floor, there is another plaque commemorating the Munich Jews who were murdered in Kaunas, Lithuania, in 1941. Put up in November 2000, the plaque was intended to express the “sorrow and shame of Munich’ s population as well as their horror at the silence that prevailed at the time”. On November 20 1941 one thousand men, women and children were deported from Munich to Kaunas and five days later murdered by firing squad. The deportations to Kaunas marked the beginning of the systematic annihilation of Munich’s remaining Jews. Between then and February 1945 at least forty-three deportations of Jews were transported to Kaunas, Piaski, Theresienstadt and Auschwitz. Numerous people and institutions, including employees of the city , were involved in organising and carrying out the deportations. The memorial plaque, designed by Beate Passow, was put up on the initiative of the Munich City Archive. Parallel to this the City of Munich also donated a sign of remembrance to the memorial site in Kaunas, which Beate Passow used as a model for its Munich counterpart. The artist describes her work thus: “The pane of glass shows a photo of the memorial plaque in Kowno [Kaunas] together with portraits of Jewish citizens of Munich who were deported. The crime committed in Kowno is thus given an appropriate presence in Munich as well.”  The photographs were taken from the identity cards marked with a red “J” that Jewish citizens were obliged to carry with them from 1939. In many cases these photos were the last visible traces of their owners.
 
     On the first floor is this Memorial Room. In 1951 members of the Munich City Council belonging to the Christian Social Union, the Social Democrats and the Bavarian Party tabled a joint motion to have a plaque put up in the town hall to commemorate those members of the city administration who had fallen victim to the Third Reich or died in the two world wars. A hexagonal, chapel-like room on the first floor of the wing facing Marienplatz was proposed as a suitable location for the plaque. During the 1920s this room had already been turned into a memorial to the city officials, teachers and white and blue-collar workers killed in the First World War, but it was destroyed by bombing in 1944. The newly refurbished room was opened to the public again in 1958 when the city celebrated its 800th anniversary. In the centre of the room there is an altar-like stone table on which a leather-bound book lists the names of those who died in both world wars. Inscriptions on the walls commemorate both the war dead and those who suffered political persecution under the Nazi dictatorship. A stone slab in the floor is dedicated to the “employees who died in service,” arguably placing them on a par with the victims of the Nazi regime whilst questions about any political and moral responsibility have been ignored.

The Munich City Council (Münchner Stadtrat) has been, since 1919, the local government and is elected for six years and meets in New Hall. The photo on the left shows the first meeting of July 25, 1933 of the City Hall led by the Nazis as the sole power in the city council of 17 members with a ceremony in the Great decorated boardroom. Among the attendees were the representative of the State Government, the Police Headquarters, the Reichswehr, the Protestant church council and others.
Ballroom in the Old Town Hall, 1936 and the inscription commemorating the place where the go-ahead was given for the November pogrom. It was put up on the initiative of Munich’s former Mayor Hans-Jochen Vogel and unveiled in the foyer of the building in November 2000. Since this room is only open to the public on certain occasions, a replica of the plaque was mounted on the façade at the entrance to the building in May 2009.
 
Corner of the building at the entrance to Marienplatz during the Nazi-era and today showing a dragon- the Lindwurm- which was unveiled on June 21, 1907 and which represents  the local legend that in the time of the plague a huge dragon had flown through Munich and his poisonous breath brought death and destruction to its inhabitants. Instead of landing on the market square, it had been bested by a single well-timed cannon shot and thus spared the city the plague.
    
 The arch underneath the Old Town Hall then and now. Today it contains the Memorial to (German) Prisoners of War, dedicated in 1954 to those citizens of Munich who were still being held prisoner. It was unveiled at a time when 12,500 citizens of Munich were still registered as missing, many in the Soviet Union. The deliberately restrained stone relief by Franz Mikorey reflects the view of prisoners of war then prevailing in post-war Germany, showing three grieving women awaiting the return of prisoners of war (as the inscription tells us), whose sufferings should never be forgotten. The location was chosen given the central position of the Old Town Hall on Munich’s busy central square Marienplatz, which ensured that as many people would see it as possible.
After the war and with the altes rathaus behind me, and the Ludwig Beck shop being built amidst the ruins and as it appears today.
The Alte Rathaus as it appeared after the bombin and today. By December 17, 1944 bombs further destroyed the tower and the south wing, forcing the remains to be torn down. On the right looking behind from Tal is the former "Zum Meteck" guesthouse, now an hideous Sparkasse bank.
Inside is the following plaque:
This ballroom of the Old Town Hall was for centuries the scene of magnificent civic gatherings and parties. The National Socialist regime abused this place for the planning of anti-Semitic crimes. In the course of a party meeting on the evening of November 9, 1938, a Germany-wide pogrom was instigated here leading to anti-Jewish riots. As "Kristallnacht," this pogrom was the preliminary stage of the destruction of European Jewry.
Irving records in his book Goebbels: Mastermind of the Third Reich Goebbels inviting Hitler, the night before Reichskristallnacht,
 to his regular café, the Café Hoch on the Marienplatz, facing the city hall. Until three A.M. they talked about horses, the Romanian monarchy, punishments for reckless driving, and their future plans for Germany’s screen and stage. After that Goebbels carried on working back in his hotel, tired but unable to sleep.
Auferstanden aus ruinen: The Roman-Mayr-Haus on Marienplatz and its dreadful replacement- the Galeria Kaufhof. During the Second World War the historic buildings on the south side were lost, including the "Peterhof" with its fine baroque gable façade. The ruins on the south side of the square were demolished in the sequence and the building line partly offset by several meters back, especially in the east of the square to create more space. In place of Peterhof was later rebuilt several times House Hugendubel. For the construction of the execrable Kaufhof in the 1970s, the richly decorated Roman Mayr House of the previous turn of the century had to give way. It was here that Dr. Wilhelm Gutberlet had treated Hitler for a throat infection early in the latter's political career. Gutberlet was an astrologer, a shareholder in the Völkischer Beobachter who had been described as the “Master of the Sidereal Pendulum,” who could divine the exact degree of Jewish blood in any person; he and Hitler were close personal acquaintances. Walter Schellenberg described him in his postwar memoirs as "a Munich physician who belonged to the intimate circle around Hitler."

During the 1944 bombing of Munich, both the Alten Rathauses and the Kleine Rathaus were destroyed. The former was reconstructed by Munich architect Erwin Schleich from 1953 to 1977. On the left is Hitler's "Standesamt und Altes Rathaus Muenchen" (Civil Registry Office and Old Town Hall of Munich) painted in 1914 which recently sold for £103,000 (130,000 euros) at an auction in Nuremberg.  The painting is one of about 2,000 works that Hitler painted between about 1905 and 1920 as a struggling young artist. Asked before the auction whether it was tasteless to auction the Nazi dictator's works, generally considered to be of only limited artistic merit, the auctioneers  said complaints should be addressed to the sellers – two unidentified German sisters in their 70s.  Apparently the original handwritten bill of sale, dated September 25, 1916, had come with the painting and was a rarity for Hitler's art. That also explained the relatively high selling price, she said. But that has raised doubt among critics about the painting's provenance. They recall how hoaxer Konrad Kujau used supposed certifications of authenticity to trick some historians when he marketed what proved to be bogus "Hitler Diaries" in 1983.
The Viktualienmarkt during the Nazi-era, after the war and today

A bird's eye view of the site in 1858 and today showing the postwar development all around.
When Marienplatz became too small as a market for cereals and other agricultural products, the Viktualienmarkt was created by a decree issued by King Maximilian I on 2. May, 1807. In the course of time many additions were made to the market, as for example a butchers' hall, a tripe hall, pavilions for bakeries, fruit vendors and a fish hall. During World War II this square with its cosy atmosphere was severely damaged. There was even talk of closing down the market in order to erect multi-story buildings on this important site. Instead, the municipal authorities revitalised Viktualienmarkt with considerable financial support, and the citizens of Munich enriched it with memorial fountains for the folk singers and comedians Karl Valentin, Weiß Ferdl and Liesl Karlstadt. Later, memorial fountains for the folk singers and comedians Ida Schumacher, Elise Aulinger and Roider Jackl were added.
Hitler's painting of Peterskirche
Hitler's painting of the Peterskirche from the Viktualienmarkt in 1914 with it in 1945 and today

The ascent from the Viktualienmarkt to the Peterskirche in 1879 and today showing how, during the postwar reconstruction, the area was tidied up to provide more space. The right shows the church from the north of the Rindermarkt before the war and today.
 
Showing the area before and after the "New Town Hall" was built between 1867 and 1908 and in 1945 immediately after the war and today,  the Frauenkirche, or Church of Our Lady, is Munich's main cathedral and with its distinctive twin towers, serves as one of the main landmarks in the city. The cathedral suffered severe damage during the war - the roof collapsed and one of the towers suffered severe damage as shown on the right with my uncle demonstrating the building today after a major restoration effort which began after the war and which was carried out in several stages, the last of which coming to an end in 1994.
 
The interior then and now- after bombing in 1944, and a procession going past led by Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber 31.v.1945.


Hitler in triumph down Munich's Maxburgstrasse towards Marienplatz after the return of Memel, March 26, 1939 and with Drake Winston today. This achievement had 
restored the East Prussian frontier, in the Memel region, to the line confirmed by Napoleon and the Russians in their treaty at Tilsit-on-the-Niemen in 1807. This line in turn was recognised by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, and it was the identical boundary established at the Peace of Thorn in 1466 between Poland-Lithuania and the German Order of Knights. It was evident that the March 1939 Memel agreement was a conservative step rather than a radical innovation. The Allied victors at Paris in 1919 had detached Memel from East Prussia. They had seized a city which in the seven centuries of its history had never been separated from its East Prussian homeland.
Hoggan (219-220) Forced War
Drake Winston in front of St. Michael's church at the same location. Having suffered severe damage during the November 1944 bombing, the church was restored in 1946-48. It was not until the early 1980s that the stucco-work was restored. The spire which lost its steeple top during the wartime bombing is situated further north next to the former convent. Across the way is Altheimer Eck shown then and now. Just around the corner from Michael's church is the Polizeipräsidium (Hauptant - Oberstes ϟϟ und Polizeigericht):
The blood flag being triumphantly reclaimed on March 15, 1933 from the police headquarters on Ettstraße where it had been confiscated after the Beer Hall putsch attempt a decade earlier. Behind at the main entrance are still Bernhard Bleeker's Liegende Löwen (Lying Lions) dating from 1914/15. His works can be found throughout Munich and this site. This is where the Nazis' bureaucracy of oppression started, at Ettstraße 2. In July 1932, Heydrich's counterintelligence service grew into an effective machine of terror and intimidation. With Hitler agitating for absolute power in Germany, Himmler and Heydrich wished to control the political police forces of all 17 German states, and they began with the state of Bavaria. In 1933, Heydrich gathered some of his men from the SD and together they stormed this building and took over the police using intimidation tactics. Himmler became commander of the Bavarian political police with Heydrich as his deputy. The Bavarian officers knew that an ϟϟ take-over was inevitable and feared reprisals for all their past battles with the Nazis during demonstrations and street fights and expected, at the very least, to be fired. In a long series of closed-door sessions, Heydrich subjected each officer to a gruelling interrogation on his methods and policies before calling the officers back and telling them one at a time that they would retain their jobs — as members of the SD. The officers were vastly relieved, assuring Heydrich that they were ready to serve without reservation. In one move, he had converted them from enemies to allies.  One by one Himmler and Heydrich extended ϟϟ sway over 14 of the remaining 15 state political police forces. In his funeral eulogy for Heydrich in 1942, Himmler stated
After we came to power, I became Munich police chief on March 12, 1933. I immediately gave Heydrich the so-called political division of the presidium. In no time he re-organized the division, and in a few weeks transformed it into the Bavarian Political Police. Soon the division became a model for political police departments in non-Prussian German territory.
From there, the duo moved on to the police forces of the sixteen remaining German states. When this prison became overcrowded, the police established the first Nazi concentration camp at Dachau outside Munich on March 20, 1933.
This was also the location for the German TV series “Derrick”. In April 2013 it was revealed that the star, Horst Tappert, had joined the infamous 3.ϟϟ-Panzergrenadier-Division Totenkopf, then employed on the Eastern Front, in March 1943. Historian Jan Erik Schulte, an expert on the history of the ϟϟ, said that the circumstances of Tappert's membership in the ϟϟ and the question of whether he was pressured or coerced to join remain unclear. The "Liebstandarte" division was the premier fighting unit of the Waffen-ϟϟ, officered by committed Nazis and guilty of numerous war crimes and atrocities (especially on the Eastern Front).
Kershaw in The End - The Defiance and Destruction of Hitler’s Germany, 1944–1945 wrote how 
[o]fficials in the Munich police department spent time and energy (as well as using reams of precious paper) in December 1944 making sure that five cleaning‑buckets were ordered to replace those lost in the recent air raid, deciding how to obtain copies of official periodicals that regulations said had to come from post offices (even though these were now destroyed), or obtaining permission for a usable iron heater to be taken to police headquarters, left without heating after the last bombing.
On the corner of Ettstraße and Neuhauserstraße is an example of the 'aryanisation' of Jewish businesses: "Now Aryan"- newspaper advertisement for the Lindner photo shop. This process involved the transfer of Jewish property into "Aryan" hands in order to "de-Jew the economy".  The process started in 1933 in with so-called "voluntary" transfers of Jewish property and ended with the Holocaust. At first the destitution of Jewish victims was concealed under a veneer of legality before property was more openly confiscated. In both cases, aryanisation corresponded to Nazi policy and was defined, supported and enforced by Germany's legal and financial bureaucracy. Before Hitler came to power Jews owned 100,000 businesses in Germany. By 1938, boycotts, intimidation, forced sales and restrictions on professions had largely forced Jews out of economic life.  Of the 50,000 Jewish-owned stores that existed in 1933, only 9,000 remained in 1938.

Further along is a reminder of the boycott of Jewish businesses on 1 April 1933, that of Bamberger and Hertz on Kaufingerstraße 22.
The Nazi authorities were quite sensitive to public opinion, and responded to public disquiet over Nazi policy towards the Catholic Church, for instance, by moderating policy. Similarly, after the initial failure of the economic boycott in April 1933, Nazi policy on Jews was ratcheted up gradually with one eye to public reactions. The fact that the authorities nevertheless continued increasing the level of persecution of Jews indicates both the centrality of antisemitism to Nazi ideology, but also the relative apathy with which non-Jewish Germans regarded the fate of their Jewish fellow citizens. There was simply not the same degree of outrage and resistance that there was on other issues.
Beller (87) Antisemitism
 At Kaufingerstraße 15 the J. Speier shoe shop was attacked during Kristallnacht. Compared with how it appeared November 10, 1938 the building has completely changed due to the post-war reconstruction of central Munich but it still sells shoes.
The pogrom of November 1938, known as “Kristallnacht” (Night of Broken Glass), or “Reichspogromnacht”, marked the beginning of the final murderous phase of the persecution of the Jews. Following the terrible events of 9/10 November 1938, which are today recalled by a commemorative plaque in the Old Town Hall, the Jews finally lost all their remaining rights. They were forbidden to visit theatres, cinemas, restaurants, museums or parks. Their driving licences were withdrawn, their telephones were cut off and they were forbidden to keep pets or use public transport. This persecution redoubled Jewish efforts to emigrate, and by 1942 almost eight thousand of Munich’s Jews had fled. However, starting in November 1941, close to three thousand citizens of Munich were deported to Kaunas, Piaski, Auschwitz and Theresienstadt, where they were murdered.
The Bürgersaal Church towards Karlstor on Kaufingerstrase contains the tomb of Rupert Mayer, a Jesuit priest and noted Nazi opponent who, after several trials and detention in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp and held under arrest at the Ettal Monastery in Upper Bavaria until the end of the war. He returned to Munich after the war, where he died on All Saints’ Day 1945 after suffering a stroke whilst giving a sermon. The prayer and assembly hall of the Marian Men’s Congregation was one of the places where Mayer preached and is also where he is buried after initially being buried at the Jesuit Cemetery in Pullach until three years later his remains were transferred to the crypt of the Bürgersaal Church in a ceremony attended by 120,000 people. The museum at the back of the church documenting the life and work of the pastor was opened in 2008.
 
Karlstor, part of a large 14th century city wall that was removed in around 1800. Since then, the gate has served as the centrepiece of a new square, Karlsplatz (or Stachus), located between the central rail station and Marienplatz, representing the very centre of the city. Shown on the left in 1936 during a march by Germans and Italian fascists and in flames during the war from Albert Fessler's Das brennende München mit dem Blick auf das Karlstor, 1944.
 The now-gone Cafe Karlsthor which Hitler would once frequent. Hitler driven through Karlstor after return of Memel, March 26, 1939
The photo on the left shows it during the Tag der Deutschen Kunst of June 10, 1938 and the right showing Germans being marched into captivity after the war.
Hitler's painting of Karlstor
Hitler's supposed painting of the monument with what was left of it after the war.  
A brownshirt preventing anyone from entering the offices of Jewish lawyers Dr. Th. Erlanger, Ludwiger Erlanger, and Dr. Adolf Mayer with stickers reading "Jude!" over each man's sign at Karlsplatz 8 on April 1, 1933 and the site today during yet another terror attack on Friday July 22, 2016. According to Kershaw, 
Heinrich Rothschild Hat store; corner of Sendlingerstr./Färbergraben
 [t]he boycott itself was less than the success that Nazi propaganda claimed. Many Jewish shops had closed for the day anyway. In some places, the SA men posted outside ‘Jewish’ department stores holding placards warning against buying in Jewish shops were largely ignored by customers. People behaved in a variety of fashions. There was almost a holiday mood in some busy shopping streets, as crowds gathered to see what was happening. Groups of people discussed busy shopping streets, as crowds gathered to see what was happening. Groups of people discussed the pros and cons of the boycott. Not a few were opposed to it, saying they would again patronize their favourite stores. Others shrugged their shoulders. ‘I think the entire thing is mad, but I’m not bothering myself about it,’ was one, perhaps not untypical, view heard from a non-Jew on the day. Even the SA men seemed at times rather half-hearted about it in some places. In others, however, the boycott was simply a cover for plundering and violence. For the Jewish victims, the day was traumatic – the clearest indication that this was a Germany in which they could no longer feel ‘at home’, in which routine discrimination had been replaced by state-sponsored persecution.  
Panzerkampfwagen V Panther tank outside the Imperial Lichtspiele cinema across the street from Karlstor, now the Anna Hotel.
The same tank parked at the Stachus with the Karlstor in the background. Considered one of the best tanks of the Second World War for its excellent firepower and protection, the Panther was intended to counter the Soviet T-34 and to replace the Panzer III and Panzer IV although, it served alongside both the Panzer IV and the heavier Tiger I until the end of the war. Its reliability however was less impressive. According to Albert Speer (325) Inside the Third Reich,  "[s]ince the Tiger had originally been designed to weigh fifty tons but as a result of Hitler's demands had gone up to fifty seven tons, we decided to develop a new thirty ton tank whose very name, Panther, was to signify greater agility. Though light in weight, its motor was to be the same as the Tiger's, which meant it could develop superior speed. But in the course of a year Hitler once again insisted on clapping so much armour on it, as well as larger guns, that it ultimately reached forty eight tons, the original weight of the Tiger."
Hitler's painting of Senglingertor
Hitler's supposed watercolour from 1913 of the Sendlinger Tor and the view today. The original owner of the painting on the left was a teacher from Ingolstadt, Friedrich Echinger, 
who sold several paintings to the NSDAP archives for RM 5000. a piece, by far the best art investment Echinger ever made. 
Gaab (130) Munich: Hofbräuhaus & History : Beer, Culture, & Politics
Hitler's painting of Asamkirche
Hitler's drawing of the Asamkirche on Sendlinger Straße, built between 1733-1746. When painting such architecture in his paintings, rather than developing his technique Hitler copied 19th century artists and many of the masters preceding him. He claimed to be the synthesis of many artistic movements but it is clear that he drew primarily from Graeco-Roman classicism, the Italian Renaissance, and Neoclassicism. He liked the technical ability of these artists, as well as the understandable symbolism. He described Rudolf von Alt as his greatest influence although, whilst both are similar in their use of colour and subject matter, but Alt displayed fantastical landscapes giving as much attention to nature and the surrounding environment as to the architecture. In Mein Kampf Adolf Hitler described how, in his youth, he wanted to become a professional artist, but his aspirations were ruined because he failed the entrance exam of the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna. Hitler was rejected twice by the institute, once in 1907 and again in 1908. In his first examination, he had passed the preliminary portion which involved drawing two of the assigned iconic or Biblical scenes in two sessions of three hours each. The second portion was to provide a previously prepared portfolio for the examiners. It was noted that Hitler’s works contained “too few heads” and it was felt that he had more talent in architecture than in painting. One sympathetic instructor believing he had some talent suggested he apply to the academy's School of Architecture which would have required returning to secondary school from which he had dropped out and which he was unwilling to do. Hitler would eventually frequent the artists' cafés in Munich in the unfulfilled hope that established artists might help him with his ambition to paint professionally.  According to a conversation in August 1939 before the outbreak of the war, published in the British War Blue Book, Hitler told British ambassador Nevile Henderson, "I am an artist and not a politician. Once the Polish question is settled, I want to end my life as an artist."
Hitler's 1914 Alten Residenz painting, the Alter Hof
Hitler's 1914 Alten Residenz painting, the Alter Hof, which was home to Bavarian dukes, electors and kings. The painting shows its inner courtyard (bombed in 1944) and has been described as illustrating both Hitler's style and mastery of watercolour to create a strict delineation of the building whilst on the left presenting two soft standing trees to contrast the harsh lines of the house. In many of Hitler's watercolours, Charles Snyder notes the "detailed attention to humble structures surrounded by water and vegetation, [but] the architecture is of the prime importance... Note plant life, especially leaves on trees. Leaves are typically daubed and dappled in with little regard for accuracy or realism, often used to 'frame' the subject".  A small fountain between two trees is painted on the proper right. 
One of Hitler's own favourites was the courtyard of the Old Residenz. He must have done a good many of these as well, and presented one to Heinrich Hoffmann for his fiftieth birthday in 1935. To Hoffmann's daughter, Henriette von Schirach, he once commented that he had often washed out his paintbrushes in the courtyard fountain there.
Frederick Spotts (131) Hitler and the Power of Aesthetics
 The Courtyard of the Old Residency in Munich and a few other paintings by Hitler are archived in the basement of the Army Centre of Military History in Washington, D.C., never shown to the public eye because of their controversial nature.
Hitler's sketch of the Isartor and me in front.
After the war under American occupation -note the sign reading "Death is so Permanent- Drive Carefully". Through the gate one enters Tal road, shown during the annual commemoration of the attempted Beer Hall putsch:
  
Hitler's painting of Tal Road looking towards Marienplatz with Heilig-Geist-Kirche on the left and the alte rathaus straight ahead.
As he had done in Vienna, he developed a routine where he could complete a picture every two or three days, usually copied from postcards of well-known tourist scenes in Munich – including the Theatinerkirche, the Asamkirche, the Hofbräuhaus, the Alter Hof, the Münzhof, the Altes Rathaus, the Sendlinger Tor, the Residenz, the Propyläen – then set out to find customers in bars, cafés, and beerhalls. His accurate but uninspired, rather soulless watercolours were, as Hitler himself later admitted when he was German Chancellor and they were selling for massively inflated prices, of very ordinary quality. But they were certainly no worse than similar products touted about the beerhalls, often the work of genuine art students seeking to pay their way. Once he had found his feet, Hitler had no difficulty finding buyers. He was able to make a modest living from his painting and exist about as comfortably as he had done in his last years in Vienna. When the Linz authorities caught up with him in 1914, he acknowledged that his income – though irregular and fluctuating – could be put at around 1,200 Marks a year, and told his court photographer Heinrich Hoffmann at a much later date that he could get by on around 80 Marks a month for living costs at that time.
Kershaw Hitler
Supposedly the oldest hotel in the centre of Munich when it was founded in 1470 as the Hotel Thaltor, the Hotel Torbräu was where the SA and ϟϟ recruited and drank throughout the 1920s. The SA swore allegiance to Hitler in May 1923 and the precursor to the ϟϟ, the Stosstrupp Hitler, was established in the basement here in 1925. The Isartor is seen directly behind me.
Hitler’s first bodyguard was replaced with a new one in May of 1923, the Stosstrupp Adolf Hitler. Its members by and large came from a differing social and age group (older) than the quite young SA. The initial leader of this group was Julius Schreck, a man who superficially resembled Hitler and later served as his double from time to time. These recruits were later described by one of their own: “Hard and rough and sometimes quite uncouth were the customs, habits, and looks of the Stosstrup. They did not know ... grovelling. They clung to the right of the stronger, the old right of the fist. In an emergency they knew no command.... When ... called to action— to attack right and left—march! march!—then things were torn to bits and in minutes streets and squares were swept of enemies.... Soon we were known in village and town.”
Joseph Berchtold, the first Reichsführer-ϟϟ, spoke of this and the next site across the street when recalling the events of the so-called Beer Hall Putsch:
Adolf Hitler chose the day of von Kahr's great meeting for his attempt. About eleven o'clock on the morning of the 8th of November I got the order to stand ready for the National Revolution. " My men took a last oath, to serve true to death if needs be, and we got our final instructions from Captain Goering. I busied myself all day with preparations, and then at six in the evening assembled the troops, in instant readiness for action in the Torbrau, opposite the Sterneckerbrau. I harangued my fellows, `Any one of you,' I said, `who isn't going into this thing heart and soul had better get out right now.' As no one budged by so much as an inch, I pursued, `It's our job, as Shock Troops, to bear the brunt of what's coming. We're going to run the Government out. Hitler and Kahr are united over this, they are going to set up another one .' Everyone of us gripped hands, and we were ready.
Heinz (154) Germany's Hitler

The Sterneckerbräu, so-called 'cradle of the Movement' was located in Munich's old town in the Tal 38 (originally 54) on the corner of Sterneckerstraße, very close to the Isartor. This is where Hitler first came across the German Workers' Party (DAP) on September 12, 1919 whilst serving in the intelligence section of the German army. When the DAP chief, Anton Drexler, signed the Party membership form he wrote "Hittler" with two ts. This is also significant as being the site where the Nazi Party was originally organised on February 24, 1920.
It can scarcely have been a very impressive scene when, on the evening of 12 September 1919, Hitler attended his first meeting in a room at the Sterneckerbrau, a Munich beer-cellar in which a handful of twenty or twenty-five people had gathered. One of the speakers was Gottfried Feder, an economic crank well known in Munich, who had already impressed Hitler at one of the political courses arranged for the Army. The other was a Bavarian separatist, whose proposals for the secession of Bavaria from the German Reich and a union with Austria brought Hitler to his feet in a fury. He spoke with such vehemence that when the meeting was over Drexler went up to him and gave him a copy of his autobiographical pamphlet, Mein politisches Erwachen. A few days later Hitler received a postcard inviting him to attend a committee meeting of the German Workers' Party.
Alan Bullock (58) Hitler: A Study in Tyranny
 The Sterneckerbräu was the lowest category of beer house and gained fame and historical significance only because Anton Drexler founded the German Workers' Party (DAP) on January 5, 1919, together with Karl Harrer. It met once a week in the restaurant on the first floor of the new building. On 12 September 1919, Adolf Hitler attended a meeting of the DAP on behalf of the intelligence command of the army. The meeting took place in a meeting room of the Sterneckerbräu. Drexler invited him to join the DAP. Hitler accepted on that date, becoming the party's 555th member (Wikipedia says he was member 55, but membership began at number 500 to make it appear that the party had more members). In October 1919, the first branch of the DAP, which in February 1920 changed its name to the Nazi Party (NSDAP), was set up in a side room of the Sterneckerbräu.  In 1921, the Bavarian nationalist and royalist league In Treue fest was founded at the Sterneckerbräu. It was banned by the Nazis on February 2, 1933, and later re-established in 1952.  On November 8 1933, Hitler opened the Museum of the Nazi Party at the Sterneckerbräu, which was also mentioned in Baedeker. The first inventory and office furniture, as well as the members' rooms, can still be viewed there.  Every year on November 8, 1933 the solemn procession dedicated to the anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch passed the Sterneckerbräu at which point marchers stopped for one minute. The building survived the war. In 1957 the restaurant was closed and the first floor was converted into a store whilst currently preserved rooms are now used as office space.
Of this first visit, Hitler wrote the following in Chapter IX: The 'German Workers' Party' in Mein Kampf:
In the evening when I entered the 'Leiber Room' of the former Sterneckerbrau in Munich, I found some twenty to twenty-five people present, chiefly from the lower classes of the population.
Feder's lecture was known to me from the courses, so I was able to devote myself to an inspection of the organisation itself.
My impression was neither good nor bad; a new organisation like so many others. This was a time in which anyone who was not satisfied with developments and no longer had any confidence in the existing parties felt called upon to found a new party. Everywhere these organisations sprang out of the ground, only to vanish silently after a time. The founders for the most part had no idea what it means to make a party-let alone a movement out of a club. And so these organisations nearly always stifle automatically in their absurd philistinism.
The meeting didn’t impress Hitler, but he was given a brochure titled “My Political Awakening” by founder Anton Drexler, and he read it nonetheless. Hitler was invited to the next meeting of the DAP at the Altes Rosenbad Inn and he was again ordered to attend and even join the tiny party by his Intelligence superior, Capt. Karl Mayr.
Standing in front with the Isartor and Hotel Torbrau behind. After joining, Hitler was said to have established an office there in a former barroom with a light, telephone, table, a few chairs on loan, a bookcase and borrowed cup- boards. Thus, what would become the first HQ of the future Nazi Party was born, after Hitler changed its name, direction and leadership. Hitler would also write in Mein Kampf when he rented the site to serve as the party offices that:
In the old Sterneckerbräu im Tal, there was a small room with arched roof, which in earlier times was used as a sort of festive tavern where the Bavarian Counsellors of the Holy Roman Empire foregathered. It was dark and dismal and accordingly well suited to its ancient uses, though less suited to the new purpose it was now destined to serve. The little street on which its one window looked out was so narrow that even on the brightest summer day the room remained dim and sombre. Here we took up our first fixed abode. The rent came to fifty marks per month, which was then an enormous sum for us. But our exigencies had to be very modest. We dared not complain even when they removed the wooden wainscoting a few days after we had taken possession. This panelling had been specially put up for the Imperial Counsellors. The place began to look more like a grotto than an office.


Standing at the entrance on the side street off Tal which Hitler entered when first encountering the DAP.

From 1933 the Sternecker housed a NSDAP museum, opened November 8 that year by Hitler himself. Today it serves Apple which may be appropriate, given that in Latin the words for 'apple' ("mālum") and for 'evil' ("malum") are nearly identical. One particularly incisive piece from the New York Times revealed the way the company exploits its own foreign workforce in Chinese concentration camps.
Hermann Otto Hoyer's 1937 representation of Hitler's political beginnings set in the Leiber Room of the Sterneckerbräu, Am Anfang war das Wort (In the Beginning Was the Word) for the Great German Art Exhibition at the Haus der Deutschen Kunst. Note how Hitler’s arms are bent in the form of the swastika, matching that on the flag which hanging directly behind him. The lighting over Hitler seems to fall directly onto the audience, having him represent the bringer of light and further hint at the audience's 'enlightenment,' evoking the Pentecost. In the summer of 1920 alone Hitler had given the following speeches here: 'Nationalism' (June 9), "About the Political Situation" (June 16), "Spa and Moscow" (July 28) and "Financial Questions" (August 6).
Its small group of faithful followers— workmen, craftsmen, members of the lower-middle-class—assembled each week in the Leiber Room of the Sternecker-Bräu ‘for the discussion and study of political matters’. The trauma of the lost war, anti-Semitic feelings, and complaints about the snapping of all the ‘bonds of order, law and morality’ set the tone of its meetings. It stood for the widespread idea of a national socialism ‘led only by German leaders’ and aiming at the ‘ennoblement of the German worker’; instead of socialization it called for profit-sharing, demanded the formation of an association for national unity, and proclaimed that its ‘duty and task’ was ‘to educate its members in an ideal sense and raise them up to a higher conception of the world’. It was not so much a party in the usual sense, as a mixture of secret society and drinking club typical of the Munich of those years; it did not address itself to the public. Obscure visionaries would hold forth to the thirty or forty who had gathered together, discuss Germany’s disgrace and rebirth, or write postcards to like-minded societies in North Germany.
Fest The Face of the Third Reich
Hitler's painting of the Hofbräuhaus Hitler's painting of the Hofbräuhaus and standing in front today. It was here on April 13, 1919 (Palm Sunday) that the soldiers' councils proclaimed the Bavarian Soviet Republic in the festsaal. The Hofbräuhaus was one of the beer halls used by the Nazi Party for functions and holds a particular significance in its mythology. The DAP—the future Nazi Party—held its first mass meeting there on October 16, 1919—less than a year after the war’s end—with an audience of seventy people. On February 24, 1920, in its Festival Hall, Hitler presented the Twenty-five Points that formed the political base of the Nazis—this time with two thousand in attendance.
 On Friday, August 13 1920, Hitler publicly denounced the Jews for the first time in his Why We Are Antisemites speech, demanding their removal from Germany altogether. On November 4, 1921, there was a massive fight between the Nazis and their opponents in the Hofbrauhaus, the so-called "Feuertaufe der SA," but Hitler managed to complete his address, despite the chaos of smashed tables and chairs and hurled beer mugs all about him. On February 25, 1939, Martin Bormann wrote to the Bavarian Prime Minister, Ludwig Siebert, that Hitler ordered that the Hofbräuhaus should no longer bear the addition "royal". The official name should in the future be "Das Hofbräuhaus zu München". The Hofbräuhaus was actually renamed, but instead "Staatliches Hofbräuhaus".

Hitler referred in his address the first assembly that was held at the Hofbräuhaus:
It was the first major rally our Movement had ever held in which we can say that the Volk participated. For the first time the internal organisation was tested in a large hall, and it worked. For the first time people came to us who wanted to listen. We certainly had not lacked the courage to summon the masses, but for a long time the masses lacked the courage to hear our call.
At that first rally we announced our twenty-five points—which our opponents ridiculed—for the first time, to implement them item for item in the years thereafter. And finally, I myself spoke to a large crowd of people for the first time in this hall, although someone had told me I had any number of talents, but speaking was not one of them. I had to assert myself at that large rally, which was not as well-mannered as it is today.
Later my opponents conceived of the idea of calling me “the drummer” for years afterwards. In any case, that first rally was significant in that it was the first mass rally of our Party, it announced our programme and produced a new speaker.

During the February 24 1929 Versammlung. The last photo shows Hermann Esser, Max Amann, Hitler, General Franz von Epp, Julius Schaub, Heinrich Himmler, and Gregor Strasser.
The plaque above (shown during and after the war) commemorated Hitler's speech of February 24, 1920 in which he laid out the goals of the new Nazi Party in his 25 point programme, an event later declared to have been the founding session of the NSDAP.
The principles were incorporated in the party program that Hitler together with Anton Drexler and Gottfried Feder wrote out in twenty-five points and that Hitler presented to a meeting of February 24, 1920, in the Hofbräuhaus. They had appealed greatly to the party constituency even though they had no prospect whatever of being realized in any foreseeable future. The party's program enunciated among other things the right to self-determination for Germany, with equal treatment and land and colonies to feed the German people. The Treaties of Versailles and St. Germain were to be abrogated. Only racial Germans could be citizens, and racial Germans were men and women of German blood regardless of religion, so no Jew could be a Volks comrade. Battle would be waged against the corruption of the parliamentary system based on party considerations, which took no account of character and ability. Every citizen had the same rights and duties; the general need came before the individual need; only a man who worked was entitled to an income; war profits were to be confiscated, the serfdom of interest broken. Profiteers, common criminals, and black marketers were to be executed. Trusts already nationalized were to remain so. In the interest of a healthy middle class, the party platform declared that big department stores would be communalised. It demanded land reform and the abolition of speculation in land. Poor children were to be educated by the state, child labour was to be prohibited, and health services were to be provided for mothers and children and young people. A people's army was to replace mercenary troops, and a strong central authority was to be established with complete authority over the Reich and its organisations.
The plaque can be seen behind the 'blood flag' behind Hitler on left, speaking in the Hofbrauhaus on February 24, 1940, the twentieth anniversary of the formation of the NSDAP and Adolph Wagner on the right. Hitler's speech can be read here. I'm standing at the location today with the plaque being replaced with a fire escape sign.
A fight that broke out on November 4 1921 made the site a Nazi shrine as it was claimed that the SA had met its baptism of fire. As Hitler wrote at the beginning of Chapter VI, The First Period of our Struggle in Mein Kampf,

During that period the hall of the Hofbrau Haus in Munich acquired for us, National Socialists, a sort of mystic significance. Every week there was a meeting, almost always in that hall, and each time the hall was better filled than on the former occasion, and our public more attentive.

The Festsaal on the third floor where, in 1920, the NSDAP held its first meeting. From Chapter VII: The Struggle with the Red Front in the Second Volume of Mein Kampf:
In the Festsaal of the Hofbräuhaus I always stood on one of the long sides of the hall and my platform was a beer table. And so I was actually in the midst of the people. Perhaps this circumstance contributed to creating in this hall a mood such as I have never found anywhere else. In front of me, especially to the left of me, only enemies were sitting and standing. They were all robust men and young fellows in large part from the Maffei factory, from Kustermann's, from the Isaria Meter Works, etc. Along the left wall they had pushed ahead close to my table and were beginning to collect beer mugs; that is, they kept ordering beer and putting the empty mugs under the table. In this way, whole batteries grew up and it would have surprised me if all had ended well this time...
Until a few years ago, above each lamp the Bavarian flag was seen in the form of a swastika, painted by Hitler's supporters after he took power. After the war the owners found they couldn't paint over them as the swastikas were still visible after several coats of paint, and so decided to 'decorate' them as oddly shaped Bavarian flags. Recently the shape itself was altered as seen in the before-and-after photos above. According to Wikipedia, the Hofbrauhaus "also held a 1889 baby photo of Hitler as recent [sic] as 2006" and furthermore, according to a post at http://worldwartwozone.com:
"On the left hand side of the main hall is small room with sort of a racks where locals can keep their beer steins. They wash them in a copper sink, then put into mailbox size padlocked lockers. When I visited Hofbrauhaus one of the locals told us that Hitler's stein is still there. No one knows which one it is, but is worshipped. Indeed one of the racks was decorated with green applications. Apparently faithful locals decorate it every year before Adi's birthday - 20th April." Given that Hitler was supposedly a teetotaller, it's hard to credit that... 
Although Hitler indeed consumed little alcohol and did not smoke, his image as a vegetarian teetotaler was carefully crafted propaganda used, in the words of Ian Kershaw, to evoke the image of of a “Führer without sin.” Such a cultivated reputation was one element in an effort to portray Hitler as the sober, well-intentioned, moderate leader of a Nazi state that took extreme actions. it helps to explain why Hitler's personal popularity remained elevated when Germans' opinion of the Nazi Party began to decline. although Hitler did not allow himself to be seen drinking, he never avoided association with the trappings of alcohol that make up everyday German life, and which devout Mormons avoided by the early twentieth century. Faithful Latterday Saints would not be seen in a tavern, but Hitler gave one of his most famous speeches at the Bürgerbräukeller beer hall in Munich in 1923.
Nelson (139) Moroni and the Swastika: Mormons in Nazi Germany
    
The day Hitler committed suicide and now showing the entrance when the site served as the Command Post for the American 45th Division. During the Second World War from 1939 to 1945 the Hofbräuhaus was almost completely destroyed by air raids starting on the night of April 25, 1944 followed by three more air raids.
Nearby is the Pfeffermühle, founded by Erika and Klaus Mann in January 1933 which satirised the Nazis before the two emigrated to New York after Hitler's seizure of power. Erika Mann defined clearly the aims of his political-satirical cabaret: “Wir wollten die Nazis bekämpfen."  Only a few weeks after its highly successful premiere, the troupe had to flee from the Nazis to resume as an exile cabaret on September 30, 1933 in Zurich at the Hotel Hirschen. The second exile programme was launched on January 1, 1934, with clearer references to the Nazis followed by the third and even sharper exile programme on October 3, 1934 in Basel. One performance ended up triggering riots by Swiss Nazis, so that the performances could only be continued under police protection. The performances had attracted criticism from the Neue Zürcher Zeitung in 1934, and various cantons even issued prohibitions on its performances. The Pfeffermühle turned its back on Switzerland and from 1935 onwards went on a tour through Czechoslovakia and the Benelux countries. Up until the last performance in Europe on August 14, 1936, the group gave 1034 performances. When Nazi pressure became too strong, Erika Mann tried to reëstablish The Peppermill in New York at the start of 1937 without much success.
A few streets away from Max‑Joseph‑Platz, 27 year old Erika Mann was celebrating the première of her politico‑literary cabaret, “The Peppermill,” in the Bonbonnière, a small, somewhat dilapidated stage near the Hofbräuhaus. Mann, lashing out in supremely entertaining and successful fashion at the main players in the dawning “new age,” was as hated in Munich’s nationalist circles as her father, Thomas Mann.    
Heike B. Görtemaker  Eva Braun
Hitler paintings of the Munich Opera House at Max-Joseph Platz.
Two supposed Hitler paintings of the Munich Opera House at Max-Joseph Platz. That on the right is a 25" by 19-3/4" painting of the same building by Hitler just after a rainstorm. It was painted in München in the first half of 1914, when Hitler lived the Josef Popp residence at 34/III Schleissheimerstrasse. Popp in an interview several years later recalled:
He began his painting straight away and stuck to his work for hours. In a couple of days I saw two lovely pictures finished and lying on the table, one of the cathedral and the other of the Theatinerkirche. After that my lodger [Hitler] used to go out early of a morning with his portfolio under his arm in search of customers.

Hitler's plan for the new opera house in Munich, part of its redevelopment under the Third Reich
The opera house during the Day of German Art of July 18, 1937.  Numerous activities were scheduled for that day, such as a procession through town depicting “2,000 years of German culture” beginning with a performance of Tristan und Isolde in the Munich National Theatre to open the festivities.
After the bombing of the night of October 3, 1943 and standing in front today. 
Looking at what's left of Palais Toerring from Max-Joseph Platz and the Residenz Königsbau looking the opposite way in 1946 and with my students today