How Does the Film “Triumph of the Will” by Leni Riefenstahl Address the Night of the Long Knives?

Plan of Approach
I will compare the film Triumph of the Will to the original itinerary of the Nüremberg Party Rally as well as transcripts of Hitler’s speeches. I will read William Shirer’s eye-witness accounts of the 1934 Nüremberg Rally as recorded in his Berlin Diary. I will read The Perfect Nazi by Martin Davidson, a biography of the author’s grandfather, a member of the SS who attended the 1934 Nüremberg Rally. Additionally, I will examine photographs of the filming and of the Nüremberg Rally itself. I will go to the Reichsparteitagsgelände in the Luitpoldhain in Nüremberg in order to gain a genuine sense of the scope and perspective of the event, beyond the images shown in the film.

William L. Shirer describes the 1934 Reichsparteitag des deutschen Volkes in Nüremberg as a pseudo-pentecostal event in which the masses viewed Adolf Hitler “as if he were Messiah, their faces transformed into something positively inhuman”
. Despite the official purpose of strengthening the liaison between the Nazi Party and the German people and exemplifying the “unfolding glory and power” of the Third Reich, the annual NSDAP Nüremberg Rallies, as eminent historian Richard J. Overy claims, mainly served to foster Hitler’s cult of personality. Hitler desired the Nüremberg Rally of 1934 to be immortalized in recording and assigned his protégée, prominent filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl, the duty. The result was the groundbreaking masterpiece, Triumph des Willens, a motion picture that, despite its close association with Nazism, is still considered a keystone and “breathtaking” role model of modern cinema. Up to her death in 2003, Riefenstahl has consistently denied her alleged sympathy with the Nazi Party and has insisted that “Triumph of the Will” be regarded as a work of art rather than propaganda.
Every party rally was orchestrated thematically, yet the September 1934 Nüremberg Rally was the exception; only later, after Riefenstahl’s film, was it declared to be the “Rally of Power”
. However, this Rally posed a challenge for the dictator that unintentionally ironized the theme: just three months earlier, Hitler had took action against the Sturmabteilung (SA) and its leader, Ernst Röhm, in the infamous Night of the Long Knives, an operation involving at least 85 extra-judicial killings
, spanning the 30th of June until the 2nd of July. Now, facing the entire Party, including the SA, as well as a crowd of several thousand civilians at the Nüremberg Rally, Hitler encountered the task of publicly rationalizing Operation Hummingbird. This would suggest that his position as leader in 1934 was not as solid as commonly assumed.
Triumph of the Will addresses the Night of the Long Knives through several significant details. It strikingly captures the grave moment Adolf Hitler walks through an immaculate formation of 150,000 SS and SA troops, flanked by Heinrich Himmler and Victor Lutze. The latter was the new appointed leader of the brown-shirts, having just replaced the defamed Ernst Röhm after Operation Hummingbird. Being his first official appearance as Stabschef, Lutze encountered an aura heavy with the suppressed memory of the Party’s recent exploits and the violent riddance of his predecessor. In his eye-witness account, William L. Shirer notes that “the SA boys received him coolly”. In one of the final scenes, Hitler holds a speech with references towards “unity” and “loyalty”, alluding to the reason for the Night of the Long Knives.
It is important to note that the planning and organisation for the 1934 Nüremberg Rally took into account the making of Triumph of the Will and was designed to allow effective filming, always bearing in mind the resolute goal of publicizing the event to the broader German public. For instance, her crew was ensured to have ruts and space for camera tracks. Therefore, to an extent, many of the visual arrangements were suited to the filming, making practicality a secondary concern.

Evaluation of Sources
Triumph des Willens - film by Leni Riefenstahl
Whether Triumph of the Will should be viewed as a documentary, a work of art or a piece of propaganda is matter of debate. These different stances have an effect on its suitability and value as a historical source. The Wagnerist music, aptly matching the ideology, appeals to the viewers’ emotions and thus poses an obstacle to the objective interpretation of the Rally. The fact that there are only shots of crowds, not of individuals (with the exception of Party officials) further presses the ideological concept of a homogenous population showing wholehearted support for the NSDAP, classifying the film, although not official propaganda, as a work with National Socialist sympathies. Riefenstahl had some of the official speakers reenact their speeches in studios when the cut during the actual Rally was not suitable. This indicates that the Riefenstahl did not attempt to portray the Rally as it happened, but had artistic priorities. It is not useful to a historian wishing to learn about the nature of the speeches at the event itself. Regardless of this however, Triumph of the Will is useful as evidence of how the Nazi Party portrayed itself to the broad German public, as well as the world outside of Germany.
When regarded as a work of art rather than an objective account of the Nüremberg Rally, one would assume that the film does not guarantee a realistic portrayal of the events, but rather manipulated them in order to achieve the greatest aesthetic effect. Similarly, if one considers it an element of Nazi propaganda rather than an independent documentary, one would conjecture that the design to convey political messages outweighed the notion of portraying the events of the Rally soberly. This is confirmed by the camera angles chosen to depict Hitler; Riefenstahl used techniques such as camera angles and clear sky backgrounds to bestow on the Führer a superhuman, larger-than-life quality. However, it is important to note that the Nüremberg Party Rally of 1934 was organised bearing in the mind the making of the film and that therefore, the itinerary of the event was adapted to suit the filming. The position of troops and officers, for example, was planned to create a visual aesthetic effect, rather than have a practical purpose. It is appropriate to examine the Nüremberg Party Rally and Triumph of the Will as one unit, because one was outlined with respect to the other. Hence, although aspects such as music and camera angles may manipulate viewers’ perception of events, the film does not necessarily warp the reality of the Nüremberg Party Rally itself.

Berlin Diary - witness account of the Third Reich 1934-41 by William Shirer
In his Berlin Diary, William Shirer, an American radio journalist broadcasting to the Amercian public, gives palpable, insightful descriptions of many events between 1934 and 1941, including detailed accounts of the 1934 Nüremberg Rally. It is useful as evidence of a detached observer’s perception of the events, especially as his tone is generally sober. However, at times, Shirer’s language is passionate and discloses emotional involvement. The name “Diary” already suggests a personal connection to the events he describes, indicating not only valuable, intimate knowledge, but also personal inclination. As the Berlin Diary was written as a journal during his stay in Germany, Shirer offers in-the-moment accounts of events, lacking reflective hindsight. This is useful to a historian wishing to grasp the nature of the Nüremberg Party Rally from the perspective of an observer, but is not useful as evidence of its context and consequences.
Additionally, Shirer uses numerous German witnesses as sources, but disguises their identity in order to leave no clues for the Gestapo. This makes it extremely difficult to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the information he published. It is unclear to what extent the sources sympathised with or disliked the regime and thus how biased their statements are. Shirer only moved to Germany in 1934, so was still relatively new to the country, culture and language at the time of writing his Berlin Diary, which may have inhibited his understanding of society and may have led to misinterpretations on his side.
Sir Ian Kershaw argues that, although following the Night of the Long Knives the Sturmabteilung was forfeited its importance, Hitler could now have confidence in the freshly cleansed bloc. However, Triumph of the Will points to the opposite. The position of the SS and SA troops while the men address the crowds spotlights the atmosphere following the purge: during Hitler’s speech, the SS surround him in an escort fashion, assuming a protective stance, thus indicating subtle apprehension; perhaps a revenge attack from the brown-shirts was not inconceivable. This bespeaks Hitler’s precarious standing and continuous mistrust of the paramilitary group; it shows that, despite the hazardous purge, the brown-shirts’ adherence was still doubted. William Shirer confirms this in his “Berlin Diary”. He states that “there was considerable tension in the stadium and I noticed that Hitler’s own SS bodyguard was drawn up in force in front of him, separating him from the mass of the brown-shirts. We wondered if just one of those fifty thousand brown-shirts wouldn’t pull a revolver, but not one did”. This demonstrates that, despite the purge of the SA during the Night of the Long Knives, Hitler still mistrusted the group, choosing instead to emphasize the SS’s role as his protective squad and placing them directly opposite the SA. Martin Davidson, in his account of his grandfather’s life as an SS man, asserts that there existed considerable animosity between the two groups, culminating in fights and brawls under the influence of alcohol behind the scenes of the 1934 Rally. He also believes that Hitler was vulnerable at a time so soon after the Night of the Long Knives.
Yet the fact that, to a considerable extent, the Rally was organised according to the filming indicates that the positions of the SS and SA men may have nothing but aesthetic significance. In fact, by going to the Rally grounds in Nüremberg, one can see for oneself that the position the SS bodyguard took around Hitler was not practical, but rather served a visual purpose.

The post-Operation Hummingbird aura is explicit in Triumph of the Will, and is especially heavy in the scene depicting Hitler’s address to the Schutzstaffel and the Sturmabteilung. Despite their positions and formations having aesthetic purposes, it is still evident that there was a rift between the two groups, the former being closer to Hitler than the latter, resulting in drunk quarrels during the Rally. These were, needless to say, excluded from the film. Nevertheless, the cold animosity and tension is evident.

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Wallace, Ian. Berlin. Page 93. Clio Press, 1993.
1 Shirer, William L. Berlin Diary: The Journal of a Foreign Correspondent. Found in The Nazi Germany Sourcebook - an Anthology of Texts. Stackelberg, Roderick; Winkle, Sally A. Page 178. Taylor and Francis Group. New York: Routledge, 2002. 2 Berghaus, Günter. Fascism and Theatre: Comparative Studies of Aesthetics and Politics of Performance in Europe 1925-1945. Page 172. Providence, R.I: Berghahn Books, 1996. 3 Overy, Richard J. The Dictators: Hitler’s Germany and Stalin’s Russia. Page 100. Original publisher Allen Lane. New York: W.W. Norton Company Inc, 2004. 4 Taylor, Richard. Film Propaganda: Soviet Russia and Nazi Germany. Page 162. London: I.B. Tauris, 1998. 5 Carroll, Noel; Choi, Jinhee. Philosophy of Film and Motion Pictures: an Anthology. Page 325. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2006. 6 Perry, Marvin; Chase, Myrna; Jacob, Margaret; Jacob, James R; Von Laue, Theodore H. Western Civilization: Ideas, Politics and Society from 1600. Volume II. Page 801. USA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Suzanne Jeans, 2009. 7 Brockmann, Stephen. Nüremberg: the imaginary capital. Page 153. Rochester, N.Y: Camden House, 2006. 8 James-Chakraborty, Kathleen. German Architecture for a Mass Audience. Page 93. London: Routledge, 2000. 9 Kershaw, Ian. Hitler. Page 73. First published Pearson Education, 1991. Essex: Pearson Education, 2009. 10 Blamires, Cyprian: Jackson, Paul. World Fascism: a Historical Encyclopedia. Volume 1. Page 479. Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, 2006. 11 Hinton, David B. The Films of Leni Riefenstahl. Page 41. Rowman and Littlefield Publishing Group. Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 1991. 12 Shirer, William L. Berlin Diary: The Journal of a Foreign Correspondent. Found in The Nazi Germany Sourcebook - an Anthology of Texts. Stakcelberg, Roderick; Winkle, Sally A. Page 180. Taylor and Francis Group. New York: Routledge, 2002. 13 Deutschmann, Linda. Triumph of the Will: the image of the Third Reich. Page 175. Longwood Academic, 1991. 14 Deutschmann, Linda. Triumph of the Will: the image of the Third Reich. Page 176. Longwood Academic, 1991. 15 Deutschmann, Linda. Triumph of the will: the image of the Third Reich. Page 184. Longwood Academic, 1991. 16 Taylor, Richard. Film propaganda: Soviet Russia and Nazi Germany. Page 163. I.B. Tauris, 1998. 17 Wallace, Ian. Berlin. Page 93. Clio Press, 1993. 18 Hudson, David; Bergman, Marvin; Horton, Loren N. The Biographical Dictionary of Iowa. Page 464. University of Iowa Press, 2009. 19 Kershaw, Ian. Stalinism and Nazism: Dictatorships in Comparison. Page 93. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. 20 Shirer, William L. Berlin Diary: The Journal of a Foreign Correspondent. Found in The Nazi Germany Sourcebook - an Anthology of Texts. Stackelberg, Roderick; Winkle, Sally A. Page 180. Taylor and Francis Group. New York: Routledge, 2002. 21 Davidson, Martin. The Perfect Nazi: Uncovering my SS Grandfather’s Secret Past and How Hitler Seduced a Generation. Page 161. Penguin Group. London: Penguin Books, 2010.
How Effective was Nazi Propaganda?
  This essay will argue that while Nazi propaganda was initially only mildly effective, its effectiveness grew as Hitler himself consolidated power, and as his succesful response to mass unemployment popularized his agenda, and will specifically focus on the well-known propaganda film, Triumph of the Will (Triumph des Willens). Hitler’s rise in fame was unarguably supported by the great depression, which caused the German population to enter a vulnerable state longing for a strong leader to build Germany back up and bring security to families. His resulting popularity combined with improvements in propaganda consolidated Hitler’s and the Nazis’ hold on power, which was based on the support of the majority of the German population.
Hitler’s friend, Leni Riefenstahl, who was known for her seminal role in producing not only Nazi propaganda but also for making documentaries about him throughout his career, played a critical role in his consolidation of power and in portraying him as a triumphant leader to the foreign and domestic viewers of her films.1 Although she claimed to unbiased2, and not involved in politics, she glorified the Nazis, changing dates and left out unfavorable information. The changes and omissions helpt Hitler strengthen his image and pushed an idealized picture of him. Through her work, as well as the extensive propaganda efforts of his regime, Hitler managed to build an image that lead people to believe that they needed to help him in order to make Germany great again, which was successful, as people needed to believe that they were part of the rebuilding of Germany and that der Führer needed their help. Leni Riefenstahl’s documentary, which was part of his propaganda, shows him coming down from the sky, presenting him as a god and promoting his catch phrase, Hitler über Deutschland. The viewer feels guided by Hitler, and standing with him. Viewers can see people assembling under Hitler’s gaze, and sharing his power and the ecstatic feeling of flying over the Vaterland. Furthermore, Hitler was known to love babies and children, encouraging the idea of perfect families and promoting that one must have perfect, blond and blue eyed children, but also brainwashing children into believing that Hitler is the greatest, seeing him as a father figure and a role model. Not only was the documentary filmed from his point of view but parts of his documentary were filmed from behind his head, which helped convey the idea of being with the leader, and experiencing his fame as one’s own. The documentaries also included multiple scenes showing young disciplined Nazi men having fun, with the message that patriots would enjoy joining the soldiers to support Hitler and help get the Fatherland back on its feet. One of the biggest international successes of Nazi propaganda was the Nurenberg rally in 1934 (source D), impressing not only the citizens of Germany but regaining the lost respect from other countries. It is often overlooked that the members of the Reichsarbeitsdienst (RAD) were armed with shovels instead of rifles, as the supply of the latter was insufficient. The expansive number of men in close military formation was such an extraordinary demonstration of discipline and power, that observers were forced to overlook that it was neither an army, nor that they were not carrying weapons. To this day, Leni Riefenstahl’s film based on Hitler’s rallies, Triumph of the Will, is widely seen and studied as an archetype of propaganda efforts in film.
Although Triumph of the Will was arguably one of the most succesfull ways that Nazi propaganda affected the general public in Germany, its actual propaganda value was quite limited both inside and outside Germany. Inside Germany, especially towards the beginning of Hitler’s regime, Germans resisted propaganda efforts. Outside of Germany, according to 3Maarten Perboom, the film was not widely distributed, as it was widely seen as propaganda directed towards German citizens4. Even though Leni Riefenstahl was a successful artist, none of the techniques used in Triumph of the Will were novel5. However, so much money went into this movie that it was inevitable that many people would be impressed regardless of the content. As author Dan Olson states, “None of the ideas or techniques were new, it is simply that no one had previously thrown enough money and resources at propaganda at this scale before.” Which supports the argument that although the movie was impressive and may have intimidated people through its powerful depictions of the organization and discipline of the Nazi state, its propaganda value was disproportionately small in relation to its production values. In this sense Triumph of the Will can be compared to modern day blockbuster films, such as Star Wars, Lord of the Rings or Titanic. These films do not necessarily have interesting characters or storylines, but rather derive their popularity from impressive cinematography or extravagant cinematic effects. Particularly at that time, when cinema was in its infancy, viewers, both German and foreign, would have been primarily impressed by the lavish production values rather than by its ideological content. Furthermore, many Germans resisted being influenced by propaganda, as described in source C, which states that “400-strong staff of a wood-ware factory in Lauf near Nuremberg, which ignored the command of the Leader of the Council of Trust to march solidly behind the swastika flag for a communal viewing of a film about the Nazi cult-figure Horst Wessel in the local cinema.”

  In conclusion, Nazi propaganda was mostly succesful, which can be seen by the great succes Hitler had and his quickly growing number of supporters. Even today, the propaganda effect of Triumph of the Will is seen as powerful in Germany, so much so such that this movie cannot legaly be watched or accessed by German citizens, with the exeptions of when people are talking over it or in the context of classroom instruction, thus indicating that the documentary is still seen as influential Nazi propaganda dangerous to the country.
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Pereboom, Maarten. History and Film: Moving Pictures and the Study of the Past. Google Books, Routledge, 13 Sept. 2016, he+will+%22distributed%22+%22outside+of+germany%22&source=bl&ots=OcnHn8HUQ0&si g=ACfU3U2HrFe9WDGLBnfeADLal55CLbnjmA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiA74ffzbv0A hUj7rsIHe2HCboQ6AF6BAghEAM#v=onepage&q&f=false. Accessed 28 Nov. 2021.
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“The Führer Myth: How Hitler Won Over the German People.” How Hitler Won Over the German People, Spiegel, 30 January 2008, a-531909.html. Accessed 28 November 2021.


全 国党代会集会场  坐标:49.43°N 11.12°E 1940年的集会场 1937年巴黎世博会展示的集会场建设计划沙盘 1927年纽伦堡第一届党代会  全国党代会集会场(德语:Reichsparteitagsgelände)位于德国纽伦堡东南,面积约11平方公里。1933年至1938年间曾举行6 次纳粹党代会。  目录      1 概述     2 纽伦堡集会场党代会列表     3 参考资料     4 外部链接  概述  集会场包括:      路易特珀尔德集会场(Luitpoldarena);     老会议大厅(Luitpold Hall),在二战中损坏,随后被拆除;     会议大厅(Kongresshalle),或新会议大厅(Neue Kongresshalle),未完成;     齐柏林场(Zeppelinfeld),另一个集会场;     三月场(Märzfeld),国防军集会场,未修筑完成,随后被拆除;     德意志体育场(Deutsches Stadion),曾为世界上最大的体育场;     希特勒青年团体育场(Stadion der Hitlerjugend),今为法兰克人体育场;     大道(Große Straße),计划中的游行用道路;  文化会馆(Haus der Kultur)及其入口计划放置在大道的西北端,靠近新会议大厅。[1]  实际上,仅“齐柏林场”、“Luitpoldarena”以及“大道”得以修筑完成,1973年它们被纳入文物保护范围,以使这一纳粹建筑的显著样例得以 存留。会场由希特勒的建筑师阿尔伯特·斯佩尔主持设计。会议大厅是由路德维希·拉夫和弗朗茨·拉夫设计的。  1933年8月30日,希特勒宣布纽伦堡为“全国党代表大会城”[2],党代会并没有具体的纲领性任务,而是在宣传角度显示国家的团结,以及国家社会主义 运动的纽伦堡集会同中世纪帝王在纽伦堡举行会议之间的联系。[3]  今天,这一集会场被辟为纪念场所,亦为诺里斯林摩托车赛的部分赛道。 纽伦堡集会场党代会列表 参见:纽伦堡党代会 纽伦堡集会场举行的纳粹党历次党代会[4] 日期     地点     名称 1933年8月30日-9月3日     纽伦堡     “胜利”全国党代会(Reichsparteitag des Sieges),此次党代会的纪录片为莱尼·里芬斯塔尔拍摄的《信仰的胜利》 1934年9月5-10日     纽伦堡     “团结和力量”全国党代会(Reichsparteitag der Einheit und Stärke),此次党代会的纪录片为莱尼·里芬斯塔尔拍摄的《意志的勝利》 1935年9月10-16日     纽伦堡     “自由”全国党代会(Reichsparteitag der Freiheit) 1936年9月8-14日     纽伦堡     “荣誉”全国党代会(Reichsparteitag der Ehre) 1937年9月6-13日     纽伦堡     “劳动”全国党代会(Reichsparteitag der Arbeit) 1938年9月5-12日     纽伦堡     “大德意志”全Территория съездов НСДАП в Нюрнберге Материал из Википедии — свободной энциклопедии  Координаты: 49°25′26″ с. ш. 11°07′50″ в. д. (G) (O) Показать географическую карту Территория съездов Национал-социалистической Немецкой Рабочей Партии — (НСДАП) в Нюрнберге Модель территории партсъездов НСДАП. Вид на Юг (S)  Территория съездов Национал-социалистической Немецкой Рабочей Партии — (НСДАП) (нем. Reichsparteitagsgelände) — область на юго-востоке Нюрнберга, на которой проводились с 1933 по 1938 гг. съезды НСДАП. Территория охватывает площадь в более чем 11 км².  В конце первого десятилетия XXI века территория съездов была превращена в музей под открытым небом. Базой для него является Документальный центр («Докуцентр») с полным своим названием Documentation Center Nazi Party Rally Grounds.  У каждого из представляющих исторический интерес сооружений сейчас установлен стационарный музейный стенд с фотографиями, отображающими вид сооружения в эпоху Третьего Рейха и, если оно не было построено, с проектными зарисовками. Эти «станции»[1] были перенумерованы, что облегчает их осмотр.  Содержание      1 История     2 Постройки, возведенные до 1933 г     3 Архитектура и идеология нацизма     4 Пункт 1. Зал собраний и Докуцентр         4.1 Экспозиция Докуцентра     5 Пункт 2. Внутренний двор дворца съездов     6 Пункт 3. Площадь народных праздников     7 Пункт 4. Закладной камень Немецкого стадиона     8 Пункт 5. Пруд Дутцендтайх     9 Пункт 6. Городской стадион     10 Пункт 7. Трибуна Цеппелина     11 Пункт 8. Поле Цеппелина     12 Пункт 9. Закусочная или «Парк-кафе Ваннер»     13 Пункт 10. Зал Люитпольда     14 Пункт 11. Люитпольдарена     15 Пункт 12. Храм Памяти (Эренхалле) и Памятник погибшим     16 Пункт 13. Бывший вокзал Дутцендтайх     17 Пункт 14. Задний двор трибуны Цеппелина     18 Пункт 15. Здание обслуживающего персонала и силовая подстанция     19 Пункт 16. Городок КДФ     20 Пункт 17. Бассейн     21 Пункт 18. Большая улица     22 Пункт 19. Остатки сооружений Марсова поля     23 Пункт 20. Бывший вокзал Марсова поля     24 Пункт 21.Зильбербук («Серебряный холм»)     25 Пункт 22.Зильберзее («Серебряное озеро»)     26 Пункт 23. Бывшие казармы СС     27 Территория лагерей     28 Бывшее кладбище     29 См. также     30 Ссылки     31 Примечания  История  Город Нюрнберг с его богатой историей и традициями и хорошо сохранившимися памятниками истории представлял собой идеальное место для Национал социалистического движения уже во времена Веймарской республики. В этом, как заявил Гитлер, «самом немецким из всех немецких городов» (нем. «deutschesten aller deutschen Städte») легко удавалось продемонстрировать связь идеологии нацизма с имперским прошлым.  Хотя первые съезды НСДАП в 1923 и 1926 годах были проведены в Мюнхене и Веймаре соответственно, деятельность этой партии началась в городе ещё в 1923 г., а съезды 1927 г. и 1929 года состоялись уже в Нюрнберге ещё во времена Веймарской республики.  Хотя городское правление имело сильное демократическое ядро и пользовалось широкой поддержкой рабочих, оно было бессильно против руководителей полицейского управления, высшие должности которого занимали сторонники нацизма. Именно этим объясняется специфическая роль города, которую он сыграл в государстве после прихода Гитлера к власти в 1933 году. И именно в этом году Нюрнберг был назван «городом партийных съездов».  C 1933 по 1939 г. территория вокруг озера Дутцендтайх начала систематически использоваться во время ежегодных партийных съездов. Здесь во многом начал своё формирование культ нацизма, The Nürnberg Reichsparteitag, meaning Reich Party Day was the annual rally of the Nazi Party in Germany, held from 1923 to 1938. They were large Nazi propaganda events, especially after Hitler's rise to power in 1933. These events were held at the Nazi party rally grounds in Nürnberg from 1933 to 1938 and are usually referred to in English as the Nürnberg Rallies. Many films were made to commemorate them, the most famous of which is 'Triumph of the Will'. History and Purpose The first Nazi Party rallies took place in 1923 in Munich and in 1926 in Weimar. From 1927 on, they were held exclusively in Nürnberg. Nürnberg was selected for pragmatic reasons: It was situated in the center of the German Reich and the local Luitpoldhain was well suited as a venue. In addition, the Nazis were able to rely on the well organized local branch of the party in Franconia, then led by Gauleiter Julius Streicher. The Nürnberg police were sympathetic to the event. Later, the location was justified by putting it into the tradition of the Imperial Diet (German Reichstag) of the Holy Roman Empire, considered to be the First Reich. After 1933, the rallies were held near the time of the Autumn equinox, under the title of "National Congress of the Party of the German People" (Reichsparteitage des deutschen Volkes), which was intended to symbolize the solidarity between the German people and the Nazi Party. This point was further emphasized by the yearly growing number of participants, which finally reached over half a million from all sections of the party, the army and the state. Each rally was given a programmatic title, which related to recent national events: 1923 – The First Party Congress was held in Munich on January 27, 1923. 1923 – The "German day rally" was held in Nuremberg on September 1, 1923. 1926 – The 2nd Party Congress ("Refounding Congress") was held in Weimar on July 4, 1926. 1927 – The 3rd Party Congress ("Day of Awakening") was held on August 20, 1927. The propaganda film Eine Symphonie des Kampfwillens was made at this rally. 1929 – The 4th Party Congress, known as the "Day of Composure", was held on August 2, 1929. The propaganda film Der Nürnberger Parteitag der NSDAP was made at this rally. 1933 – The 5th Party Congress was held in Nuremberg, August 30 – September 3, 1933. It was called the "Rally of Victory" (Reichsparteitag des Sieges). The term "victory" relates to the Nazi seizure of power and the victory over the Weimar Republic. The Leni Riefenstahl film Der Sieg des Glaubens was made at this rally. 1934 – The 6th Party Congress was held in Nuremberg, September 5-10, 1934. Initially it did not have a theme. Later it was labeled the "Rally of Unity and Strength" (Reichsparteitag der Einheit und Stärke), "Rally of Power" (Reichsparteitag der Macht), or "Rally of Will" (Reichsparteitag des Willens). The Leni Riefenstahl film Triumph des Willens was made at this rally. 1935 – The 7th Party Congress was held in Nuremberg, September 10-16, 1935. It was called the "Rally of Freedom" (Reichsparteitag der Freiheit). "Freedom" referred to the reintroduced compulsory military service and thus the German "liberation" from the Treaty of Versailles. The Leni Riefenstahl film Tag der Freiheit: Unsere Wehrmacht was made at this rally, and the Nuremberg Laws were introduced. 1936 – The 8th Party Congress was known as the "Rally of Honour" (Reichsparteitag der Ehre). The remilitarization of the demilitarized Rhinelandin March 1936 constituted the restoration of German honour in the eyes of many Germans. The film Festliches Nürnberg incorporated footage shot at this rally, as well as the rally of 1937. 1937 – The 9th Party Congress was called the "Rally of Labour" (Reichsparteitag der Arbeit). It celebrated the reduction of unemployment in Germany since the Nazi rise to power. This rally was particularly notable due to Albert Speer's Cathedral of light: 152 searchlights that cast vertical beams into the sky around the Zeppelin Field to symbolise the walls of a building and the attendance of Prince Chichibu, a brother of theEmperor of Japan, who had a personal meeting with Adolf Hitler to boost relations between Japan and Germany. Festliches Nürnberg incorporated footage made at this rally. 1938 – The 10th Party Congress was named the "Rally of Greater Germany" (Reichsparteitag Großdeutschland). This was due to the annexationof Austria to Germany that had taken place earlier in the year. 1939 – The 11th Party Congress was given the name "Rally of Peace" (Reichsparteitag des Friedens). It was meant to reiterate the German desire for peace, both to the German population and to other countries. It was cancelled on short notice, as one day before the planned date on September 1, Germany began its offensive against Poland (which ignited World War II). Procedure The primary aspect of the Nürnberg Rallies was to strengthen the personality cult of Adolf Hitler, portraying him as Germany's saviour, chosen by providence. The gathered masses listened to the Führer's speeches, swore loyalty and marched before him. Representing the Volksgemeinschaft as a whole, the rallies served to demonstrate the might of the German people. The visitors of the rallies by their own free will were subordinate to the discipline and order in which they should be reborn as a new people. Reichsparteitagsgelände The rally grounds of the National Socialist Workers Party (NSDAP) covered about 11 square kilometres in the southeast of Nürnberg, Germany. Six Party Rallies were held there between 1933 and 1938. Overview The grounds included: The Luitpoldarena, a deployment area the Luitpold Hall or "Old Congress Hall" (damaged during World War II, later demolished) the Kongresshalle (Congress Hall) or Neue Kongresshalle (New Congress Hall) (unfinished) the Zeppelin Feld (Zeppelin Field), another deployment area the Märzfeld (March Field) (unfinished, later demolished), a deployment area for the Wehrmacht (army) the Deutsche Stadion (German stadium) (never exceeded the state of foundation), which was to be the largest sports stadium in the world the former Stadion der Hitlerjugend ("stadium of the Hitler Youth", today Frankenstadion) the Große Straße ("Great Road"), a (never used) parade road. A "Haus der Kultur" (House of Culture) and a representative entrance portal towards the "Great Road" were planned at the northwestern end of the "Great Road", near the (new) Congress Hall. The grounds were planned by Hitler's architect Albert Speer, apart from the Congress hall, which was planned by Ludwig and Franz Ruff. On 30 August 1933 Hitler declared Nürnberg the "Stadt der Reichsparteitage (Reich Party Congresses)". The Reichsparteitage were a self-portrayal of the National Socialist, state and had no programmatic task. The unity of the nation was to be demonstrated. In a propagandistic way a relation was to be drawn between the Party and the glory of the medieval emperors and the Meetings of the Imperial States which were held in Nürnberg. Reichsparteitagsgelände - Nürnberg The Buildings Luitpoldarena Luitpoldarena - Nürnberg Since 1906 a parkway named "Luitpoldhain" (literally translated: "Luitpold Grove", named after Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria) existed here. Luitpoldarena - Nürnberg During the Weimar Republic (1919–1933) the monumental "Ehrenhalle" (Hall of Honour) was built in the parkway. In 1933 Hitler replaced the parkway by a strictly-structured deployment area, the so-called "Luitpoldarena" with an area of 84,000 m². Opposite the "Ehrenhalle" the crescent-shaped "Ehrentribüne" (tribune of honour) or main grandstand which measured 150 m (500 ft) long with 6 m (20 ft) gold eagles on each end was built. This structure, built by architect Albert Speer, could seat 500 dignitaries and represented the first permanent structure built by the Third Reich in Nürnberg. The "Ehrenhalle" and the "Ehrentribüne" were connected by a wide granite path. Ehrenhalle Ehrenhalle - Nürnberg The "Ehrenhalle" was built by the city of Nürnberg according to a plan of German architect Fritz Mayer. It was inaugurated in 1930, during the Weimar Republic. It is an arcaded hall with an adjacent cobbled stone terrace with two rows of pedestals for fire bowls. Originally the hall was to be a memorial site for the 9,855 soldiers from Nürnberg who were fallen in World War I. During the Party Congress of 1929 the then unfinished "Hall of Honour" was used for the enactment of a cult of the dead by the National Socialists the first time. During the Third Reich the site was used primarily as a commemoration for the fallen soldiers of World War I, and commemoration of the 16 dead of the "Hitlerputsch" (the so-called "Martyrs of the Movement") (Beer Hall Putsch) which took place on 9 November 1923 in Munich. Hitler, accompanied by SS-leader Heinrich Himmler and SA-leader Viktor Lutze, strode through the arena over the 240 meters long granite path, from the main grandstand to the terrace of the Ehrenhalle. The ritual was the climax of the celebration. During the party rallies, deployments of the SA and the SS with up to 150,000 people took place in this area. The central "relic" here was the "Blutfahne" (Blood flag), which was carried by the Beer Hall Putsch rebels and was soaked with the blood of one of them. At the "Blutfahnenweihe" (Blood flag consecration), new "Standarten" (flags) of SA- and SS-units were "consecrated" by touching their guidons with the "Blutfahne". Das Blutfahne das Blutfahne The Blutfahne (Blood flag) was a Swastika flag used in the failed Beer Hall Putsch in Munich, Germany on 9 November 1923. It subsequently became one of the most revered objects of the Party. Andreas Bauriedl The flag was actually that of the 5th SA Sturm that was covered in blood from members of the Party who had been shot by the Munich Police (primarily from party member Andreas Bauriedl who fell on top of the flag when he was shot and killed). Heinrich Trambauer (the flagbearer) took the flag to a friend where he removed the flag from the staff and left with it hidden inside his jacket. Later, Traumbauer gave the flag to a Karl Eggers, who kept the flag safe. Heinrich Trambauer After Adolf Hitler was released from Landsberg prison (after serving nine months of a five-year prison sentence for his part in the putsch), Eggers gave the flag to him. It was then fitted to a new staff and finial, and just below the finial was a silver dedication sleeve which bore the names of the three dead participants of the putsch. Bauriedl was one of the three honorees. Blutfahne In addition, the flag was no longer attached to the staff by its original sewn-in sleeve, but by a red-white-black intertwined cord which ran through the sleeve instead. The flag was thereafter treated as a sacred object by the Party, and it was carried by SS Sturmbannführer Jakob Grimminger at various Nazi party ceremonies. One of the most visible uses of the flag was by Adolf Hitler, who at the annual party rallies at Nürnberg touched other Nazi banners with the Blutfahne, thus 'sanctifying' the new flags with the old. das Blutfahne das Braune Haus When not in use, the Blutfahne was kept at the headquarters of the Nazi Party, 'das Braune Haus' (the Brown House), in Munich, with an SS guard of honor. The flag had a small tear in it that went un-repaired for a number of years. The tear was believed to have occurred during the putsch. Blutfahne The Blutfahne was last seen in public at the Induction Ceremony of the Volkssturm on 18 October 1944 (not at Gauleiter Adolf Wagner's funeral six months earlier, as has frequently been reported). This ceremony was conducted by Heinrich Himmler and attended by Keitel, Guderian, Lammers, Bormann, Fiehler, Schepmann and Kraus. After this last public display, the Blutfahne vanished into history. The Buildings - continued Luitpoldhalle Luitpoldhalle - Nürnberg The Luitpold Hal (built 1906) had an outline of 180 m x 50 m (540 ft x 150 ft) featured 76 loudspeakers, 42 spotlights, the largest pipe organ in Germany and could seat 16,000 people. Dating back to the Bavarian Exposition, the former machine hall was renovated and first used by the Party Congress of 1934. Its monumental neo-classical facade featured a shell limestone facing with three enormous entrance portals. Kongresshalle Kongresshalle - Nürnberg Kongresshalle - Nürnberg The Congress Hall was planned by the Nürnberg architects Ludwig and Franz Ruff. It was planned as a congress centre for the NSDAP with a self-supporting roof, and should have provided 50,000 seats. It was located on the shore of and in the pond Dutzendteich, and marked the entrance of the rally grounds. The building reached a height of 39 m (129 ft) (a height of 70 m was planned) and a diameter of 250 m (843 ft). The building is mostly built out of clinker with a facade of granite panels. The design (especially the outer facade, among other features) is inspired by the Colosseum in Rome. The foundation stone was laid in 1935, but the building remained unfinished and without a roof. Große Straße The great road is almost 2 km (1.2 mi) long and 40 m (132 ft) wide. It was intended to be the central axis of the site and a parade road for the Wehrmacht. In its northwestern prolongation the road points towards Nürnberger Burg. This was to create a relation between the role of Nürnberg during the Third Reich, and its role during medieval times. The road reached from the Congress Hall to the Märzfeld, the construction work started in 1935 and was finished in 1939 (it has never been used as a parade road, as due to the beginning of World War II, the last rally was held in 1938). The pavement was made of granite pavers in black and gray with edges of exactly 1.2 m (4 ft). A representative entrance portal and two pylons were planned at the northwestern end of the Great Road. Near the entrance area of the Deutsch Stadion a grandstand with a hall of pillars was planned for the government leaders and generals who were to take the salute on Wehrmacht formations which were to march in direction of the parade ground Märzfeld. Albert Speer Albert Speer Adolf Hitler and Albert Speer Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer (March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) was a German architect. Speer was Adolf Hitler's chief architect. Speer joined the Nazi Party in 1931. His architectural skills made him increasingly prominent within the Party and he became a member of Hitler's inner circle. Hitler instructed him to design and construct a number of structures, including the Reich Chancellery and the Zeppelinfeld stadium in Nuremberg where Party rallies were held. Paul Ludwig Troost Zeppelinhaupttribüne - Nürnberg When Troost, who had previously been Hitler's main architect, died on January 21, 1934, Speer effectively replaced him as the Party's chief architect. Paul Ludwig Troost (17 August 1878 – 21 January 1934),[1] born in Elberfeld, was a German architect. An extremely tall, spare-looking, reserved Westphalian with a close-shaven head, Troost belonged to a school of architects, Peter Behrens and Walter Gropius who, even before 1914, reacted sharply against the highly ornamental Jugendstil and advocated a restrained, lean architectural approach, almost devoid of ornament. Troost graduated from designing steamship décor before World War I, and the fittings for showy transatlantic liners like the Europa, to a style that combined Spartan traditionalism with elements of modernity. Hitler appointed Speer as head of the 'Chief Office for Construction'. Zeppelinfeldeingang - Nürnberg Zeppelinhaupttribüne - Nürnberg One of Speer's first commissions after Troost's death was the Zeppelinfeld stadium—the Nürnberg parade grounds seen in Leni Riefenstahl's propaganda masterpiece Triumph of the Will. This huge work was able to hold 340,000 people. The tribune was influenced by the Pergamon Altar in Anatolia, but was magnified to an enormous scale. Speer insisted that as many events as possible be held at night, both to give greater prominence to his lighting effects and to hide the individual Nazis, many of whom were overweight. Lichtdom - The Cathedral of Light Zeppelinfeld - Nürnberg Lichtdom - The Cathedral of Light Zeppelinfeld - Nürnberg Speer surrounded the site with 130 anti-aircraft searchlights. This created the effect of a "cathedral of light" or, as it was called by British Ambassador Sir Neville Henderson, a "cathedral of ice". Speer described this as his most beautiful work. The cathedral of light [litchdome] was a main aesthetic feature of the Nuremberg Rallies that consisted of 130 anti-aircraft searchlights, at intervals of forty feet, aimed skyward to create a series of vertical bars surrounding the audience. The effect was a brilliant one, both from within the design and on the outside. The cathedral of light was documented in the Nazi Propaganda film 'Festliches Nürnberg', released in 1937. Nürnberg was to be the site of many more official Nazi buildings, most of which were never built; for example, the German Stadium would have accommodated 400,000 spectators, while an even larger rally ground would have held half a million people. While planning these structures, Speer invented the concept of "ruin value": that major buildings should be constructed in such a way that they would leave aesthetically pleasing ruins for thousands of years into the future. Such ruins would be a testament to the greatness of the Third Reich, just as ancient Greek or Roman ruins were symbols of the greatness of those civilizations. Hitler enthusiastically embraced this concept, and ordered that all the Reich's important buildings be constructed in accord with it. Zeppelinfeld Zeppelinfeldeingang - Nürnberg Zeppelinhaupttribüne - Nürnberg The Zeppelin Field is located east of the Great Road. It consists of a large grandstand (Zeppelinhaupttribüne) with a width of 360 meters (400 yards) and a smaller stand. It was one of Albert Speer's first works for the Party, and was based upon the Pergamon Altar. The name "Zeppelinfeld" or "Zeppelinwiese" refers to the fact that in August 1909 Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin landed with one of his airships (LZ6) in this location. Deutsches Stadion Deutsches Stadion - Nürnberg Along with his plans for the Welthauptstadt Germania ("world capital Germania"), Albert Speer made the plans for the world's largest stadium which was to be located on the rally grounds. Deutsches Stadion - Nürnberg Derived from the Panathenaic Stadium of Athens, it would have offered 400,000 seats. It was to get the shape of a horseshoe; planned dimensions: length: 800 m, width: 450 m, height: 100 m, building area 350,000 m². The laying of the foundation stone was on 9 July 1937. It was to be finished for the party congress in 1945. In 1938, the construction began with the excavation. It was stopped in 1939. Märzfeld Märzfeld - Nürnberg The Märzfeld (March Field) was to be a representation and parade ground for the Wehrmacht. It was located at the southern end of the "Große Straße" (Great road). Its dimensions were 955 x 610 meters (1,061 x 677 yards) or bigger than 80 football fields. The name of the huge deployment area was supposed to recall the recovery of military sovereignty of the German Reich in March 1935. As in English, the German name of the month "März" derives from the Roman Warrior God Mars. The name Märzfeld thus also alludes to the Campus Martius, in Rome.) The construction, never completed, began in 1938 with plans calling for 24 granite towers each at 125 feet in height. Only eleven were ever completed. Tribunes for about 160,000 people were planned around the field. On the central grandstand a group of colossal statures was planned: a goddess of victory and warriors. Reichsparteitag Films 'Der Sieg des Glaubens' "Victory of Faith" 'Der Sieg des Glaubens' "Victory of Faith" © Copyright Peter Crawford 2013 Official films for the rallies began in 1927, with the establishment of the NSDAP film office. The most famous films were made by Leni Riefenstahl for the rallies between 1933 and 1935. Relating to the theme of the rally, she called her first film 'Der Sieg des Glaubens' ("Victory of Faith"). This movie was taken out of circulation after the Röhm-Putsch. The rally of 1934 became the setting for the award-winning 'Triumph des Willens' (Triumph of the Will). Several generals in the Wehrmacht protested over the minimal army presence in the film: Hitler apparently proposed modifying the film to placate the generals, but Riefenstahl refused his suggestion. She did agree to return to the 1935 rally and make a film exclusively about the Wehrmacht, which became 'Tag der Freiheit: Unsere Wehrmacht'. The rallies for 1936 and 1937 were covered in 'Festliches Nürnberg', which was shorter than the others, only 21 minutes. 'Triumph des Willens' 'Triumph des Willens' The Triumph of the Will Poster Leni Riefenstahl 'Triumph des Willens' (The Triumph of the Will) is a 1935 film made by Leni Riefenstahl. It chronicles the 1934 Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg, which was attended by more than 700,000 Nazi supporters. The film contains excerpts from speeches given by various Nazi leaders at the Congress, including portions of speeches by Adolf Hitler, interspersed with footage of massed party members. Hitler commissioned the film and served as an unofficial executive producer; his name appears in the opening titles. The overriding theme of the film is the return of Germany as a great power, with Hitler as the 'True German Leader' who will bring glory to the nation. 'Triumph des Willens' The Triumph of the Will Opening Title 'Triumph des Willens' was released in 1935 and rapidly became one of the best-known examples of propaganda in film history. Riefenstahl's techniques, such as moving cameras, the use of long focus lenses to create a distorted perspective, aerial photography, and revolutionary approach to the use of music and cinematography, have earned 'Triumph des Willens' recognition as one of the greatest films in history. Riefenstahl won several awards, not only in Germany but also in the United States, France, Sweden, and other countries. The film was popular in the Third Reich and elsewhere, and has continued to influence movies, documentaries, and commercials to this day. Frank Capra's seven-film series 'Why We Fight' is said to have been directly inspired by and America's response to 'Triumph des Willens'. Leni Riefenstahl 'Das Blaue Licht '(1932) The Blue Light Leni Riefenstahl undefinedHelene Bertha Amalie "Leni" Riefenstahl (22 August 1902 – 8 September 2003) was a German film director, actress and dancer, widely noted for her aesthetics and innovations as a filmmaker. Early Life Riefenstahl was born on 22 August 1902. She was christened Helene Bertha Amalie. She was born into a prosperous family. Her father owned a successful heating and ventilation company and he wanted her to follow him into the world of business, however, her mother believed that Leni’s future was in 'show busines'. In 1918, when she was 16, she started dance and ballet classes at the Grimm-Reiter Dance School in Berlin, where she quickly became a star pupil. 'Der heilige Berg' (1926) The Holy Mountain Leni Riefenstahl Riefenstahl gained a reputation on Berlin's dance circuit and she quickly moved into films. She made a series of films for Arnold Fanck, and one of them, 'The White Hell of Pitz Palu' (1929), co-directed by G. W. Pabst, saw her fame spread to countries outside of Germany. Riefenstahl produced and directed her own work called 'Das Blaue Licht '(1932), co-written by Carl Mayer and Béla Balázs. This film won the Silver Medal at the Venice Film Festival. In the film, Riefenstahl played a peasant girl who protected a glowing mountain grotto. The film attracted the attention of Hitler, who believed she epitomized the perfect German female. After that, she became famous as an actress, a film director, a film producer and a film reporter. She also became world-renowned as an actress in the films 'Der heilige Berg' (The Holy Mountain) (1926), 'Der große Sprung' (The Great Leap) (1927), 'Die weiße Hölle vom Piz Palü' (The White Hell of Piz Palü) (1929), 'Stürme über dem Mont Blanc' (Storms Over Mont Blanc) (1930), 'Der weiße Rausch' (The White Noise) (1931), 'Das Blaue Licht' (The Blue Light) (1932) and 'SOS Eisberg' (1933). Her greatest success she made with the documentary film 'Triumph des Willens' (The Triumph of the Will) named after the Reich Party Congress 1934 in Nuremberg which got the highest awards: 'Olympia - Fest der Schönheit' Festival of Beauty Leni Riefenstahl 'Olympia - Fest der Schönheit' Festival of Beauty Leni Riefenstahl The gold medal in Venice in 1935 and the gold medal at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1937, however, at the end of the war this film destroyed Leni Riefenstahl's career, for now it had no longer been recognized as a piece of art but been condemned as a National Socialist propaganda film. Her world-famous film about the Olympic games was equally well received. That film included two parts, part I 'Fest der Völker' (Festival of the Nations) and part 2 'Fest der Schönheit' , (Festival of Beauty) and did also get the highest awards: the gold medal in Paris in 1937, the first price in Venice as the world's best film in 1938, the Olympic Award by the IOC in 1939, and in 1956 it had been classified as one of the world's best ten films. Leni Riefenstahl and 'Triumph des Willens' Around the same time she first heard Hitler speak at a Nazi rally and, by her own admission, was impressed. She later began a correspondence with him that would last for years. Hitler, by turn, was equally impressed with 'Das Blaue Licht', and in 1933 asked her to direct a film about the annual Nürnberg Rally. The National Socialist Party had only recently taken power amid a period of political instability (Hitler was the fourth Chancellor of Germany in less than a year) and were considered an unknown quantity by many Germans, to say nothing of the world. In 'Mein Kampf' Hitler talks of the success of British propaganda in World War I believing people’s ignorance meant simple repetition and an appeal to feelings over reason would suffice. Hitler chose Riefenstahl as he wanted the film as “artistically satisfying" as possible to appeal to a non-political audience, but he also believed that propaganda must admit no element of doubt. As such, 'Triumph of the Will' may be seen as a continuation of the unambiguous World War I-style propaganda, though heightened by the film’s artistic or poetic nature. Riefenstahl was initially reluctant, not because of any moral qualms, but because she wanted to continue making feature films. Hitler persisted, and Riefenstahl eventually agreed to make a film at the 1933 Nürnberg Rally called 'Der Sieg des Glaubens' (Victory of Faith), however the film had numerous technical problems, including a lack of preparation (Riefenstahl reported having just a few days) and Hitler's apparent unease at being filmed. To make matters worse, Riefenstahl had to deal with infighting by party officials, in particular Joseph Goebbels who tried to have the film released by the Propaganda Ministry. Though 'Der Sieg des Glaubens' apparently did well at the box office, it later became a serious embarrassment after SA Leader Ernst Röhm, who had a prominent role in the film, was executed during the 'Night of the Long Knives'. In 1934, Riefenstahl had no wish to repeat the fiasco of 'Der Sieg des Glaubens' and initially recommended fellow director Walter Ruttmann. Ruttmann's film, which would have covered the rise of the Nazi Party from 1923 to 1934 and been more overtly propagandistic (the opening text of Triumph was his), did not appeal to Hitler. He again asked Riefenstahl, who finally relented after Hitler guaranteed his personal support, and promised to keep other Nazi organizations, specifically the Propaganda Ministry, from meddling with her film. Production The film follows a script similar to 'Der Sieg des Glaubens', which is evident when one sees both films side by side. For example, the city of Nürnberg scenes - even to the shot of a cat included in the city driving sequence in both films. Furthermore, Herbert Windt reused much of his musical score for that film in 'Triumph des Willens', which he also scored, but unlike 'Der Sieg des Glaubens', Riefenstahl shot Triumph with a large budget, extensive preparations, and vital help from high-ranking Nazis like Goebbels. The Rally was planned not only as a spectacular mass meeting, but as a spectacular propaganda film. Albert Speer, Hitler's personal architect, designed the set in Nürnberg, and did most of the coordination for the event. Leni Riefenstahl Pits were dug in front of the speakers' platform so Riefenstahl could get the camera angles she wanted, and tracks were laid so that her cameramen could get traveling shots of the crowd. When rough cuts weren't up to par, major party leaders and high-ranking public officials reenacted their speeches in a studio for her. Riefenstahl also used a film crew that was extravagant by the standards of the day. Her crew consisted of 172 people, including 10 technical staff, 36 cameramen and assistants (operating in 16 teams with 30 cameras), nine aerial photographers, 17 newsreel men, 12 newsreel crew, 17 lighting men, two photographers, 26 drivers, 37 security personnel, four labor service workers, and two office assistants. Many of her cameramen also dressed in SA uniforms so they could blend into the crowds. Riefenstahl had the difficult task of condensing an estimated 61 hours of film into two hours. She labored to complete the film as fast as she could, going so far as to sleep in the editing room filled with hundreds of thousands of feet of film footage. Themes Nürnberg Frauenkirche Triumph of the Will is sometimes seen as an example of Nazi political religion. The primary religion in Germany before the Second World War was Christianity. With the primary sects being Roman Catholic and Protestant, the Christian views in this movie are clearly meant to allow the movie to better connect with the intended audience. Religion is a major theme in 'Triumph'. The film opens with Hitler descending 'god-like' out of the skies past twin cathedral spires. It contains many scenes of church bells ringing, and individuals in a state of near-religious fervor. It is probably not a coincidence that the final parade of the film was held in front of the Nürnberg Frauenkirche. Adolf Hitler with the Blutfahne In his final speech in the film, Hitler also directly compares the National Socialist Party to a holy order, and the consecration of new party flags by having Hitler touch them to the "blood banner" has obvious religious overtones. Hitler himself is portrayed in a messianic manner, from the opening where he descends from the clouds in a plane, to his drive through Nuremberg, where even a cat stops what it is doing to watch him, to the many scenes where the camera films from below and looks up at him: Hitler, standing on his podium, will issue a command to hundreds of thousands of followers. It was very important to Adolf Hitler that his propaganda messages carry a unified theme. Unity is seen throughout this film, even in the camps where soldiers live. Nürnberg Reichsparteitag Nürnberg Reichsparteitag The camp outside of Nuremberg is very uniform and clean; the tents are aligned in perfect rows, each one the same as the next. The men there also make a point not to wear their shirts, because their shirts display their rankings and status. Shirtless they are all equals, unified. When they march, it is in unison and they all carry their weapons identically, one to another. Hitler's message to the workers also includes the notion of unity: The concept of labor will no longer be a dividing one but a uniting one, and no longer will there be anybody in Germany who will regard manual labor any less highly than any other form of labor. Adolf Hitler 'Triumph' has many scenes that blur the distinction between the Party, the German state, and the German people. Germans in peasant farmers' costumes and other traditional clothing greet Hitler in some scenes. The torchlight processions would remind the viewer of the medieval Karneval celebration. The old flag of Imperial Germany is also shown several times flying alongside the Swastika, and there is a ceremony where Hitler pays his respects to soldiers who died in World War I (as well as to President Paul von Hindenburg who had died a month before the convention). Hitler's Speeches Adolf Hitler Speaking Nürnberg Reichsparteitag Adolf Hitler Speaking Nürnberg Reichsparteitag Among the themes presented, the desire for pride in Germany and the purification of the German people is well exemplified through the speeches and ideals of the Third Reich in 'Triumph'. In every speech given and shown in 'Triumph', pride is one of the major focuses. Hitler advocates to the people that they should not be satisfied with their current state and they should not be satisfied with the descent from power and greatness Germany has endured since World War I. The German people should believe in themselves and the movement that is occurring in Germany. Hitler promotes pride in Germany through the unification of it. To unify Germany, Hitler believes purification would have to take place. Adolf Hitler Speaking Nürnberg Reichsparteitag Hitler preaches to the people in his speeches that they should believe in their country and themselves. The German people are better than what they have become because of the impurities in society. Hitler wants them to believe in him and believe what he wants to do for his people, and what he is doing is for the country's and people's benefit. Hitler before his Final Speach Nürnberg Reichsparteitag In the closing speech of 'Triumph of the Will', Hitler enters the room from the back, appearing to emerge from the people. After a one sentence introduction, he tells his faithful Nazis how the German nation has subordinated itself to the Party. 'Triumph des Willens' Final Scene He promises that the new state that the Party has created will endure for thousands of years. Hitler says that the youth will carry on after the old have weakened. As the massed bands and choirs ring out the 'Horst Wessel Lied' the camera focuses on the large Swastika above Hitler and the film ends with the images of this Swastika imposed on party members marching in a columns. His speech brought attention to the rally, and created a huge turnout in the following years. He attracted many people in the way that he addressed the issues and his people. He spoke to them as if it were a sermon and engaged the people. In 1934, over a million Germans participated in the Nuremberg Rally. Hitler's Speach to Political Leaders of the NSDAP Nürnberg -1936 'My party comrades! Men of the National Socialist movement! We meet here for the fourth time. How this field has changed! So has our Reich! And so, we can say with even greater pride, has our people! We have experienced in these four years the miracle of a resurrection of a defeated and demoralized and suppressed people. Today this people stands before us once more, restored in outlook and heart. Each time we come to this city, we can look back on a year of work, but also on a year of accomplishments. Three years ago as we met the world was in motion. There may have been some who thought the wheel of history could be rolled back. A year later, two years ago, we had just taken steps necessary to preserve the strength of the movement. A year ago the dark clouds of enemy opposition hung over Germany, foreign rejection and threatening misunderstandings. Now we are here once more and all of us, you and I and the nation, know that the time of inner turmoil is as much behind us as is the time of external threats. As we have come together here, so too today the German people has come together. As you have marched here in columns beneath your flags, my flag bearers, the German people are behind you! I have reminded the German people in my proclamation of the wonders of the past four years. We are reminded at this festival what has become of the German people. What a spirit seized our people! How proud and manly it has once more become. It has overcome all the powers of destruction, collapse and dishonor, and has found once again the path to honor! Today we can again be proud of our people! This miracle that has renewed our people, my fighting comrades, is not a gift from heaven given to those unworthy of it. Never has there been a movement that struggled with more fanatic, devoted, sacrificial commitment to national resurrection than we have shown in the past eighteen years! We have fought for our people for the souls of millions, of our workers, our farmers, our citizens! We have fought as one fights only for the most priceless gift that this world has to offer. What have we given over these years in work, in sacrifice, in devotion, in fanaticism, in contempt of death! We were successful not only because I was your leader, but rather far more because you were my followers. We feel once more in this moment the miracle that brought us together! You heard once the voice of a man that moved your hearts, that awakened you, and you followed this voice. You followed for years without even seeing the bearer of the voice himself. You heard only the voice, and you followed. The miracle of our coming together moves us all. Not all of you can see me, and I cannot see all of you. But I feel you, and you feel me! The belief in the greatness of our people has made us small people large, it has made us poor people rich, it has made wavering, cowardly, anxious men brave and courageous, the blind to see. It has brought us together! You have come to this city from your small village, from your market towns, from your cities, from mines and factories, from behind the plow. You have come from your daily routine and from your labors for Germany to share this feeling: We are together, we are it and it is us, and we are now Germany! It is splendid to know that we are gathered here as representatives of the German nation. Everyone knows: These 140,000 have but one thought and their heart, one longing, they all think the same. That is the source of our movement’s strength that has brought us through all that fate had to offer toward the goal for which we strive, and which is now in reach. It is wonderful for me to be your Führer. Who can be prouder of his followers than he who knows that they are moved by nothing but the purest idealism! Who forced you to follow me? What could I offer you, what could I gave you? We together agreed on one thing: on the struggle for a great shared idea! We grew in size and strength until we were the victors. For years I could greet you only as my fighting comrades. Today I greet you as victors. You have built a new home for our people, and have given those who dwell in that house a new spirit and new meaning. All those who may think that they can shake this state, or even bring it to collapse, should take note. They should not deceive themselves! If our old enemies and opponents should seek to attack us once more, our battle flags will fly high and they will learn respect for us! They will have to learn that Germany is no place for them. We had no prayer but this during our long years of struggle: Lord, give our people peace at home and abroad! Our generation has experienced so much that it is understandable why we long for peace. We want to work, to build our Reich, to build it according to our ideas and not those of the Bolshevist Jews. We want to work for the future of the children of our people, for a future that will not only be safe for them, but easier as well. We have so much behind us that we have only one request for a gracious and good Providence: “Spare our children that which we have gone through!” We desire nothing but peace and quiet in which to do our work. May others have the same wish, for we have not hesitated to give up our rest when it was necessary to deal with internal troublemakers. We have not aged during our struggle. We are as young as ever. What the years added our idealism subtracted. With and behind our flags march our new youth. We are happy and proud to see them. A new generation of leaders is maturing. What fate’s hard process of selection graciously granted us, that we want to guarantee for the future through our own tough selection. To be a National Socialist is to be a man, it is to be a fighter, it is to be brave and courageous and sacrificial. We will be that for all eternity! In this fourth Reich Party Rally since the seizure of power we can look calmly to the future. We are not careless and foolish. History has given us hard lessons. But we are calm and self confident. I am so when I see you. I know that there is a unique movement behind me, a wonderful organization of men and women. I see before me endless columns of the flags of our new Reich. I make this prophecy to you: This Reich has the first days of its youth behind it. It will grow in the coming centuries, becoming strong and powerful! These flags will be borne by ever new generations of our people. Germany is healthy once more! Our people is reborn! I greet you, my old fighting comrades, my flag bearers, my standard bearers of a new history, and I greet you and thank you for all the loyalty and faith that you have given me over the long years. I greet you as the hope of the present and the guarantee of our future. And I especially greet the youth who are present. Become men like those you see before you! Fight as they have fought! Be upright and determined, fear no one and do your duty! If you do so, the Lord God will never leave our people. сопряжённый с демонстрацией силы государства и единодушной его поддержки населением. Тогда предполагалось превратить Нюрнберг в идеологическую столицу национал-социалистического движения — (нем. «Tempelstadt der NS-Bewegung»)  В 1934 г. Гитлер дал указание о поиске места для соответственного оформления для проводимых общегерманских партийных мероприятий, назначив Альберта Шпеера главным архитектором. Ему же принадлежит и общий проект оформления территории. Некоторые из задуманных колоссальных строений целиком или частично были построены и существуют в настоящее время.  Для подготовки и финансирования проведения партсъездов в 1935 г. было создана специальная организация (нем. «Zweckverband Reichsparteitage Nürnberg») Ежегодно организация осуществляла гигантскую программу мероприятий, например на 1937 планировалось их 55.  На время этих мероприятий в город съезжалось множество участников, перемещение которых вело к коллапсу транспорта. Для их размещения использовались общественные здания, школы и фабричные помещения. Для поддержания порядка требовалось значительное увеличение необходимого персонала.  1 сентября 1939 г. в связи с началом войны объём выполняемых работ был резко уменьшен. Тем не менее нигде в Германии остатки времён нацизма не были сохранены в таком количестве, как это имеет место в Нюрнберге.[2]  До конца 60-х годов отношение городских властей к этой территории было сугубо прагматичным. Так на юге Нюрнберга стал возводиться новый жилой район -Лангвассер и территория бывшего Мартовского (Марсова) поля стала застраиваться и к концу ХХ в. здесь жило уже 35 000 человек.  С 1973 г., когда были пересмотрены положения Баварского закона об охране памятников истории, сохранившиеся следы перешли под государственную охрану.  Интерес подрастающего поколения к теме возрос около 1983 г., когда после начала эпохи нацизма прошло полвека и начался процесс переосмысления прошлого. В связи с этим было принято решение организовать постоянно действующую выставку под девизом: «Очарование и Насилие» (нем. Fascination und Gewalt) с использованием сохранившихся помещений. В качестве конкурирующего проекта в 1987 г. рассматривалось создание на базе Дворца съездов грандиозного торгового центра. На проведённом в июле 1988 г. симпозиуме, организованном департаментом культуры, было принято решение, исключающее возможность включать следы нацизма в современную жизнь города. Для размещения выставки было предложено использовать центральное помещение трибуны Цеппелина, где она и находилась до 2001 г.  В 1994 г. власти города приняли решение перенести постоянно действующую выставку в недостроенное крыле здания Дворца съездов (нем. Kongresshalle). Работы проводились по проекту австрийского архитектора Гюнтера Доменига (Günther Domenig), создавшего оригинальную конструкцию в архитектурном оформлении выставки при созданном здесь же Документальном центре.  4 ноября 2001 года выставка была открыта для посещения. Ежегодно её посещает около 170 000 человек.[2] [3] Постройки, возведенные до 1933 г  Эта территория на юго-востоке Нюрнберга стала ещё в конце XIX в традиционным местом отдыха горожан, которым предоставлялась возможность пользоваться оборудованными купальнями, прогуляться по берегу пруда и закусить в кафе на берегу. Парк Dutzendteich и Маяк выставки 1906 г., стоявший на месте Зала Конгрессов.  В 1906 г. в области между прудом Dutzendteich и сегодняшней площадью Platz der Opfer des Faschismus проходила Баварская юбилейная выставка (нем. die Bayerische Jubiläums-, Landes-, Industrie-, Gewerbe- und Kunstausstellung), посвящённая 100-летнему юбилею вхождения Свободного города Нюрнберга в состав королевства Бавария. За это время Нюрнберг превратился в современный индустриальный город с населением 295 000 человек. Патроном выставки стал правивший тогда принц-регент Луитпольд. Число посетителей выставки достигло 2,5 млн человек. В честь патрона северная часть территории выставки была названа Рощей Луитпольда (нем. Luitpoldhain). Сооруженные для выставки здания, в том числе маяк, были впоследствии снесены или сильно перестроены.  В 1912 г. в области между Рощей Луитпольда и прудом Dutzendteich открылся Нюрнбергский зоопарк. Роща стала также популярным местом проведения массовых мероприятий. Здесь 12 августа 1923 года Социал-демократическая партия Германии (SPD) провела 50-тысячный митинг в поддержку Веймарской конституции.  К востоку от пруда в 20- годы разместились спортивные сооружения. Эти сооружения и удобный подъезд сделали выставку популярным местом для массовых мероприятий, в том числе съездов партии НСДАП 1927 г. и 1929 г.  По другую сторону пруда с 1923 г. по инициативе нюрнбергского обер-бургомистра Германа Луппе (Hermann Luppe) возникла спортивная зона с восьмиугольным городским стадионом (архитектор: Otto Ernst Schweizer). Он вмешал 50.000 зрителей, включая особую трибуну на 2.500 зрителей. После того, как Нюрнберг был объявлен в 1933 году «городом имперских съездов партии», возникла необходимость ликвидировать зоопарк, разделявший территорию съездов НСДАП на двое. Тем не менее, лишь в феврале 1936 г. было решено перенести зоопарк в высшей степени привлекательную лесистую область старой каменоломни в Schmausenbuck, строительные работы были начаты там летом 1937 и оканчивались в конце 1939. Старый зоопарк был закрыт только в феврале 1939 г.  Монументальное строительство на этой территорией было начато в 1928 г., когда на северо-восточной стороне Рощи Луитпольда возвели памятник павшим воинам Первой мировой войны и так называемый Зал Почета (нем. Ehrenhalle, архитектор: Fritz Mayer). [2],[3] Архитектура и идеология нацизма  Целью национал-социалистического движения было создание общества нового типа, состоящего из «сверхчеловеков», свободных от любых проявлений присущих людям слабостей и завоевания для них «жизненного пространства». При этом в полную силу эксплуатировалась свойственная немцам склонность к романтическому восприятию действительности и, особенно, своей истории, а также героика, нашедшая своё отражение в музыке (Вагнер) и литературе (Ницше).  Пропаганда подобной идеологии требовала создания адекватных зрительных образов, нашедших своё выражение в архитектуре, доведённой до последней стадии гигантизма. Были выбраны архитектурные формы, в наибольшей степени отражающие монументальный характер создаваемого «Тысячелетнего Рейха».  По мнению Гитлера, архитектура была своеобразным посланием не в 1940 и, даже, не в 2000 год, но её постройки должны были стоять, подобно соборам прошлого, вечно. Грандиозно задуманные для постройки здания должны были олицетворять «мировоззрение в камне». Более того, помещённые в их среду массы людей сами должны были выражать «человеческую архитектуру». Идею Гитлера развил архитектор всего партийного комплекса Альберт Шпеер, который сформулировал «Теорию ценности развалин». Суть ее сводилась к тому, что развалины монументов прошлого должны пробуждать героическое вдохновение. Для убедительности он сделал макет трибуны Цеппелинфельда, которая пробыла в заброшенности несколько поколений и поросла плющом. Данный макет он предъявил Гитлеру и изложил свою теорию. Гитлер счел сооброжения Шпеера логичными и приказал в дальнейшем осуществлять важнейшие стройки государства с учетом «Закона развалин»[4].  Идеологические установки персонифицировались в лице Гитлера, который мыслился как центр композиции. С этой целью здания и сооружения строились так, чтобы обеспечить направление всех взоров на центральную фигуру вождя.[2]  •Пункт 1. Документальный центр (Докуцентр) и Зал собраний Современный план территории съездов НСДАП  •Пункт 2. Внутренний двор дворца съездов •Пункт 3. Площадь народных праздников •Пункт 4. Закладной камень Немецкого стадиона •Пункт 5. Пруд Дутцендтайх •Пункт 6. Городской стадион •Пункт 7. Трибуна Цеппелина •Пункт 8. Поле Цеппелина •Пункт 9. Закусочная Ваннер •Пункт 10. Зал Люитпольда •Пункт 11. Люитпольдарена •Пункт 12. Храм Памяти (Эренхалле) и Памятник погибшим •Пункт 13. Бывший вокзал Дутцентайх •Пункт 14. Задний двор трибуны Цеппелина •Пункт 15. Здание обслуживающего персонала и силовая подстанция •Пункт 16. Городок КДФ •Пункт 17. Бассейн •Пункт 18. Большая улица •Пункт 19. Остатки сооружений Мартовского (Марсова) поля •Пункт 20. Бывший вокзал Марсова поля •Пункт 21.Зильбербук («Серебряный холм») •Пункт 22.Зильберзее («Серебряное озеро») •Пункт 23. Бывшие казармы СС Пункт 1. Зал собраний и Докуцентр Зал собраний Зал собраний  Зал собраний (нем. Kongresshalle) — это самое большое из сохраненных монументальных сооружений эпохи национал-социализма в Германии и сегодня находится под охраной государства.  Закладка состоялась в 1935 г., здание, однако, осталось незаконченным. Проект, принадлежащий нюрнбергским архитекторам Людвигу и Францу Руффам (Franz Ruff), предполагал постройку здания с атриумом для собраний НСДАП, вмещавшем 50.000 человек. Докуцентр со стороны пруда Колоннада Зала собраний  Здание должно было быть накрыто застеклённой крышей без промежуточных опор. Из запланированной высоты примерно в 70 м достигли 39 м. Самая большая часть здания возведена из кирпичей; фасад облицовывался большими гранитными камнями «из всех областей империи». Архитектура здания в целом и в особенности внешний фасад напоминают Колизей в Риме.  Существующее ныне U-образное здание Зала собраний обращено концами подковы к пруду, рога заканчиваются двумя пристройками. В северной располагается центр документации НСДАП, в южной — с 2000 г. Нюрнбергский симфонический оркестр.[2] Экспозиция Докуцентра Экспозиция Докуцентра Пункт 2. Внутренний двор дворца съездов Дворец съездов. Интерьер и макет здания Дворец съездов изнутри. Вид на NO Дворец съездов изнутри. Вид на SW.  Работы проводились здесь с 1935 по 1939 гг. Пункт 3. Площадь народных праздников  В начале Большой улицы (в её северном конце) расположена площадь народных празднеств. Здесь на время их проведения устанавливаются весьма серьёзные аттракционы и множество торговых точек. Площадь народных празднеств. Аттракционы на площади в начале Большой улицы и Бург.   Пункт 4. Закладной камень Немецкого стадиона Закладной камень Немецкого стадиона Бетонные основы модели Немецкого стадиона (апрель 2007 г.) в Хиршбахе (Верхний Пфальц)  Задуманный стадион (Deutsches Stadion) планировался его автором Шпеером как самая большая трибуна в мире (540 х 445 м). Высота 83 м. Его вместимость составляла 405 000 человек. Его форма напоминала олимпийский стадион в Афинах.  Это — последнее в ходе планирования территории сооружение, рассматривалось как дополнение к уже составленному проекту. Здесь предполагалось разыгрывать эпизоды военных действий вермахта.  Закладной камень был установлен в 1937 году.[2] Пункт 5. Пруд Дутцендтайх Пруд Дутцендтайх и Дворец съездов. Вид на N.  Существовал здесь и ранее. Его границы были скорректированы при постройке Дворца Съездов. [2]   Пункт 6. Городской стадион Франкештадион. ИзиКредит-Штадион (июнь 2008 г.). Ледяная арена.  Называвшийся также до 14 марта 2006 г. Франкенштадион. Ныне называется ИзиКредит-Штадион. Представлял собой построенный в 1928 году муниципальный стадион, который после окончания строительства Немецкого стадиона предполагалось использовать для проведения слётов немецкой молодёжи.[2]  Начиная с 1933 г. во время съездов нацистской партии на стадионе проходили партийные митинги гитлерюгенда в день съезда, называвшегося «День Гитлерюгенда».   Пункт 7. Трибуна Цеппелина Цеппелинтрибуна Цеппелинтрибуна  Главная трибуна Рейха, длиной в 360 и высотой 20 м, прообразом для которой послужил Пергамский алтарь из Малой Азии. Начата в 1935 и закончена в 1937 г. Это — единственное крупное сооружение на территории съездов, которое удалось закончить. Автором проекта был Альберт Шпеер. Работы велись в большой спешке, что отразилось на их качестве.  В центральном здании трибуна находится «Золотой зал» с выложенным золочёной мозаикой потолком. Рисунок потолка был позаимствован из древних искусств и основным мотивом был меандр, в котором без труда можно было видеть изображение свастики. В здании были предусмотрены туалетные комнаты и помещение для телефонной станции. ‎Выход из Золотого зала Центральный зал и кафедра фюрера  Официально зал назывался также «Залом Славы» (нем. «Ehrenhalle») и предназначался для приёма высокопоставленных гостей. Из зала был возможен выход на центральную кафедру трибуны, выполненный в виде лестницы, по которой возможно было спуститься на «Трибуну (кафедру) фюрера» (нем. «Führertribune»).  Само появление фюрера перед многотысячной толпой народа было оформлено как торжественное театрализованное зрелище, сопровождаемое световыми эффектами, музыкой и барабанным боем. Ритуал позволял достигнуть эффекта ощущения единства партии в лице фюрера и народа (нем. «Volksgemeinschaft»). Главная трибуна Поля Цеппелина (см. анимированную версию) Центральный зал и кафедра фюрера  Одной из первых впечатляющих находок режиссуры этого мероприятия стал «световой храм» (нем. «Lichtdom»), созданный в темноте зенитными прожекторами числом 130, посылавших свои лучи вертикально вверх. Так создавалась иллюзия присутствия в «величайшей постройке всего мира».  24 апреля 1945 г., на четвёртый день оккупации города американскими войсками, у трибуны был проведён военный парад победы. «Гвоздём» состоявшегося торжества было произведённое путём взрыва уничтожение скульптурного изображение свастики, венчавшей фасад центрального здания. Трибуна Цеппелина после частичного разрушения 1967 г. без колоннад  С 1961 и до 1992 г. эта трибуна продолжала использоваться при проведении различных общественных мероприятий на открытом воздухе: празднований профсоюзами праздника Первого Мая, дня судетских немцев, массовых церковных мероприятий, а с 1970 г. концертов рок-групп, созывавших значительное количество участников.  C 1947 г. пространство между трибуной (современная улица нем. Beuthener Straße) и Полем Цеппды. Зал вмещал до 16.000 человек.  В ночь на 29 августа1942 года здание было полностью разрушено при бомбардировке. После войны было принято решение здание не восстанавливать. Его территория используется под парковку.  Для проведения концертов на противоположной (северной) стороне рощи Луитпольда был построен в 1963 году современный концертный «Зал Мейстерзингеров» — (нем. Meistersingerhalle)[2].   Пункт 11. Люитпольдарена Images.png Внешние изображения Image-silk.png     Трибуна Люитпольдарена. Луитпольдарена. 2010 г.  Местность была частично благоустроена в 1906 году. Именно здесь происходили собрания членов НСДАП в 1927 и 1929 годах.  Территория парка Роща Луитпольдабыла в 1933 году переоборудована для проведения массовых мероприятий с участием до 150 000 членов SA и SS в инсценировке освящения новых знамён и штандартов у «Зала славы», построенном в честь павших участников путча 1923 г. . Для зрителей были построены трибуны на 50 000 человек. Парк был заменен на строго размеченную площадь для демонстрации, т. н. Арену Луитпольда (нем. Luitpoldarena) общей площадью 84.000 м². Против Зала Почета соорудили гранитную трибуну, связанную с залом мощёной дорогой шириной 18 м и длиной 240 תוכן עניינים [הסתרה] תאור כללי המבנים המצב הנוכחי