Showing posts with label Nymphenburg. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Nymphenburg. Show all posts

Nazi-era sites around Munich (5)

Staatskanzlei and Munich War Memorial
The Bavarian State Chancellery serves as the personal offices of the chancellery staff. It was erected from 1989 to 1993 around the central dome of the former Bavarian Army Museum, which had been built in 1905 at the site of the Hofgartenkaserne barracks and was demolished during the Second World War.  With reference to Leo von Klenze's neighbouring Festsaalbau of the Munich Residenz, the new building of the Bavarian Army Museum was also influenced by the Italian High Renaissance, but shows the monumentalisation of the late Historicism. The architect was Ludwig Mellinger. The west side of the central building with six columns completes a three-part entablature with limestone figures in the centre and four trophies. The east façade, originally facing no road, was made comparatively restrained. Under the dome was a central room, a "Hall of Fame". This space takes the two upper floors with a height of 32 meters. After its destruction in World War II, the two side wings were torn off, the central building was for a ruin for decades. By 1982, however, the 52 metre high dome with its copper coverage was restored.  The remnants of some renaissance arcades of the Hofgarten in the north were integrated to the building. The two new wings are covered in full length with glazed stairs in the style of Jacob's Ladders, giving the impression of ship stairs. At the request of then-Prime Minister Max Streibl an intimate space with wood panelling and furnishings, ("Zirbelstube") was inserted after the reception room of the Prime Minister, who caused a stir because of high costs. The building comprises about 8,800 m². To the east of the building the stream Köglmühlbach flows past above ground. Before the west side of the courtyard is the war memorial and the equestrian statue for Duke Otto I Wittelsbach.
From 1905-1945, this housed the Bavarian Army Museum, founded by Ludwig II. Destroyed during the war with only the dome remaining, it has since been rather impressively reconstructed and is now used by the Bavarian government. In front of the building, beneath a Travertine slab, is a crypt commemorating the unknown soldier.

 During the November 1918 Revolution, and two photographs from memorial ceremonies in December 1924 and November 1931.
The tomb of the Unknown Soldier then and today. Originally erected in front of the former Army Museum (now the Bavarian State Chancellery) in the Hofgarten in 1924 to commemorate the 2 million dead of the Great War, the 'Dead Soldier' sculpted by Bleekers now dedicated to the dead of both world wars. It was also used as a backdrop for nationalist and militaristic propaganda during the Nazi era. Annual remembrance days for war heroes were organised here by both the Wehrmacht and the Nazi party from 1934 onwards. This war memorial modelled on a megalithic tomb was already one of the most visited war memorials in Germany even during the Weimar Republic. Its centrepiece is a crypt in which Bernhard Bleeker’s idealised figure of the “dead soldier” is laid out, representing the 13,000 Munich soldiers who fell in the First World War and whose names were once engraved on the walls of a further walkway that circumscribed the memorial. Damaged during the Second World War, the war memorial was restored on the orders of the American military government, albeit without the names of the 13,000 dead. In the 1950s an inscription was added commemorating the fallen soldiers and civilian victims of the years 1939 to 1945. This dedication reflects the desire of the population to continue commemorating the war dead even after 1945, although its portrayal of both the city and its population exclusively as victims represents a very one-dimensional view. To this day military ceremonies in honour of the dead are still held regularly at the war memorial. Directly in front is the Memorial for the Resistance
Leo Kornbrust’s memorial was unveiled on 24 July 1996 by the Bavarian Minister president Dr. Edmund Stoiber. It is engraved on one side with a line of block letters reading "Zum erinnern zum gedenken" ("To Recall and to Commemorate") under which is a reproduction of a handwritten letter by Generalfeldmarschall Erwin von Witzleben who was arrested the day after the attempted July plot. 
We will not pass judgement on the various possible forms of government as only one will be raised clear and unambiguously: every person has a right to a useful and just state that guarantees the freedom of the individual and to he general welfareFreedom of speech, freedom of religion, the protection of individual citizens from the arbitrary will of criminal regimes of violenceThese are the foundations of the new Europe.
During his trial he was forced to appear in court without his belt and false teeth. On August 8, 1944 he was executed by being hanged by piano wire from a meat hook.

ϟϟ-Deutschland-Kaserne
ϟϟ-Deutschland-Kaserne
These barracks were primarily used by the ϟϟ-Standarte 1 Deutschland until the end of World War II. They had taken part in the annexation of Austria and later the occupation of the Sudetenland before contributing to the annexation of Bohemia and Moravia in March, 1939. It was ordered by Hitler that it should be expanded to a division but the war interrupted this plan. It took part in the invasion of Poland attached to Panzer-Division Kempf and following that campaign it was used to form ϟϟ-Division Verfügungstruppe,later renamed Das Reich. It was as this division which is notorious for having descended on the village of Oradour-sur- Glane, France, in reprisal for partisan attacks. After assembling the villagers, the troops separated the men from the women and children, then shot the men as their families looked on. After this, the troops herded the women and children into a local church, locked the doors, and set the structure ablaze with hand grenades. A total of 642 died. After the war the UNESCO used the buildings to accommodate dispersed persons.

Funk-Kaserne
 
Dating from 1936, now used by the police. Just outside the reichsadler remains, shorn of its swastika (although traces are left).


Adolf-Hitler-Kaserne
Formerly the Karl-Liebknecht-Kaserne, this is where Hitler stayed after returning to Munich after the Great War until 1920. It was named after him in 1934. Much of it was destroyed during the Second World War and the remaining buildings used for residential purposes.

 Nazi Housing Development
The government of Chancellor Brüning in 1931 established the small settlement programme in order "to promote the population becoming settled in the country to reduce unemployment and to facilitate sufficient living conditions for the unemployed." The future settlers were to be involved in the establishment of their own homes and gardens and small animal husbandry to improve their supply in the economic crisis. The Nazis took over the model because it fit into their anti-modern and anti-urban ideology. 
According to Geoff Walden of Third Reich in Ruins, this first building at Kurfürstenplatz "was likely part of a Third Reich neighbourhood housing development (Siedlung) built in 1938. The Siedlung included a savings bank and a police office, and this building may have been one of those." friend_of_Obersalzberg, who contributed the photo on the left, confirms that it was built in 1938 by architect Hans Atzenbeck.
At that time it was necessary to build new healthy and cheap apartments in Munich. It has 5 entrances and so 5 living units. In the first floor (Erdgeschoß) were stores. In the courtyard was a fountain with a sculpture of a drumming Hitlerjunge. The swastikas and the fountain were removed after war.
Google Street view actually blocks the image of the entire building! Google isn't known for respecting privacy, so could this have been pushed by the authorities given the remaining Nazi-era reliefs?
 February 26, 1938
The coat of arms of Munich on the building with its form under the Nazis and today. On the right the Nazi version reappears on the clothing of a neo-Nazi in Munich.
Better photos of the building can be found on the the Munich thread at Axis History.
These siedlung on Klugstrasse all have bizarre Third Reich, astrological, masonic, and other obscure symbols over every door frame leading inside. To me, it's incredible that they continue to survive and form the entrances to people's homes:

The swastika is still faintly visible...

...whilst this one, dated 1933, is obscured by the shaking hands

Here the hakenkreuz has been erased, but the Nazi salutes allowed to remain!

Another excised swastika that completed the DAF symbol

And yet a couple have had their bizarre symbols completely removed.



The left image shows swords and a steel helmet whilst the one on the right reminds me of the lesson from the Disney wartime cartoon Education for Death...


Mustersiedlung Ramersdorf
Die Mustersiedlung Ramersdorf im Münchner Stadtteil Ramersdorf sollte kurz nach derung des Wndistische Wirkung der Siedlung blieb jedoch aus, da unter anderem die für damalige Verhältnisse großzügige Wohnfläche von 56 bis 129 m2 sowie einzelne modernistische Bauelemente kritisiert wurden.  Nach Ende der Siedlungsausstellung wurden die Häuser als Eigenheime verkauft. Im Jahr 1935 wurde mit der Gustav-Adolf-Kirche in der Siedlung ein protestantischer Kirchenneubau eröffnet. 
 
The sample settlement at Ramersdorf was opened on 9 June 1934 to serve as a model for future settlement projects in Germany. Designed by Guido Habers, this siedlung on Stephanskirchener Straße provided 192 homes with 34 different building types and planned as an alternative to the multi-storey urban houses. The ensemble is self-contained and , pursuant to the garden city idea numerous green spaces.  As executive architects , among others , Friedrich Ferdinand Haindl , Sep Ruf , Franz Ruf , Lois Knidberger , Albert Heichlinger , Max Dellefant , Theo Pabst, Christoph Miller, Hanna Loev Delisle and Charles were responsible for the buildings. The hoped-for propaganda effect of the settlement did not materialise because, among other things, the generous living space for those days 56-129 m2 and individual modernist elements were criticized.  After the exhibition, the settlement houses were sold as homes. In 1935 a Protestant church building was opened with the Gustav Adolf Church in the settlement as shown in the then-and-now photos. A number of frescoes remain, barely, from 1934:
 
St. Christopher on Stephanskirchener Straße 20
 
Above a door on Schlechinger Weg 4 is this coat of arms; the former owner was Paerr and therefore he chose a play on words in the arms of a bear- Bärenwappen. Above one can still make out the inscription "G. P. 1934".
 At Schlechinger Weg 8 is this image of a German African colonial soldier. The original owner had served in Deutsch-Südwestafrika and designed the crest himself before giving it to the artist, Günther Graßmann.
 
Another by Günther Graßmann at Schlechinger Weg 10. The pointer of the sundial is at the centre of a sun, with the dial in the form of an harp. As can be seen in the 1934 photo, the bottom of the fresco depicts a sailing ship. Graßmann was involved in another sundial for the church of St. Raphael, München-Hartmannshofen; I think he was involved in its stained glass, as well: http://www.sankt-raphael-muenchen.de/sonstiges.html
 
Remarkably, the Adolf-Hitler-Brunnen still remains intact at Herrenchiemseestraße 44. On the base of the fountain a swastika with a lime leaf in raised relief was etched and at the back was the following inscription:
 DIESER·BRUNNEN·
WURDE·UNTER·DER HITLERLINDE·
UND·GLEICHZEITIG·MIT·DIESER·GESETZT·
ZUR·ERÖFFNUNG·DER·DEUTSCHEN·SIEDLUNGS·AUSSTELLUNG·
MÜNCHEN·1934
The blocks of stone with the swastika and lime leaf above the water spout were removed after 1945. as was the term " Hitler Linde". This fountain is one of the 75 drinking water wells in Munich.
 
Another water well at Törwanger Straße 2. In 1938 a small mosaic was set up as seen in the photo with a swastika by the painter Günther Grassmann. The mosaic has been coated with a thin layer of plaster and is left empty, the well no longer in operation.

Siedlung on Erich Kastner str.
This example of a siedlung consists of an huge building and on all four corners there are Third Reich reliefs.
The swastikas have been wiped out from the bottom of each relief
 
Similar decorative façade at the corner of Karl - Theodor and Mannheimer streets:
93 Winzererstr.
Another surviving building from the Nazi era with its iconography intact (with the colour still maintained) complete with reichsadler dating from 1936 found by odeon at Axis History Forum.
 
From 1933 to 1937 the Nazis set up Reichskleinsiedlung here at Am Hart, Neuherberg and Kaltherberg after which time the housing policy increasingly turned back to the multi-storey, which could be accomplished more efficiently and cheaper.

Former home of Reinhard Heydrich
This is a photo from my last visit of Reinhard Heydrich's home outside Munich at Zuccalistraße 4 near Nymphenburg castle. Of this house his wife Lina wrote "When unexpected visitors arrive, the architecture of the house makes it possible for us to make everything disappear in time. Our dog gives us plenty of warning."
At the end of the war, Heydrich's widow returned to the island of Fehmarn with her surviving children. She owned and ran a hotel and restaurant. The Finnish theatre director and poet Mauno Manninen (1915-1969) was a frequent guest at the hotel. He took pity on the difficulties she experienced as a result of her infamous name and offered to marry her to enable her to change it. They married in 1965 but did not live together. She died on August 14, 1985.
See the special Prague section on Operation Anthropoid



Schloss Nymphenburg
 
Within walking distance of Heydrich's house is this, the biggest Baroque palace in Germany, and site of the 1938 Nazi production of "De Nacht van de Amazonen". The photo on the left shows the site during the so-called Day of German Art Festival during the weekend of July 14-16, 1939 in Munich.
Schloss Nymphenburg unterm Hakenkreuz with Rudolf Heß and today
Rarely seen amateur colour footage filmed in Friedberg and Munchen in 1938 showing the night masquerade "De Nacht van de Amazonen." The "Burgmaister" of Munchen obtained from the local "Gaulaiter" (the city's Nazi Party chief) the permission for the girls on the chariots to parade with sexy costumes.

Grünwalder Stadion 

 
Grünwalder Stadion einst und jetzt. It was built in 1911 and was the home ground for TSV 1860 München until 1995. 
 
Aerial photograph of the stadium from 11 March 1943. The central photograph shows the result of two air raids on July 19, 1944 leaving a crater circled in yellow and today.
TSV 1860 München giving the Hitler salute on the left, and playing an amateur team composed of members of the ϟϟ. 
 
During refurbishment of the dilapidated stadium, an unexploded Second World War bomb was found buried within the pitch.
video 
The stadium is immortal for serving as the site of The Philosophers' Football Match, a Monty Python sketch originally featured in the second Monty Python's Fliegender Zirkus depicting a football match in the Olympiastadion at the 1972 Munich Olympics between philosophers representing Greece and Germany.

Auferstanden aus Ruinen
Hackerbrücke after the war and today

The Staatsbibliothek on Ludwigstraße then and now.

What had been an air protection shelter on Hotterstraße was converted in 1947 to an hotel in the town centre.

American troops on Dachauerstraße on April 30, 1945 and the site today.
Completed in 1932, the post office at Goetheplatz after the war and today.
The city brook that run down Baaderstraße and Ickstattstraße shown in 1946 has long dried up.

Sebastiansplatz in 1946 and today
Das Paläontologische Museum in der Nähe des Königsplatzes ist das Ausstellungsforum der Paläontologie und Geobiologie München. Es zeigt imposante Skelette aus der Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbeltiere. Neben dem größten Dinosaurier Bayerns zählen hierzu Skelette von Reptilien aus der Zeit vor den Dinosauriern, Flugsaurier, Fischsaurier sowie Säugetiere aus der jüngeren Erdgeschichte. Hier ist vor allem das Skelett des berühmten Mühldorfer Ur-Elefanten zu nennen, aber auch diverse Vertreter des Eiszeitalters wie Säbelzahntiger, Höhlenbär und Riesenhirsch. Des weiteren erwartet die Besucher aktuelle Sonderausstellungen zu wechselnden Themen, die exotische Tierwelt in Bayern vor 16 Millionen Jahren sowie eine „Reise“ durch 4 Milliarden Jahre Leben. Weitere Highlights sind das Münchner Exemplar des Urvogels Archaeopteryx und der kleinste Dinosaurier Bayerns Compsognathus. Das Paläontologische Museum München entführt Sie in die faszinierende Welt der Urzeit.
The former site of the Palaeontological Museum at Neuhauser Straße 51 after being completely destroyed during the April 24th 1944 bombing; 80% of all its fossils were destroyed as well. After the war it was relocated here at Richard-Wagner-Straße 10.
The interior of the Paläontologische Museum in 1949, after the interior was severely damaged from an high-explosive bomb
 
Building the U-Bahn station at the corner of Lindwurmstraße and Rothmundstraße in May, 1938.

Panzerkampfwagen V Panther tank outside the Imperial Lichtspiele cinema, now the Anna Hotel
The same tank parked at the Stachus
 
The Markuskirche then and now
 
The gaol at Corneliusstraße no longer exists postwar

Two unidentified eagles stumbled upon in Munich:
 
Can't find any information on this in terms of its date; found accidentally on Liebigstr. whilst walking along the river to Prinzregentenstr with another found at the other end of town on Orleanstr. showing a distinctive eagle of indeterminate origin.
Nazi mementos I found being sold in the front window of a Munich antique shop. It's but one of many I found which surprised me given the country's supposed strict laws concerning the open display of such items (unless used publicly by the Government itself). All swastikas were covered with a round sticker which seems as useful as censoring swear words on television.
рейхсканцелярия Фюрербункер Καταφύγιο του Χίτλερ 総統地下壕 제1차 세계 대전 제2차 세계 대전 홀로코스트 뉘른베르크 전범 재판 하인리히 히믈러 나치 신나치주의 신비주의 히틀러 암살 미수 사건 독일 에바 브라운 겔리 라우발 브론 location of hitler's bunker    “body man”K元首地堡(德语:Führerbunker)殺。5月2日,蘇聯軍隊佔領此處。 大眾文化      電影帝國毀滅即是以此地為主要場景。 al Penn Фюрербункер (Führerbunker (инф.)) — наименование комплекса подземных помещений в Берлине, размещённых под рейхсканцелярией. Этот бункер служил последним убежищем Адольфа Гитлера в течение последних недель существования национал-социалистического режима в Германии. Бункер был штаб-квартирой фюрера, в которой он и ещё ряд нацистских руководителей (включая Геббельса) покончили с войны  Бункер был расположен к северо-востоку от рейхсканцелярии. Пять метров под землей (четыре метра железобетона и метр грунта), тридцать комнат (помещений различного назначения — от конференц-зала до туалета и венткамер), расположенных на двух уровнях с выходами в главное здание и аварийный выход в сад. Бункер имел общую площадь около 250 квадратных метров. Был построен в два этапа (1936 и 1943 годы). Впервые Гитлер посетил Фюрербункер 25 ноября 1944 года. 16 января 1945 года Адольф Гитлер окончательно перебрался в Фюрербункер, но до 15 марта 1945 периодически покидал его, однако 15 марта 1945 с приближением советских войск перестал покидать его окончательно.  Выход из бункера в сквер внутреннего двора Рейхсканцелярии, место сожжения трупа Гитлера После Второй мировой войны  Здание Рейхсканцелярии было снесено, входы в бункер взорваны и засыпаны Munich Pulsing with prosperity and Bavarian Gemütlichkeit (cosiness), Munich loves to revel in its own contradictions. This sophisticated modern metropolis draws as much inspiration from nouvelle cuisine and Hugo Boss as sausages and thick leather shorts. Munich may be a high- minded fellow but pop a keg and he’ll be out there tearing up the dance floor. Polls of wistful Germans confirm Munich is the most popular place to live – and in a blink you’ll see why. Balmy summer evenings at one of its street-side cafés make the city feel like a Florence or a Milan. Thrilling Alpine landscapes, crystal-clear lakes and fairy-tale castles lie at its doorstep. It is a haven for all sorts of culture. And at Oktoberfest the entire planet converges to toast the town. Parts of Germany may have fallen on hard times but Munich shakes it off like magic. A forest of construction cranes dots the landscape, planting hi-tech office towers and sharp, ecofriendly residences where highways once stood. Bavaria never grew much heavy industry, so Munich’s centre retains a small-town feel. Global players such as Siemens and BMW hug the outskirts and their influence lends the city a cosmopolitan flair and a good chunk of its wealth. In the beer gardens you may hear more English than German, and almost as much Italian or Japanese. Forget the Teutonic clichés about grim workaholics – Münchners have plenty to smile about and any time of year the mood is infectious, be it during the tourist-packed summer or the cold stillness of a February afternoon. HIGHLIGHTS Hoisting a mug of Helles at an authentic beer hall, such as the Augustiner Bräu- stuben (p119) Watching the daredevil surfers negotiate the dangerous wave in the English Garden (p105) Getting unusual perspectives – and an incredible adrenaline rush – while clamber- ing around the roof of the Olympic Stadium, Olympiapark (p96) Feeling your spirits soar among the fantastic art of the Alte Pinakothek (p91) Hitting the bars and clubs of the Gärtner- platzviertel (p120) for a night of fun Olympiapark Augustiner Bräustuben Alte Pinakothek   English Garden Gärtnerplatzviertel TELEPHONE CODE: 089 POPULATION: 1.26 MILLION AREA: 310 SQ KM MUNICH MUNICH 74 MUNICH •• History  lonelyplanet.com lonelyplanet.com  MUNICH •• Information 75 HISTORY It was the Benedictine monks, drawn by fertile farmland and the closeness to Catholic Italy, who first settled present-day Munich. They also gave the city its name, for München is medieval German for monk. In 1240 the city passed to the Wittelsbach dynasty who would run Munich (as well as Bavaria) until the 20th century. Munich pros- pered as a centre for the salt trade but was hit hard by the outbreak of plague in 1349. When the epidemic finally subsided 150 years later, the Schäffler (coopers) began a ritualis- tic dance to remind burghers of their good fortune. The Schäfflertanz is reenacted daily by the little figures on the city’s glockenspiel (carillon) on Marienplatz. By the early 19th century, furious monu- ment building gave Munich its spectacular architecture and wide Italianate avenues. Culture and the arts flourished, but when Ludwig II ascended the throne his grandiose projects, his numerous lavish palaces for ex- ample, bankrupted the royal house and threat- ened the government. Ironically, today they are the biggest money-spinners of Bavaria’s tourism industry. Munich has seen many turbulent times but last century was particularly rough. WWI practically starved the city; the Nazis first rose to prominence here and the next world war nearly wiped the city off the map. The 1972 Olymckish. Take the U1 to Mangfallplatz, then bus 139 to Säbener Strasse. The Allianz Arena is also home turf for Munich’s ‘other’ soccer team, the peren- nial underdogs TSV 1860 (%01805-601 860; www .tsv1860.de). They only play in Germany’s second league but still have an enormously loyal fan base. The team trains at Grünwalder Strasse 114 (Map pp78–9), also in Harlaching (take tram 25 to Südtiroler Strasse). Call ahead for training times. SHOPPING Munich is a fun and sophisticated place to shop that goes far beyond chains and de- partment stores. If you want those, head to Neuhauser Strasse and Kaufingerstrasse. East of there, Sendlinger Strasse has smaller and somewhat more individualistic stores, includ- ing a few resale and vintage emporia. To truly ‘unchain’ yourself, though, you need to hit the Gärtnerplatzviertel and Glock- enbachviertel, the bastion of well-edited indie stores and local designer boutiques. Hans- Sachs-Strasse and Reichenbachstrasse are especially promising. Maxvorstadt, especially Türkenstrasse, also has an interesting line- up of stores with stuff you won’t find on the high street back home. Shoe fetishistas can indulge their lusts on Hohenzollernstrasse in Schwabing. Maximilianstrasse, meanwhile, is the catwalk for the Prada and Escada brigade, especially in the new, minimalist Max- imilianhöfe in the Bürkleinbau just past the Nationaltheater. Snob shoppers will also be happy on Theatinerstrasse (home of the Fünf Höfe arcade), on Residenzstrasse and Brienner Strasse. Here’s a quick and dirty selection of shops you might find of interest: Beauty & Nature (Map pp82-3; %2423 1233; 1st fl, Westenrieder Strasse 35, Altstadt; h8am-8pm Mon-Sat) All natural, all the time, is the motto at this drugstore that stocks only top-performing products by Dr Hauschka, Logona, Lavera and other Euro brands, usually at much lower prices than found overseas. Ask about its manicures and beauty treatments. Servus Heimat (Map pp82-3; %2429 4780; Brunnstrasse 3, Altstadt) Everything a gift shop should be – fun, happy to see you and stocked with unique souvenirs that play with Bavarian symbols like tees emblazoned with Empress MUNICH MUNICH 126 MUNICH •• Getting There & Away lonelyplanet.com lonelyplanet.com AROUND MUNICH •• Starnberger Fünf-Seen-Land 127 Sisi or the Olympic Stadium outline. Campy, tongue-in-cheek chic. Sebastian Wesely (Map pp82-3; %264 519; Rindermarkt 1, Altstadt; h9am-6.30pm Mon-Sat) If you’re in the market for traditional souv- enirs, this little shop (in business since 1557) has floor-to-ceiling shelves of carved angels, pewter tankards, beer steins, carved figurines and handmade candles. The saleswomen are quick with a smile and happy to help. Siebter Himmel (Map pp82-3; %267 053; Hans-Sachs- Strasse 17, Glockenbachviertel; h11am-7pm Mon-Fri, 10am- 6pm Sat) Cool hunters will be in seventh heaven when browsing the assortment of fashions and accessories by hip indie labels like Pussy de Luxe, Indian Rose and Religion, all sold at surprisingly reasonable prices. Complement your new outfit with shoes from Schuhhimmel across the street. Flohmarkt Riem (Map pp78-9; %9605 1632; Willy- Brandt-Platz, Riem; h6am-4pm Sat) Like urban archaeologists, you have to sift through trash and detritus to unearth treasure at Bavaria’s largest flea market, far out of town by the trade fair grounds in Riem. Take the U2 to Messestadt-Ost. Loden-Frey (Map pp82-3; %210 390; Maffeistrasse 5-7, Altstadt) Stocks a wide range of Bavarian wear. Expect to pay at least €300 for a good leather jacket, pair of lederhosen or dirndl dress. Holareidulijö (Map p81; %271 7745; Schellingstrasse 81, Maxvorstadt; hnoon-6.30pm Tue-Fri, 10am-1pm Sat) If Loden-Frey’s price tags are too steep, check this out. The name is a phonetic yodel, approp- riate for a store that carries preloved leder- hosen and other folkwear in good condition. Click, click, click... is the sound of cus- tomers flipping through the well-edited selection of new and used CDs and vinyl at Optimal (Map pp82-3; %268 185; Kolosseumstrasse 6, Glockenbachviertel; h11am-8pm Mon-Fri, 11am-4pm Sat) and Resonanz (Map pp82-3; %2020 5205; Auenstrasse 4, h11am-8pm Mon-Fri, 11am-4pm Sat), Munich’s best purveyors of indie sounds with handy listening stations. For classical music and jazz recordings there’s no better selection – and more knowledgeable staff – than at Ludwig Beck (Map pp82-3; %2369 1441; Marienplatz 11) on the 4th floor of the eponymous department store. Other shops: Foto-Video-Media Sauter (Map pp82-3; %5515 0450; Sonnenstrasse 26, Altstadt) The largest camera and video shop in town. Porzellan Manufaktur Nymphenburg Altstadt (Map pp82-3; %282 428; Odeonsplatz 1, Altstadt; h10am- 6.30pm Mon-Fri, 10am-4pm Sat); Schloss Nymphenburg (Map p80; %179 1970; Nördliches Schlossrondell 8, Nymphen- burg; h10am-5pm Mon-Fri) Traditional and contemporary porcelain masterpieces by the royal manufacturer. GETTING THERE & AWAY Air Munich’s sparkling Flughafen München (Munich International Airport; %975 00, flight inquiries 9752 1313; www.munich-airport.de) is easy to navigate and – within Germany – second in importance only to Frankfurt for international and domestic flights. The main carrier is Lufthansa, but other international airlines serving Munich include Air France, British Airways, Delta, easyJet, El Al, Scandinavian Airlines (SAS) and United Airlines. For contact and flight information see p321. Bus The Busabout (p323) hop-on hop-off bus service comes through Munich on the North- ern Loop and the Southern Loop with pickup and dropoff at Wombat’s City Hostel (Map pp82–3). Europabus (p325) links Munich to the Romantic Road. For details of fares and time- tables inquire at EurAide (p76) or Deutsche Touring (Map pp82-3; %8898 9513; www.touring.com; Hirtenallee 14) near the Hauptbahnhof. BEX BerlinLinienBus (%01801-546 436; www.berlin linienbus.de) runs daily buses between Berlin and Munich (one way/return €45/84, 81⁄2 hours), via Ingolstadt, Nuremberg, Bayreuth and Leipzig. Buses depart from bus platform 5 on Arnulfstrasse, north of the Hauptbahnhof. In spring 2009 a new central bus station is expected to open near Hackerbrücke. Car & Motorcycle Munich has autobahns radiating in all direc- tions. Take the A9 to Nuremberg, the A8 to Salzburg, the A95 to Garmisch-Partenkirchen and the A8 to Ulm or Stuttgart. All major car-hire companies have offices at the airport. Sixt (Budget), Hertz, Avis and Europcar have counters on the 2nd level of the Hauptbahnhof. Train Train services from Munich are excellent. There are swift direct connections to such key destinations in Bavaria as Nuremberg (€45, one hour), Regensburg (€22, 11⁄2 hours) and Würzburg (€59, two hours). Going to Freiburg (€78, 41⁄2 hours) or Baden-Baden (€72, four hours) requires a change, usually in Mannheim. There are also frequent direct serv- ices to Berlin (€105, 53⁄4 hours), Frankfurt (€81, three hours) and Cologne (€119, 41⁄2 hours); and to other European cities, such as Vienna (€72, 41⁄4 hours), Prague (€52, six hours) and Zürich (€61, 41⁄4 hours). There’s also a night train to Paris (price varies, 10 hours). GETTING AROUND Central Munich is compact enough to explore on foot. To get to the outlying suburbs make use of the public transport network, which is extensive and efficient. To/From the Airport Munich’s airport is about 30km northeast of the city and linked by S-Bahn (S1 and S8) to the Hauptbahnhof. The trip costs €8.80, takes about 40 minutes and runs every 20 minutes from 3am until around 12.30am. The Lufthansa Airport Bus (%323 040) shut- tles at 20-minute intervals between the air- port and Arnulfstrasse at the Hauptbahnhof between 5.10am and 9.40pm. The trip takes about 45 minutes and costs €10 (return €16). A taxi from the airport to the Altstadt costs about €55. Car & Motorcycle Driving in central Munich can be a nightmare; many streets are one way or pedestrian only, ticket enforcement is Orwellian and parking is a nightmare. Car parks (indicated on the tourist office map) charge about €1.50 to €2 per hour. Public Transport TICKETS & FARES The Munich region is divided into four zones with most places of visitor interest (except Dachau and the airport) conveniently clus- tering within the ‘white’ Innenraum (inner zone). Short rides (Kurzstrecke; four bus or tram stops; or two U-Bahn or S-Bahn stops) cost €1.10, longer trips cost €2.20. Children aged between six and 14 pay a flat €1.10 re- gardless of the length of the trip. Cut down costs by buying a strip card (Streifenkarte) of 10 tickets for €10.50, then stamp one strip for short trips or two strips for longer ones. Day passes are €5 for individuals and €9 for up to five people travelling together. Three-day passes are €12.30/21. There’s also a weekly pass called IsarCard, which costs €15.80 but is only valid from Monday to Sunday – if you buy on Wednesday, it’s still only good until Sunday. For details about the Bayern-Ticket, see p328. Bikes costs €2.50 and may only be taken aboard U-Bahn and S-Bahn trains, but not during the 6am to 9am and 4pm to 6pm rush hours. BUYING & USING TICKETS Bus drivers sell single tickets and day passes but tickets for the U- /S-Bahn and other passes must be purchased from vending machine at stations or MVV offices. Tram tickets are available from vending machines aboard. Tickets must be stamped (validated) at sta- tion platform entrances and aboard buses and trams before use. The fine for getting caught without a valid ticket is €40. Taxi Taxis cost €2.70 at flag fall (€3.70 if ordered by phone), plus €1.25 to €1.60 per kilome- tre and are not much more convenient than public transport. Luggage is charged at €0.50 per piece. Ring a taxi on %216 10 or %194 10. Taxi ranks are indicated on the city’s tourist map. AROUND MUNICH STARNBERGER FÜNF-SEEN-LAND pop 85,000 / elev 584m Once a royal retreat and still a popular place of residence with the rich and famous, the Fünf-Seen-Land (Five Lakes District) is set in a glacial plane and makes a fast and easy escape from the urban bustle of Munich. Munich’s excellent public transport system is composed of buses, trams, the U-Bahn and the S-Bahn. It’s operated by MVV, which maintains offices in the U-Bahn stations at Marienplatz, Hauptbahnhof, Sendlinger Tor, Odeonsplatz, Olympiazentrum, Karlsplatz and Münchner Freiheit. Staff hand out free network maps and timetables, sell tickets and answer questions. Automated trip planning is available by phone (%4142 4344) and online (www.mvv-muenchen.de). The U-Bahn and S-Bahn cease opera- tion at around 12.30am Monday to Friday and 1.30am on weekends when night buses (Nachtbusse) ferry home night owls and shift workers. MUNICH MUNICH 128 AROUND MUNICH •• Starnberger Fünf-Seen-Land lonelyplanet.com lonelyplanet.com AROUND MUNICH •• Starnberger Fünf-Seen-Land 129 The largest lake is the narrow 21km-long Starnberger See, nicknamed ‘Munich’s bathtub’ and ringed by a necklace of resorts, includ- ing Starnberg, Berg, Pöcking-Possenhofen, Feldafing, Tutzing, Bernried and Seeshaupt. The road linking all these communities can get terribly clogged, especially on summer weekends. It also rarely skirts the lake shore, much of which is privately owned. There is, however, a paved trail dedicated to biking and walking along the shore. Circumnavigating the entire lake (50km) takes about 12 hours on foot and four hours by bike. The other lakes – Ammersee, Pilsensee, Wörthsee and Wesslinger See – are smaller and offer more secluded charm. Swimming, boating and windsurfing are popular activities on all lakes, and the district is also crisscrossed by a 250km network of bike paths and 1Herrsching have a decent selection of two wheelers. Bike It (%08151-746 430; Bahnhofstrasse 1) in Starnberg runs guided bike tours from €25. There’s a famous in-line skating stretch on the eastern shore between Berg and Ambach. There’s plenty of good hiking as well. A de- lightful half-day trip starts in Tutzing and goes via a moderate ascent to the Ilkahöhe, which is a 730m hill with a restaurant (opposite), beer garden and panoramic lake views. Sleeping DJH Hostel Possenhofen (%08157-996 611; www.pos senhofen.jugendherberge.de, in German; Kurt-Stieler-Strasse 18, Pöcking-Possenhofen; dm €21, s/d €29/50; pi) A jewel among DJH hostels, this mod- ern, spacious and well-run contender sits next to Schloss Possenhofen and a popular swimming beach. Hotel Alte Linde (%08157-933 180; www.linde -wieling.de, in German; Wieling 5, Feldafing; s €55-88, d €80- 110; pn) Run with panache and personal- ity, this congenial inn welcomes guests with modern country-style elegance. The nicest rooms have unique features such as sleeping alcove or four-poster beds below a painted ceiling. Enjoy a cold one in the beer garden, then savour delicious modern, organic twists on classic Bavarian in the restaurant, where mains cost about €10 to €18. Schlossgut Oberambach (%08177-9323; www .schlossgut.de; Oberambach 1, Münsing; s/d €120/240; pnais) Dreams will be sweet in the ecofriendly and charmingly Mediterranean rooms of this certified ‘biohotel’ with private lake access. Renewable sources provide all the energy and there’s also a wonderful Ayurvedic spa to recharge your own batteries before feeding stomach and soul with big-flavoured, contemporary country cooking (mains €12-24). Eating Ludwigstüberl (%08157-930 90; Tutzinger Strasse 2, Feldafing; Brotzeit €6-9, mains €10-20; hdinner Wed-Mon, lunch Sun) On cold nights it’s a treat to sit near the fireplace in this cosy tavern, digging into a soulful menu ranging from salads to roast beef. Bookings are recommended. It’s part of the Kaiserin Elisabeth Hotel; don’t confuse this place with the stuffy hotel restaurant. Forsthaus Ilkahöhe (%08158-8242; Auf der Ilkahöhe, Tutzing; mains €16-23; hWed-Sun) It’s hard to tell what’s more appealing: the gourmet regional cuisine or the idyllic hilltop setting, with spectacular views of the Starnberger See and the Alps. Come for a full meal or just a foamy Mass in the beer garden, open daily in fine weather. Braustüberl (%08152-376 261; Bergstrasse 2, Andechs; mains €3-15; h10am-8pm) Food may seem an after- thought here, but the hearty roast pork, leber- käse and home-made cheeses actually go a long way to keeping your balance. Klostergasthof (%08152-930 90; Bergstrasse 9; mains €7.50-17; h10am-11pm) For a more sophisticated experience, make reservations here. Dechant’s Fischladen (%08151-121 06; Hauptstrasse 20, Starnberg; mains €8-12; h10am-7pm Tue-Thu, 10am- midnight Fri) Clued-in fish fans book a table in the tiny restaurant attached to this place to enjoy the day’s catch. Getting There & Away Starnberglies25kmsouthwestofcentralMunich– a half-hour’s journey by car or S-Bahn. The S6 links Munich with Starnberg and Possenhofen, Feldafing and Tutzing on the western lake shore. The S5 goes from Munich to Herrsching am Ammersee in about 45 minutes. DACHAU %08131 / pop 40,100 / elev 508 Mention Dachau and most people shudder at the thought of the atrocities committed in the infamous Nazi concentration camp, now visited by more than 800,000 people each year. Few of them realise that there was a town of Dachau some 1100 years before the camp was built. Fewer still ever make it to the town’s little Altstadt with its historic buildings, a pretty Renaissance palace and garden. And hardly anyone knows that in the late 19th to the early 20th century, Dachau had a thriving artists colony, whose leading lights included Carl Spitzweg and Max Liebermann. Even today, about 100 artists live in Dachau. Orientation & Information Dachau’s Bahnhof is about 3.5km southwest of the concentration camp memorial and about 1km southeast of the Altstadt, where you’ll find the tourist office (%752 86; www.dachau.info; Konrad-Adenauer-Strasse 1, Dachau; h9am-1pm Mon-Wed & Fri, 2-6pm Thu). Aside from dispensing maps, bro- chures and information, staff at the office also rent out audioguides (€2.50) for self-guided Altstadt tours taking about 90 minutes. Sights DACHAU CONCENTRATION CAMP MEMORIAL The way to freedom is to follow one’s orders; exhibit honesty, orderliness, cleanliness, sobriety, truthfulness, the ability to sacrifice and love of the Fatherland. Inscription from the roof of the concentration camp at Dachau Dachau was the Nazis’ first concentration camp; it was built by Heinrich Himmler in March 1933 and became the prototype for all other camps. Originally meant to corral political prisoners, it also held thousands of Jews after the 1938 pogroms. All in all, some 32,000 people died at the camp, but it was not specifically designed as a ‘death camp’ such as Auschwitz. Instead it was a ‘slave la- bour camp’, where most deaths resulted from disease, exhaustion and starvation. Budget two to three hours to fully absorb the haunt- ing exhibits. Children under 12 may find the experience too disturbing. Information The memorial (%669 970; www.kz-gedenkstaette -dachau.de; Alte Römerstrasse 75, Dachau; admission free; h9am-5pm Tue-Sun) is in the northeastern corner of Dachau. Map pamphlets in about a dozen languages are available for €0.50. For more in-depth descriptions, pick up the brochure Dachau Concentration Camp (€2) or the de- tailed catalogue (€15). A 22-minute English- language documentary runs at 11.30am and 3.30pm. No refreshments are available at the memorial, so bring at least something to drink, especially in summer. MUNICH MUNICH 132 AROUND MUNICH •• Dachau  lonelyplanet.com lonelyplanet.com AROUND MUNICH •• Schleissheim 133 The Memorial You enter the compound through the Jourhaus, originally the only entrance. Set in wrought iron, the chilling slogan ‘Arbeit Macht Frei’ (Work Sets You Free) hits you at the gate. Beyond here is the former roll-call square, where the prisoners were counted every morning and evening and assigned to their work details. On your right is the former utility build- ing, now the main documentation centre, which details what happened to prisoners at the camp. Newcomers were registered in the shunt room, where they also had to surrender all their personal clothes and belongings. The ‘baths’ were indeed initially used to disinfect the new inmates and shave their heads. After 1941, though, the SS converted the room into a torture and execution chamber; the whip- ping block is still there. Executions also took place in the bunker courtyard behind the exhibit building. The bunker itself was the notorious camp prison where inmates were tortured to extort ‘confessions’; some of the cells are too small for prisoners to even sit. Inmates were housed in large barracks, now demolished, which used to line the main road north of the roll-call square. Two have been reconstructed; of the other 32 you can only see the outlines. Built for 6000 prisoners, they housed more than 30,000 at the time of libera- tion in 1945. At the end of the central camp road, be- hind the former barracks, is a cluster of reli- gious memorials that includes a Catholic chapel, a Protestant church and a Jewish memorial. A Russian Orthodox chapel is a little off to the side, en route to perhaps the camp’s most haunting site: the crematorium in the northwest corner, outside of the camp boundaries. Also here is a gas chamber, disguised as a shower room, but never used. Instead, prisoners marked for gassing were sent to other camps. Tours To maximise your educational experience, we highly recommend taking a guided tour, but be absolutely sure to join tours author- ised by the memorial staff, such as those listed below. TranslateTurn off instant translation EnglishSpanishFrenchGerman - detectedEnglishSpanishArabic Cultural history trail 9 Neuhausen-Nymphenburg Already appeared and future publications on the cultural history paths: District 01 District 24 District 25 Altstadt-Lehel Ludwig-Isarvorstadt Maxvorstadt Schwabing-West Au-Haidhausen Sendling Sendling-Westpark Schwanthalerhöhe Neuhausen-Nymphenburg Moosach Milbertshofen Schwabing-Freimann Bogenhausen Berg am Laim Trudering-Riem Ramersdorf-Perlach Obergiesing Untergiesing-Harlaching Thalkirchen-Obersendling- Forstenried-Fürstenried-Solln Hadern Pasing-Obermenzing Aubing-Lochhausen-Langwied Allach-Untermenzing Feldmoching-Hasenbergl Laim A detailed plan for orientation in the district and an aerial map with city-wide overview is provided in Annex. At the site itself, the stations are made signs indicated by marking. All texts and other information are available under www.muenchen.de/kgp available. content Foreword Christian Ude 3 Greetings Ingeborg Staudenmeyer 5 Historical Introduction 9 tour Rotkreuzplatz - the heart of Neuhausen 20 Nymphenburgerstraße 22 Winthirstraße 24 Schlosskanal 26 Roman Road 27 Louis-Ferdinand Bridge 29 Dall'Armi-Bürgerheim 31 Nymphenburg Biedersteiner Channel 32 Villenkolonie Gern 34 Taxisgarten 36 Dom-Pedro-Platz 37 Footbridge Braganzastraße 38 Dachauerstraße 39 Leonrodstraße 41 freedom Square 44 Donnersbergerstraße 45 Richelstraße 46 Renatastraße 48 Künstlerhof 49 Steubenplatz 51 Winthirplatz 53 Selected Literature 55 Credit card 57 56 Overview foreword The cultural history trails of Munich are walks along historically important places and events in urban areas. They are broken down by districts and will be expanded to a nationwide topographic network of the history of Munich. We invite all people of Munich and all External Action visitors a to come also the less known peculiarities of local history on the track next to the familiar highlights of Munich. Each cultural history trail is available to buy as a brochure and on the Internet. It leads to the signifi- cant buildings, the historic places and the homes or work places remarkable personalities of the district concerned. have on site 3 Orientation boards from the respective path and the single station in question. The cultural history trails are displayed specifies that it can be done on foot or by bicycle. I wish all travelers who embarking on the historic milestones in his own front door and beyond the exclusively entered paths, stimulating, new findings and the project of munich wide cultural history trails great resonance among the population. Christian Ude Mayor Greetings The interest in local history topics increases from year to year. In particular, the history of the neighborhoods, the streets and individual houses is being increasingly recognized in the respective residents and residents. The cultural history trail Neuhausen-Nymphenburg opened a direct access to the historical features of the district. Here places, events and people are in immediate and daily environment Edited presents that were formative for the local development and on the district borders gained importance. The district committee would Neuhausen-Nymphenburg to have particularly participated in the pilot phase of the citywide project. We want the citizens of new and interesting insights on their way through their own neighborhoods and perhaps one or the other eye-opening experience in places that have been less 45 Compliance found. All visitors we invite hereby to get an idea of ​​the diversity and vitality of the municipality. Your Ingeborg Staudenmeyer district committee chairs 6 Neuhausen-Nymphenburg 9IM triangle between castle, railway and barracks Historical Introduction The heathland between Pasing Menzing and Schwabing was presumably only since 11/12. Century inhabited. The earliest documentary evidence, there is this for Gern, which belonged to 1025 to the fief of the Bishop of Freising, while Neuhausen and Kemnaten (as the old name Nymburk phenburgs) are mentioned only in the second half of the 12th century in Schäftlarn monastery records. With the establishment of Munich in 1158 a new center in this area, which should be the story of Neuhausen, Kemnaten and Gern increasingly determine arose. First, it was mainly in the economic sphere the case because the trade route Munich-Augsburg led past here. Also Domination and possession law, the importance of the Munich Stadtpa- Neuhausen and Kemnaten on a map of Philipp Apian to 1560th 9 triziats to but for the environment. In addition to church and nobility thirdly acquired the Wittelsbach Duke family ownership in Neuhausen. Since the unification of the Duchy of Bavaria at the beginning of the 16th century (with the capital Munich) intensified the effort to exercise of state sovereignty and the establishment of a state administration. Late 16th century was Kemnaten for country- magnificent Hofmark. As a major owner of Hofmark including the precious seat Neuhausen Johann Gailkircher produced stepped forward: Court Chancellor and co-creator of the Bavarian legal system this time. He let the manor Neuhausen, located at today's Rotkreuzplatz, expand, but the castle was destroyed in the 30-year war a little later. reconstruction 10 11 Engraving from "seat Neuhausen" of Michael Wening, in 1700 built it should be used under the Wittelsbach elector as "Jagdschlössl". The new representative office tationszentrum the absolutist Bayern emerged however in Kemnaten: Elector Ferdinand Maria acquired on the occasion of the birth of his son Max Emanuel 1662 Hofmark by the last owner family Gassner as a gift for his wife. In close composite unit with mythology and nature called Kurfürstin the emergence there rising summer residence "Nymphenburg". The old village name Kemnaten disappeared in the subsequent period. Nymphenburg was the center and symbol of the electoral planning will. The axis of symmetry and thinking of the absolutist age specific alignment burger (on the steeples of Pipping and Schwabing) the nymph castle, the park, the channels and access avenues, Postcard to 1914th The locomotive factory Krauss in the Campus Martius, 1890 1794 destroyed a large village fire the old core of Neuhausen, of a widened Dorfstraße (Winthir- street) was rebuilt. Despite this forced modernization Neuhausen initially remained a bäuer- Lich technically structured village totaling 1839 only 400 inhabitants. With industrialization, there was a population explosion: 1890 was the population rose displayed at 11 500, in 50 years, ie almost 30 times increased. Here, the expansion of the barracks area played a significant role with the establishment of numerous soldiers. The most important engine of economic development was the railway, who moved about the establishment of the locomotive factory Krauss & Co. in the Campus Martius, and provided the Means the "Centralwerkstätte the Royal Bavarian State Railroad" at the Richelstraße. For specific local economic history includes the brewing industry: While the small Neuhauser breweries with their connected restaurants just are not history, are the "beer-cities" of United Breweries (Augustine, hacker, lion and Spaten Brewery) not to Neuhauser reason but contributed to the com- mercial boom around the area. 12 13 The Marsfeld- barracks on a postcard from the First World War The "urbanization" Neuhausen and its position as a link between Munich and Castle Nymburk phenburg suggested the incorporation: Neuhausen was on 1 January 1890, the Royal main and Resi- denzstadt Munich incorporated. It was only a matter of time before Nymburk phenburg should follow. Here was the end of the 19th century no longer agriculture engine of development, but the radiating urban cal dynamics Munich. Munich took up residence in Nymphenburg and Gern, drank their beer in one of the garden restaurants, bathed in the Würmkanälen or sought distraction in Volksgarten.1899 agriculture community Nymphenburg Gern was incorporated to Munich and the urban district Neuhausen slammed. 100 years later, Neuhausen and Nymphenburg are glad the city district 9 again summarized, had been divided during the Second World War Neuhausen first wards on three urban. The map of 1897 shows the boundary between Neuhausen, which was eingemein- det after Munich, and are glad that even community to "control Nymphenburg" belonged. 15 Right: The Dantebad was opened in 1913 and considerably expanded in the twenties. Postcard from 1929 Left: The first school kitchen Munich at school on the school road (now Rudolf Diesel Realschule), around 1895 16 17 The Prince Regent time was in the city quarter a time of building not only for commercial establishments, but also for the "performance management": the transport (since 1883 steam tram to Nymphenburg), for schools (since 1880 elementary school on the school road, around the turn of the century more large Schulhausbauten followed), social facilities le (among others orphanage Rotkreuz hospital), health and sports facilities. In residential public and private clients were active. The working-class neighborhood Neuhausen education Deten the Third Reich from a certain resistance potential, although the founding history of the Nazi Party is closely linked to Neuhausen. Anton Drexler, in 1919 together with Karl Harrer the DAP (the precursor of the party NSDAP) founded, lived and worked in Neuhausen and recruited here the first members of the new anti-Semitic protest party. The violent anti-Semitism of the Third Reich led not only to "Aryanization" of shops and commercial enterprises in the district, but deprived it of its entire Jewish population who emigrated or were deported camp in the annihilation. The third carrier form for the residential construction grew since the end of the 19 th zoom tury companies nonprofit construction sector and housing cooperatives. They built the small apartments that were particularly needed in the new workers' quarters as Neuhausen. Anton Drexler: The locksmith from Eisenbahnzen- tralwerkstätte comparison took antisemitic pamphlets and green- finished the precursor party the NSDAP. 9Ein trail from Rotkreuzplatz by Nymphenburg by Gern, the former barracks district, the railway line and back Ahead of Olympics 1972 was Donnersberger- bridge separated from the homonymous street and connected to the middle ring. 18 The downfall of the Third Reich the bombing also left in this municipality incisive tracks. The reconstruction followed modernizing urban planning and transport systems, not only had a positive effect: The Middle Ring cuts through Neuhausen and forms with its uninterrupted flow of traffic and the few opportunities Passiermög- a difficult to overcome border. The district has nevertheless remained attractive, is a popular immigration area and is frequented for its pubs and cultural scene from the outside often. Just the cultural activities and the brisk comparison one live locally but also show that the district consciousness is very pronounced and identifying with its surroundings. Rotkreuzplatz - the heart of Neuhausen The already in the twenties as the "Stachus of Neuhausen" designated place is the undisputed center point Neuhausen. After the women's association had received there in hospitals of the Red Cross in 1892, the institution in 1903. The patron of the place, the thus received a name the first time. Its importance as a center is enough, however far back: Here stood in the early modern period the mansion of the "noble seat Neuhausen", which was rebuilt in the Baroque period as a hunting lodge. In the Second World War it was destroyed as well as the Winthirapo- counter with their "castle tower" and almost all other buildings at Rotkreuzplatz. Some said they were closed after the war to the old name and the tradition: So with the movie "Castle Theatre" at Nymphenburgerstraße 166, which prospered in the cinema boom of the fifties after successful beginnings in the twenties. Already in the twenties and Ludwig Sarcletti had an ice cream stand Rotkreuzplatz opened, the stand being made after the war. In 1974 he disappeared in favor of the gelaterias that 30 years later undiminished favorite. No new beginning there was for the department store Scotchman, whose Jewish owners were forced into the Nazi period in exile, while the house is on the south side of the square "arisiert" was. Was the Rotkreuzplatz since the early modern period an important crossroads, threatened him with the traffic onslaught of the 1960s and 1970s the collapse. Left side: The Rotkreuzplatz from above in 1932: front center / right at the confluence of Nymphenburgerstraße the striking tower of Winthirapotheke; the large building complex on the top right is the Red Cross Hospital. This page: At the opening of the metro station 1983 Rotkreuzplatz was little traffic. With its pedestrian he invites today for shopping, to meetings, events and other forms of communication a. In the center of the fountain with the stony pair of Klaus Schultze is NEN to recognize who in 1984 erected. 20 21 Nymphenburgerstraße had intended from the Castle to the southeast road (mirror image of the north-east verlau- fenden channel), the road connected much further east on the Southern Auffahrtsallee and surrounds the old village Neuhausen. The Nymphenburgerstraße was the given link to accommodate the tram operation between Munich and Neuhausen in the 19th century. The 1876 opened horse course was replaced in 1883 by a steam tram, since the beginning of the 20th century by the "Electric". In Nymphenburgerstraße 171 is the Mansion "Transformer", a former electricity substation, which also houses the elderly and service center and the "Geschichtswerk- instead Neuhausen". To mark the ten year ministry of Geschichtswerk- place for the study of local history was "given to the former club chairman Günther Baumann in 2002, the medal" Munich shines. The city of Munich is planning to "transformer" a new center library instead of the city district libraries in Neuhausen and Nymphenburg set. The renovation and expansion work, the pros see a four-story annex, began in the summer of 2007. The Nymphenburgerstraße on a postcard circa 1905: right 1875 eröff- designated restaurant "hunting lodge", which is operated today kriegsbau in a provisional demand; left in the background, the Red Cross hospital. The beginnings of Neuhausen in the Middle Ages were strongly influenced by its location on the trade route Munich-Augsburg. While Nymphenburgerstraße was however since the Baroque period, reserved as "Fürstenweg" for the coaches and carriages plying in Nymburk phenburg between the Residenz in Munich and the castle, had the normal persons and goods on the Blutenburg- and Winthirstraße dodge , Contrary planning in the 18th century that a straight course the Nymphenburg 22 23 Winthirstraße The Winthirstraße presents itself in 1906 even as street village. In the foreground of the Strohmaier-yard, from which the "million-farmer" Lorenz Hauser (1869-1918) was born. The Winthirstraße is the old village street Neuhausen who initially kept their rural character even after the great fire of 1794th The pro- mine famous residents was the "million nenbauer" Lorenz Hauser on the Strohmaier-yard (today one can see the post office), whose wasting derisch issued and umwobenes with many legends assets based on the conversion of peasant property in land. The restaurant large host on the other side of the road marks the site where in the Middle Ages was the Dorftaferne. Data is next to the village church - at the beginning of St. Nicholas - whose origins lie in the 13th century. Your Gothic sanctuary is still preserved. Only since 1970 wear church and cemetery officially the name of Blessed Winthir, a long time worshiped as village saint lay preacher, who was in the Middle Ages in Neuhausen low and in the Church has his grave. As the end of the 19th century the village church appeared too small, the construction of the Sacred Heart of Jesus church was built a little further north on the corner Lachnerstraße. After the destruction in the war im- one provisations a new building with the help of the wooden structure of a cinema that had used on the upper salzberg the SS guards. 1994 burned this building; recently stands in its place an imposing monument of modern architecture. The gigantic portals of the Sacred Heart Church allow union to open the church for events over the entire width (architects: Allmann, Sattler and Steelers). 24 25 Schlosskanal The orphanage in 1930. The building was in the war largely destroyed and later wiederaufge- builds. Since 1954 is in front of the boiler of the channel of the Hubertus fountain as a new "point de vue". The Brunnentempel Adolf von Hildebrand had been 50 years previously built before the National Museum, but had in 1937 the expansion of Prinzregenten- road to National Socialist march axis soft. The castle belongs to the channel expansions enlargement, the Elector Karl Albrecht at the entire system of Nymphenburg pre- took (1728-30); his ambitious project to give rise to a "Carlstadt" here, but failed. On the Gerner bridge the sexy look Inferring Relationships: ger From Nymphenbur- castle to his counterpart, the 1899 opened orphanage. For the civil counterpart to lock the architect Hans Grässel chose the opulent style of a Bavarian Baroque monastery. Roman road By Monte Street (with the castle on no. 8) you get to Rondell Neuwittelsbach, the heart of the villa of the same name. It was built in the 1880s and provided with the Roman road as EXPLORATION axis - through private initiative and financing. Moving the line 12 towards Romanplatz, one gets an impression of the landmarked part today villas. Contrasting with the big bourgeois vorneh- men living quality formed the People's Garden, the achieved stretched from Romanplatz along the east side of Notburgastraße. This amusement park with its Bierschänken, bands, carousel, shooting, animal menageries and numerous other attractions was until the First World War the crowds. Then he had to give further residential development in the villa colony Nymphenburg. The neighborhood is also home to an unusual number of hospitals and care centers, such as the care facility for blind children in Maria Ludwig Ferdinand home (Roman Road 12), the hospital Neuwittelsbach 26 27 The landowners Eisenböck and brewery owner Kottmüller errichte- th the villa complex "Neuwittelsbach" Prospectus of 1880th The Volksgarten with its viewing tower on a post card in 1898. The contemporary largest amusement park in Germany was built in 1890 on the site of the former "Bierbräuerei Nymphenburg". (Roman Road 11) and the hospital of the Merciful Brothers on the Roman Road 93. This large hospital complex leads right up to the southern Schlossrondell. There, the Order had during the First World War, the oldest inn Nymburk phenburgs, the "CONTROLOR" bought and started operation initially injured for war. Shortly before the Roman court to reach the transverse Döllingerstraße. In the Döllingerstraße 5 lived from 1918 to 1928 of 1895 in Munich GE-born Hans Beimler. Beimler belonged in 1919 to the initial members of the KPD and founded the KPD local group Munich. After his escape from Dachau he published in August 1933 report "In murderer camp Dachau." Beimler fell on 1 December 1936 the Spanish Civil War as a Commissioner of the German "Thalmann Battalion". The bridge over the lock canal was built in 1892 by architect Friedrich von Thiersch and later, among others extended for the tram traffic. He was previously only a pedestrian bridge across the channel to Gern that could develop as ruhi- ger suburb. The total investment of the palace and park was not at all planned for construction in 1664 in the dimensions as they present themselves today. Max Emanuel, who is based on the style of Louis XIV., Undertook significant structural extensions and let the Lustgarten French model invest. In his "Badenburg" he could, as later his successors, also enjoy the Würmwasser. One hundred years later, the park was liberated by the landscape gardener Sckell of its rigor and transformed into an English landscape garden. He joins the north of the Botanical Gardens, from the too tight has become complex which was moved to the street Elise and recreated generously 1914th World famous: The porcelain manufactory in Schlossrondell who resides there since 1761st Louis-Ferdinand Bridge 28 29 The inclusion of Nymphenburg Instituts- pupils while walking on the lock channel was built around 1905. The 'English Ladies' cause the girls school at the Maria-Ward Street since 1835. First in the North wing of the castle is home, were with the expansion of the Institute - the in addition to the higher education of girls soon also an elementary school and later a secondary school operation - numerous enhancements necessary. The boarding took place in northern Schlossrondell, the former Kavaliersbau, place where it is still operated as a day care center. In 1896 and 1912, the Schulhausbauten arrived at the Mary Ward Road so. The nursing home goes back to a private foundation of man's Tabakkauf- Heinrich von Dall'Armi, the social obligation was left direction for the community, not only the city administration and the great welfare institutions. 1910 the foundation stone was laid for the building, which was built according to the plans of the city Commissioner of City Planning Hans Grässel on municipal land. Today, it belongs to the urban "Münchenstift GmbH". Here, one is already on Gerner hall, in the territory of the four large farms, the whole hamlet Gern exclusively made up into the 19th century. From the heritage of secularisation, the courtyards to the fragmentation of the four origin wannabes (purple, orange, yellow and green border) led, the city of Munich acquired the late 19th century a number of reason for the construction of social facilities. These include, for example, the Dantebad (1), the Heiliggeistspital (6) and the Dall'Armi- Bürgerheim (7) (Map of steel Eder). Dall'Armi citizens home 30 31 On the site of Oswald-court, one of the four "primitive cell" wannabes, erected the owner in 1876 a brewery with beer garden. The Gerner brewery was one of the typical for the Municipality microbreweries, which for a time made it with its popular beer gardens to make the big successful competition. In 1919 she was taken over by the Löwenbräu AG. The pub was not received until 1970; then built the new home on the site at the Klugstraße a condominium. Just opposite to the Gerner Straße 33 the oldest surviving house wannabes, the former seat of the royal's hunting management is was. Nymphenburg Biedersteiner Channel The Bad Gerner on a postcard, circa 1900. It was only by the competition of 1913 opened Dante bades, major urban Badean- Supervisory Authority a piece channel- down that Gerner Bad lost its attraction value and in 1920 was closed. The canal was built by Elector Max Emanuel at the beginning of the 18th century. The waterways should complement the land and were in the baroque system of visual axes, reference points and symmetrical persons classified perspectives. It was made to the agricultural needs of farmers in Gern and elsewhere into consideration. The Würm channels enriched the image aesthetically and also were suitable for bathing amusements. One of the oldest free-time facilities was the 1856 eröff- designated Bad Gern at the Klug- (Nederland linger) road. The channel attracted not only bathers but was also suitable as a location for hotel and restaurant establishments. Letterhead Gerner brewery of 1909. Links the company logo, which the silhouettes of Munich and Nymphenburg shows in the background, in front the old fountain Winthir-, which was destroyed during the war. 32 33 Villenkolonie Gern The well-known Bavarian writers stel lerin Lena Christ (1881-1920) never lived at the Künstlerkolo-. In Wilhelm Düll-Straße 5, she experienced the 1912 release of their debut work "Memoirs of a Superfluous", which was created under the influence of her second husband Peter Benedict dix. The many apartment unit change of writer who moved to the Pilarstraße continue in 1914, are symptomatic of a pensionable loose and always marked by economical emergency life. The marriage with Benedix from which she sought more and more artistic and emotional le independence, its not brought the hoped since her unhappy childhood security. 1920 committed suicide Lena Christ. The poison she received from Bendix. "The Bavarian poet" was Lena Christ, in the words of Werner Friedmann. The photo dates from the period before the First World War. The studio windows of these houses on the Klugstraße (Low 1906) they made particularly attractive for visual artists: In the first house the number of simplex plicissimus illustrator Thomas Theodor Heine lived. Numerous further artists were and are attracted by the Villenkolonie gen: not only a painter as the 'Cats Adam "(Julius Adam D.J.) or the landscape painter Philipp Röth but also writers like Manfred Bieler. The change wannabes from a farming village in monastic possession for villas suburb of Munich started at the beginning of the 19th century with the secularization. In the closed areas of the former farms, new usages prevailed gradually. The begun by entrepreneur Jakob Heilmann in the 1890s families houses colony has its origins in the wooden peasant house which Heilmann had acquired. The Parzellie- tion of construction sites, installation of roads, opening up through sewers, he took as a private entrepreneur. Prospects for "family homes" came mainly from the middle class formed. 34 35 Taxisgarten Dom-Pedro-Platz The "recreational park for war and body damaged e.V." was based on a self-help initiative of war invalids after the First World War. They leased the land to the taxi street in 1920 by the Krongutsverwaltung and directed the recreation center with a park, sports fields, resting places, a bathroom and a glasshouse for sweating cures a. In addition, the large clubhouse with an auditorium, a library, a restaurant, and above all a beautiful beer garden opened in 1924, the still enjoys great popularity. As "war victims" the invalids were courted by the Nazipropa- ganda first and then brought into line. The recreation center was the "Park of the National Front" and experienced as such the destruction by the bombing. The main entrance to the club home of Kriegsbe- damaged with the inscription Eugen Roth in 1924 exceeded the Second World War: "You gave life and property in holy sacrificial courage for our Germany. Possi this home to toil and torment you his place of rest. " The ensemble of the cathedral Pedro Square to lock channel beck marks in one the express way the upswing of the municipal administration of services at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. The buildings are located on municipal land, which was acquired already partly in anticipation of the formation Eingemein- wannabes in 1899 by the city. In addition to the Protestant Christ Church emerged as urban buildings of the orphanage in channel boiler, the school at Dom-Pedro- Square and Altenheimkom- plex of Heiliggeistspital. Planender architect was Stadtbaurat Hans Grässel, the cemeteries for the large urban cemetery the plant, so the nearby West cemetery, was responsible. The general drawing of the city Commissioner of City Planning Hans Grässel of 1905 shows the ensemble at Dom Pedro Square and the cathedral Pedro Street (or today's St. Galler-road) to channel boilers. 37 Footbridge Braganzastraße Between 1858 and 1892 led the railway line from the main station to Landshut on the route of today's "Landshuter Allee". After laying the railway line to the west (to the Nymphenburger Park around) here was a quiet avenue of lime trees, to remember most the re- maining trees. 38 39 40 41 Leonrodstraße The work of Carl Spitzweg, Max Liebermann and other Dachau School artists can be seen in the Gemäldegalerie Dachau (%567 50; www.dachauer -galerien-museen.de; Konrad-Adenauer-Str 3; adult/concession €3.50/2; h11am-5pm Tue-Fri, 1-5pm Sat & Sun), next to the tourist office. Climb up to the roof terrace for a view of the city and the landscape that inspired them. Getting There & Around Dachau is about 16km northwest of central Munich. The S2 makes the trip from Munich Hauptbahnhof to the station in Dachau in 22 minutes. You’ll need a two-zone ticket (€4.40) or four strips of a Streifenkarte, including the bus connection. Here change to bus 720/722 to get to the Altstadt and the Schloss and bus 726 (direction ‘Saubachsiedlung’) to get to the camp. Show your stamped ticket to the driver. By car, follow Dachauer Strasse straight out to Dachau and follow the Altstadt or KZ-Gedenkstätte signs. SCHLEISSHEIM %089 / pop 5700 / elev 486m The northern Munich suburb of Schleissheim is renowned for its three palaces and an avia- tion museum. A combination ticket to the palaces is €6/5 adult/concession. Children under 18 years are free. The crown jewel of the palatial trio is the Neues Schloss Schleissheim (New Palace; %315 8720; www.schloesser-schleissheim.de; Max-Emanuel-Platz 1, Schleissheim; adult/concession €4/3; h9am-6pm Apr- Sep, 10am-4pm Oct-Mar, closed Mon). This pompous pile was dreamed up by Prince-Elector Max Emanuel in 1701 in anticipation of his pro- motion to emperor. It never came. Instead he was forced into exile for over a decade and didn’t get back to building until 1715. Cash flow problems required the scaling back of the original plans, but given the palace’s huge dimensions (the façade is 330m long) and opulent interior, it’s hard to imagine where exactly they cut back. Some of the fin- est artists of the baroque era were called in to create such eye-candy sights as the cer- emonial staircase, the Victory Hall and the Grand Gallery. There are outstanding pieces of period furniture, including the elector’s four-poster bed, amazing intricately inlaid tables, and a particularly impressive ceiling fresco by Cosmas Damian Asam. The palace is home to the Staatsgalerie (State Gallery), a selection of European baroque art drawn from the Bavarian State Collection, including works by such masters as Peter Paul Rubens, Antonis van Dyck and Carlo Saraceni. The most impressive room here is the Grand Galerie. While construction was ongoing, the elec- tor resided in the fanciful hunting palace of Schloss Lustheim (%315 8720; adult/concession €3/2; h9am-6pm Apr-Sep, 10am-4pm Oct-Mar, closed Mon), on a little island in the eastern Schlosspark, providing an elegant setting for porcelain masterpieces from Meissen. Nearby, the Altes Schloss Schleissheim (%315 8720; Maximilianshof 1; adult/concession €2.50/1.50; h9am- 6pm Apr-Sep, 10am-4pm Oct-Mar, closed Mon) is a mere shadow of its Renaissance self. It houses paint- ings and sculpture on religious culture and festivals all over the world, including an im- pressive collection of more than 100 crèches. Only a short walk away, the Flugwerft Schleissheim (%315 7140; www.deutsches-museum .de/flugwerft; Effnerstrasse 18; adult/concession/family €5/3/10; h9am-5pm), the aviation branch of the Deutsches Museum (p101), makes for a nice change of pace and aesthetics. Spirits will soar at the sight of the lethal Soviet MiG-21 fighter jet, the Vietnam-era F-4E Phantom and a replica of Otto Lilienthal’s 1894 glider, with a revolutionary wing shaped like Batman’s cape. Another highlight is the open workshop where you can observe the restoration of his- torical flying machines. Kids can climb into an original cockpit, land a plane and even get their ‘pilot’s license’. To get to Schleissheim, take the S1 (di- rection: Freising) to Oberschleissheim, then walk along Mittenheimer Strasse for about 15 minutes towards the palaces. On weekdays only, bus 292 goes to the ‘Schloss Lustheim’ stop. By car, take Leopoldstrasse north until it becomes Ingolstädter Strasse. Then take the A99 to the Neuherberg exit, at the south end of the airstrip. FREISING %08161 / pop 43,000 / elev 448m For a thousand years Freising was the spir- itual and cultural centre of southern Bavaria. Now near the airport, it is a bedroom com- munity for Munich but retains the feel of a traditional market town. In 1821 the bishop bowed to the inevitable and moved his seat to Munich. Freising sank in the ecclesiastical ranking but hung onto its religious gems, the main reasons to visit today. The town was a major way station in the life of Pope Benedict, who studied and taught at the university, was ordained as a priest and later even became archbishop here. Orientation & Information The bulk of Freising’s sights are in the Altstadt on or around the Lehrberg, site of the cathe- dral complex and more popularly known as the Domberg. For information, visit the tourist office (%541 22; www.freising.de, in German; Marienplatz 7; tours per adult/concession/family €6.50/4/12; h9am- 6pm Mon-Fri, 9am-1pm Sat & Sun). Staff run several guided tours in English, including one that follows in the steps of the Pope. Check for specific times. MUNICH MUNICH 134 AROUND MUNICH •• Freising  lonelyplanet.com lonelyplanet.com  135 Sights Freising’s charming Altstadt is crisscrossed by a tangle of lanes lined by baroque and Renaissance town houses, immaculately restored and clean almost to a fault. Looming over the old town is the Domberg, a hub of religious power with the twin-towered Dom St Maria und St Korbinian (%1810; h8am-noon & 2-5pm, to 6pm May-Oct) as its focal point. The restored church interior is a head-turning masterpiece by the Asam brother megastars, whose baroque frescoes grace the most pious ceilings of Bavaria. Remnants from the Gothic era include the choir stalls and a Lamentation of Christ painting in the left aisle. The altar painting by Rubens is a copy of the original in the Alte Pinakothek museum in Munich. Don’t miss the crypt, not so much to view Korbinian’s mortal remains as to admire the forest of pillars, no two of which are carved alike. The famous Bestiensäule (Beast Pillar) features an epic allegory of Christianity fight- ing the crocodile-like monsters of evil. East of the Dom are the cloisters, whose halls drip with fancy stucco and a thousand years’ homage in marble plaques to the bish- ops of Freising. The baroque hall of the cathe- dral library (h2-3pm Mon-Fri mid-May–Oct) shines with the gold-and-white fantasies of François Cuvilliés, designer of the magnificent Cuvilliés Theatre in Munich. At the western end of the hill is the Dom Museum Freising (%487 90; Domberg 21; adult/child €2/1; h10am-5pm Tue-Sun). The largest ecclesi- astical museum in Germany, it has a Fort Knox–worthy collection of bejewelled gold vessels, reliquaries and ceremonial regalia as well as some exquisite nativity scenes. Pride of place goes to the Lukasbild, a 12th-century Byzantine icon set in its own diminutive sil- ver altar. Upstairs you’ll discover works by Rubens and other masters. Southwest of the Domberg, a former Benedictine monastery hosts, among other university faculties, a respected college of beer brewing. Also here is the Staatsbrauerei Weihenstephan, (%5360; www.weihenstephaner.de; Alte Akademie 2; tours 60/120min €6/9; h10am Mon-Wed, 1.30pm Wed), a brewery founded in 1040, making it the world’s oldest that’s still in operation. Guided tours trace 1000 years of brewery his- tory in the museum, which is followed by a behind-the-scenes spin around the ‘hallowed halls’ and concluded with a beer tasting (you get to keep the glass). Bookings are advised. Tours include a pretzl and a €2 voucher good for souvenirs or another brew served in the beer garden and the vaulted cellar of the Bräustüberl. Getting There & Away Freising is about 35km northeast of Munich at the northern terminus of the S1 (€6.60, 40 minutes) and is also frequently served by faster regional trains (€6.60, 25 minutes). The Domberg and Altstadt are a 10-minute walk from the train station. By car, take Leopoldstrasse north and turn right on Schenkendorfstrasse. Then take the A9 north and the A92 to the Freising-Mitte exity it is a listed building and houses the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees. Aerial view of the KdF Town, 1937. 9 KdF-Town The KdF Town, a recreational area managed by the NS organization Kraft durch Freude (Strength through Joy), was opened in 1937. Folklore and funfair events took place in the wooden buildings to entertain visitors to the Nazi Party Rallies. The buildings burned down during World War II. Housing estates and sports fields now cover this area. Prisoner-of-war camp in Langwasser, 1940. 10 Camp Zone A camp zone was established adjacent to the March Field, southeast of the Nazi Party Rally Grounds. This is where the SA, SS, HJ and other Nazi organizations housed their participants. From 1939 on, parts of the camp zone served as a prisoner-of-war camp, packed with an average number of about 30,000 people from various nations. Camp inmates worked for the City of Nuremberg on the construction sites of the Nazi Party Rally Grounds until 1943. Several thousand of these prisoners died because of insufficient nutrition provided and inadequate accommodation in shacks and tents. On 17/18 April, 1945, the US Army liberated the POW camp Nuremberg-Langwasser. After 1945, the camp was used first as an American internment and international refugee camp. Later it became a Federal reception camp for foreigners. From the 1950s on, the suburb of Langwasser was established on the camp area and on other parts of the former Nazi Party Rally Grounds. Back to Jump Navigation Electronic Communication Data Protection to the White House to tell Nixon his support in Congress had collapsed, they wou