Mr. Heath's List of Events from 1871-1950

Date Event
1815 -The Congress of Vienna redraws the European map. The Concert of Europe attempts to preserve this settlement, but it fails to stem the tide of liberalism and nationalism that sweeps over the continent.  
-Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo by Wellington brings a conclusion to the Napoleonic Wars and start of British supremacy
1837–1901 -Queen Victoria's reign is considered the apex of the British Empire and is referred to as the Victorian era.
1848 - The Communist Manifesto published. 
- Revolutions of 1848 in Europe
1853–56 - Crimean War between the United Kingdom, the Ottoman Empire, the French and Russia
1857 - Indian Mutiny
1861–65 - American Civil War between the Union and seceding Confederacy- First "industrial" war
1866 - Austro-Prussian War results in the dissolution of the German Confederation and the creation of the North German Confederation and the Austrian-Hungarian Dual Monarchy.
1869 - The Suez Canal opens linking the Mediterranean to the Red Sea 
1871 -Franco-Prussian War ends with creation of Germany in Versailles
- German Economy growing fast, European population increasing, Ottoman empire collapsing, Germany had angered Austria before
- Bismarck strives to keep Austria and Russia happy, isolate France
1873 -Dreikaiserbund Between Russia Germany Austria
April 1875 - “War in sight” Crisis – German article inspired war thoughts, France felt threatened, nobody wanted war
July 1875 - Balkan uprisings – loss of DKB unity
1877-78 - Russo-Turkish war – Britain and Austria get what they want, First Balkan Independences
- Berlin Congress – ended R-T War, Russia blamed Germany for loss and pulled out of DKB
1879 - Dual alliance with Austria – to scare Russia into an alliance
1881 - Three emperor’s Alliance – temporarily reduced anger
1882 - Triple Alliance with Italy – further scare Russia
- Renewal of DKB – Bismarck’s plan worked
1884-85 Berlin West Africa conference – Opened Africa and set rules, conflict between FR and BR. -Signals the start of the European "scramble for Africa". Attending nations also agree to ban trade in slaves.
1885-87 - Bulgarian Civil War – Russia backed Bulgaria, Austria backed Serbia – DKB destroyed
June 1887 - Last chance at keeping peace with Russia – last for 3 years, only with Russia
June 1888 - Kaiser Wilhelm II inherits power
John Röhl – “manic depressive”
1890 -Wilhelm "drops the pilot"- Bismarck is kicked out of power by Wilhelm
-Reinsurance treaty let lapse/not renewed – seen as against friendship with Austria
- Caprivi new chancellor
1891 - Schlieffen Plan created
- Franco-Russian political agreement, France and Russia agree to discuss before going to war
1893 - Agrarian League Formed – combat Caprivi’s aggressive tariffs and farmers' subsidies
1894 -  Franco-Russian military Alliance comes to being – agree to help if attacked by a member of the triple alliance
1894-98 - Dreyfus Affair – French military accused of giving secrets to Germany; shows corruption and degree of anti-Semitism at highest levels
1897 - Weltpolitik – Establishment of Germany as a world Power – Navy, Colonies, Threat tactics, attempted to scare Britain into an alliance
1899, 1902,
- Austro-Italian Agreements
– Franco-Italian Agreements
– Austro-Russian Agreement
Dual, Triple alliances rendered non-existent, Germany doesn’t care
1900 - German Navy Law
1901 Victoria dies
1902 - Britain Naval treaty with Japan – so Britain doesn’t worry about Pacific
1904-05 - Russo-Japanese War – Russians humiliated
1904 - Entente cordiale – loose agreement between FR and BR, settled African disputes
1905 - First Moroccan Crisis – France allowed to extend into Morocco, Germany’s Weltpolitik attempts to separate FR and BR, instead relationship strengthened, German humiliation
1906 - Germany invests in building Dreadnoughts, challenging Britain
-Algeciras conference – BR, FR and RU make Germany promise to stay out of Morocco
1907 - Britain and Russia settled their disputes, of which in Persia
- Triple Entente – not firm but still split Europe, alarmed by Germany’s actions
1908 - Daily Telegraph Interview – Wilhelm too threatening, insulted too many, embarrassment, Weltpolitik doomed
- Bosnian Crisis – Austria claims Bosnia, Russia objected but no escalation, nobody cared, Russia vowed to not back down again
1909 - Naval Race peaks – negotiations attempted but unsuccessful and weakens relationship – “We want eight and we won’t wait”
(Dreadnoughts At End) Britain – 29     Germany – 17
1911 - Second Moroccan Crisis Agadir – Morocco requests French troops, Wilhelm sends gunboat, threat fails again, naval pact between BR and FR
1912 - Germany is socialist with SPD in power (until 1932) “First Balkan War” – The balkans defeat the Turks and divide up land
- Britain and Germany organize peace conference to end the dispute, Germany thinks because of british cooperation, they will follow Germany in the next conflict
- A-H chief of staff Hotzendorf urges war with Serbia (as he has for a long time)
1913 - “Second Balkan war” – Bulgaria is not satisfied and fights Serbia for more, Serbia defeats Bulgaria and gains confidence to attack even larger nation
1914 - German Army at 8.5 million, much larger than all others but Russian was growing fast, scared Germany
June 28- Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia by Gavrilo Princip on a Serbian holiday, Black hand
July Crisis
July 5- Germany assures Austria that they will stick to their treaty, Black Hand
July 13- Austrian judicial system says Serbia had no part in crime
July 23- Austria gives Serbia 48 hour ultimatum “made to be unacceptable”
July 25- Russia requests time extension
Serbia rejects ultimatum - only the point of Austrian police in Serbia
July 26- Russian towns on the border place din a state of war
July 28- Kaiser Wilhelm thinks there is no reason for war because of Serbia’s only part-rejection of the ultimatum
- Austria declares war on Serbia
July 29- Austria bombards Belgrade
Russia mobilises
Aug 1- Germany mobilises and declares war on Russia
France mobilises
Italy declares neutrality 
Aug 3- Belgium refuses German demands
Germany declares war on France
Aug 4- Britain declares war on Germany after they rejected their demands
Claimed following neutrality agreement from 1839, but first regiment sent to Baghdad
Aug 6- Austria declares war on Russia
1915 - Lusitania sinks
1917 Feb - Zimmerman Telegram – German secretary of state assures Mexico of German backing in a US attack, was intercepted
Mar - Russian Revolution overthrows the Tsar
Apr 6- US declares war
Nov 7 -
(25 October under old calendar.) The Bolsheviks, led by Lenin, seize power in Russia.
1918 Jan - USSR surrenders/signs armistice with Germany
Mar 3- USSR signs Treaty of Brest-Litovsk – Tim Snyder: Holocaust begins here

 c. April 1918-November 1920. Period of Allied intervention in Russian civil war in opposition to Bolsheviks: British, French, US and Japanese forces side with the 'Whites' against Lenin. 1Mar 24- German Operation Michael with 1 million more soldiers from the east to reinforce the west and outnumber the Allies by 10%
Sept 29- Ludendorff informs the Kaiser that only an armistice could save the doomed army now
Oct- October Revolution in Germany
- Turkey signs armistice
Oct 29- Sailors at Kiel mutiny, revolution is spread rapidly
-An independent Yugoslavia is proclaimed – the Black Hand succeeded
Nov 3- A-H armistice with Allies, although the country doesn’t exist anymore

Nov 7- Bavarian monarchy abdicates
Nov 9- Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates to the Netherlands
- Weimar Republic proclaimed
Nov 11- Germany signs an armistice
1919 Jan - Spartacists Putsch from Left wing
January 19- Constituent Assembly elections; SPD wins 38%
March- Hungarian Soviet Republic declared 
March 5- Formation of Communist International, by Lenin, to encourage Communist revolution worldwide.
April- Communist revolution succeeds in Bavaria
May- Soviet Socialist republic of Bavaria proclaimed

June 28 - Treaty of Versailles – 200 pages, 440 clauses
Wilson 14 points – §231 “War Guilt”, §232 Reparations, §156 Shandong
400 on Germany, 14 on LoN, created angry small countries

July 31- Weimar Constitution adopted
Sept- Treaty of St. Germain – reparations  Austria is a country and weak – no bond between AUS and GER Lost 15mil people, led to extreme hyperinflation, 30,000 army
Nov- Treaty of Neuilly – Bulgaria pays reparations, the most under Germany, 20,000 army
1920 Poland invades Lithuania, claims capital
Mar- General Wolfgang Kapp leads coup attempt in Berlin

April- Civil war in Ruhr area
June- Treaty of Trianon – Hungary loses 2/3 of country and must pay reparations, 35,000 army, 3/4 people, 

June 6- Holborn: “a turning away from democracy”. Nationalists, with 15%, go far right; Independents cut heavily into SPD vote; original Weimar coalition never again a majority.
Aug- Treaty of Sevres; No more Ottoman empire – straits opened
- France begins Little Entente – until 1927 – distrust with LoN
1921 March- Upper Silesia Plebiscite; mixed result
- War between Poland and USSR ends with Treaty of Riga 
July 21- Hitler becomes leader of NSDAP
1921-22 - Washington Naval conference
Outside LoN – arms control for countries US 5, UK 5, Japan 3, France 1.8
1922 -Treaty of Rapallo – Germany and Russia join and no longer isolated
Germany could produce weapons, undermining ToV 

-Mussolini takes power
1923 - By the end of 1923, a sandwich inflated from 4 marks to 4 trillion marks
Super hyperinflation – Burning bills produced more warmth than the wood
Nazis support, in one month, up 255x – 6,000-55,000

-Treaty of Lausanne – replaced Sevres, turkey could close straits
-Corfu Incident – Italy invades Greece but LoN takes side of Italy
-German defaults because of reparations, Allies invade industrial Ruhr – didn’t consult LoN and 132 dead (same as LW bombing London, forced 150,000 out of homes
Britain and France don’t trust each other

October- Leftist coalition government in Saxony and Thuringia
October 24-25 - Communist uprising in Hamburg
Nov- Stresemann establishes Rentenmark and stabilises economy
Nov 9- Hitler’s Munich Beer Hall Putsch – perhaps influenced by Stresemann’s call to stop resistance in the Ruhr
1924  January 21- Death of Lenin.
- Dawes Plan – American Loans to Germany, stabilise economy, reduce reparations
April 1- Hitler sentenced to five years in gaol
1925 - Bulgarian Incident – Greek soldiers invade Bulgaria over killed soldiers and Macedonia, LoN tells Greece to leave
- Locarno treaties – Germany treated differently, reinforced western borders (not eastern) Stresemann “Voluntarily gave land to France”
1926 - Germany is admitted into the League of Nations
1927 - Germany’s Economy is returned to its pre-war levels
1928 January- Stalin becomes the dominant leader in USSR
- German unemployment 2 million
- NSDAP- 2.6% support nationwide 

- Kellogg-Briand Pact – Countries promise not to use war as a means for national security 
1929 Young Plan – more American investments, Germany pays way less than before
Oct 4- Stresemann dies
Oct 29- Wall Street crash 

Dec- Stalin's birthday coverage demonstrates assumption of power
-USSR's first 5YearPlan starts but is backdated to 1928
1930 Jan- Young Plan reduces German reparations
- London Naval Conference begins; 10-10-7
1931 July- Hoover’s Moratorium – One year ban on all reparations payments between countries, France first declines then accepts
Sept- Japan marches into Manchuria – by Feb establishes control, LoN sends Lord Lytton a year late, report only implemented in 1933 
1932 -German unemployment hits 6 million, tripled with depression
June - Lausanne talks – to help Germany repay, America didn’t accept, lose money, had to go back to Young plan
July- NSDAP replaces SDP as largest party with 37% support 
October- Iraq becomes first and only League mandate to gain independence
November- NSDAP loses 2 million votes with 33% support
1933 Jan 30- Hitler appointed Chancellor - Bullock:"jobbed into office by old guard"
Feb- Disarmament conference in Geneva – Germany walked out because they wanted to rearm – France reorganises Little Entente
- Japan rejects LoN report on Manchuria and walks out of League
Feb 27- The Reichstag is set on fire, still unclear who did it – Hitler took advantage of this and issued emergency decree to suspend civil rights
Mar 5- Federal elections, Nazis receive 43.9% – still no majority
- Riots “in celebration” – Hitler replaces local governments with Nazis because they are incapable of control
Mar 10- Hitler orders riots should stop – begin of large-scale propaganda
Mar 23- Enabling Act passed for 4 years – Hitler given dictatorial powers – passed because communists, socialist held out by SA and Hitler agreed to respect church
April- Officials with questionable racial, ethnic background are dismissed
-Gestapo created
May 2- Hitler abolishes all trade unions through SA and SS and create the DAF trade union, membership obligatory
June 22- SPD outlawed as hostile party
July 14- Germany is a Single Party State
July 8- Hitler signs concordat with the Pope – both parties will leave other alone
Oct- Germany leaves the League of Nations 

November 17- US opens diplomatic relations with USSR for first time.  
1934 Jan- State Parliaments are abolished, even though the Nazis higher up could pass laws without their consent
-Polish-German non-aggression pact signed
Feb- Four-Power Pact – Italy, Germany, France, Britain – agreements rarely made
June 30- Night of the Long Knives – Hitler takes care of annoying SA and Röhm, also some other enemies, Hitler receives recognition for heroic act against treason – SA becomes propaganda tool, what Röhm feared.

July- Attempted Nazi coup in Austria fails; Chancellor Dolfuss killed; Mussolini sends troops to border with Austria
Aug 2- Hindenburg dies and Hitler issues decree, proclaiming himself Führer merging party, executive, and prime ministerial functions; armed forces swear oath of loyalty to Hitler

August 16- Plebiscite allows Hitler to combine Chancellorship and Presidency
- USSR joins LoN
- Balkan Pact – Balkan states join in an alliance against larger nations
1935 March 16- Germany introduces Conscription
April- Stresa Conference to stop Germany

- German justice system centralised
May- - USSR and France sign 5-year alliance, like the Franco-Russian alliance of 1894
June- Anglo-German Naval Treaty- Germany gets 35% of Royal naval tonnage
Sept 15- Racial Purity law
Oct- Italy invades Abyssinia, claiming land – 4 days later declared aggressor
- Most aggressive action by the LoN: sanctions on Italy but not the essentials for war like oil, coal and metals
Nov- Hoare-Laval Pact – Lots of Abyssinia given to Italy, no regard for natives; AJP Taylor: "The League died in 1935... was seen as useless fraud... Hitler watched

November 14- Reich Citizenship Law; Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honour. Defines who was and who was not a Jew. Goal is to encourage emigration, which results in exodus of approximately 500,000 Jews in Germany and Austria. Forbids intermarriage or sexual relations between Jews and Germans; also covers relations with blacks, Sinti, and Roma.
1936 February 10- Concentration camps come under SS control
March-German remilitarisation of the Rhineland
May- Conquest of Abyssinia

September 9- Four-year plan announced
Oct- Axis Pact – Germany, Italy

-Reich Office for Combating Homosexuality and Abortion established
Nov- Anti-Comintern pact signed between Germany and Japan
Europe is splitting yet again

- Spanish Civil War begins

1938 Mar- Germany introduces Conscription
April- Stresa Conference to stop Germany

May- - USSR and France sign 5-year alliance, like the Franco-Russian alliance of 1894
June- Anglo-German Naval Treaty- Germany gets 35% of Royal naval tonnage
Sept 15- Racial Purity law
Oct- Italy invades Abyssinia, claiming land – 4 days later declared aggressor
- Most aggressive action by the LoN: sanctions on Italy but not the essentials for war like oil, coal and metals
Nov- Hoare-Laval Pact – Lots of Abyssinia given to Italy, no regard for natives; AJP Taylor: "The League died in 1935... was seen as useless fraud... Hitler watched

November 9- Reichskristallnacht
1939 May 1- NSDAP re-opens membership rolls
August 23- Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact made, dividing Poland between Germany and USSR and establishing 'spheres of influence' in Eastern Europe. 
September 1-  Germany invades Poland
September 3- Britain declares war; start of Second World War
September 17- USSR attacks helpless Poland, annexes half
November 30- March 12 1940-  'Winter War' fought between USSR and Finland. The war is hard-fought, but results in Soviet territorial gains.
June 15-16- Soviet forces occupy Baltic states of Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania (independent since 1918), claiming there is a military threat to the Soviet Union; formally annexed on 1-8 August

June 22-  France betrays Britain and agrees to armistice with Germany, after German advances since May; Britain faces Germany alone; Italy allied to Germany.
March 11- US begins 'lend-lease' economic and military aid to Britain (to USSR in November).
June 22- Germany launches invasion of USSR.
August 11- Meeting at sea off Newfoundland, Roosevelt and Churchill issue Atlantic Charter, promising restoration of independence to conquered states. August-September- British and Soviet forces occupy Iran, needed as a supply route from the West to Russia.
December 7- Japanese attack US forces at Pearl Harbour, forcing America into the war. 
December  15-18-  Visit by British Foreign Secretary, Eden, to Moscow; he finds that Stalin hopes to retain gains made under Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact.
December 22- January 7 1942. 'Arcadia' conference of Roosevelt and Churchill in Washington plans war strategy and agrees to set up Anglo-American Combined Chiefs of Staff.
January 1-  Twenty-six Allied countries sign 'United Nations' declaration and agree not to make a separate peace with Germany, Italy and Japan.
May 26- Twenty-year Soviet-British alliance against Germany signed.
August 12-15- Churchill and Stalin meet in Moscow to discuss war strategy.
November 8- British and American forces land in North-West Africa; first US military involvement on land against German forces.
December 12- Soviet-Czech alliance signed, showing Czech desire to work with Soviets after the war.
January 14-24- Casablanca Conference of Roosevelt and Churchill sees announcement that Germany and her allies must surrender 'unconditionally' 

February 1-  Siege of Stalingrad ends, marking turning point in war on Russian front, after large German forces surrender to the Soviets.

April 27- Stalin suspends relations with Polish government-in-exile after arguments over whether Germany or USSR carried out 'Katyn massacre' of Polish officers, after their occupation of Poland in 1939.

May 12-25- 'Trident' conference of Roosevelt and Churchill, in Washington, discusses possible invasion of France.

May 15- Stalin dissolves Comintern to please the Western allies.

May 18- June 1- Hot Springs conference near Washington discusses establishment of United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA). Formally set up in November.

July 10- Anglo-American invasion of Sicily begins liberation of Western Europe. July 25- Mussolini replaced in Italy by Marshal Badoglio, ending Fascist rule there.

August 17-24- At Quebec Conference Roosevelt and Churchill decide to invade France in mid-1944.

September 8- Italian armistice announced; Italy soon (13 October) yet again changes sides in the war, joining the Allies.

October 18-30- In Moscow 'Big Three' foreign ministers lay the ground for a leaders' meeting, discuss establishment of UN organisation and set up a European Advisory Commission to discuss policy in post-war Germany.

November 22-26- In Cairo Roosevelt, Churchill and China's Chiang Kai-shek discuss strategy in Far East.

November 28- December 1- First 'Big Three' Summit between Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin in Tehran, discusses war strategy and future cooperation.

December 4-6. At second Cairo Conference, Roosevelt and Churchill decide Eisenhower should be Supreme Allied Commander in West.
June 6- 'D-Day': Anglo-American invasion of France, code-named Operation Overlord, begins full-scale 'second front' in the West.

July 1-22- Bretton Woods Conference, of forty-four nations, on financial economic issues, agrees to establish International Monetary Fund (to stabilise currencies) and World Bank (for reconstruction and development). Soviets refuse to join.

July 21- Red Army sets up a Communist 'Committee of National Liberation' in Lublin, Poland, after 'liberating' eastern areas of the country.

August 1- October 2- Warsaw rising of Polish resistance's 'Home Army' against Germans. Soviets fail to provide support for it and the rising is eventually crushed.

August 23- Germany's ally Romania signs armistice following Soviet invasion.

September 8- Germany's ally Bulgaria changes sides in war following Soviet invasion three days earlier.

September 11-16- At second Quebec Conference Roosevelt and Churchill discuss post-war occupation of Germany.

September 19- Germany's ally Finland signs armistice with USSR.

October 3 British forces begin to arrive in Greece; its liberation is completed by 11 November.

October 7- Dumbarton Oaks Conference in America of US, USSR, Britain and China (begun 21 August) results in draft UN charter.

October 9-18- Moscow Conference of Stalin and Churchill includes 'percentages deal' creating British and Soviet spheres of influence in the Balkans.

November 7- Roosevelt re-elected president for fourth term, beating Thomas E. Dewey.

December 3- Fighting breaks out between British forces and the Communist resistance movement in Greece, who oppose the restoration of the Greek monarchy.

December 25- After the fighting in Greece Churchill himself arrives in Athens to settle the differences.
January 1- Soviets recognise their puppet Communist administration in Poland as the 'provisional government'; America and Britain refuse to recognise it.

January 13- Truce between British and Communist forces in Athens is followed (February) by the Varkiza Agreement promising a referendum on the return of the monarchy and other reforms.

January 20- Germany's ally Hungary signs armistice with USSR.

February 4-12- Yalta Summit in Crimea of Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill discusses post-war Europe, UN and Far East.

March 6- Petru Groza becomes head of Communist-led government in Romania. March 15- Stalin criticises Anglo-American talks in Berne with local German commander about surrender of German forces in Italy: Stalin fears these forces will be sent to the Eastern Front.

April 4- Roosevelt condemns Stalin's criticisms of Berne talks as 'vile misrepresentations' .

April 11- Soviet-Yugoslav Treaty of Mutual Assistance signed. (Similar treaties were signed between all Communist Eastern European states including Soviet-Polish treaty on 21 April.)

April 12- Death of Roosevelt; succeeded by Harry S. Truman.

April 23- Truman strongly warns Molotov, in Washington, that Soviets must adhere to Yalta Agreements.

April 25- US and Soviet forces meet at Torgau on the River Elbe.

April 28- Mussolini captured and hanged by partisans.

April 30- Hitler commits suicide in Berlin.

May 1-  Anglo-American and Yugoslav Communist forces arrive in Trieste (previously Italian) and contest its control; danger of an armed clash.

May 8- V-E Day: formal German capitulation in Berlin; placed under British, US, Soviet, and French occupation.

May 11- With Germany defeated, Truman limits 'lend-lease' to goods needed for the war against Japan.

May 14- Austria, though under joint Allied occupation by US, Soviet, British and French is given an independent republican government under Karl Renner.

May 21- Tito, the Yugoslav leader, agrees to Anglo-American military government in Trieste.

June 6- Stalin agrees, in talks with US envoy Harry Hopkins, to expand the Polish government to include pro-Western elements.

June 21- Truman orders US forces in Czechoslovakia and Eastern Germany to withdraw to their own occupation areas, allowing Red Army to advance into pre-agreed areas of occupation.

Leaders of Polish resistance's 'home government' are gaoled in Warsaw for 'anti-Soviet activities'.

June 26- At end of San Francisco conference (begun 26 April) fifty countries launch UN charter, establishing a new world peace-keeping organisation.

June 28- New Polish government includes some former members of London-based government-in-exile.

June 29- Czechoslovakia hands border area of Ruthenia to USSR.

July 5- US and Britain recognise new Polish government, despite continued Communist predominance.

July 16- First atomic bomb successfully tested at Alamogordo, New Mexico.

July 17- August 2. Potsdam Summit of Big Three leaders establishes joint policies for the occupation of Germany.

July 26- British general election results in defeat for Churchill.

August 6- Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima.

August 8- Soviets betray Japanese to occupy areas of Manchuria

August 9- Atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki.

August 14- Soviet treaty with Chiang Kai-shek confirms Soviet territorial gains in China under Yalta Agreement.

August 15- Capitulation of Japan on understanding that Hirohito can remain Emperor.

August 23- End of America's 'lend-lease' programme.

September 2- Formal Japanese surrender to the Allies, on USS Missouri (V-J day). Communist resistance leader Ho Chi Minh proclaims independence of Vietnam (then part of Indo-China).

September 13- After Allied agreement on areas of occupation, British forces arrive in Saigon, southern Vietnam. (Chinese occupy northern Vietnam.)

September 11-October 2- London Conference: first meeting of Council of Foreign Ministers (US, USSR, Britain, China, France) set up at Potsdam to draft peace treaties with defeated enemy states, breaks down in disagreement, after various arguments between Soviets and Western states.

October 5-  French forces arrive in Saigon, and begin to take over from the British.

October 24- UN formally comes into existence.

October 27-Truman's Navy Day address restates US commitment to Atlantic Charter principles and strong armed forces.

November 15- Truman, Attlee and Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie King agree on basic plan to control atomic energy through UN.

November 18- Communist 'Fatherland Front' wins rigged elections in Bulgaria. November 20- Soviets refuse to allow Iranian troops into Iranian Azerbaijan, then under Red Army occupation leads to Anglo-American protest.

November 27- US General Marshall sent to China to negotiate a settlement between Nationalists and Communists, in the hope of avoiding a civil war.

December 6- US reconstruction loan to Britain finalised, after talks involving Lord Keynes.

December 16-26-  US, Soviet and British foreign ministers meet in Moscow and agree to new talks on peace treaties.
January 2- King Zog of Albania formally deposed by Communists.

January 5- Communists and Nationalists in China agree to end fighting.

January 10- First regular session of UN General Assembly opens in London.

February 9- Stalin speech during Soviet elections launches new Five Year Plan and describes Second World War as vindication of Communism.

February 11- Secret Yalta Agreement on Far East published, showing that Roosevelt ceded territories to USSR.

February 15-18- Arrests of a major Soviet spy ring in Canada.

February 22- From Moscow, US charge George Kennan sends 'the long telegram' analysing Soviet expansionist tendencies, and urging American resistance.

February 28- Speech by Secretary of State James Byrnes marks a toughening of US public stand against USSR.

March 2- Deadline passes, under wartime agreements, for Soviet troops to leave Iran; US and Britain begin diplomatic pressure to remove them.

March 5- Churchill's speech at Fulton, Missouri, condemns 'iron curtain' in Eastern Europe and calls for Anglo-American alliance. Criticised by Stalin on 13 March.

March 6- US note to Moscow complains about continued presence of Soviet troops in Iran.

March 24- Soviets agree to withdraw troops from Iran. (Last troops leave 6 May.)

April 20- East German Social Democrats forced to join Communists in 'Socialist Unity Party'.

April 25-  May 16- Council of Foreign Ministers, meeting in Paris, resumes talks on peace treaties (US, USSR, Britain, France).

May 3- US deputy governor General Clay suspends reparations from US zone in Germany and blames Soviet and French policy for lack of Allied agreement on Germany.

May 15- Albanians shell British ships off Corfu.

May 26- Communists are leading party (35 per cent) in Czech elections, and head a coalition government with democratic parties.

June 2- Italian referendum puts an end to the monarchy.

June 14- US Baruch Plan for control of atomic energy published; criticised by USSR.
July 25- First underground atomic test explosion by US at Bikini atoll.
August 1- McMahon Act by Congress prevents US sharing atomic secrets.
September 6- Speech by US Secretary of State Byrnes at Stuttgart declares more sympathetic policy towards Germany and promises to retain US troops in Germany until peace is assured.
September 12- Speech by US Secretary of Commerce Wallace calls for co-operation with USSR; as a result. Wallace is forced to resign (20 September).
September 19- Speech by Churchill in Zurich advocates European unity.
October 1- End of major Nuremberg war trials: several leading Nazis executed. October 20-Berlin municipal elections won by Social Democrats; Communists get one-fifth of vote.
December 2- 'Bizone' agreement fuses US and British occupation zones in Germany.
December 18 First Indo-China war begins.
1947  January 19- Rigged elections (originally promised at Yalta) held in Poland, despite Western complaints.
February 20- British announce independence for India.
February 21- British inform Washington that they can no longer provide financial aid to the Greek government.
March 4- Treaty of Dunkirk, directed against revival of German aggression, signed by Britain and France.
March 10- April 24- US, Soviet, British and French meet to discuss German and Austrian treaties, in Council of Foreign Ministers in Moscow; fail to reach agreement.
March 12- Truman Doctrine speech, to joint session of Congress, requests aid to Greek and Turkish governments to help resist Communism; approved by Congress on 15 May.
June 5- Launch of the Marshall Plan: Harvard speech by Marshall offers US economic aid for a European recovery plan, which Europeans should draw up.
June 27- July 2- Soviet, British and French foreign ministers meet in Paris to discuss the Marshall Plan; Molotov eventually walks out of the talks.
July. George Kennan's 'X' article is published in Foreign Affairs, providing intellectual justification for US policy of 'containment'.
July 10- Under Soviet pressure, Poland and Czechoslovakia turn down the invitation to discuss the Marshall Plan.
August 15- India and Pakistan become independent.
August 29- US and Britain increase industrial output of the Bizone, despite Soviet and French criticism.
August 31- Rigged elections ensure Communist victory in Hungary.
September 22-23- Soviet, East European, French and Italian Communists establish an Information Bureau (Cominform) at a conference in Poland; Soviet representatives declare that the world is now divided into two camps.
October- US House of Representatives' 'Un-American Activities Committee' begins to investigate Communist influence on Hollywood.
1948 February 19-25- Communist coup in Czechoslovakia; condemned by the West.
March 10- Czechoslovakia's democratic foreign minister, Jan Masaryk, dies after falling from a window. 
March 17- Britain, France, Belgium, Holland and Luxembourg sign the Brussels Pact, including pledges of mutual defence. 
March 18- Soviet military advisers are withdrawn from Yugoslavia because of resentment at Tito's independence.
April 1- Soviet officials begin regularly to interfere with Western surface traffic into Berlin.
April 2- US Congress approves Marshall Aid; the Economic Cooperation Administration is established to manage it.
May 10- Molotov and US Ambassador Bedell Smith on possible end to Cold War. 
May 14- Israel proclaimed a state (after British leave Palestine and UN agrees to partition it between Jews and Arabs); first Arab-Israeli war follows.
June 1- US, Britain and France announce London Conference decisions including establishment of a West German state.
June 18- Western powers begin to introduce new currency in Western Germany.
June 24- Soviets launch full blockade of surface routes to West Berlin; Eastern bloc foreign ministers in Warsaw condemn Western policy in Germany.
June 26- Berlin airlift begins.
June 28- To Western surprise Yugoslavia is expelled from the Cominform; Eastern bloc denounces Tito as 'deviationist'.
July 15- 'Atomic-Capable' B29 bombers are sent by US to bases in Britain.
November 2- Truman narrowly re-elected president, defeating Thomas Dewey
January 22- Chinese Communists take Peking
January 25- Establishment of Comecon by the USSR and its satellites.
February 18- . Berlin airlift carries its millionth tonne of supplies.
April 4- North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington.
April 8-In Washington, US, Britain and France reach agreement on terms for creating West German state.
April 20- Chinese Communist forces cross the Yangtze, shelling British naval vessels.
May 4- USSR agrees to lift the Berlin blockade in return for four-power talks on Germany.
May 12- The Berlin blockade is lifted.
May 30- Soviets constitute an East German government.
June 29- US troops withdrawn from South Korea.
August 29- Soviets explode their first atomic bomb; announced by Truman on 22 September 15- Konrad Adenauer becomes first Chancellor of West Germany.
September 21- Mao Tse-tong declares the Chinese People's Republic.
October 7- East German constitution proclaimed.
January 12- US Secretary of State Acheson defines a 'defence perimeter' in the Far East, running from Alaska through Japan to the Philippines; later criticised by Republicans for omitting Korea.
January 14- Ho Chi Minh establishes a 'Democratic Republic of Vietnam'; recognised by China on 19th and USSR on 31 January.
January 25- Alger Hiss, former State Department official, is condemned for perjury, following allegations by Whitaker Chambers he was a Communist; the case makes Congressman Richard Nixon a household name.
January 31- Truman announces that America is to build a hydrogen bomb.
February 9- Beginning of 'McCarthyism': Senator Joe McCarthy, at Wheeling in West Virginia, claims there are over 200 Communist sympathisers in the State Department.
February 14- Sino-Soviet alliance signed by Mao Zedong in Moscow.
April 7- US policy document NSC-68 proposes large-scale arms programme.
June 27- UN, in Soviet absence, approves 'Uniting for Peace' resolution, to send forces to Korea.
East German-Polish treaty recognises the Oder-Neisse border.
Start of Korean War: North Korean forces invade South Korea. US forces are sent to Korea (arriving 1July); US Seventh Fleet
July 26- US makes major increase in military aid to French in Indo- China.
September 14- In Korea, UN forces under General MacArthur begin landings at Inchon which force a North Korean retreat.
September 28- Zhou Enlai warns UN forces not to invade North Korea. UN forces begin to cross the 38th parallel into North Korea.
October 21- Chinese forces invade Tibet.
October 26- Chinese 'volunteers' enter the Korean War.<
The French premier launches the Pleven Plan for German
November 26- Chinese intervene in force in Korea, driving UN forces back.
November 30- USSR vetoes anti-Chinese resolution at UN; Truman announces there has been 'active consideration' of the use of atomic bombs in Korea.
December 8- US ends all trade with China; Truman assures British premier Attlee in Washington that the atom bomb will not be used.