Showing posts with label Adolf-Hitler-Kaserne. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Adolf-Hitler-Kaserne. Show all posts

Nazi-era sites around Munich (5)

Staatskanzlei and Munich War Memorial
The Bavarian State Chancellery serves as the personal offices of the chancellery staff. It was erected from 1989 to 1993 around the central dome of the former Bavarian Army Museum, which had been built in 1905 at the site of the Hofgartenkaserne barracks and was demolished during the Second World War.  With reference to Leo von Klenze's neighbouring Festsaalbau of the Munich Residenz, the new building of the Bavarian Army Museum was also influenced by the Italian High Renaissance, but shows the monumentalisation of the late Historicism. The architect was Ludwig Mellinger. The west side of the central building with six columns completes a three-part entablature with limestone figures in the centre and four trophies. The east façade, originally facing no road, was made comparatively restrained. Under the dome was a central room, a "Hall of Fame". This space takes the two upper floors with a height of 32 meters. After its destruction in World War II, the two side wings were torn off, the central building was for a ruin for decades. By 1982, however, the 52 metre high dome with its copper coverage was restored.  The remnants of some renaissance arcades of the Hofgarten in the north were integrated to the building. The two new wings are covered in full length with glazed stairs in the style of Jacob's Ladders, giving the impression of ship stairs. At the request of then-Prime Minister Max Streibl an intimate space with wood panelling and furnishings, ("Zirbelstube") was inserted after the reception room of the Prime Minister, who caused a stir because of high costs. The building comprises about 8,800 m². To the east of the building the stream Köglmühlbach flows past above ground. Before the west side of the courtyard is the war memorial and the equestrian statue for Duke Otto I Wittelsbach.
From 1905-1945, this housed the Bavarian Army Museum, founded by Ludwig II. Destroyed during the war with only the dome remaining, it has since been rather impressively reconstructed and is now used by the Bavarian government. In front of the building, beneath a Travertine slab, is a crypt commemorating the unknown soldier.

 During the November 1918 Revolution, and two photographs from memorial ceremonies in December 1924 and November 1931.


The tomb of the Unknown Soldier during the war and today.
 Originally erected in front of the former Army Museum (now the Bavarian State Chancellery) in the Hofgarten in 1924 to commemorate the 2 million dead of the Great War, the 'Dead Soldier' sculpted by Bleekers now dedicated to the dead of both world wars. It was also used as a backdrop for nationalist and militaristic propaganda during the Nazi era. Annual remembrance days for war heroes were organised here by both the Wehrmacht and the Nazi party from 1934 onwards. This war memorial modelled on a megalithic tomb was already one of the most visited war memorials in Germany even during the Weimar Republic. Its centrepiece is a crypt in which Bernhard Bleeker’s idealised figure of the “dead soldier” is laid out, representing the 13,000 Munich soldiers who fell in the First World War and whose names were once engraved on the walls of a further walkway that circumscribed the memorial. Damaged during the Second World War, the war memorial was restored on the orders of the American military government, albeit without the names of the 13,000 dead. In the 1950s an inscription was added commemorating the fallen soldiers and civilian victims of the years 1939 to 1945. This dedication reflects the desire of the population to continue commemorating the war dead even after 1945, although its portrayal of both the city and its population exclusively as victims represents a very one-dimensional view. To this day military ceremonies in honour of the dead are still held regularly at the war memorial. Directly in front is the Memorial for the Resistance
Leo Kornbrust’s memorial was unveiled on 24 July 1996 by the Bavarian Minister president Dr. Edmund Stoiber. It is engraved on one side with a line of block letters reading "Zum erinnern zum gedenken" ("To Recall and to Commemorate") under which is a reproduction of a handwritten letter by Generalfeldmarschall Erwin von Witzleben who was arrested the day after the attempted July plot. 
We will not pass judgement on the various possible forms of government as only one will be raised clear and unambiguously: every person has a right to a useful and just state that guarantees the freedom of the individual and to he general welfareFreedom of speech, freedom of religion, the protection of individual citizens from the arbitrary will of criminal regimes of violenceThese are the foundations of the new Europe.
During his trial he was forced to appear in court without his belt and false teeth. On August 8, 1944 he was executed by being hanged by piano wire from a meat hook.

These barracks were primarily used by the ϟϟ-Standarte 1 Deutschland until the end of World War II. They had taken part in the annexation of Austria and later the occupation of the Sudetenland before contributing to the annexation of Bohemia and Moravia in March, 1939. It was ordered by Hitler that it should be expanded to a division but the war interrupted this plan. It took part in the invasion of Poland attached to Panzer-Division Kempf and following that campaign it was used to form ϟϟ-Division Verfügungstruppe,later renamed Das Reich. It was as this division which is notorious for having descended on the village of Oradour-sur- Glane, France, in reprisal for partisan attacks. After assembling the villagers, the troops separated the men from the women and children, then shot the men as their families looked on. After this, the troops herded the women and children into a local church, locked the doors, and set the structure ablaze with hand grenades. A total of 642 died. After the war the UNESCO used the buildings to accommodate dispersed persons.

Dating from 1936, now used by the police.  
Just outside the reichsadler remains, shorn of its swastika (although traces are left).

Formerly the Karl-Liebknecht-Kaserne, this is where Hitler stayed after returning to Munich after the Great War until 1920. It was named after him in 1934. Much of it was destroyed during the Second World War and the remaining buildings used for residential purposes.

 Nazi Housing Development
The government of Chancellor Brüning in 1931 established the small settlement programme in order "to promote the population becoming settled in the country to reduce unemployment and to facilitate sufficient living conditions for the unemployed." The future settlers were to be involved in the establishment of their own homes and gardens and small animal husbandry to improve their supply in the economic crisis. The Nazis took over the model because it fit into their anti-modern and anti-urban ideology. 
According to Geoff Walden of Third Reich in Ruins, this first building at Kurfürstenplatz "was likely part of a Third Reich neighbourhood housing development (Siedlung) built in 1938. The Siedlung included a savings bank and a police office, and this building may have been one of those." friend_of_Obersalzberg, who contributed the photo on the left, confirms that it was built in 1938 by architect Hans Atzenbeck.
At that time it was necessary to build new healthy and cheap apartments in Munich. It has 5 entrances and so 5 living units. In the first floor (Erdgeschoß) were stores. In the courtyard was a fountain with a sculpture of a drumming Hitlerjunge. The swastikas and the fountain were removed after war.
Google Street view actually blocks the image of the entire building! Google isn't known for respecting privacy, so could this have been pushed by the authorities given the remaining Nazi-era reliefs?
 February 26, 1938
The coat of arms of Munich on the building with its form under the Nazis and today. On the right the Nazi version reappears on the clothing of a neo-Nazi in Munich.
Better photos of the building can be found on the the Munich thread at Axis History.
These siedlung on Klugstrasse all have bizarre Third Reich, astrological, masonic, and other obscure symbols over every door frame leading inside. To me, it's incredible that they continue to survive and form the entrances to people's homes:

The swastika is still faintly visible...

...whilst this one, dated 1933, is obscured by the shaking hands

Here the hakenkreuz has been erased, but the Nazi salutes allowed to remain!

Another excised swastika that completed the DAF symbol

And yet a couple have had their bizarre symbols completely removed.

The left image shows swords and a steel helmet whilst the one on the right reminds me of the lesson from the Disney wartime cartoon Education for Death...

Mustersiedlung Ramersdorf
Die Mustersiedlung Ramersdorf im Münchner Stadtteil Ramersdorf sollte kurz nach derung des Wndistische Wirkung der Siedlung blieb jedoch aus, da unter anderem die für damalige Verhältnisse großzügige Wohnfläche von 56 bis 129 m2 sowie einzelne modernistische Bauelemente kritisiert wurden.  Nach Ende der Siedlungsausstellung wurden die Häuser als Eigenheime verkauft. Im Jahr 1935 wurde mit der Gustav-Adolf-Kirche in der Siedlung ein protestantischer Kirchenneubau eröffnet. 
The sample settlement at Ramersdorf was opened on 9 June 1934 to serve as a model for future settlement projects in Germany. Designed by Guido Habers, this siedlung on Stephanskirchener Straße provided 192 homes with 34 different building types and planned as an alternative to the multi-storey urban houses. The ensemble is self-contained and , pursuant to the garden city idea numerous green spaces.  As executive architects , among others , Friedrich Ferdinand Haindl , Sep Ruf , Franz Ruf , Lois Knidberger , Albert Heichlinger , Max Dellefant , Theo Pabst, Christoph Miller, Hanna Loev Delisle and Charles were responsible for the buildings. The hoped-for propaganda effect of the settlement did not materialise because, among other things, the generous living space for those days 56-129 m2 and individual modernist elements were criticized.  After the exhibition, the settlement houses were sold as homes. In 1935 a Protestant church building was opened with the Gustav Adolf Church in the settlement as shown in the then-and-now photos. A number of frescoes remain, barely, from 1934:
St. Christopher on Stephanskirchener Straße 20
Above a door on Schlechinger Weg 4 is this coat of arms; the former owner was Paerr and therefore he chose a play on words in the arms of a bear- Bärenwappen. Above one can still make out the inscription "G. P. 1934".
 At Schlechinger Weg 8 is this image of a German African colonial soldier. The original owner had served in Deutsch-Südwestafrika and designed the crest himself before giving it to the artist, Günther Graßmann.
Another by Günther Graßmann at Schlechinger Weg 10. The pointer of the sundial is at the centre of a sun, with the dial in the form of an harp. As can be seen in the 1934 photo, the bottom of the fresco depicts a sailing ship. Graßmann was involved in another sundial for the church of St. Raphael, München-Hartmannshofen; I think he was involved in its stained glass, as well:
Remarkably, the Adolf-Hitler-Brunnen still remains intact at Herrenchiemseestraße 44. On the base of the fountain a swastika with a lime leaf in raised relief was etched and at the back was the following inscription:
The blocks of stone with the swastika and lime leaf above the water spout were removed after 1945. as was the term " Hitler Linde". This fountain is one of the 75 drinking water wells in Munich.
Another water well at Törwanger Straße 2. In 1938 a small mosaic was set up as seen in the photo with a swastika by the painter Günther Grassmann. The mosaic has been coated with a thin layer of plaster and is left empty, the well no longer in operation.

Siedlung on Erich Kastner str.
This example of a siedlung consists of an huge building and on all four corners there are Third Reich reliefs.
The swastikas have been wiped out from the bottom of each relief
Similar decorative façade at the corner of Karl - Theodor and Mannheimer streets:
93 Winzererstr.
Another surviving building from the Nazi era with its iconography intact (with the colour still maintained) complete with reichsadler dating from 1936 found by odeon at Axis History Forum.
From 1933 to 1937 the Nazis set up Reichskleinsiedlung here at Am Hart, Neuherberg and Kaltherberg after which time the housing policy increasingly turned back to the multi-storey, which could be accomplished more efficiently and cheaper.

Swastikas remaining  on the facade at Marsstraße 26

Former home of Reinhard Heydrich
This is a photo from my last visit of Reinhard Heydrich's home outside Munich at Zuccalistraße 4 near Nymphenburg castle. Of this house his wife Lina wrote "When unexpected visitors arrive, the architecture of the house makes it possible for us to make everything disappear in time. Our dog gives us plenty of warning."
At the end of the war, Heydrich's widow returned to the island of Fehmarn with her surviving children. She owned and ran a hotel and restaurant. The Finnish theatre director and poet Mauno Manninen (1915-1969) was a frequent guest at the hotel. He took pity on the difficulties she experienced as a result of her infamous name and offered to marry her to enable her to change it. They married in 1965 but did not live together. She died on August 14, 1985.
See the special Prague section on Operation Anthropoid

Schloss Nymphenburg
Within walking distance of Heydrich's house is this, the biggest Baroque palace in Germany, and site of the 1938 Nazi production of "De Nacht van de Amazonen". The photo on the left shows the site during the so-called Day of German Art Festival during the weekend of July 14-16, 1939 in Munich.
Schloss Nymphenburg unterm Hakenkreuz with Rudolf Heß and today
Rarely seen amateur colour footage filmed in Friedberg and Munchen in 1938 showing the night masquerade "De Nacht van de Amazonen." The "Burgmaister" of Munchen obtained from the local "Gaulaiter" (the city's Nazi Party chief) the permission for the girls on the chariots to parade with sexy costumes.

Grünwalder Stadion 

Grünwalder Stadion einst und jetzt. It was built in 1911 and was the home ground for TSV 1860 München until 1995. 
Aerial photograph of the stadium from 11 March 1943. The central photograph shows the result of two air raids on July 19, 1944 leaving a crater circled in yellow and today.
TSV 1860 München giving the Hitler salute on the left, and playing an amateur team composed of members of the ϟϟ. 
During refurbishment of the dilapidated stadium, an unexploded Second World War bomb was found buried within the pitch.
The stadium is immortal for serving as the site of The Philosophers' Football Match, a Monty Python sketch originally featured in the second Monty Python's Fliegender Zirkus depicting a football match in the Olympiastadion at the 1972 Munich Olympics between philosophers representing Greece and Germany.

Auferstanden aus Ruinen
Hackerbrücke after the war and today

The Staatsbibliothek on Ludwigstraße then and now.

What had been an air protection shelter on Hotterstraße was converted in 1947 to an hotel in the town centre.

American troops on Dachauerstraße on April 30, 1945 and the site today.

On Dachauerstraße 128 is this memorial to Bavarian railwaymen who died in the Great War. Erected 1922, destroyed in 1945 and replaced in 1962, it reads they "died for Germany's fame and honour / The dead of the Bavarian railway group / in the World War of 1914-18." It has been the subject of attack from two men who have been fined 6,300 euros for defacing it with a mere board reading how "We mourn for all who lost their lives in the cruel and senseless World War 1914-1918. To ensure peace and to prevent wars." The men, Hans-Peter Berndl and Wolfram P. Kastner, describe it an "unspeakable scandal that every year on memorial day the Bundeswehr present dazzling wreaths financed from tax money." They point out that those who claim "that the soldiers of the First World War were killed for fame and honour" is consciously twisting the truth, if not lying.
Completed in 1932, the post office at Goetheplatz after the war and today.
The city brook that run down Baaderstraße and Ickstattstraße shown in 1946 has long dried up.

Sebastiansplatz in 1946 and today
Das Paläontologische Museum in der Nähe des Königsplatzes ist das Ausstellungsforum der Paläontologie und Geobiologie München. Es zeigt imposante Skelette aus der Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbeltiere. Neben dem größten Dinosaurier Bayerns zählen hierzu Skelette von Reptilien aus der Zeit vor den Dinosauriern, Flugsaurier, Fischsaurier sowie Säugetiere aus der jüngeren Erdgeschichte. Hier ist vor allem das Skelett des berühmten Mühldorfer Ur-Elefanten zu nennen, aber auch diverse Vertreter des Eiszeitalters wie Säbelzahntiger, Höhlenbär und Riesenhirsch. Des weiteren erwartet die Besucher aktuelle Sonderausstellungen zu wechselnden Themen, die exotische Tierwelt in Bayern vor 16 Millionen Jahren sowie eine „Reise“ durch 4 Milliarden Jahre Leben. Weitere Highlights sind das Münchner Exemplar des Urvogels Archaeopteryx und der kleinste Dinosaurier Bayerns Compsognathus. Das Paläontologische Museum München entführt Sie in die faszinierende Welt der Urzeit.
The former site of the Palaeontological Museum at Neuhauser Straße 51 after being completely destroyed during the April 24th 1944 bombing; 80% of all its fossils were destroyed as well. After the war it was relocated here at Richard-Wagner-Straße 10.
The interior of the Paläontologische Museum in 1949, after the interior was severely damaged from an high-explosive bomb
Building the U-Bahn station at the corner of Lindwurmstraße and Rothmundstraße in May, 1938.

Panzerkampfwagen V Panther tank outside the Imperial Lichtspiele cinema, now the Anna Hotel
The same tank parked at the Stachus
The Markuskirche then and now
The gaol at Corneliusstraße no longer exists postwar

Two unidentified eagles stumbled upon in Munich:
Can't find any information on this in terms of its date; found accidentally on Liebigstr. whilst walking along the river to Prinzregentenstr with another found at the other end of town on Orleanstr. showing a distinctive eagle of indeterminate origin.
Nazi mementos I found being sold in the front window of a Munich antique shop. It's but one of many I found which surprised me given the country's supposed strict laws concerning the open display of such items (unless used publicly by the Government itself). All swastikas were covered with a round sticker which seems as useful as censoring swear words on television.
рейхсканцелярия Фюрербункер Καταφύγιο του Χίτλερ 総統地下壕 제1차 세계 대전 제2차 세계 대전 홀로코스트 뉘른베르크 전범 재판 하인리히 히믈러 나치 신나치주의 신비주의 히틀러 암살 미수 사건 독일 에바 브라운 겔리 라우발 브론 location of hitler's bunker    “body man”K元首地堡(德语:Führerbunker)殺。5月2日,蘇聯軍隊佔領此處。 大眾文化      電影帝國毀滅即是以此地為主要場景。 al Penn Фюрербункер (Führerbunker (инф.)) — наименование комплекса подземных помещений в Берлине, размещённых под рейхсканцелярией. Этот бункер служил последним убежищем Адольфа Гитлера в течение последних недель существования национал-социалистического режима в Германии. Бункер был штаб-квартирой фюрера, в которой он и ещё ряд нацистских руководителей (включая Геббельса) покончили с войны  Бункер был расположен к северо-востоку от рейхсканцелярии. Пять метров под землей (четыре метра железобетона и метр грунта), тридцать комнат (помещений различного назначения — от конференц-зала до туалета и венткамер), расположенных на двух уровнях с выходами в главное здание и аварийный выход в сад. Бункер имел общую площадь около 250 квадратных метров. Был построен в два этапа (1936 и 1943 годы). Впервые Гитлер посетил Фюрербункер 25 ноября 1944 года. 16 января 1945 года Адольф Гитлер окончательно перебрался в Фюрербункер, но до 15 марта 1945 периодически покидал его, однако 15 марта 1945 с приближением советских войск перестал покидать его окончательно.  Выход из бункера в сквер внутреннего двора Рейхсканцелярии, место сожжения трупа Гитлера После Второй мировой войны  Здание Рейхсканцелярии было снесено, входы в бункер взорваны и засыпаны Munich Pulsing with prosperity and Bavarian Gemütlichkeit (cosiness), Munich loves to revel in its own contradictions. This sophisticated modern metropolis draws as much inspiration from nouvelle cuisine and Hugo Boss as sausages and thick leather shorts. Munich may be a high- minded fellow but pop a keg and he’ll be out there tearing up the dance floor. Polls of wistful Germans confirm Munich is the most popular place to live – and in a blink you’ll see why. Balmy summer evenings at one of its street-side cafés make the city feel like a Florence or a Milan. Thrilling Alpine landscapes, crystal-clear lakes and fairy-tale castles lie at its doorstep. It is a haven for all sorts of culture. And at Oktoberfest the entire planet converges to toast the town. Parts of Germany may have fallen on hard times but Munich shakes it off like magic. A forest of construction cranes dots the landscape, planting hi-tech office towers and sharp, ecofriendly residences where highways once stood. Bavaria never grew much heavy industry, so Munich’s centre retains a small-town feel. Global players such as Siemens and BMW hug the outskirts and their influence lends the city a cosmopolitan flair and a good chunk of its wealth. In the beer gardens you may hear more English than German, and almost as much Italian or Japanese. Forget the Teutonic clichés about grim workaholics – Münchners have plenty to smile about and any time of year the mood is infectious, be it during the tourist-packed summer or the cold stillness of a February afternoon. HIGHLIGHTS Hoisting a mug of Helles at an authentic beer hall, such as the Augustiner Bräu- stuben (p119) Watching the daredevil surfers negotiate the dangerous wave in the English Garden (p105) Getting unusual perspectives – and an incredible adrenaline rush – while clamber- ing around the roof of the Olympic Stadium, Olympiapark (p96) Feeling your spirits soar among the fantastic art of the Alte Pinakothek (p91) Hitting the bars and clubs of the Gärtner- platzviertel (p120) for a night of fun Olympiapark Augustiner Bräustuben Alte Pinakothek   English Garden Gärtnerplatzviertel TELEPHONE CODE: 089 POPULATION: 1.26 MILLION AREA: 310 SQ KM MUNICH MUNICH 74 MUNICH •• History  MUNICH •• Information 75 HISTORY It was the Benedictine monks, drawn by fertile farmland and the closeness to Catholic Italy, who first settled present-day Munich. They also gave the city its name, for München is medieval German for monk. In 1240 the city passed to the Wittelsbach dynasty who would run Munich (as well as Bavaria) until the 20th century. Munich pros- pered as a centre for the salt trade but was hit hard by the outbreak of plague in 1349. When the epidemic finally subsided 150 years later, the Schäffler (coopers) began a ritualis- tic dance to remind burghers of their good fortune. The Schäfflertanz is reenacted daily by the little figures on the city’s glockenspiel (carillon) on Marienplatz. By the early 19th century, furious monu- ment building gave Munich its spectacular architecture and wide Italianate avenues. Culture and the arts flourished, but when Ludwig II ascended the throne his grandiose projects, his numerous lavish palaces for ex- ample, bankrupted the royal house and threat- ened the government. Ironically, today they are the biggest money-spinners of Bavaria’s tourism industry. Munich has seen many turbulent times but last century was particularly rough. WWI practically starved the city; the Nazis first rose to prominence here and the next world war nearly wiped the city off the map. The 1972 Olymckish. Take the U1 to Mangfallplatz, then bus 139 to Säbener Strasse. The Allianz Arena is also home turf for Munich’s ‘other’ soccer team, the peren- nial underdogs TSV 1860 (%01805-601 860; www They only play in Germany’s second league but still have an enormously loyal fan base. The team trains at Grünwalder Strasse 114 (Map pp78–9), also in Harlaching (take tram 25 to Südtiroler Strasse). Call ahead for training times. SHOPPING Munich is a fun and sophisticated place to shop that goes far beyond chains and de- partment stores. If you want those, head to Neuhauser Strasse and Kaufingerstrasse. East of there, Sendlinger Strasse has smaller and somewhat more individualistic stores, includ- ing a few resale and vintage emporia. To truly ‘unchain’ yourself, though, you need to hit the Gärtnerplatzviertel and Glock- enbachviertel, the bastion of well-edited indie stores and local designer boutiques. Hans- Sachs-Strasse and Reichenbachstrasse are especially promising. Maxvorstadt, especially Türkenstrasse, also has an interesting line- up of stores with stuff you won’t find on the high street back home. Shoe fetishistas can indulge their lusts on Hohenzollernstrasse in Schwabing. Maximilianstrasse, meanwhile, is the catwalk for the Prada and Escada brigade, especially in the new, minimalist Max- imilianhöfe in the Bürkleinbau just past the Nationaltheater. Snob shoppers will also be happy on Theatinerstrasse (home of the Fünf Höfe arcade), on Residenzstrasse and Brienner Strasse. Here’s a quick and dirty selection of shops you might find of interest: Beauty & Nature (Map pp82-3; %2423 1233; 1st fl, Westenrieder Strasse 35, Altstadt; h8am-8pm Mon-Sat) All natural, all the time, is the motto at this drugstore that stocks only top-performing products by Dr Hauschka, Logona, Lavera and other Euro brands, usually at much lower prices than found overseas. Ask about its manicures and beauty treatments. Servus Heimat (Map pp82-3; %2429 4780; Brunnstrasse 3, Altstadt) Everything a gift shop should be – fun, happy to see you and stocked with unique souvenirs that play with Bavarian symbols like tees emblazoned with Empress MUNICH MUNICH 126 MUNICH •• Getting There & Away AROUND MUNICH •• Starnberger Fünf-Seen-Land 127 Sisi or the Olympic Stadium outline. Campy, tongue-in-cheek chic. Sebastian Wesely (Map pp82-3; %264 519; Rindermarkt 1, Altstadt; h9am-6.30pm Mon-Sat) If you’re in the market for traditional souv- enirs, this little shop (in business since 1557) has floor-to-ceiling shelves of carved angels, pewter tankards, beer steins, carved figurines and handmade candles. The saleswomen are quick with a smile and happy to help. Siebter Himmel (Map pp82-3; %267 053; Hans-Sachs- Strasse 17, Glockenbachviertel; h11am-7pm Mon-Fri, 10am- 6pm Sat) Cool hunters will be in seventh heaven when browsing the assortment of fashions and accessories by hip indie labels like Pussy de Luxe, Indian Rose and Religion, all sold at surprisingly reasonable prices. Complement your new outfit with shoes from Schuhhimmel across the street. Flohmarkt Riem (Map pp78-9; %9605 1632; Willy- Brandt-Platz, Riem; h6am-4pm Sat) Like urban archaeologists, you have to sift through trash and detritus to unearth treasure at Bavaria’s largest flea market, far out of town by the trade fair grounds in Riem. Take the U2 to Messestadt-Ost. Loden-Frey (Map pp82-3; %210 390; Maffeistrasse 5-7, Altstadt) Stocks a wide range of Bavarian wear. Expect to pay at least €300 for a good leather jacket, pair of lederhosen or dirndl dress. Holareidulijö (Map p81; %271 7745; Schellingstrasse 81, Maxvorstadt; hnoon-6.30pm Tue-Fri, 10am-1pm Sat) If Loden-Frey’s price tags are too steep, check this out. The name is a phonetic yodel, approp- riate for a store that carries preloved leder- hosen and other folkwear in good condition. Click, click, click... is the sound of cus- tomers flipping through the well-edited selection of new and used CDs and vinyl at Optimal (Map pp82-3; %268 185; Kolosseumstrasse 6, Glockenbachviertel; h11am-8pm Mon-Fri, 11am-4pm Sat) and Resonanz (Map pp82-3; %2020 5205; Auenstrasse 4, h11am-8pm Mon-Fri, 11am-4pm Sat), Munich’s best purveyors of indie sounds with handy listening stations. For classical music and jazz recordings there’s no better selection – and more knowledgeable staff – than at Ludwig Beck (Map pp82-3; %2369 1441; Marienplatz 11) on the 4th floor of the eponymous department store. Other shops: Foto-Video-Media Sauter (Map pp82-3; %5515 0450; Sonnenstrasse 26, Altstadt) The largest camera and video shop in town. Porzellan Manufaktur Nymphenburg Altstadt (Map pp82-3; %282 428; Odeonsplatz 1, Altstadt; h10am- 6.30pm Mon-Fri, 10am-4pm Sat); Schloss Nymphenburg (Map p80; %179 1970; Nördliches Schlossrondell 8, Nymphen- burg; h10am-5pm Mon-Fri) Traditional and contemporary porcelain masterpieces by the royal manufacturer. GETTING THERE & AWAY Air Munich’s sparkling Flughafen München (Munich International Airport; %975 00, flight inquiries 9752 1313; is easy to navigate and – within Germany – second in importance only to Frankfurt for international and domestic flights. The main carrier is Lufthansa, but other international airlines serving Munich include Air France, British Airways, Delta, easyJet, El Al, Scandinavian Airlines (SAS) and United Airlines. For contact and flight information see p321. Bus The Busabout (p323) hop-on hop-off bus service comes through Munich on the North- ern Loop and the Southern Loop with pickup and dropoff at Wombat’s City Hostel (Map pp82–3). Europabus (p325) links Munich to the Romantic Road. For details of fares and time- tables inquire at EurAide (p76) or Deutsche Touring (Map pp82-3; %8898 9513;; Hirtenallee 14) near the Hauptbahnhof. BEX BerlinLinienBus (%01801-546 436; runs daily buses between Berlin and Munich (one way/return €45/84, 81⁄2 hours), via Ingolstadt, Nuremberg, Bayreuth and Leipzig. Buses depart from bus platform 5 on Arnulfstrasse, north of the Hauptbahnhof. In spring 2009 a new central bus station is expected to open near Hackerbrücke. Car & Motorcycle Munich has autobahns radiating in all direc- tions. Take the A9 to Nuremberg, the A8 to Salzburg, the A95 to Garmisch-Partenkirchen and the A8 to Ulm or Stuttgart. All major car-hire companies have offices at the airport. Sixt (Budget), Hertz, Avis and Europcar have counters on the 2nd level of the Hauptbahnhof. Train Train services from Munich are excellent. There are swift direct connections to such key destinations in Bavaria as Nuremberg (€45, one hour), Regensburg (€22, 11⁄2 hours) and Würzburg (€59, two hours). Going to Freiburg (€78, 41⁄2 hours) or Baden-Baden (€72, four hours) requires a change, usually in Mannheim. There are also frequent direct serv- ices to Berlin (€105, 53⁄4 hours), Frankfurt (€81, three hours) and Cologne (€119, 41⁄2 hours); and to other European cities, such as Vienna (€72, 41⁄4 hours), Prague (€52, six hours) and Zürich (€61, 41⁄4 hours). There’s also a night train to Paris (price varies, 10 hours). GETTING AROUND Central Munich is compact enough to explore on foot. To get to the outlying suburbs make use of the public transport network, which is extensive and efficient. To/From the Airport Munich’s airport is about 30km northeast of the city and linked by S-Bahn (S1 and S8) to the Hauptbahnhof. The trip costs €8.80, takes about 40 minutes and runs every 20 minutes from 3am until around 12.30am. The Lufthansa Airport Bus (%323 040) shut- tles at 20-minute intervals between the air- port and Arnulfstrasse at the Hauptbahnhof between 5.10am and 9.40pm. The trip takes about 45 minutes and costs €10 (return €16). A taxi from the airport to the Altstadt costs about €55. Car & Motorcycle Driving in central Munich can be a nightmare; many streets are one way or pedestrian only, ticket enforcement is Orwellian and parking is a nightmare. Car parks (indicated on the tourist office map) charge about €1.50 to €2 per hour. Public Transport TICKETS & FARES The Munich region is divided into four zones with most places of visitor interest (except Dachau and the airport) conveniently clus- tering within the ‘white’ Innenraum (inner zone). Short rides (Kurzstrecke; four bus or tram stops; or two U-Bahn or S-Bahn stops) cost €1.10, longer trips cost €2.20. Children aged between six and 14 pay a flat €1.10 re- gardless of the length of the trip. Cut down costs by buying a strip card (Streifenkarte) of 10 tickets for €10.50, then stamp one strip for short trips or two strips for longer ones. Day passes are €5 for individuals and €9 for up to five people travelling together. Three-day passes are €12.30/21. There’s also a weekly pass called IsarCard, which costs €15.80 but is only valid from Monday to Sunday – if you buy on Wednesday, it’s still only good until Sunday. For details about the Bayern-Ticket, see p328. Bikes costs €2.50 and may only be taken aboard U-Bahn and S-Bahn trains, but not during the 6am to 9am and 4pm to 6pm rush hours. BUYING & USING TICKETS Bus drivers sell single tickets and day passes but tickets for the U- /S-Bahn and other passes must be purchased from vending machine at stations or MVV offices. Tram tickets are available from vending machines aboard. Tickets must be stamped (validated) at sta- tion platform entrances and aboard buses and trams before use. The fine for getting caught without a valid ticket is €40. Taxi Taxis cost €2.70 at flag fall (€3.70 if ordered by phone), plus €1.25 to €1.60 per kilome- tre and are not much more convenient than public transport. Luggage is charged at €0.50 per piece. Ring a taxi on %216 10 or %194 10. Taxi ranks are indicated on the city’s tourist map. AROUND MUNICH STARNBERGER FÜNF-SEEN-LAND pop 85,000 / elev 584m Once a royal retreat and still a popular place of residence with the rich and famous, the Fünf-Seen-Land (Five Lakes District) is set in a glacial plane and makes a fast and easy escape from the urban bustle of Munich. Munich’s excellent public transport system is composed of buses, trams, the U-Bahn and the S-Bahn. It’s operated by MVV, which maintains offices in the U-Bahn stations at Marienplatz, Hauptbahnhof, Sendlinger Tor, Odeonsplatz, Olympiazentrum, Karlsplatz and Münchner Freiheit. Staff hand out free network maps and timetables, sell tickets and answer questions. Automated trip planning is available by phone (%4142 4344) and online ( The U-Bahn and S-Bahn cease opera- tion at around 12.30am Monday to Friday and 1.30am on weekends when night buses (Nachtbusse) ferry home night owls and shift workers. MUNICH MUNICH 128 AROUND MUNICH •• Starnberger Fünf-Seen-Land AROUND MUNICH •• Starnberger Fünf-Seen-Land 129 The largest lake is the narrow 21km-long Starnberger See, nicknamed ‘Munich’s bathtub’ and ringed by a necklace of resorts, includ- ing Starnberg, Berg, Pöcking-Possenhofen, Feldafing, Tutzing, Bernried and Seeshaupt. The road linking all these communities can get terribly clogged, especially on summer weekends. It also rarely skirts the lake shore, much of which is privately owned. There is, however, a paved trail dedicated to biking and walking along the shore. Circumnavigating the entire lake (50km) takes about 12 hours on foot and four hours by bike. The other lakes – Ammersee, Pilsensee, Wörthsee and Wesslinger See – are smaller and offer more secluded charm. Swimming, boating and windsurfing are popular activities on all lakes, and the district is also crisscrossed by a 250km network of bike paths and 1Herrsching have a decent selection of two wheelers. Bike It (%08151-746 430; Bahnhofstrasse 1) in Starnberg runs guided bike tours from €25. There’s a famous in-line skating stretch on the eastern shore between Berg and Ambach. There’s plenty of good hiking as well. A de- lightful half-day trip starts in Tutzing and goes via a moderate ascent to the Ilkahöhe, which is a 730m hill with a restaurant (opposite), beer garden and panoramic lake views. Sleeping DJH Hostel Possenhofen (%08157-996 611; www.pos, in German; Kurt-Stieler-Strasse 18, Pöcking-Possenhofen; dm €21, s/d €29/50; pi) A jewel among DJH hostels, this mod- ern, spacious and well-run contender sits next to Schloss Possenhofen and a popular swimming beach. Hotel Alte Linde (%08157-933 180;, in German; Wieling 5, Feldafing; s €55-88, d €80- 110; pn) Run with panache and personal- ity, this congenial inn welcomes guests with modern country-style elegance. The nicest rooms have unique features such as sleeping alcove or four-poster beds below a painted ceiling. Enjoy a cold one in the beer garden, then savour delicious modern, organic twists on classic Bavarian in the restaurant, where mains cost about €10 to €18. Schlossgut Oberambach (%08177-9323; www; Oberambach 1, Münsing; s/d €120/240; pnaicare facility for blind children in Maria Ludwig Ferdinand home (Roman Road 12), the hospital Neuwittelsbach 26 27 The landowners Eisenböck and brewery owner Kottmüller errichte- th the villa complex "Neuwittelsbach" Prospectus of 1880th The Volksgarten with its viewing tower on a post card in 1898. The contemporary largest amusement park in Germany was built in 1890 on the site of the former "Bierbräuerei Nymphenburg". (Roman Road 11) and the hospital of the Merciful Brothers on the Roman Road 93. This large hospital complex leads right up to the southern Schlossrondell. There, the Order had during the First World War, the oldest inn Nymburk phenburgs, the "CONTROLOR" bought and started operation initially injured for war. Shortly before the Roman court to reach the transverse Döllingerstraße. In the Döllingerstraße 5 lived from 1918 to 1928 of 1895 in Munich GE-born Hans Beimler. Beimler belonged in 1919 to the initial members of the KPD and founded the KPD local group Munich. After his escape from Dachau he published in August 1933 report "In murderer camp Dachau." Beimler fell on 1 December 1936 the Spanish Civil War as a Commissioner of the German "Thalmann Battalion". The bridge over the lock canal was built in 1892 by architect Friedrich von Thiersch and later, among others extended for the tram traffic. He was previously only a pedestrian bridge across the channel to Gern that could develop as ruhi- ger suburb. The total investment of the palace and park was not at all planned for construction in 1664 in the dimensions as they present themselves today. Max Emanuel, who is based on the style of Louis XIV., Undertook significant structural extensions and let the Lustgarten French model invest. In his "Badenburg" he could, as later his successors, also enjoy the Würmwasser. One hundred years later, the park was liberated by the landscape gardener Sckell of its rigor and transformed into an English landscape garden. He joins the north of the Botanical Gardens, from the too tight has become complex which was moved to the street Elise and recreated generously 1914th World famous: The porcelain manufactory in Schlossrondell who resides there since 1761st Louis-Ferdinand Bridge 28 29 The inclusion of Nymphenburg Instituts- pupils while walking on the lock channel was built around 1905. The 'English Ladies' cause the girls school at the Maria-Ward Street since 1835. First in the North wing of the castle is home, were with the expansion of the Institute - the in addition to the higher education of girls soon also an elementary school and later a secondary school operation - numerous enhancements necessary. The boarding took place in northern Schlossrondell, the former Kavaliersbau, place where it is still operated as a day care center. In 1896 and 1912, the Schulhausbauten arrived at the Mary Ward Road so. The nursing home goes back to a private foundation of man's Tabakkauf- Heinrich von Dall'Armi, the social obligation was left direction for the community, not only the city administration and the great welfare institutions. 1910 the foundation stone was laid for the building, which was built according to the plans of the city Commissioner of City Planning Hans Grässel on municipal land. Today, it belongs to the urban "Münchenstift GmbH". Here, one is already on Gerner hall, in the territory of the four large farms, the whole hamlet Gern exclusively made up into the 19th century. From the heritage of secularisation, the courtyards to the fragmentation of the four origin wannabes (purple, orange, yellow and green border) led, the city of Munich acquired the late 19th century a number of reason for the construction of social facilities. These include, for example, the Dantebad (1), the Heiliggeistspital (6) and the Dall'Armi- Bürgerheim (7) (Map of steel Eder). Dall'Armi citizens home 30 31 On the site of Oswald-court, one of the four "primitive cell" wannabes, erected the owner in 1876 a brewery with beer garden. The Gerner brewery was one of the typical for the Municipality microbreweries, which for a time made it with its popular beer gardens to make the big successful competition. In 1919 she was taken over by the Löwenbräu AG. The pub was not received until 1970; then built the new home on the site at the Klugstraße a condominium. Just opposite to the Gerner Straße 33 the oldest surviving house wannabes, the former seat of the royal's hunting management is was. Nymphenburg Biedersteiner Channel The Bad Gerner on a postcard, circa 1900. It was only by the competition of 1913 opened Dante bades, major urban Badean- Supervisory Authority a piece channel- down that Gerner Bad lost its attraction value and in 1920 was closed. The canal was built by Elector Max Emanuel at the beginning of the 18th century. The waterways should complement the land and were in the baroque system of visual axes, reference points and symmetrical persons classified perspectives. It was made to the agricultural needs of farmers in Gern and elsewhere into consideration. The Würm channels enriched the image aesthetically and also were suitable for bathing amusements. One of the oldest free-time facilities was the 1856 eröff- designated Bad Gern at the Klug- (Nederland linger) road. The channel attracted not only bathers but was also suitable as a location for hotel and restaurant establishments. Letterhead Gerner brewery of 1909. Links the company logo, which the silhouettes of Munich and Nymphenburg shows in the background, in front the old fountain Winthir-, which was destroyed during the war. 32 33 Villenkolonie Gern The well-known Bavarian writers stel lerin Lena Christ (1881-1920) never lived at the Künstlerkolo-. In Wilhelm Düll-Straße 5, she experienced the 1912 release of their debut work "Memoirs of a Superfluous", which was created under the influence of her second husband Peter Benedict dix. The many apartment unit change of writer who moved to the Pilarstraße continue in 1914, are symptomatic of a pensionable loose and always marked by economical emergency life. The marriage with Benedix from which she sought more and more artistic and emotional le independence, its not brought the hoped since her unhappy childhood security. 1920 committed suicide Lena Christ. The poison she received from Bendix. "The Bavarian poet" was Lena Christ, in the words of Werner Friedmann. The photo dates from the period before the First World War. The studio windows of these houses on the Klugstraße (Low 1906) they made particularly attractive for visual artists: In the first house the number of simplex plicissimus illustrator Thomas Theodor Heine lived. Numerous further artists were and are attracted by the Villenkolonie gen: not only a painter as the 'Cats Adam "(Julius Adam D.J.) or the landscape painter Philipp Röth but also writers like Manfred Bieler. The change wannabes from a farming village in monastic possession for villas suburb of Munich started at the beginning of the 19th century with the secularization. In the closed areas of the former farms, new usages prevailed gradually. The begun by entrepreneur Jakob Heilmann in the 1890s families houses colony has its origins in the wooden peasant house which Heilmann had acquired. The Parzellie- tion of construction sites, installation of roads, opening up through sewers, he took as a private entrepreneur. Prospects for "family homes" came mainly from the middle class formed. 34 35 Taxisgarten Dom-Pedro-Platz The "recreational park for war and body damaged e.V." was based on a self-help initiative of war invalids after the First World War. They leased the land to the taxi street in 1920 by the Krongutsverwaltung and directed the recreation center with a park, sports fields, resting places, a bathroom and a glasshouse for sweating cures a. In addition, the large clubhouse with an auditorium, a library, a restaurant, and above all a beautiful beer garden opened in 1924, the still enjoys great popularity. As "war victims" the invalids were courted by the Nazipropa- ganda first and then brought into line. The recreation center was the "Park of the National Front" and experienced as such the destruction by the bombing. The main entrance to the club home of Kriegsbe- damaged with the inscription Eugen Roth in 1924 exceeded the Second World War: "You gave life and property in holy sacrificial courage for our Germany. Possi this home to toil and torment you his place of rest. " The ensemble of the cathedral Pedro Square to lock channel beck marks in one the express way the upswing of the municipal administration of services at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. The buildings are located on municipal land, which was acquired already partly in anticipation of the formation Eingemein- wannabes in 1899 by the city. In addition to the Protestant Christ Church emerged as urban buildings of the orphanage in channel boiler, the school at Dom-Pedro- Square and Altenheimkom- plex of Heiliggeistspital. Planender architect was Stadtbaurat Hans Grässel, the cemeteries for the large urban cemetery the plant, so the nearby West cemetery, was responsible. The general drawing of the city Commissioner of City Planning Hans Grässel of 1905 shows the ensemble at Dom Pedro Square and the cathedral Pedro Street (or today's St. Galler-road) to channel boilers. 37 Footbridge Braganzastraße Between 1858 and 1892 led the railway line from the main station to Landshut on the route of today's "Landshuter Allee". After laying the railway line to the west (to the Nymphenburger Park around) here was a quiet avenue of lime trees, to remember most the re- maining trees. 38 39 40 41 Leonrodstraße The work of Carl Spitzweg, Max Liebermann and other Dachau School artists can be seen in the Gemäldegalerie Dachau (%567 50; www.dachauer; Konrad-Adenauer-Str 3; adult/concession €3.50/2; h11am-5pm Tue-Fri, 1-5pm Sat & Sun), next to the tourist office. Climb up to the roof terrace for a view of the city and the landscape that inspired them. Getting There & Around Dachau is about 16km northwest of central Munich. The S2 makes the trip from Munich Hauptbahnhof to the station in Dachau in 22 minutes. You’ll need a two-zone ticket (€4.40) or four strips of a Streifenkarte, including the bus connection. Here change to bus 720/722 to get to the Altstadt and the Schloss and bus 726 (direction ‘Saubachsiedlung’) to get to the camp. Show your stamped ticket to the driver. By car, follow Dachauer Strasse straight out to Dachau and follow the Altstadt or KZ-Gedenkstätte signs. SCHLEISSHEIM %089 / pop 5700 / elev 486m The northern Munich suburb of Schleissheim is renowned for its three palaces and an avia- tion museum. A combination ticket to the palaces is €6/5 adult/concession. Children under 18 years are free. The crown jewel of the palatial trio is the Neues Schloss Schleissheim (New Palace; %315 8720;; Max-Emanuel-Platz 1, Schleissheim; adult/concession €4/3; h9am-6pm Apr- Sep, 10am-4pm Oct-Mar, closed Mon). This pompous pile was dreamed up by Prince-Elector Max Emanuel in 1701 in anticipation of his pro- motion to emperor. It never came. Instead he was forced into exile for over a decade and didn’t get back to building until 1715. Cash flow problems required the scaling back of the original plans, but given the palace’s huge dimensions (the façade is 330m long) and opulent interior, it’s hard to imagine where exactly they cut back. Some of the fin- est artists of the baroque era were called in to create such eye-candy sights as the cer- emonial staircase, the Victory Hall and the Grand Gallery. There are outstanding pieces of period furniture, including the elector’s four-poster bed, amazing intricately inlaid tables, and a particularly impressive ceiling fresco by Cosmas Damian Asam. The palace is home to the Staatsgalerie (State Gallery), a selection of European baroque art drawn from the Bavarian State Collection, including works by such masters as Peter Paul Rubens, Antonis van Dyck and Carlo Saraceni. The most impressive room here is the Grand Galerie. While construction was ongoing, the elec- tor resided in the fanciful hunting palace of Schloss Lustheim (%315 8720; adult/concession €3/2; h9am-6pm Apr-Sep, 10am-4pm Oct-Mar, closed Mon), on a little island in the eastern Schlosspark, providing an elegant setting for porcelain masterpieces from Meissen. Nearby, the Altes Schloss Schleissheim (%315 8720; Maximilianshof 1; adult/concession €2.50/1.50; h9am- 6pm Apr-Sep, 10am-4pm Oct-Mar, closed Mon) is a mere shadow of its Renaissance self. It houses paint- ings and sculpture on religious culture and festivals all over the world, including an im- pressive collection of more than 100 crèches. Only a short walk away, the Flugwerft Schleissheim (%315 7140; www.deutsches-museum .de/flugwerft; Effnerstrasse 18; adult/concession/family €5/3/10; h9am-5pm), the aviation branch of the Deutsches Museum (p101), makes for a nice change of pace and aesthetics. Spirits will soar at the sight of the lethal Soviet MiG-21 fighter jet, the Vietnam-era F-4E Phantom and a replica of Otto Lilienthal’s 1894 glider, with a revolutionary wing shaped like Batman’s cape. Another highlight is the open workshop where you can observe the restoration of his- torical flying machines. Kids can climb into an original cockpit, land a plane and even get their ‘pilot’s license’. To get to Schleissheim, take the S1 (di- rection: Freising) to Oberschleissheim, then walk along Mittenheimer Strasse for about 15 minutes towards the palaces. On weekdays only, bus 292 goes to the ‘Schloss Lustheim’ stop. By car, take Leopoldstrasse north until it becomes Ingolstädter Strasse. Then take the A99 to the Neuherberg exit, at the south end of the airstrip. FREISING %08161 / pop 43,000 / elev 448m For a thousand years Freising was the spir- itual and cultural centre of southern Bavaria. Now near the airport, it is a bedroom com- munity for Munich but retains the feel of a traditional market town. In 1821 the bishop bowed to the inevitable and moved his seat to Munich. Freising sank in the ecclesiastical ranking but hung onto its religious gems, the main reasons to visit today. The town was a major way station in the life of Pope Benedict, who studied and taught at the university, was ordained as a priest and later even became archbishop here. Orientation & Information The bulk of Freising’s sights are in the Altstadt on or around the Lehrberg, site of the cathe- dral complex and more popularly known as the Domberg. For information, visit the tourist office (%541 22;, in German; Marienplatz 7; tours per adult/concession/family €6.50/4/12; h9am- 6pm Mon-Fri, 9am-1pm Sat & Sun). Staff run several guided tours in English, including one that follows in the steps of the Pope. Check for specific times. MUNICH MUNICH 134 AROUND MUNICH •• Freising  135 Sights Freising’s charming Altstadt is crisscrossed by a tangle of lanes lined by baroque and Renaissance town houses, immaculately restored and clean almost to a fault. Looming over the old town is the Domberg, a hub of religious power with the twin-towered Dom St Maria und St Korbinian (%1810; h8am-noon & 2-5pm, to 6pm May-Oct) as its focal point. The restored church interior is a head-turning masterpiece by the Asam brother megastars, whose baroque frescoes grace the most pious ceilings of Bavaria. Remnants from the Gothic era include the choir stalls and a Lamentation of Christ painting in the left aisle. The altar painting by Rubens is a copy of the original in the Alte Pinakothek museum in Munich. Don’t miss the crypt, not so much to view Korbinian’s mortal remains as to admire the forest of pillars, no two of which are carved alike. The famous Bestiensäule (Beast Pillar) features an epic allegory of Christianity fight- ing the crocodile-like monsters of evil. East of the Dom are the cloisters, whose halls drip with fancy stucco and a thousand years’ homage in marble plaques to the bish- ops of Freising. The baroque hall of the cathe- dral library (h2-3pm Mon-Fri mid-May–Oct) shines with the gold-and-white fantasies of François Cuvilliés, designer of the magnificent Cuvilliés Theatre in Munich. At the western end of the hill is the Dom Museum Freising (%487 90; Domberg 21; adult/child €2/1; h10am-5pm Tue-Sun). The largest ecclesi- astical museum in Germany, it has a Fort Knox–worthy collection of bejewelled gold vessels, reliquaries and ceremonial regalia as well as some exquisite nativity scenes. Pride of place goes to the Lukasbild, a 12th-century Byzantine icon set in its own diminutive sil- ver altar. Upstairs you’ll discover works by Rubens and other masters. Southwest of the Domberg, a former Benedictine monastery hosts, among other university faculties, a respected college of beer brewing. Also here is the Staatsbrauerei Weihenstephan, (%5360;; Alte Akademie 2; tours 60/120min €6/9; h10am Mon-Wed, 1.30pm Wed), a brewery founded in 1040, making it the world’s oldest that’s still in operation. Guided tours trace 1000 years of brewery his- tory in the museum, which is followed by a behind-the-scenes spin around the ‘hallowed halls’ and concluded with a beer tasting (you get to keep the glass). Bookings are advised. Tours include a pretzl and a €2 voucher good for souvenirs or another brew served in the beer garden and the vaulted cellar of the Bräustüberl. Getting There & Away Freising is about 35km northeast of Munich at the northern terminus of the S1 (€6.60, 40 minutes) and is also frequently served by faster regional trains (€6.60, 25 minutes). The Domberg and Altstadt are a 10-minute walk from the train station. By car, take Leopoldstrasse north and turn right on Schenkendorfstrasse. Then take the A9 north and the A92 to the Freising-Mitte exity it is a listed building and houses the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees. Aerial view of the KdF Town, 1937. 9 KdF-Town The KdF Town, a recreational area managed by the NS organization Kraft durch Freude (Strength through Joy), was opened in 1937. Folklore and funfair events took place in the wooden buildings to entertain visitors to the Nazi Party Rallies. The buildings burned down during World War II. Housing estates and sports fields now cover this area. Prisoner-of-war camp in Langwasser, 1940. 10 Camp Zone A camp zone was established adjacent to the March Field, southeast of the Nazi Party Rally Grounds. This is where the SA, SS, HJ and other Nazi organizations housed their participants. From 1939 on, parts of the camp zone served as a prisoner-of-war camp, packed with an average number of about 30,000 people from various nations. Camp inmates worked for the City of Nuremberg on the construction sites of the Nazi Party Rally Grounds until 1943. Several thousand of these prisoners died because of insufficient nutrition provided and inadequate accommodation in shacks and tents. On 17/18 April, 1945, the US Army liberated the POW camp Nuremberg-Langwasser. After 1945, the camp was used first as an American internment and international refugee camp. Later it became a Federal reception camp for foreigners. From the 1950s on, the suburb of Langwasser was established on the camp area and on other parts of the former Nazi Party Rally Grounds. Back to Jump Navigation Electronic Communication Data Protection to the White House to tell Nixon his support in Congress had collapsed, they wou