Showing posts with label Glauchau. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Glauchau. Show all posts

Remaining Nazi Sites in Saxony

Annaberg (Saxony)
In 1945 the two towns Annaberg and Buchholz merged into the new town Annaberg-Buchholz. 
Adolf-Hitler-Strasse in 1942, now Grosse Kirchgasse and from the other direction
Kreisführerschule Rauschenbachmühle  
The former Kreisführerschule Rauschenbachmühle then, in the service of the Nazi regime, and now, a nature centre

Königsbrück (Saxony)
Adolf-Hitler-Platz in 1939 and the market today in front of the rathaus
Schwarzer Adler
The other view of Hitler-Platz, still with the Schwarzer Adler but without its fountain

Schloss Struppen, formerly used as an SA Führerschule
Schloss Struppen, formerly used as an SA Führerschule

Villa Wach, aranyised in 1939 and appropriated from the Wach family, became the following year a national leader school as DRK Landesführerschule IV with the reichsadler affixed onto its pediment as shown in the period photograph. It also served during the war as an hospital used by the German Red Cross. After the war until 1957 it was used by the Soviet army as a gaol; today it serves as a children's and youth services centre.

Schkeuditz (Saxony)

The town hall  on Adolf-Hitler-Platz and today

 The town as shown in a Nazi postcard and today. At the beginning of the Nazi era about 120 anti-Nazis were arrested here and interned within the surrounding "protective custody camps" in the summer of 1933 and forced to perform labour. A plaque commemorates this event as well as a memorial in Erdmannsdorf for all victims of fascism. Within the cemetery of Erdmannsdorf are buried four unknown concentration camp inmates who were murdered during a death march from Flossenburg camp in April 1945 by ϟϟ men.
The former Gauführerschule and today, now known simply as schloss Augustusburg. It is claimed that the furniture from the Reichschancellery was sent here before the end of the war, later to be confiscated by the Soviets. 

 The Lehngericht Augustusburg sporting the Nazi flag during the war and being renovated today

Birthplace of  Bruno Hauptmann, convicted kidnapper of the son of Charles Lindbergh.

Bautzener Straße 
Bautzener Straße
During World War II and the Nazi era, there was a subcamp of the Groß-Rosen concentration camp in Bautzen. Ernst Thälmann was imprisoned there before being deported to Buchenwald. Between 21 April and 30 April 1945, the Battle of Bautzen was fought.
Husarenkaserne during the war and today 

The railway station during the war sporting a swastika and today, practically unchanged. In 1944, some Crimmitschau property was bombed by Allied Forces.

Nicolaikirche under the Hakenkreuzfahne and today. On May 1, 1933 Freiberg churches held a "Patriotic Celebration." Reverend Paul Gotthelf Schwen wrote in the community newsletter of St. James "that God sent Adolf Hitler as the saviour to us."
In 1944 a subcamp of Flossenbürg concentration camp was built outside the town of Freiberg, housing over 500 female survivors of other camps, including Auschwitz Birkenau. Altogether 50 or so ϟϟ women worked in this camp until its evacuation in April 1945. The female survivors eventually reached Mauthausen concentration camp in Austria. 
Throughout the town there are numerous memorials commemorating events from the war including a plaque at the Saxon Porcelain Factory GmbH where, in the spring of 1933, political opponents of the regime were detained and tortured by the Nazi authorities but which for unknown reasons was removed after 1990. Another plaque commemorates the 1000 Jewish female prisoners at the subcamp of Flossenburg and Polish forced labourers who were kidnapped and victims of forced labour. Another plaque at the same site can be seen for the Jewish director of the porcelain factory, Dr. Werner Hofmann, who killed himself in 1939. One final plaque commemorates Dr. Werner Hartenstein, the mayor of the city from 1924 to 1945 who managed to save the town from unnecessary losses. He was then arrested by the NKVD in June 1945, and died February 11 1947 at the Jamlitz Special Camp
The 1843 Schwedendenkmal on the former Platz der SA looking down Peterstraße.

 The rathaus in 1940 and today. Görlitz is the easternmost town in the country, located on the Lusatian Neisse River in Saxony. It is opposite the Polish town of Zgorzelec, which was a part of Görlitz until 1945. Near the end of World War II, German troops destroyed all bridges crossing the Lusatian Neisse. The redrawing of boundaries in 1945—in particular the relocation of the German-Polish border to the present Oder-Neisse line—divided the town. The right bank became part of Poland and was renamed Zgorzelec by the Polish communist government in 1948, while the main portion on the left bank remained part of Germany, now within the state of Saxony. When the East German states were dissolved in 1952, Görlitz became part of the Dresden District, but the states were restored upon German reunification in 1990.

Schlettau im Erzgebirge 
The rathaus during the Nazi-era and today

The rathaus sporting a swastikas above the entrance during the Nazi era and today, flag-free
The Kasernenwache in 1941 and today, renamed the Jägerkaserne
Adolf-Hitler-Platz, today Wettiner Platz. Hitler was driven through here on October 6, 1938
Looking at Adolf-Hitler-Platz from the other direction, now the altmarkt

Zittau   (Saxony)
During the war a labour camp was located in Zittau providing forced labour for Phänomen Werke Gustav Hiller, a truck-manufacturing company (which became VEB Kraftfahrzeugwerk Phänomen after the war, renamed VEB Robur-Werke Zittau in 1957).
The Grenzlandtheater in 1942 and today, the Gerhart Hauptmann theatre.

Obergurig  (Saxony)

Hans Schemm Schule, named after the founder of the National Socialist Teachers' Federation. In 1928, Schemm became a member of the Bavarian Landtag.  Systematically, Schemm prepared the local NSDAP for the election campaigns, first for the City Council in 1929. The Nazis won 9 mandates, and Schemm became factional chairman. The arrival of the Nazi faction led to frequent stormy sessions and one brawl, which were caused by the Nazi members', and in particular Schemm's, aggressive attitude[citation needed].  In 1928 and 1929, Schemm took over the leadership of several Nazi newspapers (Streiter, Weckruf and Nationale Zeitung), which he however gave up after a short time. In April 1929, Schemm founded his own newspaper, and in August of the same year appeared in the Nationalsozialistische Lehrerzeitung ("National Socialist Teachers' Newspaper"), the National Socialist Teachers League's (NSLB) journalistic organ.   On 5 March 1935, Schemm died after an aircraft crash. Hitler personally ordered Berlin Professor Ferdinand Sauerbruch to fly to Bayreuth. Schemm, however, succumbed to his injuries before the professor's arrival. His successor as Gauleiter was Fritz Wächtler.  Schemm's life was glorified by the Nazis, and somewhat even later after the Nazis were gone. In the time of the Nazi regime, though, various schools, streets, and halls in Nazi Germany were named after him.

Riesa an der Elbe (Saxony)
Another Hans Schemm Schule doesn't appear to have survived the war, unlike the neighbouring Pestalozzi Schule.

Sayda im Erzgebirge
 The church "Zu unserer lieben Frauen" dating from 1391 on Adolf Hitler Straße seen from Hindenburgplatz 

 Bad Düben 

The Schützenhaus, now an hotel, flying the swastika and today


 The Schwartenberghaus with and without flags


In the early 1930s, the idea arose of converting the upper quarry into an arena for large-scale events. This was done in the context of the Nazi Thing movement, and a large part of the dynamiting, transport and construction work was done by the Workers' Labour Service. A total of 1,300 workers were involved in the project, and according to contemporary accounts, professionals were responsible for 20,000 days of work, Labour Service workers for 60,000. The sod-breaking took place on 7 April 1934, but costs greatly exceeded the estimates, and the project was only completed after the Propaganda Ministry and the State of Saxony provided additional funds. The arena was inaugurated on 25–26 June 1938 as a Feierstätte der Volksgemeinschaft (ceremonial site for the folk community), the Grenzlandfeierstätte (Borderlands Ceremonial Site). A copper container containing construction plans, a newspaper and coins was sealed into the masonry to the right of the stage. The theatre was operated in cooperation with those at Borna and Kamenz; in 1938–39, the theatre troupe from the open-air theatre at Ehrenfriedersdorf also played there.   After Germany’s surrender in the Second World War, Schwarzenberg remained, for historically unclear reasons, unoccupied at first. On 11 May 1945, several antifascist Schwarzenberg citizens took the initiative of filling the resulting power vacuum. This episode lasted only until 25 June 1945 when Soviet troops marched in. In 1984, the writer Stefan Heym coined the term “Republic of Schwarzenberg” in his novel Schwarzenberg, which was based on the episode. A lively accumulation of legends is bound up with this time.

Schmilka, Bad Schandau (Saxony)
The Gasthaus zur Mühle with hakenkreuz in front, and today

Müglitz (Altenberg) 
The Gasthof zur Grenzschenkein 1942 sporting swastika flags and today- considerably run-down
Aue (Saxony)
A subcamp of the Flossenbürg concentration camp was located here at Aue during the war.
Adolf-Hitler-Brücke, opened June 5, 1937  is now known as Bahnhofsbrücke

No Nazi flag outside the Gasthaus Weißes Roß anymore

Sohland an der Spree (Saxony)

The marktplatz during the Third Reich and today

 Frankenberg was the site of the Nazi concentration camp Sachsenburg.      
Schloß Sachsenburg in 1939. In 1933 the schloß briefly served as a detention camp. From the mid-1930s it served as the NSDAP Gauführerinnenschule for Saxony. Towards the end of World War II, the castle was then used as a bacteriological Institute as a branch of the Robert Koch Institute. After the war the Sachsenburg served as residence for evacuees before 1947 Youth Werkhof has been established, which existed until 1967.

Wilkau Haßlau
The rathaus bedecked in swastikas during the war and now

The SA Seesportübungslager with Schiffsnachbau in the background

 On 20 April 1945, the town’s deputy mayor Rudolf Weber, who wanted to surrender the town to the Americans without a fight, was shot by the Waffen-ϟϟ.
Adolf-Hitler-Platz before the war and now

Leipzig (Saxony)
 The city's mayor from 1930 to 1937, Carl Friedrich Goerdeler was a noted opponent of the Nazi regime in Germany. He resigned in 1937 when, in his absence, his Nazi deputy ordered the destruction of the city's statue of Felix Mendelssohn. On Kristallnacht in 1938, one of the city's most architecturally significant buildings, the 1855 Moorish Revival Leipzig synagogue was deliberately destroyed. Leipzig after bombing in World War II  Several thousand forced labourers were stationed in Leipzig during World War II. 

Stentzlers Hof decked with swastikas than and now
The hauptbahnhof look remarkably unchanged since the 1938 postcard when swastikas flew in front considering the damage incurred after the bombing of July 7, 1944.
The Völkerschlachtdenkmal (Monument to the Battle of the Nations) in 1940 and today. Built to commemorate Napoleon's defeat at the 1813 Battle of Leipzig, a crucial step towards the end of hostilities in the War of the Sixth Coalition, which was seen as a victory for the German people, although Germany did not exist at that time.
It was completed in 1913 for the 100th anniversary of the battle, at a cost of 6,000,000 Goldmarks  and stands at 299 feet in height. It contains over 500 steps to a viewing platform at the top, from which there are spectacular views across the city and environs. It is said to stand on the spot of some of the bloodiest fighting, from where Napoleon ordered the retreat of his army
Construction of the monument in 1907 and 1912, just before the centenary of the Battle of Nations
Hitler speaking at the Völkerschlachtdenkmal. During the Third Reich, Hitler frequently used the monument as a venue for his meetings in Leipzig. It was here on July 16, 1933 that Hitler announced to 140,000 men of the SA, ϟϟ and the Stahlhelm

Today we are not leading a mere thirteen or seventeen million, but the entire Volk, and hence the gigantic task accrues to us of training the millions of people who do not yet inwardly belong to us to become soldiers of this Third Reich, to become soldiers of our Weltanschauung.
 An American soldier surveying the aftermath. The monument itself served as the backdrop for an anti-fascist demonstration in 2011. When the US army captured Leipzig on April 18, 1945, the monument was one of the last strongholds in the city to surrender. One hundred and fifty ϟϟ soldiers with ammunition and foodstuffs stored in the structure to last three months dug themselves in, but were blasted with artillery and defeated.  During the period of Communist rule in East Germany, the government of the DDR was unsure whether it should allow the monument to stand, since it was considered to represent the steadfast nationalism of the period of the German Empire. Eventually, it was decided that the monument be allowed to remain, since it represented a battle in which Russian and German soldiers had fought together against a common enemy, and was therefore representative of Deutsch-russische Waffenbrüderschaft (Russo-German brotherhood-in-arms). 
The city was heavily damaged by Allied bombing during the war. Unlike its neighbouring city of Dresden this was largely conventional bombing, with high explosives rather than incendiaries. The resultant pattern of loss was a patchwork, rather than wholesale loss of its centre, but was nevertheless extensive.  The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Leipzig in late April 1945. The U.S. 2nd Infantry Division and U.S. 69th Infantry Division fought into the city on 18 April and completed its capture after fierce urban combat, in which fighting was often house-to-house and block-to-block, on 19 April 1945. 
In April 1945 the Deputy Mayor of Leipzig, Ernest Lisso, his wife, daughter and a Volkssturm Major Walter Dönicke committed suicide in the Leipzig City Hall.  The U.S. turned the city over to the Red Army as it pulled back from the line of contact with Soviet forces in July 1945 to the predesignated occupation zone boundaries. Leipzig became one of the major cities of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
It was here at the Zoologischer Garten on December 11, 1932 that Hitler announced
I am the one who has fixed the price of the Movement. No one will offer it at less than that. But if anyone should ever be found to do so, he would be lost in the Party within an hour and would have no Movement behind him. We will not allow ourselves to be lured into the den of intrigue where the others are experts at the game [here clearly referring to Gregor Strasser who had been offered the post of Vice-Chancellor in a bid by the authorities to split the party]. 
Time will not wear me down. Certainly we lost thirty seats, but in the meantime our opponents have lost two governments! And the new Cabinet will not last any longer. We will regain those thirty seats. Our supply of recruits is larger than theirs, and I will place this task first and foremost and without any consideration to myself.
On January 2 the Burgfriede will be over, and on the third we will be back in the thick of the fight.
St. Laurentius church at Platz der SA then and now. The town was well known until World War II for Markranstädter Pilsener beer. 
The rathaus in 1933, sporting the Nazi flag
From early 1940 until end of June 1942, a part of the huge mental asylum within Sonnenstein Castle overlooking Pirna was converted into a euthanasia killing centre: the Sonnenstein Nazi Death Institute. This was the first use of techniques later rolled out and refined for use within the Final Solution. A gas chamber and crematorium were installed in the cellar of the former men's sanitary (building C 16). A high brick-wall on two sides of the complex shielded it from outside while a high hoarding was erected on the other sides. Four buildings were located inside the shielding. They were used for offices, living rooms for the personnel etc. Sleeping quarters for the "burners" (men who burned the bodies) were provided for in the attic of building C 16. It is possible that other sections of the buildings were also used by T4.  From end of June 1940 until September 1942, approximately 15,000 persons were killed in the scope of the euthanasia programme and the Sonderbehandlung 14f13. The staff consisted of about 100 persons. One third of them were ordered to the extermination camps in occupied Poland, because of their experiences in deception, killing, gassing and burning innocent people.  There they were trained by the killing groups who mounted the killing machinery in the later camps like Treblinka from TishBeAv 1942 and the others.  During August and September 1942, the Sonnenstein killing centre was closed and incriminating installations such as gas chamber installations and crematorium ovens dismantled. After October 1942, the buildings were used as a military hospital.  This part of the history of Pirna went largely unrecognised in Germany until 1989, but after that efforts to remember that catastrophe started. In June 2000 the permanent exhibition opened.

Glauchau (Saxony)

Glauchau railway station in 1941 and today

The Rathaus and St Aegidien church at Adolf Hitler Platz and today

Plauen im Vogtland
In the 1930s, Plauen earned the distinction of hosting the first chapter of the Nazi Party outside of Bavaria. Plauen's population, however, has shrunk dramatically since the Second World War (1939: 111,000 inhabitants). It was occupied by American troops in 16 April 1945 but was left to Red Army in 1 July 1945 after which time it fell into the Soviet occupation zone of Germany, which later became the German Democratic Republic (1949-1990). Plauen hosted a large Red Army occupation garrison and, in the last years of the DDR, an officer school of the Border Guards ("Grenztruppen der DDR").
Swastikas in the square in front of the rathaus and today

The birthplace of Karl May, Hitler's favourite author.
Adolf became gripped by the adventure stories of Karl May, whose popular tales of the Wild West and Indian wars (though May had never been to America) enthralled thousands of youngsters. Most of these youngsters graduated from the Karl May adventures and the childhood fantasies they fostered as they grew up. For Adolf, however, the fascination with Karl May never faded. As Reich Chancellor, he still read the May stories, recommending them, too, to his generals, whom he accused of lacking imagination.
Kershaw (9) Hitler
Hammerleubsdorf, Leubsdorf

The former Gauschule is now a pale, derelict structure

Bad Brambach 
The Kapellenbergturm on the Schönberg 

Raschwitz Markkleeberg

The Forsthaus, back when it flew the swastika, and today on Koburgerstraße 33 where it serves as a restaurant and biergarten.

The bahnhof sporting the swastika and today
About two weeks before the end of the war Eilenburg was almost completely destroyed. On 17 April 1945 American troops reached Eilenburg, which German defences were ordered to hold. For three days and nights the town was under heavy artillery fire, which destroyed most of the buildings of the city. Two hundred people were killed and 90 percent of the town centre and 65 percent of the buildings of the whole town were destroyed; the American army had nearly no losses. Eilenburg was one of the most heavily damaged cities in Germany.

The Hitler Youth flag flying atop the Schulkameradentag Pfingsten in 1938, now simply the Mittelschule

The rathaus sporting a swastika and today. During the Second World War, a subcamp of Flossenbürg concentration camp was located in the town from September 1944 to March 1945. The camp held about 600 Jewish women. 
During the Third Reich the Nazis gained an early foothold in the city council and in 1934 removed nonpartisan mayor Rudolf Herrmann by means of a political intrigue. A year earlier Adolf Hitler and Paul von Hindenburg were made honorary citizens of the city. The town bridge was built and named after Gauleiter Martin Mutschmann. 1936 saw the town host the "Festival of Landscape- 1000 years German". The cumbersome title suggests that this was a historical construct although the Rochlitzer area was said to have been the site of the death in 936 of King Henry I. From 1938 the arms industry moved into the city, and probably from 19 September 1944 to 28 March 1945, a subcamp of Flossenburg concentration camp with about 600 imprisoned Jewish women was opened. These women had to do forced labour in mechanics. There is no commemoration of this in the town. 
The was taken on April 14, 1945 by units of the 76th Infantry and 6th Armoured Division of the 3rd US Army. Here formed the line of demarcation between Americans and Russians. The former withdrew from the city on June 30. At the Muldenbrücke in April 2003 a plaque was installed, which commemorates the "liberation" of the city.

The rathaus and Gewandhaus (theatre) surrounded by swastikas on the 800th anniversary of the town. 

Zwickau Planitz
The swimming pool looks practically unchanged since the time swastikas flew from the promenade. Today the historic Johannisbad baths in Zwickau has been forced to ban all migrants from the premises until further notice after a gang of migrant men invited by the hundreds of thousands by Chancellor Merkel sexually assaulted German women and caught "emptying their bowels" in the children's pool and masturbating in a hot tub. In a leaked internal memo it was revealed that "men wanted to forcibly penetrate the female changing room" but after "several asylum seekers were reportedly arrested in connection with the claims", they were simply released. 

9 km southwest of Zwickau is Lengenfeld; its town hall sporting a swastika and today