Showing posts with label Leitenberg. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Leitenberg. Show all posts


The Nazis opened their first concentration camp at Dachau, near Munich, in March 1933, only two months after Adolf Hitler came to power. This camp was the model for the many others to follow. It operated continuously until April 1945, when the allies liberated the inmates. Originally intended for the temporary detention of political prisoners, the camps became permanent institutions manned by the Schutzstaffel (ϟϟ) Totenkopfverbande (Death’s Head detachments). In these camps, the more sadistic guards, of whom there was no shortage in the ϟϟ, were more or less free to inflict indescribable cruelties on the inmates without fear of disciplinary action. The camp system gradually evolved from penal camps to the infamous death mills of Auschwitz, Belzec, Chelmno, Maidanek, Sobibor, and Treblinka.
From the Dachauer Volksblatt, 6 April 1933:
In a press conference on 20 March the Police Commissioner of Munich [Heinrich Himmler] made the following announcement: The first concentration camp will be opened on Wednesday near Dachau. It has a capacity of 5,000 people. All of the Communist functionaries and, insofar as necessary, the Reichsbanner and Marxist functionaries who threaten the security of the state will be assembled here. Leaving individual Communist functionaries in the courthouse jails is not possible for the long term without putting too much strain on the apparatus of the state. On the other hand, it is not appropriate, either, to let them go free again. Isolated attempts we have made in this regard resulted in continued efforts by the functionaries to agitate and organize. We have taken these steps regardless of minor misgivings, in the conviction that our actions serve to reassure the national population and are in their interest. Police Commissioner Himmler further asserted that protective custody of individuals would not be continued any longer than necessary. But it is understandable that the unexpectedly large amount of evidence confiscated will take a long time to examine. The police will simply be delayed in this process if they are constantly being asked when this or that person in protective custody will be set free. The inaccuracy of rumours that are frequently spread about the treatment of persons in protective custody is shown by the fact that visits by a priest were freely granted to several persons in protective custody who wished them, such as Dr. Gerlich and Baron von Aretin.
On Wednesday, 22 March, the concentration camp at the former gunpowder factory received its first allocation of 200 inmates. The Dachau camp consists of over 20 one- to two-story stone buildings, each of which can hold 200 to 250 men. At first the occupancy of the camp will gradually increase to 2,500 men and will possibly be expanded to 5,000 men later. A labour service detachment recently prepared the barrack for the first 200 men and secured it for the time being with a barrier of triple barbed-wire. The first job of the camp inmates will be to restore the other stone buildings, which are very run-down. Once that is accomplished, they will be led out in small groups of about 50 men into the countryside, where extensive land cultivation projects wait to be implemented. Perhaps later some of the camp inmates will be offered the possibility of settling here. The guard unit will initially consist of a contingent of one hundred state police (Landespolizei), which is to be further reinforced by SA auxiliary police guards. Meals will be taken in the large dining hall of the former ammunition factory, which can hold up to 1,500 people. But cooking will be done in field kitchens. No visits are allowed at the Concentration Camp in Dachau.
In total, over 200,000 prisoners from more than 30 countries were housed in Dachau of whom two-thirds were political prisoners and nearly one-third were Jews. 25,613 prisoners are believed to have died in the camp and almost another 10,000 in its subcamps, primarily from disease, malnutrition and suicide. In early 1945, there was a typhus epidemic in the camp followed by an evacuation, in which large numbers of the weaker prisoners died.

Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau holds a significant place in public memory because it was the second camp to be liberated by British or American forces. Therefore, it was one of the first places where the West was exposed to the reality of Nazi brutality through firsthand journalist accounts and through newsreels.

In front of the Jourhaus- the main gate to the camp. It was the first building prisoners had to build during the 1936 redevelopment of the camp.

During liberation and today. The tower shown here was one of seven watchtowers making up the guard installations. Richard Evans relates that at Auschwitz,
Over the entrance, (Kommandant Rudolf] Höss placed a wrought-iron archway with the words Arbeit macht frei, 'work liberates', a slogan he had learned in Dachau.
The motto at Dachau, “Arbeit macht frei” (Work Is Liberty), is well known; it was also used elsewhere, a hollow, cynical promise from the tradition of the work society. No prisoner was ever released because of hard work and good performance.
Sofsky (61)
Historic gate at Dachau concentration camp stolen 

Photos I took November 19, 2014 showing the missing Gate. The gate itself was a reconstruction; the current whereabouts of the original is a mystery. When the US military administration used the site, it removed the gate and dismantled the watchtower. These were not reconstructed until 1972. Shown is German blacksmith Michael Poitner who has painstakingly rebuilt the 1.87 meter-high, 108-kg gate in time for the 70th anniversary commemorations for the liberation of the camp. "A lot of thought went into how to make this cynical Nazi slogan close to the original - which is important as some 800,000 people visit the Dachau memorial each year," said Poitner, 36, who was born in town of Dachau. "You can feel all that cynicism with this gate."  He studied pictures and documents about the original gate, which was installed in 1936, and used techniques like high-temperature brazing, which was more common than soldering in the 1930s.

The site soon after the war and today

The road I cycle down, showing how the camp was anything but hidden away

Site of roll call and as it appears today
The prisoners marched out by block onto the Appellplatz and waited there for the ϟϟ to appear. The block personnel counted the inmates and reported the results to those on duty in the prisoner orderly room. They in turn passed the total on to the ϟϟ rapport leader. The ϟϟ block leaders double-checked the results, running through another count so that the reporting officer could compare the two totals. In order to make sure the final tally was correct, the prisoners in the sick bay and those who had died during the night also had to be counted. This double bureaucratic procedure should hardly have required more than half an hour, given the experienced and well-rehearsed chain of reporting. But the process was often delayed or interrupted by violence. Despite the fixed time for morning roll call, the ϟϟ was often late. Illuminated by searchlights, the columns had to wait in the first light of dawn in every conceivable type of weather until the camp lords took the stage. Their entrance was a carefully calculated show of power. To leave thousands waiting is always a demonstration of total power. And time was something the camp masters had plenty of. Inmates did not march off to their places of work until it was light. Consequently, morning roll call in the winter months could drag on for more than ninety minutes, until the command was given over the loudspeakers for the prisoners to form up into Kommandos. The accommodation of working hours to daylight was the only concession the camp regime made to natural time.
Sofsky (75)
The memorial is now being used to promote other  "attractions" on buses
After the Second World War, a kind of 'dark tourism’ emerged in Germany, as the former sites of death and terror in the Third Reich became 'must see’ sights on the tourist trail. Today, Dachau, Buchenwald, Sachsenhausen and other 'fatal attractions’ linked to the Hitler dictatorship draw thousands of visitors each year. The most recent Lonely Planet guide to Germany, for example, lists the former concentration camp at Dachau as one of the key attractions around Munich, alongside the Chiem Lake, the Andechs brewery and the Alpamare water park. 
The monument to 'the unknown prisoner at Dachau' in 1950 and today which reads:
To Honour the Dead, To Warn the Living.
 Two other memorials- shown in 1950 and today
Inspection by the Nazi party led by Hess and Himmler, 8 May 1936

Himmler with his daughter Gudrun (shown right in a recent photo) visiting Dachau in 1941 with Reinhard Heydrich (in background) and Karl Wolff (2nd from right). The sign reads "(G)efangenen- (sa)mmelstelle" ("(Co)llection Point for (P)risoners"). In her diary Gudrun wrote:
Today we went to the ϟϟ concentration camp at Dachau. We saw everything we could. We saw the gardening work. We saw the pear trees. We saw all the pictures painted by the prisoners. Marvellous. And afterwards we had a lot to eat ... it was very nice.
She is still alive and has never renounced the Nazi ideology, repeatedly justifying the actions of her father. For decades she has been a prominent leader in Stille Hilfe which provides support for Nazi war criminals as in the case of Anton Malloth who was extradited to Germany in 1988 and sentenced in 2001 to life in prison. She had arranged his stay at an expensive nursing home in Pullach in the south of Munich which had originally served as the property of Rudolf Hess.

Prisoners' barracks
Bodies lined up outside the barracks upon liberation; shortly after liberation and the same view today
Inside the reconstructed barracks. During the new construction of the camp in 1937-38 the prisoners had to build 34 barracks. The first two barracks on the left of the camp road were used for a variety of purposes in the course of the years. Located here were, for example, the canteen, the camp clerk office, the library and the SS museum as well as training rooms for the prisoner personnel and workshops serving the armaments industry. Located behind these barracks were those housing the prisoners. Every barrack was divided into four so-called Stuben, comprising of a day room and dormitory. The barracks were fitted to each hold 200 prisoners; towards the end of the war however they were completely overfilled, holding up to 2,000 prisoners. On the right-hand side of the camp road was the infirmary, which expanded continuously in the course of the war. Behind the infirmary were the penal blocks and the quarantine barracks for the prisoners newly arriving at the camp.

The reconstructed baracks at the Buchenwald concentration camp look almost the same as the dimensions used for the barracks used at the Dachau Refugee Camp I take my students to every Tuesday in the town.
Watchtower then and now
The prisoner baths (Häftlingsbad) in 1942 and today. 
Shown here are the beams for the “pole hanging” used as torture (between the pillars) during the inspection of the Dachau concentration camp by Erhard Milch, General Inspector of the Luftwaffe (front middle). The prisoner baths, located in the maintenance building erected in 1937/38, belonged to the central rooms in the new camp. The admissions procedure for the new prisoners concluded here with the shaving of body hair, disinfection, showering, and putting on the prisoner uniform. At first weekly, later less frequently, the prisoners were taken to bathe – a procedure often accompanied by harassment. From 1941/42 “pole hanging” was carried out on the beams between the pillars in the baths. Corporal punishment was also at times inflicted in the baths.
Beginning in the summer of 1933, the camp island already resembled a bulwark. In front of the wire fence, charged with high-voltage current at night, there was a low, slatted fence that marked out the “neutral zone.” Whoever entered it was shot down without warning. Directly behind it ran a concrete wall three meters high that surrounded the entire area of the camp. Patrols moved in the area between the wall and the internal fence; these patrols maintained eye contact with the two sentries posted on each of the four watchtowers. Machine guns were pointed at the camp from all directions. Searchlights illuminated the grounds at night. Every corner could be lit up brightly and brought under fire at will. In the beginning, the patrols had to drive away strangers and the curious, but this was a problem that soon took care of itself. After modernization, the entire area was surrounded by a high wall and encircled during the day by the Große Postenkette. Patrols with dogs scoured the areas in between. The prisoner camp was enclosed by a moat; then came the concrete wall with the wire fence and watch- towers, a path for the nightly patrols, and a double row of electrified barbed wire. Finally, there was the death strip, covered with white gravel to make any shadow readily visible at night.
Wolfgang Sofsky (56)

Gustav Hinz, died on February 19, 1941 by hanging from the sink. The top right shows Franz Rabanda, died on May 29, 1940, in the electrified fence and below Josef Stessel, “shot while trying to escape” on August 11, 1940. It occurred that prisoners crossed the guard chain, which meant certain death by shooting, out of despair. Often, however, they were violently forced over the guard line by the guards and then shot “while trying to escape”.
With the mass committal of foreign prisoners from 1940 onwards, the number of deaths in the Dachau concentration camp rose dramatically. Death became an everyday event. Dying took place without any sign of piety and sympathy, the dead were robbed of all dignity. In order to conceal the horrific reality from the public, the SS built a crematorium in the camp in 1940. In June 1941 an independent registry office, Dachau II, was set up to register the deaths in the Dachau concentration camp.

Bodies found in and outside the crematorium after liberation
And how inhumanely the corpses were treated! The last piece of clothing they wore was taken from them. In the barracks there was barely enough room for the living. The naked corpses were therefore carried out onto the road and stacked in piles. There they lay in the dirt in the road. Once or twice a day a wagon pulled by prisoners came along and picked up the dead. They were covered with tarpaulin, taken to the crematorium and unloaded there onto the heaps of corpses which had arrived from other camps. The corpses were stacked one above the other like logs.
 Original crematorium used by the Nazis

The crematorium built 1943 from the front and standing at back

This secretly taken photo by the Belgian prisoner Jean Brichaux from the summer of 1944 is the only surviving shot of the crematorium facility taken during the existence of the concentration camp.  The photo shows the smoking chimney of the crematorium ovens and is thus the obvious proof for an operating crematorium.   
Bodies piled up outside and the view today

Holocaust deniers such as Matt Giwer use the above photograph, taken the day after liberation, to claim that it shows a fraudulent gas chamber at Dachau-
The words on this door are warnings of danger and the lethality of the gas. Even for the iliterate (SIC!), the skull and crossbones a clear warning. No one could be tricked into believing this is a shower.
In fact, the sign above the door actually reveals that the room served as disinfection chambers. It is then shown next to a photo of a completely different site-  the actual shower entrance- to claim that the site has been tampered with. The The Nizkor Project devotes a page to this anti-semite's deplorable statements which shows the purpose behind his lies as well a page concerning him at

 Me in front of the actual shower entrance and the same site in 1950 from a colour photograph taken by Hitler's personal photographer Hugo Jaeger
U.S. Congressmen visiting the showers planned to later be used to exterminate; taking students to expose the deceit
video video
Videos I took on the anniversary of the liberation the camp, April 29, 2011 showing the crematoria and shower/disinfection rooms.

The so-called bunker (camp prison), then and now, showing an inspection of the penal company of the SS penal camp in the Bunker-yard by SS judges in either 1941 or 1942. I'm standing in front of the so-called "death wall"
The mass executions at the “death wall” in the main camp were generally achieved by bullets to the nape of the neck. Thousands of men, women, and children were shot at this site. In Dachau as well, mass executions were carried out in the yard of the bunker or the garden of the crematorium, generally by bullets to the nape of the neck. Groups of fifteen to thirty prisoners were forced first to disrobe completely and then to kneel down in a row. The associates went from person to person, pressing a pistol to the base of each skull and pulling the trigger. This procedure had no military tradition behind it: killing by Genickschuß was a method first used by the secret police. Although the act of killing here was done by an individual, the sequence of slaughter was just as anonymous as in the case of a firing squad. The perpetrator saw the victim only from behind. Direct eye contact was precluded. Soldiers condemned to death stand erect and await a hail of bullets to their faces. Honour demands that they stand directly facing the enemy. By contrast, the concentration camp in- mates were forced to kneel down, bending their necks forward, and were then liquidated in rows, one after the other.
Sofsky (233)
Individual cells inside the so-called bunker used for prisoners such as Georg Elser. Today, these cells provide first-hand accounts from bunker prisoners through audio and visual terminals with biographical information on some of the prisoners that were detained here.
The desk at which new arrivals to Dachau would be processed. The photo on the right shows where prisoners were brought here, strapped down and whipped by two ϟϟ officers whilst having to count the blows, as demonstrated to Patton and Eisenhower at Ohrdruf.

An undated list for internal ϟϟ use prepared during the war mentions no fewer than forty-seven crimes punishable by official flogging. A few examples: ten strokes of the cane were given for “negligence at work and undisciplined behaviour,” twenty for “absence from the work place” and stealing of food, fifteen for “insolence toward a member of the ϟϟ” or “cutting up a woollen blanket”; the “theft of a potato” was punishable by five strokes on the whipping block.
Sofsky (332)
Massacre of Guards during the liberation of Dachau by Allied soldiers
Upon liberation, a coal yard near the ϟϟ hospital was used to contain the ϟϟ POWs from the hospital, NCO school and finance centre.  Lieutenant Sparks, shown above trying to call an halt to the massacre, later described the area as enclosed by an “L-shaped masonry wall, about eight feet high, which had been used as a coal bin. The ground was covered with coal dust, and a narrow gauge railroad track, laid on top of the ground, led into the area.”  The prisoners were placed under the command of Lt. Walsh, the same man who had shot four ϟϟ guards on the so-called Death Train. The number of men present varies enormously between accounts, but according to the investigation carried out by the Assistant Inspector General of the 7th Army, Joseph M. Whitaker (known as the IG report); all estimates were in the range of 50-125, with the majority in the range of 50-75.  From this point, the accounts of what happened to these men diverge wildly. Walsh gave the order to the machine gunner identified in the IG report as “C” and the other soldiers present to shoot the POWs if they moved. An eyewitness, Karl Mann, remembered the I-Company officers deciding to shoot the ϟϟ men when Sparks was no longer in sight, although this also conflicts with the IG report.  According to the IG report, the ϟϟ men thought they were going to be executed when the machine gunner loaded his weapon, and lurched forward, triggering the shooting. However, other eyewitness reports, including the gunman himself, indicate that the trigger had rather been someone shouting “fire”. This incident, which took a matter of moments, was interrupted by an irate Colonel Sparks, who ran from where he had been stationed “about 100 to 200 meters on the other side of the wall”  To stop the shooting, Sparks shot his “.45 in the air while shouting 'Cease Fire!'”, before kicking the shooter away from the gun.

The site today.
After the hospital shooting was stopped, some of the U.S. soldiers allegedly gave a number of handguns to the now-liberated inmates. It has been claimed by eyewitnesses that the freed inmates tortured and killed a number of captured German troops, in retaliation for their treatment in the camp. The same witnesses claim that many of the German soldiers killed by the inmates were beaten to death with shovels and other tools. A number of Kapo prisoner-guards were also killed, torn apart by the inmates.
Watchtowers in 1945, 1950 and today
ϟϟ guards being fished out of the canal, and as it appears today
After entry into the camp, personnel of the 42nd Division discovered the presence of guards, presumed to be SS men, in a tower to the left of the main gate of the inmate stockade. This tower was attacked by Tec 3 Henry J. Wells 39271327, Headquarters Military Intelligence Service, ETO, covered and aided by a party under Lt. Col. Walter J. Fellenz, 0-23055, 222 Infantry. No fire was delivered against them by the guards in the tower. A number of Germans were taken prisoner; after they were taken, and within a few feet of the tower, from which they were taken, they were shot and killed.
from the IG Report of the U.S. Seventh Army
video video video video
A few of my students presenting short biographies of former inmates of Dachau as part of the Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site extensive research project: “The book of remembrance for the victims of the Dachau Concentration Camp”. Names and other biographical information of those who died in the Dachau Concentration Camp were collected for the book. Of the more than 40,000 dead over 33,000 victims coming from nearly forty nations can now be called by their name - far more than originally expected.

Gedenkbuch für NS-Opfer Den zahllosen Toten ihre Geschichte zurückgeben

 Having the honour of welcoming Mr. Bill Glied to my school January 28, 2013. In April 1944, he was deported with his family to Auschwitz-Birkenau from his home in Serbia. In June that year he was transferred to the Dachau concentration camp where he worked as a slave labourer. He was liberated by the Americans on April 29, 1945 and moved to the Dominion of Canada as an orphan in 1947 where he married an Hungarian Holocaust survivor. He gives regular talks to schools; in fact, he recently spoke to his grandson Josh’s Grade 9 class in Ontario. Recently he testified at the trial of former SS sergeant Oskar Gröning, the so-called 'Bookkeeper from Auschwitz,' who helped keep guard as thousands of Jews were led to the gas chambers at Auschwitz.

Sites Outside the Main Camp
 Located where the current Information centre and in front of the Jourhaus (the Kommandant's HQ in the background), these metal corners mark the exact position of the building of the political department. The chief function of the Political Department was to screen and process all political and other types of criminals, the keeping of their records, the notification of the higher interning authorities of deaths, discharges, or other disposition of the internees. Death sentences of internees were received by this department (from Berlin), and these sentences were referred for execution to Abteilung III (Schutzhaftlager), and upon the execution of the above, this department was responsible for turning in a final report of the carrying out of these orders. Gestapo came from Munich to carry on interrogations at Dachau. It was the responsibility of this department to interrogate and abuse Russian prisoners of war who were brought here for that specific purpose. Orders for the inhumane interrogation of the Russian prisoners of war were carried out by this department. Another function of this department was to recruit internees by intimidation for sabotage and espionage work.

The ϟϟ Wirtschaftsbetriebe or 'business enterprises' that served as the main factory for prisoners. It had been built around the time of the Great War; the period photo dates from 1941.
Although scarcity was ubiquitous, the personnel used the workshops in Dachau, which already employed five hundred artisans in 1933, for its own private orders. This was the origin of the system of graft and corruption in which many members of the commandant office staffs were implicated later on. When the Dachau workshops were transferred from the supervision of the central Inspektion and placed under Pohl’s Administrative Office, that move met with fierce opposition from the clique of commandants. The shift to commercial principles curtailed their private power of control. This line of conflict between the economic administration echelon and the camp ϟϟ also resurfaced in differences over the later deployment of prisoners in arms manufacture.
Sofsky (174)

This is what is left of the former ϟϟ main guardhouse directly across from the ϟϟ Wirtschaftsbetriebe. From 1935, this served as the entrance to the camp. Harassed and beaten prisoners would pass through it from the railway station as well as prisoner transport such as buses and lorries. The ϟϟ members used it too when entering, and most lived further down this road to the ϟϟ residences. The foundations were uncovered as recently as 2008.

Straße der ϟϟ

These buildings on what was the 'Strasse der ss ϟϟ' , now within the Bavarian Riot Police HQ compound, served as residences for members of the ϟϟ.
The centre of power was located in the administrative area. The offices of the camp commandant, the Political Department, and the administrative department were in close proximity to the prisoner camp, but just outside the barbed-wire perimeter. Every office of the KZ-Inspektion had its branch in this administrative zone. It served as the local representative of the central bureaucracy. A leafy, wooded area was set aside for the living quarters of the ϟϟ officers. In Dachau, these were located on the Straße der ϟϟ outside the camp.
Sofsky (49)
In front of the Bavarian Riot Police HQ ( Bayerische Bereitschaftspolizei Abteilung VI. Dachau), then the main entrance to the SS training area. 

This was the Dachau Kommandantur (headquarters) just outside the memorial site. The area of the commandant's headquarters in the ϟϟ concentration camp was located directly next to the prisoner camp. The commandant had almost unrestricted control over the camp. The headquarters staff and the guard units carried out his orders.

 The Plantation (Kräutergarten)
In 1938 concentration camp prisoners were forced to build an herb garden (plantation) on the other side of the Alte Römerstrasse, east of the camp. The cultivation of local herbs was the idea of the 'working group for medicinal plants studies' and Reichsführer ϟϟ Heinrich Himmler showed particular interest in the plan. Germany should have no need to import foreign medicines and herbs. The economic importance of the work done by the prisoners in the herb garden increased as the war progressed. The ϟϟ guards marched the prisoners to work on the large open-air site under abusive threats and blows, and prisoners were arbitrarily shot 'while attempting to escape'. Less brutal working conditions reigned only in the buildings and greenhouses. There a work detail of draughtsmen was supposed to produce a plant collection for Himmler. At the risk of losing their lives, some of the prisoners managed to depict the crimes committed by ϟϟ guards in secret notes.  The ϟϟ set up a shop as part of the herb garden to sell produce from the 'plantation' to residents from Dachau and neighbouring communities. Some prisoners succeeded in establishing secret contact to the civilian population.

Himmler in the Dachau herb garden and the site today.
Beside the plantation buildings on the way to Hebertshausen shooting range one goes past housing used by members of the SS. They are shown here beside the Plantation complex in the scale model of the camp in the memorial site. Today one of the inhabitants chooses to fly the Confederate flag outside. 
Meanwhile AMAZON nixes rebel flag, continues selling Nazi memorabilia...
 Dylann Roof

Concentration Camp Memorial Cemetery Dachau-Leitenberg

Dachau residents transporting the dead to the cemetery at Dachau-Leitenberg on the left, and depositing the bodies on arrival.

On the right, disinterred bodies at the site.
From February 28 to April 27 1945, eight mass graves were dug on the Leitenberg located in Etzenhausen just outside Dachau although the first mass grave may have already been dug there in October 1944. According to the Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site,
[t]here is demonstrable proof that 4,318 dead concentration camp prisoners were buried there up until liberation on April 29, 1945. A further 1,879 dead prisoners as well as regular German army troops killed in fighting around Dachau were buried in two further mass graves by May 18, 1945 at the latest...
... according to counts made by the responsible authorities, a total of 7,609 dead are buried at the concentration camp cemetery Leitenberg, of whom only 204 are known by name.
Dachau Town
The station immediately during liberation, with clothes scattered all over, and today. Frühlingstrasse, which leads to the bus and railway stations, was renamed Adolf-Hitler-Strasse on March 24, 1933. The documents on the right made this official after the Dachau town council voted unanimously whilst Lord Mayor Georg Seufert of the Catholic Bavarian People's Party declared Hitler an honorary citizen. Prisoners who arrived at the train station would march down this street to the concentration camp.
Friedenstrasse off Frühlingstrasse was the first residential street set up after the First World War, hence its name- 'Freedom Street'. Here it is shown in April 1945 and today with student, showing Dachau residents forced to haul the enormous number of corpses up to Leitenberg mass grave.
The rathaus in 1903 and, bottom, after it was destroyed and rebuilt in 1936.In the passageway through the new town hall on the right are these two plaques that commemorate the Jews of Dachau who died in the Holocaust. The plaque on top refers to Reichskristallnacht. The one below it lists the names of five of the twelve Jews of Dachau who would die in the death camps: Julius Kohn, Max Wallach, Melly Wallach, Hans Neumeyer, and Vera Neumeyer.

On the left is the Hörhammerbräu Inn where, in November 1922, the Bund Oberland was established which would later become the Dachau Nazi party in 1929 and where it would hold regular meetings; one speaker had been Rudolf Hess. Because the KPD did as well, violent fights would break out.
On the right is the Obere Apotheke, which had been damaged in the fighting on April 30, 1919 between the Freikorps Görlitz, sent by the government from Berlin, and the Red Army which had occupied Dachau since winning "The Battle of Dachau" on April 16, 1919. The Freikorps was also known as the White Guard because they wore white armbands while the Red Army wore red armbands. After a battle that lasted one day, the Freikorps liberated the town of Dachau from the Communists. The white armbands, worn by the Freikorps, were decorated with an ancient emblem called the swastika. The Obere Apotheke supplied the medicine to the prisoners at the camp, delivered St. Jakob church and even provided medication illegally to prisoners working in the town on work details.
Heldengedenktag commemoration conducted by the Nazis next to St. Jakob church at Schrannenplatz; today a large tree has all but obscured the war memorial behind it which was designed by Karl Kroher and dedicated in 1929. It shows the martyrdom of St. Sebastian and reads: "To protect Dachau and you, the heroes went to battle. We offer them our thanksgiving. So great was their sacrifice." Behind there had been an air-raid shelter during the Second World War.
The Stadtkeller shown on the left has had its name since July 1936 when SA man Paul Taut, serving on the town council, leased the building to open a restaurant. Up to then it had been owned by the Dachau Association of Free Trade Unions where the Social Democrats held their party meetings and as a result it became the centre for the trade unions. When the Nazis won the March 5, 1933 elections, union leaders met here to plan their defence against the coming persecution.The Brückenwirt Inn, site of a particular tragedy during the NSDAP era. Its innkeeper and butcher, Ludwig Rosner, was arrested after making anti-Nazi remarks here and sent to the camp. During the time he was incarcerated his wife had suffered an emotional breakdown and had taken their two sons (aged about six and seven) where they were last seen in a shop in Eschenried where she bought them candy. They remained missing when Rosner had been released months later until the bodies were found in Ziegelwald, all dead by the mother using the man's pistol. Past the inn, one arrives at the Mühlbachweg, which was the path women from Dachau used when they accompanied escaped prisoners from the concentration camp during the Dachau Uprising on April 28, 1945.
New Gallery

Further along the street after the Brückenwirt Inn, the New Gallery was once the site of the Dachau Labour Service Camp shown in 1937 and today. In 1935 those between the ages of 18 to 25 as well as the unemployed were made to volunteer for one year of labour service. By the end of the war teenagers and those over the age of 60 were called up into the Volksturm and this was the base.
The Unterbräu Inn

Unterbräu Inn in 1934 and today. It is apparently the oldest brewery in Dachau. On April 16, 1919 this was the headquarters of the Red Army when it controlled Dachau before being overthrown over a week later by Freikorps Görlit. It holds a place in Nazi mythology as the site where the Dachau NSDAP Ortsgruppe was officially founded on February 1, 1930 under the chairmanship of NSDAP Gauleiter for Upper Bavaria, Fritz Reinhardt who, on April 1, 1933 was appointed State Secretary in the Reich Ministry of Finance. In fact, it was to this man that “Aktion Reinhardt” was named whereby the Jews of the Polish General Government became the first large group of Jews to be liquidated by gas in 1942–43. Fritz Reinhardt (1895–1969) had by then become the official in the Finance Ministry responsible for administering the valuables, including dental gold, taken from the victims before or after their deaths.
However, a more infamous event took place here on Sunday, July 17 1932- the so-called Battle of Unterbräu Inn where seven SA men had fled after having antagonised members of the Reichsbanner by stealing a flag from the Jungsozialisten. They were protected by the innkeeper who stood in the doorway with two dogs until they were saved by a Bavarian state police riot squad.

Alter Stadtfriedhof

This chapel in Dachau's oldest cemetery on Gottesacker off Augsburgerstrasse was dedicated to the town's war dead in 1961.


In the foreground in the photo on the right is the Bäckerei Teufelhart which had supplied bread to the camp and to prisoners in the town on labour detail.
Memorial in the town designed by Israeli Abraham Borenstein for the 50th anniversary of the camp's liberation. It is made up of original railway track near where the 45th Thunderbird division discovered the so-called "death train" within which the remains of 2,310 prisoners shipped from Buchenwald three weeks before were left.
The second memorial shown in the next two photographs is one designed by Hubertus von Pilgrim in the town itself, dedicated to the concentration camp inmates who where sent on so-called Todesmärsche (death marches) from Dachau in April 1945 southwards. this is one of 23 such memorials that are along the routes of the marches (apart from the last which is in Jerusalem).

After the Second World War 1,268 KZ-prisoners, who had died after the freeing of the concentration camp Dachau, were laid to rest here. The four-metre high monument shown in these photos overlooking both Jewish and non-Jewish graves, is dedicated to the Jewish prisoners killed on the death march from from the Flossenbürg camp as the war ended. The last photo shows a memorial specifically to Austrian victims.


This tiny hamlet just to the Northwest of Dachau was the site of a massacre the day the camp was liberated. A Waffen-SS unit had arrived to take up defensive positions in trenches dug around the farms by French POW workers in order to delay the advance of American tanks of the 20th Armoured Division and infantry units of the 7th US Army which was approaching Dachau. The farms, mostly run by women (whose husbands were either dead, prisoners of war or still fighting) with the help of French POWs, came under fire on the morning of April 29 forcing all inhabitants to rush for the cellars. One soldier of Company F of the US 222nd Infantry Regiment of the 42nd Rainbow Division was killed upon entering the hamlet under fire from the Waffen-SS unit. This led the first German to emerge from the cellar, the farm's owner Herr Furtmayer, to be immediately shot. The French POWs then informed the Americans that that only civilians were actually hiding in the cellars which led the soldiers to round up the men of the ϟϟ unit. First to surrender was an officer, Freiherr von Truchsess, heading a detachment of seventeen men who was then struck with a trenching tool splitting his head open. The others were lined up in the farmyard and summarily shot. On a slight rise behind the hamlet, another group of eight ϟϟ were shot. Their bodies were found lying in a straight line with their weapons and ammunition belts neatly laid on the ground suggesting that the men were shot after they surrendered. Altogether, one ϟϟ officer and forty one men lay dead as the infantry regiment proceeded on their way towards Dachau. Next day the local people, with the help of the French POWs, buried the bodies in a field to be later exhumed by the German War Graves Commission and returned to their families.
The site today is remembered by a memorial; photos taken on the anniversary of the massacre.

Hebertshausen ϟϟ Range

In Hebertshausen, a municipality adjoining Dachau, is a shooting range that had been built for the ϟϟ in 1937. This is where roughly 4,000 imprisoned Soviet soldiers were executed from November 25 1941 to the final year of the war. The prisoners brought to Dachau for execution were not recorded in the concentration camp files. The former ϟϟ guardhouse shown above is used today as an homeless shelter

Standing at the entrance to the shooting range April 30, 1945 and today; the ϟϟ runes have been removed but their traces remain on the now superfluous posts.
The route to the execution site just after liberation and today.
In front of the coffin depot and shooting range in 1938 and today

The victims were killed as they were handcuffed to posts on the left side.

Former Czech political prisoner Karel Kasak's photo of the site immediately after the war, and sketch of the execution site by former ϟϟ member Max Lengfelder from 29.iv.1954. Lengfelder would receive a sentence of life imprisonment after the Anton Stinglwagner trial 12-14.viii.1947.
 Maria Seidenberger took these photos from the second floor window of her family's home whilst her mother stood outside and gave potatoes to the prisoners. Karel Kasak is shown standing with his back to the camera in the first photo, wearing a white shirt. According to Kasak's diary the prisoners were coming from Nuremberg.  Maria Seidenberger is the second child of Georg and Katharina Seidenberger. In 1943 she made the acquaintance of Karel Kasak, a Czech prisoner who was assigned to take photographs of flowers in the gardens right outside the main entrance to Dachau. He took advantage of his position to also photograph other prisoners and needed a safe place to hide his photos. Having learned that Maria worked in a photo lab, he asked if she would hide his clandestine photos. She also secretly stored Dachau prisoner photos and letters in her family's beehive and mailed them to the prisoner's relatives back in Czechoslovakia. Furthermore, she even hid the personal papers and human remains (a heart and death mask) of Masryk's personal archivist, Jaroslav Simsov, who died of typhus in Dachau.  Near her house is a small memorial on the side of the road, a shooting site where many Soviet POWs were shot sometime in 1942-44. Maria explained how she and her mother heard the constant noise of the gun firing in her house during the day and stood frozen over the kitchen sink sobbing, knowing that each bullet meant the death of a person. On a Sunday Maria and Kasak, searched for the site where the Soviet POWs were buried and found the mass grave. Maria went to the mass grave site to establish that mass murder had indeed happened and photographed the site. She gave her negatives to the Czech prisoner, Karel Kasak. During the final weeks of the war, Maria photographed the death march from Buchenwald to Dachau from inside her home in Hebertshausen. One photograph shows her mother distributing potatoes to the prisoners. After the war, Maria accompanied Kasak back to Czechoslovakia before returning to Hebertshausen in 1959.
 Dachau concentration camp American troops guarding the main entrance to Dachau just after liberation, 1945 Dachau concentration camp is located in Germany Dachau concentration camp Location of Dachau in Upper Bavaria Coordinates     48°16′08″N 11°28′07″ECoordinates: 48°16′08″N 11°28′07″E Location     Upper Bavaria, Southern Germany Operated by     German Schutzstaffel (SS), U.S. Army (after World War II) Original use     Political prison Operational     1933–1945 Inmates     Poles, Jews, Russians, Ukrainians, French, Yugoslavs, Czechs, Germans, Austrians, Lithuanians Killed     31,951 (reported) Liberated by     United States, 29 April 1945 Website     Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site  Dachau concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau, IPA: [ˈdaxaʊ]) was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in Germany, intended to hold political prisoners. It is located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory southeast of the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km (10 mi) northwest of Munich in the state of Bavaria, in southern Germany.[1] Opened in 1933 by Heinrich Himmler, its purpose was enlarged to include forced labor, and eventually, the imprisonment of Jews, ordinary German and Austrian criminals, and eventually foreign nationals from countries that Germany occupied or invaded. The Dachau camp system grew to include nearly 100 sub-camps, which were mostly work camps or "Arbeits Kommandos," and were located throughout southern Germany and Austria.[2] The camps were liberated by U.S. forces in the spring of 1945.  Prisoners lived in constant fear of brutal treatment and terror detention including standing cells, floggings, the so-called tree or pole hanging, and standing at attention for extremely long periods.[3] There were 32,000 documented deaths at the camp, and thousands that are undocumented.[4]  On April 14, 1945, Himmler ordered the evacuation of the camp and the extermination of all inmates at Dachau, writing, "No prisoners shall be allowed to fall into the hands of the enemy alive."[5] Approximately 10,000 of the 30,000 prisoners were sick at the time of liberation.[6]  In the postwar years the Dachau facility served to hold SS soldiers awaiting trial. After 1948, it held ethnic Germans who had been expelled from eastern Europe and were awaiting resettlement, and also was used for a time as a United States military base during the occupation. It was finally closed for use in 1960.  There are several religious memorials within the Memorial Site,[7] and there is no charge to visit.[8]  In 2014, the camp's gate, reading Arbeit macht frei, was stolen.[9]  Contents      1 History     2 General overview     3 Main camp         3.1 Purpose         3.2 Organization         3.3 Demographics             3.3.1 Clergy             3.3.2 Staff     4 Satellite camps and sub-camps     5 Liberation         5.1 Main camp         5.2 Satellite camps         5.3 Killing of camp guards         5.4 Post-liberation Easter         5.5 Deportation of persons of Eastern origin     6 After liberation     7 In popular culture         7.1 Literature         7.2 Onscreen         7.3 In music         7.4 In theatre     8 KZ-Gedenkstätte Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site     9 List of personnel         9.1 Commanders         9.2 Other staff         9.3 SS and civilian doctors     10 List of notable prisoners         10.1 Clergy         10.2 Communists         10.3 Jewish         10.4 Politicians         10.5 Resistance fighters         10.6 Royalty         10.7 Scientists         10.8 Writers         10.9 Military         10.10 Others     11 Gallery     12 See also     13 References     14 Bibliography     15 External links  History  After the takeover of Bavaria on 9 March 1933, Heinrich Himmler, then Chief of Police in Munich, began to speak with the administration of an unused gunpowder and munitions factory. He toured the site to see if it could be used for quartering protective-custody prisoners. The Concentration Camp at Dachau was opened 22 March 1933, with the arrival of about 200 prisoners from Stadelheim Prison in Munich and the Landsberg fortress (where Hitler had written Mein Kampf during his imprisonment).[10] Himmler announced in the Münchner Neuesten Nachrichten newspaper that the camp could hold up to 5,000 people, and described it as "the first concentration camp for political prisoners"[1] to be used to restore calm to Germany.[11] It became the first regular concentration camp established by the coalition government of the National Socialist German Worker's Party (Nazi Party) and the German National People's Party (dissolved on 6 July 1933).  Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, and emigrants were sent to Dachau after the 1935 passage of the Nuremberg Laws which institutionalized racial discrimination.[12] In early 1937, the SS, using prisoner labor, initiated construction of a large complex capable of holding 6,000 prisoners. The construction was officially completed in mid-August 1938.[13] More political opponents, and over 11,000 German and Austrian Jews were sent to the camp after the annexation of Austria and the Sudetenland in 1938. Sinti and Roma in the hundreds were sent to the camp in 1939, and over 13,000 prisoners were sent to the camp from Poland in 1940.[12][14] The gate at the Jourhaus building through which the prisoner's camp was entered contains the slogan, Arbeit macht frei, or 'Work will make you free.'  The prisoners of Dachau concentration camp originally were to serve as forced labor for a munition factory, and to expand the camp. It was used as a training center for SS guards and was a model for other concentration camps[15] The camp was about 300 m × 600 m (1,000 ft × 2,000 ft) in rectangular shape. The prisoner's entrance was secured by an iron gate with the motto “Arbeit macht frei” (“Work will make you free”). This reflected Nazi propaganda which trivialized concentration camps as labor and re-education camps, when in fact forced labor was used as a method of torture.[16]  As of 1938, the procedure for new arrivals occurred at the Schubraum, where prisoners were to hand over their clothing and possessions.[17] "There we were stripped of all our clothes. Everything had to be handed over: money, rings, watches. One was now stark naked."[18]  The camp included an administration building that contained offices for the Gestapo trial commissioner, SS authorities, the camp leader and his deputies; administration offices that consisted of large storage rooms for the personal belongings of prisoners; the bunker; roll-call square where guards would also inflict punishment on prisoners, especially those who tried to escape; the canteen, where prisoners served SS men with cigarettes and food; the museum containing plaster images of prisoners who suffered from bodily defects; the camp office; the library; the barracks; and the infirmary, which was staffed by prisoners who had previously held occupations such as physicians or army surgeons.[19]  Over 4,000 Soviet prisoners of war were murdered by the Dachau commandant's guard at the SS shooting range located two kilometers from the main camp in the years 1942/1943.[20][21][22] These murders were a clear violation of the provisions laid down in the Geneva Convention for prisoners of war. The SS used the cynical term "special treatment" for these criminal executions. The first executions of the Soviet prisoners of war at the Hebertshausen shooting range took place on November 25 1941.[23]  After 1942, the number of prisoners regularly held at the camp continued to exceed 12,000.[24] Dachau originally held Communists, leading Socialists and other “enemies of the state” in 1933, but over time the Nazis began to send German Jews to the camp. In the early years of imprisonment, Jews were offered permission to emigrate overseas if they “voluntarily” gave their property to enhance Hitler’s public treasury.[24] Once Austria was annexed and Czechoslovakia was defeated, the citizens of both countries became the next prisoners at Dachau. In 1940, Dachau became filled with Polish prisoners, who constituted the majority of the prisoner population until Dachau was officially liberated.[25]  Prisoners were divided into categories. At first, they were classified by the nature of the crime for which they were accused, but eventually were classified by the specific authority-type under whose command a person was sent to camp.[26] Political prisoners who had been arrested by the Gestapo wore a red badge, "professional" criminals sent by the Criminal Courts wore a green badge, Cri-Po prisoners arrested by the criminal police wore a brown badge, "work-shy and asocial" people sent by the welfare authorities or the Gestapo wore a black badge, Jehovah’s Witnesses arrested by the Gestapo wore a violet badge, homosexuals sent by the criminal courts wore a pink badge, emigrants arrested by the Gestapo wore a blue badge, "race polluters" arrested by the criminal court or Gestapo wore badges with a black outline, second-termers arrested by the Gestapo wore a bar matching the color of their badge, "idiots" wore a white armband with the label Blöd (idiot), and Jews, whose incarceration in the Dachau concentration camp dramatically increased after Kristallnacht, wore a yellow badge, combined with another color.[27]  The prisoner enclosure at the camp was heavily guarded to ensure that no prisoners escaped. A ten-foot-wide (3 m) no-man's land was the first marker of confinement for prisoners; an area which, upon entry would elicit lethal gunfire from guard towers. Guards are known to have tossed inmates' caps into this area, resulting in the death of the prisoners when they attempted to retrieve the caps. Despondent prisoners committed suicide by entering the zone. A four-foot-deep and eight-foot-broad (1.2 × 2.4 m) creek, connected with the river Amper, lay on the west side between the “neutral-zone” and the electrically charged, and barbed wire fence which surrounded the entire prisoner enclosure.[28]  Hundreds of prisoners suffered and died, or were executed in medical experiments conducted at KZ Dachau. Some of these experiments involved exposure to vats of icy water or being strapped down naked outdoors in freezing temperatures. Victims writhed in pain, foamed at the mouth, and lost consciousness. Attempts at reviving the subjects included scalding baths, and forcing naked women to copulate with the unconscious victim. Nearly 100 prisoners died during these experiments.[29] The original records of the experiments were destroyed "in an attempt to conceal the atrocities." Extensive communication between the investigators and Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS, was discovered providing documentation of the experiments.[30] High altitude experiments were conducted during 1942. Victims were subjected to rapid decompression to pressures found at 14,000 feet inducing spasmodic convulsions, agonal breathing, and eventual death.[31]  Prisoners were sent to KZ Dachau as late as April 19, 1945; on that date a freight train from Buchenwald with nearly 4,500 was diverted to Nammering. SS troops and police stole food and water local townspeople tried to give to the prisoners. Nearly three hundred dead bodies were ordered removed from the train and carried to a ravine over a quarter of a mile away. The 524 prisoners who had been forced to carry the dead to this site were then shot by the guards, and buried along with those who had died on the train. Nearly 800 bodies went into this mass grave. The train continued on to KZ Dachau.[32]  As U.S. troops drove deeper into Bavaria during April 1945, the commander of KZ Dachau suggested to Gestapo Chief Heinrich Himmler that the camp be turned over to the Allies. Himmler, in signed correspondence, prohibited such a move, adding that "No prisoners shall be allowed to fall into the hands of the enemy alive."[33] Just days before the U.S. troops arrived at the camp the commandant and a strong guard forced between 6,000 and 7,000 inmates on a death march from Dachau south to Tegernsee. Any prisoners who could not keep up on the six day march were shot. Many others died of exhaustion, hunger and exposure.[34] Months later a mass grave containing 1,071 prisoners was found along the route.[35] General overview  Dachau served as a prototype and model for the other Nazi concentration camps that followed. Almost every community in Germany had members taken away to these camps. Newspapers continually reported "the removal of the enemies of the Reich to concentration camps." As early as 1935, a jingle went around: "Dear God, make me dumb, That I may not to Dachau come" ("Lieber Herr Gott, mach mich stumm, Das ich nicht nach Dachau komm'").[36]  The camp's layout and building plans were developed by Kommandant Theodor Eicke and were applied to all later camps. He had a separate secure camp near the command center, which consisted of living quarters, administration, and army camps. Eicke became the chief inspector for all concentration camps, responsible for organizing others according to his model.[37] Aerial photo of the Dachau complex with the actual concentration camp on the left  The Dachau complex included the prisoners' camp, which occupied approximately 5 acres, and the much larger area of SS training school including barracks, factories, plus other facilities of around 20 acres.[38]  The entrance gate used by prisoners carries the phrase "Arbeit macht frei" (literal English translation: "Work makes free" (or "Work makes [one] free"; Contextual English translation: "Work shall set you free"). This phrase was also used in Terezín, near Prague, and Auschwitz I. The camp commander gives a speech to prisoners about to be released as part of a pardoning action near Christmas 1933.  Dachau was the concentration camp that was in operation the longest from March 1933 to April 1945; nearly all twelve years of the Nazi regime. Dachau's close proximity to Munich, where Hitler came to power and where the Nazi Party had its official headquarters, made Dachau a convenient location. From 1933 to 1938, the prisoners were mainly German nationals detained for political reasons. After the Reichspogromnacht or Kristallnacht, 30,000 male Jewish citizens were deported to concentration camps. More than 10,000 of them were interned in Dachau alone. As the German military occupied other European states, citizens from across Europe were sent to concentration camps. Subsequently, the camp was used for prisoners of all sorts, from every nation occupied by the forces of the Third Reich.[39]  In the postwar years, the camp continued in use. From 1945 through 1948, the camp was used by the Allies as a prison for SS officers awaiting trial. After 1948, when hundreds of thousands of ethnic Germans were expelled from eastern Europe, it held Germans from Czechoslovakia until they could be resettled. It also served as a military base for the United States, which maintained forces in the country. It was closed in 1960. At the insistence of survivors, various memorials have been constructed and installed here.[40]  Demographic statistics vary but they are in the same general range. History will likely never know how many people were interned or died there, due to periods of disruption. One source gives a general estimate of over 200,000 prisoners from more than 30 countries for the Third Reich's years, of whom two-thirds were political prisoners, including many Catholic priests, and nearly one-third were Jews. 25,613 prisoners are believed to have died in the camp and almost another 10,000 in its subcamps,[41] primarily from disease, malnutrition and suicide. In early 1945, a typhus epidemic occurred in the camp caused by poor sanitation and overcrowding, followed by an evacuation, in which large numbers of the prisoners died. Toward the end of the war, death marches to and from the camp caused the deaths of numerous unrecorded prisoners. After liberation, prisoners weakened beyond recovery by the starvation conditions continued to die.[citation needed] Survivors of KZ Dachau demonstrate the operation of the crematorium by pushing a corpse into one of the ovens.[42]  Over the 12 years of use as a concentration camp, the Dachau administration recorded the intake of 206,206 prisoners and deaths of 31,951. Crematoria were constructed to dispose of the deceased. Visitors may now walk through the buildings and view the ovens used to cremate bodies, which hid the evidence of many deaths. It is claimed that in 1942, more than 3,166 prisoners in weakened condition were transported to Hartheim Castle near Linz, and were executed by poison gas because they were unfit.[39] Between January and April 1945 11,560 detainees died at KZ Dachau.[43]  Together with the much larger Auschwitz concentration camp, Dachau has come to symbolize the Nazi concentration camps. Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau lives in public memory as the second camp to be liberated by British or American Allied forces. It was one of the first places that firsthand journalist accounts and newsreels revealed to the rest of the world.[citation needed] Main camp Purpose Roll-call of Jewish prisoners (wearing Star of David badges), 20 July 1938  Dachau was opened in March 1933.[1] The press statement given at the opening stated:      On Wednesday the first concentration camp is to be opened in Dachau with an accommodation for 5000 people. 'All Communists and—where necessary—Reichsbanner and Social Democratic functionaries who endanger state security are to be concentrated here, as in the long run it is not possible to keep individual functionaries in the state prisons without overburdening these prisons, and on the other hand these people cannot be released because attempts have shown that they persist in their efforts to agitate and organize as soon as they are released.[1]  Inspection by the Nazi party and Himmler at Dachau on 8 May 1936.  Between the years 1933 and 1946, more than 3.5 million Germans were imprisoned in such concentration camps or prison for political reasons,[44][45][46] Approximately 77,000 Germans were killed for one or another form of resistance by Special Courts, courts-martial, and the civil justice system. Many of these Germans had served in government, the military, or in civil positions, which were considered to enable them to engage in subversion and conspiracy against the Nazis.[47] Organization Prisoners' barracks in 1945  The camp was divided into two sections: the camp area and the crematorium. The camp area consisted of 32 barracks, including one for clergy imprisoned for opposing the Nazi regime and one reserved for medical experiments. The courtyard between the prison and the central kitchen was used for the summary execution of prisoners. The camp was surrounded by an electrified barbed-wire gate, a ditch, and a wall with seven guard towers.[37]  In early 1937, the SS, using prisoner labor, initiated construction of a large complex of buildings on the grounds of the original camp. The construction was officially completed in mid-August 1938 and the camp remained essentially unchanged and in operation until 1945. A crematorium that was next to, but not directly accessible from within the camp, was erected in 1942. KZ Dachau was therefore the longest running concentration camp of the Third Reich. The Dachau complex included other SS facilities beside the concentration camp—a leader school of the economic and civil service, the medical school of the SS, etc. The camp at that time was called a "protective custody camp," and occupied less than half of the area of the entire complex.[37] Demographics Polish prisoners in Dachau toast their liberation from the camp. Poles constituted the largest ethnic group in the camp during the war, followed by Russians, French, Yugoslavs, Jews, and Czechs.  The camp was originally designed for holding German and Austrian political prisoners and Jews, but in 1935 it began to be used also for ordinary criminals. Inside the camp there was a sharp division between the two groups of prisoners; those who were there for political reasons and therefore wore a red tag, and the criminals, who wore a green tag.[48] The political prisoners who were there because they disagreed with Nazi Party policies, or with Hitler, naturally didn't consider themselves criminals.  Dachau was used as the chief camp for Christian (mainly Catholic) clergy who were imprisoned for not conforming with the Nazi Party line.  During the war, other nationals were transferred to it, including French, in 1940 Poles, in 1941 people from the Balkans, Czechs, Yugoslavs, and in 1942, Russians.[48][48]  The average number of Germans in the camp during the war was 3000. Just before the liberation many German prisoners were evacuated, but 2000 of these Germans died during the evacuation transport. Evacuated prisoners included such prominent political and religious figures as Martin Niemöller, Kurt von Schuschnigg, Édouard Daladier, Léon Blum, Franz Halder and Hjalmar Schacht.[48]  In August 1944 a women's camp opened inside Dachau. In the last months of the war, the conditions at Dachau deteriorated. As Allied forces advanced toward Germany, the Germans began to move prisoners from concentration camps near the front to more centrally located camps. They hoped to prevent the liberation of large numbers of prisoners. Transports from the evacuated camps arrived continuously at Dachau. After days of travel with little or no food or water, the prisoners arrived weak and exhausted, often near death. Typhus epidemics became a serious problem as a result of overcrowding, poor sanitary conditions, insufficient provisions, and the weakened state of the prisoners.  Owing to repeated transports from the front, the camp was constantly overcrowded and the hygiene conditions were beneath human dignity. Starting from the end of 1944 up to the day of liberation, 15,000 people died, about half of all the prisoners held at KZ Dachau. Five hundred Soviet POWs were executed by firing squad. The first shipment of women came from Auschwitz-Birkenau.  Though at the time of liberation the death rate had peaked at 200 per day, after the liberation by U.S. forces the rate eventually fell to between 50 and 80 deaths per day. In addition to the direct abuse of the SS and the harsh conditions, people died from typhus epidemics and starvation. The number of inmates had peaked in 1944 with transports from evacuated camps in the east (such as Auschwitz), and the resulting overcrowding led to an increase in the death rate.[48] Clergy Main article: Priest Barracks of Dachau Concentration Camp Friedrich Hoffman, a Czech priest, testifies at the trial of former camp personnel and prisoners from Dachau. In his hand he holds records showing that hundreds of priests died at the camp after being exposed to malaria during Nazi medical experiments.  In effort to counter the strength and influence of spiritual resistance, Nazi security services monitored clergy very closely.[49] Priests were frequently denounced, arrested and sent to concentration camps, often simply on the basis of being "suspected of activities hostile to the State" or that there was reason to "suppose that his dealings might harm society".[50] Despite SS hostility to religious observance, the Vatican and German bishops successfully lobbied the regime to concentrate clergy at one camp and obtained permission to build a chapel, for the priests to live communally and for time to be allotted to them for the religious and intellectual activity. Priests Barracks at Dachau were established in Blocks 26, 28 and 30, though only temporarily. 26 became the international block and 28 was reserved for Poles – the most numerous group.[51]  Of a total of 2,720 clergy recorded as imprisoned at Dachau, the overwhelming majority, some 2,579 (or 94.88%) were Catholic. Among the other denominations, there were 109 Protestants, 22 Greek Orthodox, 8 Old Catholics and Mariavites and 2 Muslims. In his Dachau: The Official History 1933–1945, Paul Berben noted that R. Schnabel's 1966 investigation, Die Frommen in der Hölle ("The Pious Ones in Hell") found an alternative total of 2,771 and included the fate all the clergy listed, with 692 noted as deceased and 336 sent out on "invalid trainloads" and therefore presumed dead.[52] Over 400 German priests were sent to Dachau.[53] Total numbers incarcerated are nonetheless difficult to assert, for some clergy were not recognised as such by the camp authorities, and some—particularly Poles—did not wish to be identified as such, fearing they would be mistreated.[54]  The Nazis introduced a racial hierarchy—keeping Poles in harsh conditions, while favouring German priests.[55] 697 Poles arrived in December 1941, and a further 500 of mainly elderly clergy were brought in October the following year. Inadequately clothed for the bitter cold, of this group only 82 survived. A large number of Polish priests were chosen for Nazi medical experiments. In November 1942, 20 were given phlegmons. 120 were used by Dr Schilling for malaria experiments between July 1942 and May 1944. Several Poles met their deaths with the "invalid trains" sent out from the camp, others were liquidated in the camp and given bogus death certificates. Some died of cruel punishment for misdemeanors—beaten to death or run to exhaustion.[56] The Clergy Barracks of Dachau : Clergy by nationality[52] Nationality     Total number     Released     Transferred elsewhere     Liberated 29/4/45     Deceased Poland     1780     78     4     830     868 Germany     447     208     100     45     94 France     156     5     4     137     10 Czechoslovakia     109     1     10     74     24 Netherlands     63     10     0     36     17 Yugoslavia     50     2     6     38     4 Belgium     46     1     3     33     9 Italy     28     0     1     26     1 Luxembourg     16     2     0     8     6 Denmark     5     5     0     0     0 Lithuania     3     0     0     3     0 Hungary     3     0     0     3     0 Stateless     3     0     1     2     0 Switzerland     2     1     0     0     1 Greece     2     0     0     2     0 Britain     2     0     1     1     0 Albania     2     0     2     0     0 Norway     1     1     0     0     0 Romania     1     0     0     1     0 Spain     1     0     0     1     0 Total     2,720     314     132     1,240     1,034 Staff  Among the staff, mostly SS males, 19 female guards served at Dachau, most of them until liberation.[57] Sixteen have been identified as Fanny Baur, Leopoldine Bittermann, Ernestine Brenner, Anna Buck, Rosa Dolaschko, Maria Eder, Rosa Grassmann, Betty Hanneschaleger, Ruth Elfriede Hildner, Josefa Keller, Berta Kimplinger, Lieselotte Klaudat, Theresia Kopp, Rosalie Leimboeck, and Thea Miesl.[58] Women guards also were assigned to the Augsburg Michelwerke, Burgau, Kaufering, Mühldorf, and Munich Agfa Camera Werke subcamps. In mid-April 1945, many female subcamps at Kaufering, Augsburg and Munich were closed, and the SS stationed the women at Dachau. It is reported that female SS guards gave prisoners guns before liberation to save them from postwar prosecution.[citation needed] Wilhelm Ruppert was charged with killing several prisoners.  Several Norwegians worked as guards at the Dachau camp.[59] Satellite camps and sub-camps  Satellite camps under the authority of Dachau were established in the summer and fall of 1944 near armaments factories throughout southern Germany to increase war production. Dachau alone had more than 30 large subcamps in which over 30,000 prisoners worked almost exclusively on armaments.[60]  Overall, the Dachau concentration camp system included 123 sub-camps and Kommandos which were set up in 1943 when factories were built near the main camp to make use of forced labor of the Dachau prisoners. The sub-camps were liberated by various divisions of the American army—including at least one ethnically segregated artillery battalion of the U.S. Army, many of whose own relatives were themselves interned during the war on American soil—that unexpectedly came across them during the American advance to capture Munich. American soldiers in the 63rd Infantry Division liberated seven of the eleven Kaufering sub-camps on 29 and 30 April 1945. The 63rd Infantry Division was recognized as a liberating unit by the U.S. Army’s Center of Military History and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2000.[61][unreliable source?]  Out of the 123 sub-camps, eleven of them were called Kaufering, distinguished by a number at the end of each. All Kaufering sub-camps were set up to specifically build three underground factories (Allied bombing raids made it necessary for them to be underground) for a project called Ringeltaube (wood pigeon), which planned to be the location in which the German jet fighter plane, Messerschmitt Me 262, was to be built. In the last days of war, in April 1945, the Kaufering camps were evacuated and around 15,000 prisoners were sent up to the main Dachau camp. Approximately 14,500 prisoners in the eleven Kaufering camps died of hunger, cold weather, overwork, and typhus.[61]  As U.S. Army troops neared the Dachau sub-camp at Landsberg on April 27, 1945, the SS officer in charge ordered that 4,000 prisoners be destroyed. Windows and doors of their huts were nailed shut. The buildings were then doused with gasoline and set afire. Prisoners, who were naked or nearly so, were burned to death, while some managed to crawl out of the buildings before dying. Earlier that day, as Wehrmacht troops withdrew from Lansberg-am-Lech, towns people hung white sheets from their windows. Infuriated SS troops dragged German civilians from their homes and hung them from trees. [62][63] Liberation Main camp Female prisoners at Dachau wave to their liberators.  As the opposition began to advance on Nazi Germany, the SS began to evacuate the first concentration camps in summer 1944.[64] Thousands of prisoners were murdered before the evacuation due to being ill or unable to walk. At the end of 1944, the overcrowding of camps began to take its toll on the prisoners. The hygienic conditions and the supplies of food rations became disastrous. In November a typhus fever epidemic broke out that took thousands of lives.[65]  In the second phase of the evacuation, in April 1945, Himmler gave direct evacuation routes for remaining camps. Prisoners that were from the northern part of Germany were to be directed to the Baltic and North Sea coasts to be drowned. The prisoners from the southern part were to be gathered in the Alps, which was the location in which the SS wanted to resist the Allies (p. 196). On 28 April 1945, an armed revolt took place in the town of Dachau. Both former and escaped concentration camp prisoners, and a renegade Volkssturm (civilian militia) company took part. At about 8:30 AM the rebels occupied the Town Hall. The advanced forces of the SS gruesomely suppressed the revolt within a few hours.[66] Bodies in the Dachau death train  Being fully aware that Germany was about to be defeated in World War II, the SS invested its time in removing evidence of the crimes they committed in the concentration camps. The SS began destroying incriminating evidence in April 1945 and planned on murdering the prisoners using codenames “Wolke A I” (Cloud A I) and “Wolkenbrand” (Cloud fire). However, these plans never ended up being carried out. In mid-April, plans to evacuate the camp started by sending prisoners toward Tyrol. On April 26, over 10,000 prisoners were forced to leave the Dachau concentration camp on foot, in trains, or in trucks. The largest group of some 7,000 prisoners was driven southward on a foot-march lasting several days. More than 1,000 prisoners did not survive this march. The evacuation transports cost many thousands of prisoners their lives.[67] On 26 April 1945 prisoner Karl Riemer fled the Dachau concentration camp to get help from American troops and on April 28 Victor Maurer, a representative of the International Red Cross, negotiated an agreement to surrender the camp to U.S. troops. That night a secretly formed International Prisoners Committee took over the control of the camp. On 29 April 1945, 1st Lt. William Cowling encountered several civilians and two reporters including Marguerite Higgins and Peter Furst who informed Lt. Cowling about the camp and escorted him to the location, where the German camp commander SS 2nd Lt. Heinrich Wicker, waving a white flag, surrendered the camp to him. Lt. Cowling reported the incident to Brigadier General Henning Linden, who then led a detachment of the 42nd (Rainbow) Infantry Division to further secure the camp, generating international headlines by freeing more than 30,000 Jews and political prisoners.[68][69][70][71][72] Satellite camps  During the liberation of the sub-camps surrounding Dachau (which happened on the same day as the main camp's surrender on 29 April) the advance scouts of the US Army's 522nd Field Artillery Battalion, a Nisei-manned segregated Japanese-American Allied military unit, liberated the 3,000 prisoners of the "Kaufering IV Hurlach"[73] slave labor camp.[74] Perisco describes an Office of Strategic Services (OSS) team (code name LUXE) leading Army Intelligence to a "Camp IV" on 29 April. "they found the camp afire and a stack of some four hundred bodies burning... American soldiers then went into Landsberg and rounded up all the male civilians they could find and marched them out to the camp. The former commandant was forced to lie amidst a pile of corpses. The male population of Landsberg was then ordered to walk by, and ordered to spit on the commandant as they passed. The commandant was then turned over to a group of liberated camp survivors."[75] Killing of camp guards Main article: Dachau liberation reprisals Photograph allegedly showing execution of SS troops in a coal yard in the area of the Dachau concentration camp during its liberation. April 29, 1945 (U.S Army photograph)[Note 1]  American troops killed some of the camp guards after they had surrendered. The number is disputed as some were killed in combat, some while attempting to surrender, and others after their surrender was accepted. In 1989 Brigadier General Felix L. Sparks, the Colonel in command of a battalion that captured the camp in 1945, stated:      The total number of German guards killed at Dachau during that day most certainly does not exceed fifty, with thirty probably being a more accurate figure. The regimental records of the 157th Infantry Regiment (United States) for that date indicate that over a thousand German prisoners were brought to the regimental collecting point. Since my task force was leading the regimental attack, almost all the prisoners were taken by the task force, including several hundred from Dachau.[76]  An Inspector General report resulting from a US Army investigation conducted between May 3 and May 8, 1945 and titled, "American Army Investigation of Alleged Mistreatment of German Guards at Dachau," found that 21 plus "a number" of presumed SS men were killed with others being wounded after their surrender had been accepted.[77][78]  As a result of the American Army investigation court-martial, charges were drawn up against Sparks and several other men under his command but, as General George S. Patton (the then recently appointed military governor of Bavaria) chose to dismiss the charges, the witnesses to the killings were never cross-examined in court and no one was found guilty.[76] Many guards were also killed by the liberated prisoners, which made the issue more complex. Lee Miller visited the camp just after liberation, and photographed several guards who died at the prisoners' hands.  Colonel Charles L. Decker, an acting deputy judge advocate, concluded in late 1945 that, while war crimes had been committed at Dachau by Germany, "Certainly, there was no such systematic criminality among United States forces as pervaded the Nazi groups in Germany.[79]  American troops also forced local citizens to the camp to see for themselves the conditions there and to help clean the facilities. Many local residents were shocked about the experience and claimed no knowledge of the activities at the camp.[80] Post-liberation Easter Liberated Dachau camp prisoners cheer U.S. troops  May 6 (23 April on the Orthodox calendar) was the day of Pascha, Orthodox Easter. In a cell block used by Catholic priests to say daily Mass, several Greek, Serbian and Russian priests and one Serbian deacon, wearing makeshift vestments made from towels of the SS guard, gathered with several hundred Greek, Serbian and Russian prisoners to celebrate the Paschal Vigil. A prisoner named Rahr described the scene:[81]      In the entire history of the Orthodox Church there has probably never been an Easter service like the one at Dachau in 1945. Greek and Serbian priests together with a Serbian deacon adorned the make-shift 'vestments' over their blue and gray-striped prisoners' uniforms. Then they began to chant, changing from Greek to Slavic, and then back again to Greek. The Easter Canon, the Easter Sticheras—everything was recited from memory. The Gospel—In the beginning was the Word—also from memory. And finally, the Homily of Saint John—also from memory. A young Greek monk from the Holy Mountain stood up in front of us and recited it with such infectious enthusiasm that we shall never forget him as long as we live. Saint John Chrysostomos himself seemed to speak through him to us and to the rest of the world as well!  Cheering crowds of liberated survivors  There is a Russian Orthodox chapel at the camp today, and it is well known for its icon of Christ leading the prisoners out of the camp gates.  The U.S. 7th Army's version of the events of the Dachau Liberation is available in Report of Operations of the Seventh United States Army, Vol. 3, page 382. Deportation of persons of Eastern origin  In Operation Keelhaul and related programs, persons born in the area under the dominion of the Soviet Union were to be given over to the Soviets for imprisonment or death. The existence of this program had been vehemently denied in Allied propaganda before the end of the war.  As part of the liquidation of Dachau, persons of Eastern origin who had been brought to Germany under the Ostarbeiter program were forcibly deported to the Soviet Union. Despite being handcuffed and beaten by American soldiers, many still managed to resist—whether hanging themselves, smashing window panes and cutting their throats on the shards of glass, or throwing themselves into the flames of their burning barracks. At Dachau, there were 275 cases of suicide or attempted suicide. Many deportees begged American soldiers to shoot them.[82] After liberation  After liberation, the camp was used by the US Army as an internment camp. It was also the site of the Dachau Trials for German war criminals, a site chosen for its symbolism. In 1948 the Bavarian government established housing for refugees on the site, and this remained for many years.[83]  The Kaserne quarters and other buildings used by the guards and trainee guards were converted and served as the Eastman Barracks, an American military post, for many years. It had its own elementary school: Dachau American Elementary School, a part of the Department of Defense dependent school system.  After the closure of the Eastman Barracks, these areas are now occupied by the Bavarian Bereitschaftspolizei (rapid response police unit).[84] In popular culture Literature      In his 2013 autobiography, Moose: Chapters from My Life, in the chapter entitled, "Dachau", author Robert B. Sherman chronicles his experiences as an American Army serviceman during the initial hours of Dachau's liberation.[85]      In "The Book Thief", Max Vandenburg - along with many other Jews - are led through the street toward Dachau in front of all the German onlookers, including the protagonist, Liesel.  In the short novel, "Down the Highway" by Michael Corrigan, two young American men traveling through Europe in 1962 visit Dachau. Onscreen      Dachau is depicted as the setting for The Twilight Zone episode "Deaths-Head Revisited" (1961), in which a former SS captain revisits the place he once worked in and the ghosts of the men who died there.     Frontline: "Memory of the Camps" (May 7, 1985, Season 3, Episode 18), is a 56 minute television documentary that addresses Dachau and other Nazi concentration camps[86][87]     The Dachau Massacre figures prominently in the back story of Teddy Daniels, the protagonist of Dennis Lehane's psychological mystery-thriller Shutter Island, (2003) (later adapted into a 2010 film by Martin Scorsese, starring Leonardo DiCaprio). Among other memories, Daniels is haunted by his own recollections of the massacre and taking part in the executions after seeing piles of prisoners' bodies.  In music      "Dachau Blues", a song by psychedelic blues singer Captain Beefheart from the album Trout Mask Replica (1969), contains several references to the camp and to the Holocaust.     The British band The Style Council released a song called "Ghosts of Dachau" (1984) in memory of those who died at Dachau, after a visit by lead singer Paul Weller to a concentration camp.[citation needed]  In theatre      Dachau is the concentration camp in which two homosexual prisoners desperately try to hold on to their humanity in the play Bent (1979) by Martin Sherman.  KZ-Gedenkstätte Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site Memorial sculpture erected in 1968 Aerial photo of the memorial in 2010  Between 1945 and 1948 when the camp was handed over to the Bavarian authorities, many accused war criminals and members of the SS were imprisoned at the camp.  Owing to the severe refugee crisis mainly caused by the expulsions of ethnic Germans, the camp was from late 1948 used to house 2000 Germans from Czechoslovakia (mainly from the Sudetenland). This settlement was called Dachau-East, and remained until the mid-1960s.[88] During this time, former prisoners banded together to erect a memorial on the site of the camp, finding it unbelievable that there were still people (refugees) living in the former camp.  The display, which was reworked in 2003, takes the visitor through the path of new arrivals to the camp. Special presentations of some of the notable prisoners are also provided. Two of the barracks have been rebuilt and one shows a cross-section of the entire history of the camp, since the original barracks had to be torn down due to their poor condition when the memorial was built. The other 32 barracks are indicated by concrete foundations.  The memorial includes four chapels for the various religions represented among the prisoners. List of personnel Commanders      SS-Standartenführer Hilmar Wäckerle (22 March 1933 – 26 June 1933)     SS-Gruppenführer Theodor Eicke (26 June 1933 – 4 July 1934)     SS-Oberführer Alexander Reiner (de) (4 July 1934 – 22 October 1934)     SS-Brigadeführer Berthold Maack (22 October 1934 – 12 January 1935)     SS-Oberführer Heinrich Deubel (12 January 1935 – 31 March 1936)     SS-Oberführer Hans Loritz (31 March 1936 – 7 January 1939)     SS-Hauptsturmführer Alex Piorkowski (7 January 1939 – 2 January 1942)     SS-Obersturmbannführer Martin Weiß (3 January 1942 – 30 September 1943)     SS-Hauptsturmführer Eduard Weiter (30 September 1943 – 26 April 1945)     SS-Obersturmbannführer Martin Weiß (26 April 1945 – 28 April 1945)     SS-Untersturmführer Johannes Otto (28 April 1945)     SS-Untersturmführer Heinrich Wicker (28 April 1945 – 29 April 1945)  Other staff Adolf Eichmann on trial in 1961      Adolf Eichmann (29 January 1934 – October 1934)[89] (Eichmann claimed that his unit had nothing to do with the concentration camp)[90]     Rudolf Höss (1934–1938)[91]     Max Kögel (1937–1938)     Gerhard Freiherr von Almey, a SS-Obergruppenführer, half-brother of Ludolf von Alvensleben. Executed in 1955, in Moscow.     Johannes Heesters[92] (visited the camp and entertained the SS-officers, was also given/giving tours)[93]  SS and civilian doctors Dr. Hans Eisele in American internment      SS-Untersturmführer – Dr. Hans Eisele – (13 March 1912 – 1967) – Escaped to Egypt     SS-Obersturmführer – Dr. Fritz Hintermayer – (28 Oct 1911 – 29 May 1946) – Executed by the Allies     Dr. Ernst Holzlöhner – (Committed suicide)     SS-Hauptsturmführer – Dr. Fridolin Karl Puhr – (30 April 1913 – ?) – Sentenced to death, later commuted to 10-years imprisonment     SS-Untersturmführer Dr. Sigmund Rascher – (12 February 1909 – 26 April 1945) – Executed by th camp, when suddenly machine gunfire was very close to be heard to his left.It seemed to come from an area where several buildings stood, bearing the sign of the Red Cross on the roof. Buechner was surprised that that there should be fighting in the vicinity of a hospital. His curiosity was aroused, however, he got out of the Jeep and walked toward the building. "I peeked around the corner of a wall in the direction from which the shots came, and I witnessed an incredible scene. Lt. Bushyhead stood on the roof of a low building, perhaps a bicycle shed. Beside him, served one or more soldiers a 30-caliber machine gun. Opposite this building was a long, high wall of cement and bricks. At the foot of this wall were the dozen of German soldiers, some dead, some just dying, some may have pretended to be dead. Three or four inmates in striped clothes, each armed with a 45-caliber pistol, given to them by the Americans, went through the ranks of about 350 killed soldiers. Then they fired at each soldier one shot through the head who seemed still to be alive. Behind the prisoners who had become executioners, was a row of foot soldiers, rifles at the ready and another soldier served a second machine gun, which was on the ground. At the end of the row of the dead or dying soldiers, there happened a small miracle. The prisoners, who had given the coup de grace, had not yet arrived at them, and a few of the only wounded soldiers were taken by the German medical personnel on stretchers under supervision of a German doctor into the nearby hospital. "(P. 86, 87) . [There were a number of young German nurses attending the wounded, yet neither Buechner mentioned this or any pictures of them have ever been published, some , according to private conversations with Linberger confirm that in fact a number of the wounded begged for razor blades to cut their own wrists, as the raking with the Browning cal.30 MG on the ground could not aim higher and inflicted partly stomach wounds (Bauchschüsse) which created longer and more agonising deaths. sic] Buechner has made a sketch of this horrible scene (p. 94). Amongst others on this sketch he noted two prisoners who are in the process killing a German soldiers with a shovel, he is lying on the ground, shot in the leg, so he could not run, Buechner states. The inclusion of this scene, known from the Book of Nerin Gun, "The hour of the Americans', is also in Buechner book (p. 114). Drawing of the execution site by Lt. Buechner. Dead German soldiers are represented by "Xs," black dots are American soldiers, machine guns are shown as circles, shown with approximate lines of fire. A BAR man stands behind and to the right of the machine gun on left. "A" shows the path of Lt. Buechner. The other is Sgt. Rosa's path. "25" indicates the location of the two inmates beating the German guard with a shovel below. (Buechner) Drawing of the execution site by Lt. Buechner. Dead German soldiers are represented by "Xs," black dots are American soldiers, machine guns are shown as circles, shown with approximate lines of fire. A BAR man stands behind and to the right of the machine gun on left. "A" shows the path of Lt. Buechner. The other is Sgt. Rosa's path. "25" indicates the location of the two inmates beating the German guard with a shovel below". (Buechner)  THE VICTIMS According to a table (p. 99) he puts the victims of that day as follows: Shot on the spot: 122 by inmates killed: 40 shot by "Birdeye": 12 shot by Lt. Bushyhead: 346 Total killed: 520 fell during the fighting: 10 TOTAL: 560 [It is unknown how and where the bodies were disposed off, Linberger privately believes that they were buried at the adjacent future golf course, which I personally doubt, this is a sloping grass area with natural springs and two small ponds, furthermore the overflow from the swimming pools dissects this part and flows into the river Amper which is the boundary of the complex on the north-western side. The ground water level would be approximately at 1.5 meters. Although I did find about three small overgrown mounds, which may have been part of (20*) buried children that took cyanide capsules from their mothers after their fathers were shot during another incident.sic] Those of SS guards, who initially escaped, Buechner writes, they would have tried to mingle with the inmates. But they were soon discovered and were either beaten to death by inmates or shot (p. 97). You are therefore expected to include these figures among the victims. To support his description Buechner quotes a number of witnesses who have seen the details of what happened. He calls their names and published their statements and photos. More photos of Buechner show the capture of the German guards, the entire murder scene described by him and details of individuals or small groups of slain soldiers. To the accuracy of his account, there can not be the slightest doubt. In a footnote on page 87 Buechner writes: "As I learned later, when the first members of Company 1 stormed the German hospital (in the SS camp) and physically kicked all patients outside. Only one German physician and a small group of medics were allowed to stay behind". This fits to another account of what some of the SS men were apparently observing because they were walking on crutches and slow to move, and were probably people who had been thrown out of the hospital. " Furthermore Buechner's remark coincides with that of a German eyewitness account, by Erich Kern for the first time published 1960 in his book "Meineid gegen Deutschland" (Perjury against Germany) and his pamphlet "Das große Kesseltreiben" (was published by Oldendorf, 1971, pp. 224 - 247, 313 - 315). »Hans Linberger was during the battle at the bridgehead east of Kiev in Russia seriously wounded. His left arm was torn, his body covered with shrapnel. He was transferred after a long hospital stay as a troop leader of the Waffen-SS on the 9th March 1945 to a Reserve Company to Dachau. On 29 April 1945 all those in the Reserve Company laid down their weapons and reported to the leading physician Dr. Schröder and were taken into a barrack. The medical personnel prepared themselves for the the surrender. Doctors were visible by their white coats, pharmacist and the medical staff and the international Red Cross by their armbands. Linberger then took a Red Cross flag in hand and walked to the entrance of the military hospital. He was by his empty left sleeve widely seen as a Schwerversehrter (heavy limbless person) to the advancing American shock troops, he declared at once that this part consisted of a hospital, which will pass naturally over to them unarmed. An American put his sub-machine gun to his chest and slapped his face. [He also uttered some explicits,'You fight Ruskie, you no f..... good", sic] Still they left Linberger and stormed now the hospital. The first American Linberger had threatened shot in the hallway of a hospital barrack an unknown invalid who lay there motionless on the floor apparently dead. All the doctors were forced out of the treatment rooms, as well as the pharmacist and the medical staff. Dr. Schröder, who as the hospital chief physician endeavoured to hand over the occupation to the Americans in its proper form, was so beaten by one of them that he suffered a skull fracture. The Americans drove all who could walk together with the women and children out of the hospital building and into the street in front of the heating plant, which is right next to it. There they sorted out everything that smacked of the Waffen-SS, having first plundered at gunpoint and took their watches, rings, mechanical pencils, pens and money from the Germans and then the prisoners were driven into the horseshoe type courtyard of the heating plant [which was an empty coal yard with an approximately 3 metre high concrete walls, sic] The Americans set up a machine gun in front of the crowd. Then the American war correspondent arrived, photographed and filmed the group. Midst of it, a machine gunner opened fire. With a burst of fire from left to right and back to the centre he shot into the mass of about forty SS-men who were lined up on the wall". Hans Linberger gave for the German Red Cross under oath following description of this mass murder: "The comrade right behind me dropped with the last cry, - Au, the pigs shoot at the belly - (Au, die Schweine schießen auf den Bauch) , out of inexplicably reason I just dropped. It was the same to me whether I was standing or caught lying down. So I only got the blood of the dead, who were bleeding heavily from the chest, head and face that I looked badly hit (angeschlagen). During a pause in the firing that had occurred, drunken prisoners who had armed themselves with shovels explained to me to kill a man by the name of Weiß. It was possible to me and the other comrades, to survey the situation. Various soldiers crawled towards the Americans and wanted to identify themselves as foreigners - others tried to explain that they had nothing to do with the concentration camp. Weiß said this, however: >Relax and quieten down, we die for Germany <! [Weiß was shot by an American soldiers through the foot, lying on the ground and was killed with shovels by two inmates,sic]  Inmates preparing to kill Weiß with shovels  During the liberation of Dachau camp, many German soldiers from the surrounding area surrendered under the protection of a medic with a Red Cross flag.  Photos also show members of the Volksturm, mountain troops, Luftwaffe personnel, Wehrmacht, SS soldiers in camouflage, soldiers in civilian clothing, etc…. Inmates inciting American troops to murder the German prisoners Lt. Walsh placed his division under the command of Lt. Bushyhead (nickname Bird’s Eye) of Native American Indian origin, to guard the prisoners. Lt. Bushyhead placed the prisoners against the wall of the empty coal bunker and shot them with a few salvos of machine gun fire, giving inmates pistols in order to finish off the survivors. The bodies were looted. No action was taken by the Americans to prevent the inmates from taking revenge upon German personnel. The middle- aged man shown here was killed by inmates with a shovel, this is the same man seen lying dead along the wall holding a crucifix in his hand. General Patton was informed of this massacre, but ordered the evidence destroyed and prohibited any further investigation. No one ever prosecuted for the murder of  German soldiers interned at Dachau, who were entitled to protection under the Hague convention. Dachau was surrendered in full accordance with the terms of international law. That the murder victims were members of the camp guard personnel is simply a lie,  photographs show soldiers from all German units. Even the camp personnel were not all criminals per se. Source:‘Dachau: The Hour of the Avenger’ (Col. Howard A. Buechner), Thunderbird Press, Metairie, LA. USA, 1986.  Oberscharführer Jäger asked me while lying down, if I had been hit, I gave him a negative answer (das mußte ich verneinen). He had gotten one shot into the right forearm. I shared quickly one last rib of chocolate with him, as we waited for the bullet through the neck. A man with a Red Cross armband threw us razor blades and said. >There, make yourselves ready<. Jäger cut himself the pulse area of his wounded arm, and I cut his left. And as an amputee he was ready to do the same for me, at this stage an American officer arrives together with the defeated Dr. Schroeder, who could hardly stand on his feet, and stopped the shooing and offered to help. But the doctor only replied: No, no, no! This way we were able to drag out our wounded comrades". Maybe it was Buechner, Linberger saw standing with Dr. Schroeder. Lt. Bushyhead had meanwhile given orders to stop firing. The dead lay on the next day at the foot of the wall. Buechner left the camp on the same day and moved on with his unit to Munich.  Lt. Jack Bushyhead relaxing in Augsburg, Germany PREVENTED COURT MARTIAL That same afternoon, 29 April 1945, a number of senior American officers visited the Dachau camp. They discovered the bodies of the Germans and the team was horrified. Someone suggested to distribute the bodies over the entire surface, then take pictures and to say that the Germans had resisted arrest and tried to flee, while they had been shot. But for this version, it was too late, as there were already photos of the grisly scene. There was nothing left but to initiate a formal investigation.  US Soldiers inspect the bodies of 12 dead SS soldiers in the coal yard  After intensive consultations charges against four officers and five soldier had been prepared for the court-martial. Undoubtedly, many more people were involved in the events, but it was difficult to locate them. They had now been transferred to other units, thereby "taken out of circulation." The indictment read: disobedience, failure to prevent the killings, denial of medical assistance and violation of the Geneva Convention. Buechner was still at the headquarters of the 45th Infantry Division during his stay in Munich when he was told that against him, Lt. Col. Sparks, Lt.. Bushyhead and other members of the U.S. Army a court martial was being prepared. When asked why he had done nothing personally to stop the killings, and why he had not cared for the wounded, he said, as he appeared on the scene, almost all Germans were already dead or the few that were still alive had been so badly wounded that any help would have come too late. Moreover, a German doctor had appeared, and the three or four casualties that had been carried into the hospital, no longer needed his help. In the camp itself, at the ravages of the prisoners, he also could not do anything because he was unarmed as member of the Medical Corps, and therefore would have had no chance to keep the prisoners from their hateful murders. THE WEBLING ATROCITY On the same day that the Dachau Concentration Camp was discovered, a massacre took place in the little hamlet of Webling, about ten kilometres from the camp. A Waffen-SS unit had arrived at the hamlet, which consisted of about half a dozen farm houses, barns and the Chapel of St. Leonhard, to take up defensive positions in trenches dug around the farms by French POW workers. Their orders were to delay the advance of American tanks of the 20th Armoured Division and infantry units of the 7th. US Army which was approaching Dachau. The farms, mostly run by women (whose husbands were either dead, prisoners of war or still fighting) with the help of French POWs, came under fire on the morning of 29th.April causing all inhabitants to rush for the cellars. One soldier of Company F of the US 222nd Infantry Regiment of the 42nd Rainbow Division, was killed as they entered the hamlet under fire from the Waffen-SS unit.  Dead German soldiers at Dachau. Exact location unknown. They are wearing Tarnjacke, camouflage uniforms, of Waffen-SS combat troops. The head wound on the man in foreground appears to have been made by a US .45 caliber pistol. It looks as if he saw the bullet coming and shielded his eyes. According to Edwin F. Gorak, who took this photo on April 30, 1945, "the way the bodies were piled up seems to indicate they were slain simultaneously, as by machine gun fire." (Courtesy of Edwin F. Gorak, 158th Field Artillery) The first German to emerge from the cellar was the owner of the farm, Herr Furtmayer. He was promptly shot dead. Informed by the French POWs that only civilians, not SS, were in hiding in the cellers, the GIs proceeded to round up the men of the SS unit. First to surrender was an officer, Freiherr von Truchsess, heading a detachment of seventeen men. The officer was immediately struck with a trenching tool splitting his head open. The other seventeen were lined up in the farmyard and shot. On a slight rise behind the hamlet, another group of eight SS were shot. Their bodies were found lying in a straight line with their weapons and ammunition belts neatly laid on the ground. This would suggest that the men were shot after they surrendered. Altogether, one SS officer and forty one men lay dead as the infantry regiment proceeded on their way towards Dachau. Next day the local people, with the help of the French POWs, buried the bodies in a field to be later exhumed by the German War Graves Commission and returned to their families.   Picture taken from the Jura House, as it appeared on 29.4.1945, the walk    future prisoners took to the Concentration Camp "Arbeit Macht Frei" had   to pass via the "Street of the SS" (Straße der SS) , past the 'Eicke   Platz' as shown. The building in the centre was the SS-Canteen, Mess  Hall and Club for the Elite, the villa type town houses, on the left,  were occupied by SS-Staff and their families and not necessarily  associated with the concentration camp. Through the lengthy centre,  about half a mile, (not shown) was a Horse Trail (Reitweg), where they  exercised their horses during morning greetings, but the welcoming  "Liberators" destroyed the entire complex later on, no traces can be  found now. One can only assume it was done out of sheer wanton and  hateful disdain for all that was German. The general local attitude at  that time towards the "Liberators", was "If this is what Democracy will  teach us, then help us God". It is now the Bus Stop to the Memorial  site. The Street has been renamed: "Straße der KZ Opfer" (Street of the  KZ Victims) and goes in an easterly direction away from the Military  Entry, where the Massacre took place, who were blissfully unaware of a  concentration camp.The first American "Liberators" missed this entrance  completely, and went straight towards the Main Military Entrance showing   the Eagle-Swastika. Only after an American Troop Commander in the city   of Dachau was made aware that there was a camp in an other direction  i.e. (Dachau-Ost) did this Unit enter the actual KZ as "Liberators".  This was after the Massacre had taken place.  This shows the Swimming Pool of the SS which was located at the far  northern point of the Military Installation and was during the American  occupation destroyed. It now constitutes a triangular small lake, and  was used as a testing facility of REO M62 Trucks repaired at the  Ordnance Field Maintenance Shop for water proofing and engine air intakes.                               Source Acknowledgements: Metapedia Wikipedia Scrapbook Pages Blog H.Linberger Der Ort des Terrors Vol 5                Posted by Dachau KZ at 2:24 AM Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to FacebookShare to Pinterest 4 comments:      Marc David BonaguraDecember 29, 2011 at 7:27 AM      Hello, Can you tell me where you got those maps? I would like to include them in a book I am writing, and I was wondering if there are any copyrights on them? You do have a link or reference as to where they came from?     Thank you so much. Feel free to e-mail me at     Marc     Reply     Roma JusticeJuly 2, 2013 at 10:41 PM      "Inmates kill Weiss with shovels." is not correct. Weiss was not killed with shovels, he was hanged after a trial. The inmates standing over the SS guard in the photo were "insulting" the SS guard -- not killing him. This is per Nerin E. Gun (Prisoner / Journalist)      One of the men in that photo was deputized and armed by the American forces for the duration of the liberation. He was multilingual in 8 languages, and was ordered to assist with translating for the Americans. Obviously he was a credit during the liberation of Dachau.      I have seen this same photo altered many times over the Internet. Thank goodness I have an original copy. Weiss is a common German name, and if you will check the death lists of all the concentration camps you will find countless victims with the surname of Weiss. The prisoners in this photo could have been named Weiss. ;)      Reply     Replies         Dachau KZJuly 3, 2013 at 5:45 PM          Roma Justice         Col. Buechner, who wrote that the guard in the photo was probably wounded in the leg by an American soldier and then turned over to the inmates to be beaten to death with a shovel. Irrespective of the name, (Weiss, Weis or Weiß) the fact remains that the SS-man was murdered, although I do not believe that he was a guard, his trousers are creased and ironed. All those that lived in the hospital buildings 2B 3B (I lived in 3B) and 4B were on temporary guard duty during their recuperation until they were fit enough and returned to their field units. In my opinion the so called inmates were functionaries that had the freedom of movements and worked most likely at the heating plant next to it, which is never shown nor mentioned. At the time of the massacre the American Liberators were blissfully unaware of the actual location of Concentration Camp. All they had seen was he Death Train on the railway shunting which had been strafed by American fighter planes with devastating effect and they took revenge on the hated SS.         Dachau KZJuly 3, 2013 at 6:28 PM          Rona Jusice         Please note for your information: The normal force of 1,473 SS guards at Dachau had left earlier and as matter of fact they were evacuated to Tyrol (Austria) with their families and some returned to Dachau and lived at the Würmmühle just north outside the Concentration Camp.         Reply  Load more...  Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.  Newer Post Older Post Home Subscribe to: Post Comments (Atom) Blog Archive      ►  2014 (26)      ►  2013 (34)      ►  2012 (58)      ▼  2011 (21)         ►  December (4)         ►  November (3)         ►  September (1)         ▼  August (1)             DACHAU KZ: SUFFERING AND DEATH         ►  April (1)         ►  March (8)         ►  January (3)      ►  2010 (1)  About Me  Dachau KZ     Dachau-Ost, Bavaria=Bayern, Germany     It is well known that Dachau is located just North of Munich, Germany. I lived in the old SS-Hospital Haus.No 52B for 10 years. I did publish my German ID but had to delete certain entries due to Identity Theft. I am now living in New Zealand since 1956 my country of adoption, still married at the age of 85 with three great grand children,have three sons and a number of relations in America, Australia, Switzerland and Germany. Otherwise of reasonable heath, although slow in my movements. My hobbies: Travelling to other countries meeting and trying to understand other cultures, supporting a school of street kids in India for the last 25 years.  View my complete profile      Awesome Inc. template. Powered by Blogger. iệt     中文