Showing posts with label Nordfriedhof. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Nordfriedhof. Show all posts

Nazi Graves in Munich

Nordfriedhof
 Nordfriedhof - where many from Hitler's inner circle are buried.
 
After being bombed in 1944 and today

The grave of Hitler's favourite architect, shown on the left with Hitler paying his respects during the ceremonies "marking the opening of the Haus der Deutschen Kunst in July 1937" again from Third Reich Ruins. "In Munich Hitler spent many hours in the studio of Professor Troost, his favourite architect" (Bullock, 387) who had designed the Haus Deutschen Kunst. According to Albert Speer,
The Führer found in the irreplaceable artist Paul Ludwig Troost, his architect. Troost understood how to utilise Hitler's intentions and how to provide the correct architectural form. The Führer during his great speech at the cultural meeting of the Reich Party in 1935, delivered a memorial to Professor Troost which could not have been a more beautiful tribute to an architect of our times, Hitler said: We should be filled with happy pride that through a strange fate Germany possessed the greatest architect since Schinkel, in the new Reich and for the movement. He erected his first and unfortunately his only tremendous works in stone as monuments of true Germanic and Teutonic purity.
Hitler attended Troost’s burial on January 24 at the Munich Nordfriedhof. Contrary to his customary habit, he not only appeared at the funeral ceremony itself, but accompanied the casket to the grave. Every January 21 Hitler had a wreath placed at the grave.

Andreas Bauriedl was an early member of the Nazi Party who participated in the Beer Hall Putsch on 9 November 1923. When the Munich Police opened fire on the on the marchers, Bauriedl was hit in the abdomen, killing him and causing him to fall on the Nazi flag, which had fallen to the ground when its flagbearer, Heinrich Trambauer, was severely wounded. Bauriedl's blood soaked the flag. The flag later became known as the Blutfahne, a sacred relic to the Nazis, and Andreas Bauriedl and the other killed participants of the putsch were regarded as the first martyrs to the Nazi Party. His body was interred in a crypt in the an Ehrentempel as part of a memorial to the putsch. The memorial was demolished by the Allied occupation forces at the end of the Second World War.

Andreas Bauriedl, relocated after the war from his sarcophagus in an ehrentempel on Königsplatz. Note the date of death- apparently it was his blood that had 'consecrated' the blutfahne.
The Nazis invested the concept of the "blood flag" with a decidedly emotional colouration. "Blood flag" was their name for the swastika flag that had allegedly been drenched with the blood of Andreas Bauriedl who had carried it on 9 November 1923 dur­ing the legendary march to the Feldherrnhalle, at the time of the Hitler Putsch. At the second Nazi Party congress in Weimar on 4 July 1926, Hitler "bestowed" the flag of this "blood witness" on the then Reichsführer of the ϟϟ, Berchtold.

The grave of Hitler's official photographer. The stone refers to him as "Professor", a title given him by Hitler in 1938. It was Hoffmann and his second wife Erna who introduced Hitler to Eva Braun, his studio assistant at the time.
Also buried here is his daughter Henriette who had married Reichsjugendführer Baldur von Schirach. Irving in Hitler's War records the following exchange between her and Hitler at the Berghof:
A few days after Himmler’s visit, Baldur von Schirach and his pretty wife Henriette were in Hitler’s house party. They joined the fireside circle, slumped in the deep armchairs in the semi-darkness. While Hitler sipped his special tea and the others their wine or cognac, Henriette exclaimed that she had just witnessed at Amsterdam the loading of Jews into open trucks for deportation.
‘Do you know about it?’ she asked. ‘Do you permit it?’
Hitler retorted, ‘They are being driven off to work, so you needn’t pity them. Meantime our soldiers are fighting and dying on the battlefields!’ Later he added, ‘Let me tell you something. This is a set of scales’ – and he put up a hand on each side like the pans. – ‘Germany has lost half a million of her finest manhood on the battlefield. Am I to preserve and minister to these others? I want something of our race to survive a thousand years from now.’ He reproached her: ‘You must learn how to hate!’
The Schirachs were still there the next evening, June 24, when Goebbels wickedly brought the fireside conversation around to Vienna. Until after four a.m. Hitler drew savage comparisons between Schirach’s Viennese and Goebbels’s Berliners until tears welled up in Henriette’s eyes: the Berliners, he said, were hard-working, intelligent, and politically shrewd. Goebbels wrote, ‘Frau von Schirach in particular acted like a silly cow . . . and later summed up her unhappiness by saying that she wanted to go back to Munich with her husband and would the Führer send [Gauleiter] Giesler to Vienna instead.’‘Tell me,’ Hitler challenged her,‘is your husband our Reich representative in Vienna – or is he Vienna’s man in the Reich?’ The Schirachs departed in a huff the same night, and never saw Hitler again.
Fest in The Face Of The Third Reich writes that it was
[f]rom this point on he found himself isolated, and if his subsequent statement that he had expected to be arrested and charged before the People’s Court was probably simply self-dramatization, it is nevertheless true, as he claimed, that after the controversy at the Berghof he was ‘politically a dead man’. He retired into the background, partly out of personal fear and also no doubt out of the embarrassment of a man who saw his romantic ideals and fantasies of self-sacrifice, heroism and marble monuments contradicted by the reality of the war, even if he refrained from putting it into words, ‘in order to maintain a foolish dream a little while longer’
The grave of ϟϟ-Obersturmbannführer Max Wünsche, the legendary German Waffen-ϟϟ Obersturmbannführer who was awarded the Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves. He held the position of ϟϟ Standartenführer and served as Hitler’s adjutant. Irving acknowledged the importance of his diary entries to his research from June 16 to Nov 20, 1938 listing the Hitler’s appointments and decisions.
Wünsche joined the Hitler Youth Movement in November 1932 and in July 1933 joined the SS. He was deemed to have officer qualities and Wünsche graduated from officer training in 1936. He took part in the attack on the Netherlands and France in 1940. In December 1940, Wünsche was made adjutant to Sepp Dietrich and took part in ‘Operation Barbarossa’ – the attack on the Soviet Union in 1941. In June 1942, Wünsche returned to Germany to study at the Staff College. He successfully completed this course and was promoted to Sturmbannführer. In February 1943 Wünsche was awarded the German Cross in Gold and the Knight’s Cross, for bravery shown during the Russian campaign. In June 1943, Wünsche transferred to France to take command of the 12th ϟϟ Panzer Regiment. This regiment played an active part in trying to repel the Allied landings in Normandy on D-Day and in the weeks after June 6th 1944. For his work Wünsche was awarded oak leaves to his Knight’s Cross. The 12th ϟϟ Panzer Regiment was trapped in the Falaise Pocket in August 1944. Wünsche tried to escape on foot but was wounded in the calf and captured. Wünsche was held as a POW at Camp 165 in Caithness, the most northerly POW camp on mainland Britain. Compound O within Camp 165 was where hard line Nazis were kept – away from other POW’s – and Wünsche was considered to be a hard line Nazi. He was released in 1948 and returned to Germany. He worked at an industrial plant until his retirement in 1980. 
Wünsche is the subject of a figure produced in China.

After the Serbian uprising of July 1941, Gen. Hermann Bohme was given emergency powers to govern the country. He commanded 370th Infantry Division when he was captured by the Soviets in 1944 near Sevastopol.
 
He has given his name to the Hermann-Boehme-Schule in Altenburg, Thuringia

After the bloody end of the Räterepublik Munich became a centre of opposition to the young democratic state. An important figure for the extreme Right was Gustav von Kahr, who was elected Bavarian prime minister as the candidate of the Bavarian People’s Party in 1920. His aim was to make Bavaria an authoritarian “cell of order” and an antithesis to Berlin. This provided an ideal operating environment for a broad spectrum of nationalist, anti-democratic and reactionary forces.

Kahr met Hitler just before relinquishing office. With like-minded contemporaries, he deemed Hitler the drummer for Germany’s national revival and hoped that Bavaria’s many Wehrverbaende might unite behind the Nazi leader. On 26 September 1923, with Berlin enmeshed in crisis, Bavarian Prime Minister Eugen von Knilling appointed Kahr to the semi-dictatorial post of General State Commissioner. In succeeding weeks Kahr, who desired an authoritarian state, toyed with the idea of a march on Berlin. But by the evening of 8 November, the occasion of Hitler’s putsch, he had abandoned his plan as unworkable (he may have intended proposing a Wittelsbach restoration). Hitler’s unexpected action split Bavaria’s nationalists and doomed Kahr’s political future. His ambivalence to the putsch led friend and foe alike to use him as a scapegoat.
Gustav von Kahr, long in retirement, had moved far from the political arena in his native state. He lived in Munich, maintaining a low political profile, and was no longer in any position to do any damage to Hitler or his movement. But over a decade earlier he had caused, with help, the failure of the Hitler putsch. Although the Hitlerian coup of 1923 might well have fallen short without Kahr’s intervention, he was dragged from his home under arrest by the ϟϟ. His body was found later, hacked to pieces, in the hills near Dachau.

The grave of Emil Maurice, Hitler's chauffeur and first Supreme SA Leader before becoming ϟϟ Oberführer.
Maurice with Hitler in Landsberg in 1924. Bullock (121) describes Emil Maurice "partly as Hitler's batman, partly as his secretary, a job which he later relinquished to Rudolf Hess, who had voluntarily returned from Austria to share his leader's imprisonment." According to Shirer in, "[b]efore the arrival of Hess, Emil Maurice, an ex-convict, a watchmaker and the first commander of the Nazi ”strong-arm” squads, took some preliminary dictation."
According to Bullock (393) Hitler "was beside himself with fury when he discovered that she had allowed Emil Maurice, his chauffeur, to make love to her, and forbade her to have anything to do with any" other man." Goebbels’s diary for Oct 19, 1928 records: ‘Kaufmann . . . tells me crazy things about the Chief, his niece Geli, and Maurice . . . I understand everything, true and untrue.’ Heiden claims that the murder gang that killed Father Bernhard Stempfle of the Hieronymite Order who, "helped edit Mein Kampf and later talked too much, perhaps, about his knowledge of why Hitler’s love, Geli Raubal, committed suicide" and was found in the forest of Harlaching near Munich with his neck broken and three shots to the hear was led by Maurice during the Night of the Long Knives.
Incredibly given his supposed affair with Hitler's niece Hitler stood by and protected him even after his Jewish ancestry had been discovered by Himmler. All ϟϟ officers had to prove racial purity back to 1750, and it turned out that Maurice had Jewish ancestory. Himmler, who had always been jealous of Hitler's close friends from the early days of the Party, and especially of the lack of control he had over Hitler's inner bodyguards, was delighted and recommended that Maurice be expelled from the ϟϟ, along with other members of his family. To Himmler's annoyance however, the Führer stood by his old friend. In a secret letter written on the August 31, 1935, Hitler compelled Himmler to make an exception for Maurice and his brothers, who were allowed to stay in the ϟϟ.

Hitler's youngest personal private secretary (December 1942 to April 1945) and subject of the film Der Untergang, Traudl Junge. It was she who had typed Hitler's last private and political will and testament in the Führerbunker a day and a half before his suicide and was one of the last to have seen him alive. 
With the concrete membranes reverberating under the blast of Russian shells, he sent for his youngest secretary – the widowed Traudl Junge. For a while he stood at his usual mid-table place, leaning on the now bare map-room table with both hands and staring at her shorthand pad. Suddenly he barked out: ‘My Political Testament’ and began dictating it, without notes – part pièce justificative, part pæan of praise for his brave troops’ accomplishments. ‘From the sacrifice of our soldiers and my own comradeship with them unto death, we have sown a seed which one day in Germany’s history will blossom forth into a glorious rebirth of the National Socialist movement and thus bring about a truly united nation.’
Irving (834) Hitler's War
Junge later wrote that while she was playing with the Goebbels children on 30 April that
Suddenly... there is the sound of a shot, so loud, so close, that we all fall silent. It echoes on through all the rooms. 'That was a direct hit,' cried Helmut [Goebbels] with no idea how right he is. The Führer is dead now.
video
Her interview (with English subtitles) for the 2002 documentary film Blind Spot: Hitler's Secretary which drew much attention and how she appeared in Der Untergang as portrayed by Alexandra Maria Lara.
According to Antony Beevor,
Traudl Junge and Gerda Christian disguised themselves as men. But the striking Tyrolean Constanze Manzialy became separated from them almost immediately. One account claims that she was seized by a huge Russian infantryman and assaulted by him and his comrades. Nobody knows whether she resorted to the cyanide ampoule which Hitler had presented in a brass container to each of his staff as going-away presents. In any case, she was never seen again. Both Traudl Junge and Gerda Christian, despite alarming adventures, managed to reach the other side of the Elbe. (388) The Fall of Berlin 1945
The grave of Oswald Spengler (29 May 1880 – 8 May 1936), best known for his book Der Untergang des Abendlandes (The Decline of the West), published in 1918 and 1922, where he proposed a new theory, according to which the lifespan of civilisations is limited and ultimately they decay. Some National Socialists such as Goebbels held Spengler as an intellectual precursor, whose Der Untergang des Abendlandes and Preussentum und Sozialismus were considered useful stepping stones for Hitler’s climb to power. but he was ostracised after 1933 for his pessimism about Germany's and Europe's future, his refusal to support Nazi ideas of racial superiority, and his critical work Jahre der Entscheidung (The Hour of Decision) when he dared to articulate his skepticism about the future of National Socialism.
”It is no victory, for the enemies were lacking,” observed Oswald Spengler in commenting on how easily Hitler had conquered and Nazified Germany in 1933. ”This seizure of power – ” the author of The Decline of the West wrote early in the year, ”it is with misgiving that I see it celebrated each day with so much noise. It would be better to save that for a day of real and definitive successes, that is, in the foreign field. There are no others.”
Shirer (185)
 He fell out of Hitler’s favour and the second part this work was not allowed to be published. In spite of this, Alfred Rosenberg wrote a lengthy obituary in the Volkiscber Beobachter at Spengler’s death in 1936.
 
 The grave of Otto von Rauchenberger.  During the Great War he had commanded the 6th and 14th Bavarian Infantry Divisions. After the War, he took over command of II. Bavarian Army Corps until June 1919. Twenty years later he was given the honorary title of General of Infantry for Tannenberg Remembrance Day. 
 Some graves are unmarked but appear only as random spaces, apparently belonging to war criminals.

Just outside Freising in Dürneck where I cycle past everyday to get to work, is where Ferdinand Marian died in a road accident in 1946. Described by David Stewart Hull as "a rather oily matinee idol with a marked resemblance to the late American comic Ernie Kovacs. Marian had a small following, but was no major star, although he was later to prove his genuine talents in several remarkable performances," he had been the star of history’s most incendiary film, Jud Süß despite having had an half-Jewish daughter from his first marriage and whose second wife had been married to a Jew, whom Marian hid in his house.
"I can't play that kind of role, I'm a bon vivant." Goebbels: "Who gives you your parts-the public or me? I know you want to go to Hollywood, but here you get more money than scientists, and yet you refuse to play the part the Fuhrer wants you to play. Don't tell me you won't play it, tell my aide." With this, Goebbels stomped out of the room. Marian, cowed, then cried after the departing Goebbels, "I'll do it!" (This scene was recorded for posterity by a secretary, according to Harlan, who said that it was revealed after the war. I have not been able to locate the document.) Marian, said Harlan, was so miserable that he went home, got drunk, and wrecked his apartment with an axe.
Film in the Third Reich: A Study of the German Cinema 1933-1945 (165-166)
His losing fight to not appear in the film was the subject of the German-Austrian movie Jud Süss - Film ohne Gewissen of 2010.

Apparently he had been driving to Munich drunk with a borrowed car to collect denazification papers that with the permission by US film officer Eric Pleskow that would have allowed him to work again, having celebrated this news just beforehand. Other sources suggest that the accident was suicide:
Ferdinand Marian, who had taken the title role in Iud Suss, committed suicide in a car crash due to feelings of guilt . Hull (269)
Perhaps the most (in)famous name in Nazi cinema resides at: 
Leni Riefenstahl's grave in the Waldfriedhof; her grave is located at 509-W-4
Probably the most famous major film-maker in the Third Reich, she records in her memoirs an example of how exactly Hitler got people on his side. The only difficulty in using her evidence is that it has to be assumed accurate and not a distortion of reality which is attempting to show her relationship to National Socialism in as favourable a light as possible. We have to be prepared to believe she participated in Hitler’s Germany with reluctance rather than enthusiasm. This filmmaker visited Hitler at the Reich Chancellery in August 1933. She says she entered the room determined not to undertake any project on behalf of National Socialism. But the meeting went as follows.
‘I invited you here today in order to find out how far you’ve got with your preparations for the film on the Party rally, and whether you’re getting enough support from the Ministry of Propaganda.’
I stared at him [Hitler] in amazement – what was he talking about? Surprised at my reaction, he said: ‘Didn’t the Propaganda Ministry inform you that I want you to make a film about the Party rally in Nuremberg?’
I shook my head and Hitler was clearly perplexed. ‘You know nothing about it?’ he asked angrily. ‘Why, that’s impossible. Brückner transmitted my request to Dr Goebbels weeks ago. Haven’t you been notified?’ Once again I had to say no and Hitler grew even more upset. He summoned Brückner and angrily asked him, ‘Didn’t you pass my request on to the doctor? Why wasn’t Fräulein Riefenstahl informed?’ As he spoke he clenched his fists, glaring with anger. Before his terrified aide could reply, Hitler jeered, ‘I can imagine how the gentlemen at the Propaganda Ministry must envy this gifted young artist. They can’t stand the fact that such an honour has been awarded to a woman – and, indeed, an artist who isn’t even a member of the party.’ Neither Brückner nor I dared to respond. ‘It’s outrageous of them to boycott my request’, Hitler ranted. He snapped at Brückner to telephone Dr Goebbels and tell him to order the people in his cinema department to support me and my work in Nuremberg in every possible way.
I myself was by now very agitated, and I interrupted Hitler. ‘My Führer, I cannot accept this – I have never seen a Party rally, I know nothing about what goes on there, and I have no experience in making documentaries. It would be better if such films were made by Party members who know the material and are happy to be given such assignments.’ I talked to Hitler almost beseechingly, and slowly he relaxed and calmed down.
Looking at me, he said, ‘Fräulein Riefenstahl, don’t let me down. You would only have to take a few days off. I am convinced that you alone have the artistic ability to turn real-life events into more than ordinary newsreel footage – certainly the officials at the cinema department of the Propaganda Ministry do not.’ I stood before him, eyes lowered, as he went on urging me more and more insistently. ‘The party rally will begin in three days. Naturally you won’t be able to make a really great film this year. But you can go to Nuremberg in order to gain some experience and try to film whatever can be filmed without preparations.’ He took a few steps, then resumed. ‘My wishes were probably never communicated to the doctor. I will personally ask him to support you.’
My God, I thought, if Hitler knew how impossible any collaboration would be between Goebbels and myself. But I had no desire to tell him about his Minister’s escapades. Besides, I felt less and less able to contradict him. I simply lacked the courage. As Hitler took leave of me, his last words were: ‘Hold your head up high, everything will work out. You will receive further information before the day is over.’ Hitler had not understood how unhappy this project would make me. My most passionate desire was to work as an actress.

L. Riefenstahl, The Sieve of Time, 1992, pp. 143–4
Objectively, Leni Riefenstahl's films helped the Nazi cause. This does not mean that she was a personal monster, nor that every "moral" aspect of her films is deplorable. For her achievements on this level she has been widely and no doubt justly condemned-if not always for the reasons stated by her critics-and it seems unlikely that history will reverse the verdict. But it is also necessary to assess her as an artist, accountable only to another kind of history, and it seems possible that on this level, film history will preserve the honours which have been given her.   
Hull (139-140)
 
The grave of Stepan Andriyovych Bandera, the leader of the Ukrainian nationalist movement which fought for Ukrainian independence. Stepan Bandera was responsible for the proclamation of an Independent Ukrainian State in Lviv on June 30, 1941, eight days after Germany's attack against the USSR. Members of Bandera's Ukrainian nationalist movement thought that they had found a new powerful ally in Nazi Germany to aid them in their struggle against the Soviet Union. Instead the Germany leadership arrested the newly formed government and sent them to concentration camps in Germany. Bandera was arrested and imprisoned by the Nazis until September 1944. Bandera was assassinated in 1959 by the KGB. He was named Hero of Ukraine (posthumously) for "defending national ideas and battling for an independent Ukrainian state."
 Bandera lived here at Kreittmayrstrasse 7 where, in the entrance, KGB agent Bohdan Stashinsky assassinated him on October 15, 1959. A medical examination established that the cause of his death was poison (cyanide gas). 
An article on his dividing legacy today

Westfriedhof
 
My bike outside the cemetery
 
Ernst Röhm's grave within. Ernst Julius Günther Röhm was a German officer in the Bavarian Army and later an early Nazi leader. He was a co-founder of the Sturmabteilung (SA), the Nazi Party militia, and later was its commander. In 1934, as part of the Night of the Long Knives, he was executed on Adolf Hitler's orders as a potential rival. It mistakenly dates his death a day earlier.
The chief of the SA was the only senior Nazi who expressed anti-Hitler views in public. He was the Führer’s only threat (Fest, 1973, p. 476). By March 1934 Röhm was demanding that several thousand SA men be taken in the army at once. Within a few months, during early Summer 1934, reports began circulating around government circles that Röhm was planning an armed revolt.
‘Adolf is a swine’, he swore. ‘He will give us all away. He only associates with reactionaries now. His old friends aren’t good enough for him. Getting matey with the East Prussian generals. They’re his cronies now.’
He was jealous and hurt.
‘Adolf is turning into a gentleman. He’s got himself a tail-coat now!’ he mocked.

He drank a glass of water and grew calmer.
‘Adolf knows exactly what I want. I’ve told him often enough. Not a second edition of the old imperial army. Are we revolutionaries or aren’t we? Allons, enfants de la patrie! If we are, then something new must arise out of our élan, like the mass armies of the French Revolution. If we’re not, then we’ll go to the dogs. We’ve got to produce something new, don’t you see? A new discipline. A new principle of organization. The generals are a lot of old fogeys. They never had a new idea.’
‘Adolf has learnt from me. Everything he knows about military matters, I’ve taught him. War is something more than armed clashes. You won’t make a revolutionary army out of the old Prussia NCOs. But Adolf is and remains a civilian, an “artist”, an idler. “Don’t bother me”, that’s all he thinks. What he wants is to sit on the hilltop and pretend he’s God. And the rest of us have to sit around doing nothing.’
He filled his glass, with wine this time, and went on:
‘They expect me to hang about with a lot of old pensioners, a herd of sheep. I’m the nucleus of the new army, don’t you see that? Don’t you understand that what’s coming must be new, fresh and unused? The basis must be revolutionary. You can’t inflate it afterwards. You only get the opportunity once to make something new and big that will help us lift the world off its hinges. But Hitler puts me off with fair words. He wants to let things run their course. He expects a miracle. Just like Adolf!..." 

H. Rauschning, Hitler Speaks, 1939, pp. 154–5
Kershaw records Hitler's reluctance to kill his closest confidante: 
Hitler arrived back in Berlin around ten o’clock on the evening of 30 June, tired, drawn, and unshaven, to be met by Göring, Himmler, and a guard of honour. He hesitated until late the following morning about the fate of the former SA Chief of Staff. He was, it seems, put under pressure by Himmler and Göring to have Röhm liquidated. In the early afternoon of Sunday 1 July, during a garden party at the Reich Chancellery for cabinet members and their wives, Hitler finally agreed. Even now, however, he was keen that Röhm take his own life rather than be ‘executed’. Theodor Eicke, Commandant of Dachau Concentration Camp, was ordered to go to Stadelheim and offer Röhm the chance to recognize the enormity of his actions by killing himself. If not, he was to be shot. Along with his deputy, SS-Sturmbannführer Michael Lippert, and a third ϟϟ man from the camp, Eicke drove to Stadelheim. Röhm was left with a pistol. After ten minutes, no shot had been heard, and the pistol was untouched on the small table near the door of the cell, where it had been left. Eicke and Lippert returned to the cell, each with pistol drawn, signalled to Röhm, standing and bare-chested, and trying to speak, that they would wait no longer, took careful aim, and shot him dead. Hitler’s published announcement was terse: ‘The former Chief of Staff Röhm was given the opportunity to draw the consequences of his treacherous behaviour. He did not do so and was thereupon shot.’
On 2 July, Hitler formally announced the end of the ‘cleansing action’. Some estimates put the total number killed at 150–200 persons.
With the SA still in a state of shock and uncertainty, the purge of its mass membership began under the new leader, the Hitler loyalist Viktor Lutze. Within a year, the SA had been reduced in size by over 40 per cent. Many subordinate leaders were dismissed in disciplinary hearings. The structures built up by Röhm as the foundation of his power within the organization were meanwhile systematically dismantled. The SA was turned into little more than a military sports and training body. For anyone still harbouring alternative ideas, the ruthlessness shown by Hitler had left its own unmistakable message.
 
The grave of ϟϟ-Gruppenführer Hans Baur, Hitler's pilot during his political campaigns of the 1920s and 1930s. It was he who piloted Hitler’s flight over the Baltic on November 6, 1933, in which the plane lost its bearings. Allegedly, Hitler suddenly ordered the pilot to change course by 180 degrees against the pilot’s will, thus rescuing the aircraft from certain destruction. In fact, Baur later related that the plane lost its orientation as a result of limited visibility and malfunctioning radio direction finding. Due to the length of time already spent in the air, Hitler feared that the plane might have passed Schleswig-Holstein and already be flying over the North Sea. Baur decided to set his course south in search of land; when he sighted a city on the coast, he made a futile attempt to decipher its name on the railway station sign. Hitler, however, recognized a meeting hall where he had once spoken and was thus able to identify the place as Wismar. That was the sum of his contribution toward “rescuing” the plane.
At the end of this third “Flight over Germany” campaign, Hitler presented a signed portrait to Baur with the following dedication:
To the magnificent pilot of D 1720, Captain Baur, in grateful memory of the three “Flights over Germany.”
With kindest regards, Adolf Hitler
He later became Hitler's personal pilot and leader of the Reichsregierung squadron. Captured by the Soviets at the end of World War II in Europe, he endured ten years of imprisonment in the USSR before being released on 10 October 1955 to the French, who then imprisoned him until 1957.
Also located in Westfriedhof is the grave of the former Empress of Iran, Soraya Esfandiary-Bakhtiar:


Ostfriedhof
 
Hitler at the burial of Dr. Gerhard Wagner on March 27, 1938. It had been Wagner who had been 
pressing for radical measures to bring about the ‘destruction of life not worth living’. Hitler reportedly told him that he would ‘take up and carry out the questions of euthanasia’ in the event of a war. He was ‘of the opinion that such a problem could be more smoothly and easily carried out in war’, and that resistance, as was to be expected from the Churches, would then have less of an impact than in peacetime. He intended, therefore, ‘in the event of a war radically to solve the problem of the mental asylums’.
For the next three years, Hitler had little involvement with the ‘euthanasia’ issue. Others were more active. Evidently encouraged by Hitler’s remarks that he did intend, once the opportunity presented itself through the war for which the regime was preparing, to introduce a ‘euthanasia programme’, Reich Doctors’ Leader Wagner pushed forward discussions on how the population should be prepared for such action. Calculations were published on the cost of upkeep of the mentally sick and hereditarily ill, instilling the impression of what could be done for the good of the people with vast resources now being ‘wasted’ on ‘useless’ lives. Cameras were sent into the asylums to produce scenes to horrify the German public and convince them of the need to eliminate those portrayed as the dregs of society for the good of the whole population. The National Socialist Racial and Political Office produced five silent films of this kind between 1935 and 1937. 
Kershaw (319) Hitler
 The grave of Julius Schaub, described by Kershaw as formerly the head of Hitler's bodyguard, 
a putsch veteran who had been in prison in Landsberg with Hitler and in his close attendance ever since, looking after his confidential papers, carrying money for the ‘Chief ’s’ use, acting as his personal secretary, general factotum, and ‘notebook.’
Hitler hired Schaub on January 1, 1925 to serve as his personal assistant, and was one of Hitler's personal adjutants until 1945 and in constant close contact with Hitler. The good relationship with his boss appeared among others in the participation of Hitler as a witness at Schaub's second wedding. He was identified as "Hitler's personal Adjutant" in the 1935 film Triumph of the Will.  In the aftermath of the July 20 Plot to kill Hitler in 1944, Hitler had a badge struck to honour all those injured or killed in the blast. Hitler's aides later said that Schaub, who was in a building some distance from the explosion, falsely tried to claim he was injured so as to be able to wear the badge.  Near the end of the war, on April 23, 1945, Hitler ordered Schaub to burn all his personal belongings and papers from the Reichskanzlei (Reich Chancellery) and the Führerbunker in the garden of the Reichskanzlei. Schaub then flew to Munich and did the same in Hitlers private apartment at Prinzregentenplatz and at the Berghof in Obersalzberg. Finally he went to Zell am See and Mallnitz and destroyed Hitler's personal Train, the "Fuehrerzug". Possessing false ID papers with the name "Josef Huber", he was arrested on May 8, 1945 in Kitzbuehl by American troops (36th CIC Det.), and remained in custody until February 17, 1949.  Since both U.S. military and German denazification authorities didn't see any participation in war crimes in the period of 1933-1945, Schaub was classified by the denazification only as a "fellow traveller". An indictment for war crimes did not come accordingly. His final rank, from 1944, was as an SS-Obergruppenführer. Schaub died in Munich in 1967.
 
Last photographs of Hitler alive as he inspects the damage made to the Chancellery with his personal adjutant Julius Schaub. The photograph was taken by the same photographer who took the one of Hitler inspecting the Hitlerjugend in the Reichschancellery garden on April 20, 1945.
 
Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht was a German economist, banker, liberal politician, and co-founder in 1918 of the German Democratic Party. He served as the Currency Commissioner and President of the Reichsbank under the Weimar Republic. He was a fierce critic of his country's post-World War I reparation obligations.  He became a supporter of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, and served in Hitler's government as President of the Reichsbank and Minister of Economics. As such, Schacht played a key role in implementing the policies attributed to Hitler. Since he opposed the policy of German re-armament spearheaded by Hitler and other prominent Nazis, Schacht was first sidelined and then forced out of the Third Reich government beginning in December 1937, therefore he had no role during World War II. He became a fringe member of the German Resistance to Hitler and was imprisoned by the Nazis after the plot of 20 July 1944. After the war, he was tried at Nuremberg and acquitted.

 
Rudolf Christoph Freiherr von Gersdorff was an officer in the German Army who had attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler by suicide bombing in March 1943; the plan failed but he was undetected. On 21 March 1943, Hitler visited the Zeughaus Berlin, the old armoury on Unter den Linden, to inspect captured Soviet weapons. A group of top Nazi and leading military officials—among them Hermann Göring, Heinrich Himmler, Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, and Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz—were present as well. As an expert, von Gersdorff was to guide Hitler on a tour of the exhibition. Moments after Hitler entered the museum, von Gersdorff set off two ten-minute delayed fuses on explosive devices hidden in his coat pockets. His plan was to throw himself around Hitler in a death embrace that would blow them both up. A detailed plan for a coup d'état had been worked out and was ready to go; but, contrary to expectations, Hitler raced through the museum in less than ten minutes. After he had left the building, von Gersdorff was able to defuse the devices in a public bathroom “at the last second.” After the attempt, von Gersdorff was immediately transferred back to the Eastern Front where he managed to evade suspicion.  Prior to the 20 July plot, von Gersdorff also had hidden the explosives and fuses that another conspirator, Wessel von Freytag-Loringhoven, managed to procure from the Abwehr’s cache of captured British weapons and which Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg was to use in his attempt to kill Hitler. Miraculously, and thanks to the silence of his imprisoned and tortured co-conspirators, von Gersdorff was able to escape arrest and certain execution. As a result, he was one of the few German military anti-Hitler plotters to survive the war (others included Axel Freiherr von dem Bussche-Streithorst and Eberhard von Breitenbuch).
In April 1943 he discovered the mass graves of the Soviet-perpetrated Katyn massacre. In 1979 he was awarded West Germany's Bundesverdienstkreuz (Federal Cross of Merit).