Showing posts with label Hofgartenarkaden. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Hofgartenarkaden. Show all posts


House of German Art (Haus der Deutschen Kunst)

The House of German Art was described by Hitler as "the first beautiful building of the new Reich" and "a temple for genuine and eternal German art." In designing the structure in 1933, Hitler already revealed his plan for eventual war by providing for an air raid shelter in the basement. Irreverent locals nicknamed the building "the Athens railway station" and "a sausage stand."
Troost's original plans
How Prinzregentstrasse was intended to look, with the Bavarian Prime Minister's residence in the background
Troost and Hitler in front of a model of the building in 1933
Josef Wilk's Porträt Prof. Troost showing the Haus der Deutschen Kunst in the background, now at the Deutsches Historisches Museum. Behind is Adolf Wissel's Kahlenberger Bauernfamilie which had been included in the Großen Deutschen Kunstausstellung of 1939 at the Haus der Deutschen Kunst : Farm Family From Kahlenberg.
Golden model presented by Hermann Göring to Hitler on the latter's 50th birthday

Hitler viewing the progress on the construction of the House of German Art with architects Professor Gall and Albert Speer. The right shows the plaque engraved on bronze over the entrance reading "Die Kunst ist eine erhabene und zum Fanatismus Verpflichtende Mission" (Art is an Ennobling Mission Demanding Fanaticism).
The Haus der Deutschen Kunst ("House of German Art") at Prinzregentenstrasse 1 was constructed from 1934 to 1937 following plans of architect Paul Ludwig Troost as the Third Reich's first monumental propaganda building. Its inaugural exhibition was the Große Deutsche Kunstausstellung ("Great German art exhibition"), which was intended as an edifying contrast to the concurrent Entartete Kunst exhibition.
Numerous activities were scheduled for that day, such as a procession through town depicting “2,000 years of German culture.” In the presence of the Führer, a performance of Tristan und Isolde in the Munich National Theatre opened the festivities. The dedication of the Haus der Deutschen Kunst in the Prinzregentenstrasse took place on July 19. Hitler had laid the cornerstone there in 1933. The new building was to serve as a replacement for the old “Glass Palace,” that had been an art gallery located at the old Botanical Garden. In former times, art collections had been exhibited in the building until it had been completely destroyed by a fire in 1931. The opening of an art exhibition complemented the dedication of the new building. The Essential Hitler (489)
 Hitler at the official cornerstone laying October 15, 1933

Hitler and Himmler at the opening, 1937
Hitler formally opened the ”House of German Art” in Munich in a drab, pseudoclassic building which he had helped design and which he described as ”unparalleled and inimitable” in its architecture. In this first exhibition of Nazi art were crammed some nine hundred works, selected from fifteen thousand submitted, of the worst junk this writer has ever seen in any country. Hitler himself made the final selection and, according to some of the party comrades who were with him at the time, had become so incensed at some of the paintings accepted by the Nazi jury presided over by Adolf Ziegler, a mediocre painter who was president of the Reich Chamber of Art, that he had not only ordered them thrown out but had kicked holes with his jack boot through several of them. ”I was always determined,” he said in a long speech inaugurating the exhibition, ”if fate ever gave us power, not to discuss these matters [of artistic judgement] but to make decisions.” And he had made them. In his speech – it was delivered on July 18, 1937 – he laid down the Nazi line for ”German art”:
Works of art that cannot be understood but need a swollen set of instructions to prove their right to exist and find their way to neurotics who are receptive to such stupid or insolent nonsense will no longer openly reach the German nation. Let no one have illusions! National Socialism has set out to purge the German Reich and our people of all those influences threatening its existence and character . . . With the opening of this exhibition has come the end of artistic lunacy and with it the artistic pollution of our people . . .

Hitler speaking at the opening of the third "Great German Art Exhibition" July 16, 1939 in the Ehrenhalle. From 1937 until 1944, the hall was used exclusively for opening exhibitions and holding press conferences, and every year the Nazis would meet here for the Grosse Deutsche Kunstausstellung. It was Hitler who had determined that  the plinths and the wall and pillar covering of the three-nave sky-lit hall should be clad in blood-red marble from Tegernsee.  The omnipresence of the colour red, so prominent on the Nazi flag, served to reinforce the ubiquity of the National Socialist world view.

Hitler speaking in the Ehrenhalle July 18, 1937, and the site today
Exhibition from the time of the Third Reich and now, featuring "Svayambh," a gigantic sculpture by Anish Kapoor; the gallery now displays anything but German art. Leaning against a wall displaying the history of the building inside is the dedication to the gallery's original sponsors which used to feature much more prominently.

One artist honoured at the Haus der Kunst was Ai Wei Wei, an artist who knows only too well the constant threat of living under a capricious, totalitarian regime.

Then and now, photoshopped on the right with Hitler giving his speech at the opening, in which he expressed his great satisfaction that he, and not his political opponents, had erected the building:
In 1931, the National Socialist takeover was still so far off in the distant future that there was no way of foreseeing the construction of a new exhibition palace for the Third Reich. In fact, for a while it did seem as though the “men of November” would provide an edifice for the exhibition of art in Munich that would have had as little to do with German art as it, conversely, reflected the Bolshevist affairs and circumstances of their time. Many of you perhaps still recall the plans for that building that was intended for the old Botanical Garden that has now been given such a beautiful design. A building quite difficult to define. An edifice that could just as easily have been a Saxon thread factory as the market hall of a mid-sized city—or perhaps a train station, or then again even an indoor swimming pool. I need not press upon you how I suffered at the thought back then that the first misfortune would be fol- lowed by yet another. And that therefore, in this case in particular, I was truly glad, really happy about the faint-hearted lack of determination on the part of my political opponents at the time. In it lay the only chance of ultimately saving the erection of a palace for art exhibitions in Munich to become the first great undertaking of the Third Reich.
After the war, the building was used by the American occupation forces as an officer's mess; in that time, the building came to be known as the "P1", a shortening of its street address. The building's origins can still be seen such as in regards to the swastika-motif mosaics in the ceiling panels of its front portico.
"The New Age: Sacrifice, Faith and Loyalty" section during the July 18, 1937 "Two Thousand Years of German Culture" parade.
Excerpt from Nazi propaganda film of the summer 1939 German Art Festival in Munchen. On 15 and 16 October 1939, the Große Deutsche Kunstausstellung inside the Haus der Deutschen Kunst was complemented by the monumental Tag der deutschen Kunst celebration of "2,000 years of Germanic culture" where luxuriously and pretentiously draped floats (one of them carrying a 5 meter tall golden Nazi Reichsadler) and thousands of actors in historical costumes paraded down Prinzregentenstraße for hours in the presence of Adolf Hitler, Hermann Göring, Joseph Goebbels, Heinrich Himmler, Albert Speer, Robert Ley, Reinhard Heydrich, and many other other high-ranking Nazis, with minor events taking place in the Englischer Garten nearby.
Some stills from the film:

Images from the Grosse Deutsche Kunstausstellung in 1939 and 1940.
Hitler speaking inside the so-called "Ehrenhalle" [Hall of Honour] at the official opening of the third "Große Deutsche Kunstausstellung" July 16, 1939.

At the opening on July 16, 1939
One of the large exhibition halls of the "Große Deutsche Kunstausstellung" 1940

Rooms 22, 2 and 31
Porträt des Führers by Fritz Erler, 1939 and the interior today

Hilter at the Opening in 1940; the picture on the wall is Hans Happ’s Die Frucht der Erde and the sculpture on the right is Hans Plangger’s Abschied. Hitler would make a reappearance in Maurizio Cattelan's Him at the Haus der Kunst in 2003.
. Now a publicly accessible online archive of the images displayed reveals the full extent of the Nazi aesthetic -- and includes details about who bought which work of art.
Joseph Goebbels's speech at the opening of the 1941 art exhibition at the Haus der Kunst
Footage and Documentaries relating to Art and its importance to Hitler and the Third Reich:
Tag der Deutschen Kunst (1939)
German Art- In the Shadow of Hitler
Hitler's Art War- Provocative and engaging lecture by Godfrey Barker

The Prinz-Carl-Palais
Prince Carl-Palais is the official residence of the Bavarian Prime Minister; here German president Paul von Hindenburg and Prime Minister Heinrich Held leave the palace, 12 August 1925.
Hitler at the opening of the House of German Art with the the Prinz-Carl-Palais in the background, where Mussolini stayed in 1938 during the Munich Conference. Mussolini came here for the last time on September 18, 1943 after being rescued four days earlier in a remarkable coup de main at the Gran Sasso where il Duce had been interned at a mountain hotel, and brought to Germany.
Mussolini was brought to the Prince Carl Palace in Munich, from where he addressed the Italian people in a radio address that evening. During Hitler’s years of triumph in 1937 and 1938, Mussolini had always set up quarters at the Prince Carl Palace. But his speech now lacked the enthusiasm of earlier years. Mussolini cared about only one thing, his mistress Clara Petacci. He would not rest until Hitler finally had ϟϟ Obergruppenführer Sepp Dietrich bring her from Italy.
As seen from the photo from 1937, the reichsadler that had been added during the regime has been removed without any trace. In 1924 this became the residence of the Bavarian Prime Ministers.
 Building the altstadtringtunnel at Von-der-Tann-Straße in front of the Palais, completed in February 1937; the Haus der Kunst is on the left.
 Surrounded by destruction in 1948

Donald Kuspit, discussing the ‘Entarte (sic) Kunst’ exhibition of 1937, has suggested that Hitler ‘had a vested interest in repression’ and a corresponding wish to exalt clear and unified images over those requiring debate and textual exegesis, and which therefore introduced the possibility of uncertainty. Hitler’s own words on this exhibition reveal a wish to erect a barrier between image and text: ‘Works of art that cannot be understood but need a swollen set of instructions to prove their right to exist...will no longer openly reach the German nation.’ When ‘art’ becomes propaganda, then image and text are not required to explain each other, but instead to participate in a mutual objectification.
In front of the former site of the 'Exhibition of Degenerate Art' which had officially opened July 19, 1937 at the same time with the first large one German art exhibition in the House of German art.
 According to William Shirer, the exhibition was an humiliating failure:
In another part of the city in a ramshackle gallery that had to be reached through a narrow stairway was an exhibition of ”degenerate art” which Dr. Goebbels had organised to show the people what Hitler was rescuing them from. It contained a splendid selection of modern paintings – Kokoschka, Chagall and expressionist and impressionist works. The day I visited it, after panting through the sprawling House of German Art, it was crammed, with a long line forming down the creaking stairs and out into the street. In fact, the crowds besieging it became so great that Dr. Goebbels, incensed and embarrassed, soon closed it.
In fact, Frederic Spotts argues the complete opposite:
In a mere two weeks between 600 and 700 works from around Germany were seized, dispatched to Munich and hung. The show opened on 19 July 1937 with some 650 works by 112 'art stutterers' from thirty-two public museums on display. It included examples from all the major schools of German painting and sculpture- Expressionism, Verism, Abstraction, Bauhaus, Dada, New Objectivity- and all the major artists. Although he had inspected the collection beforehand, Hitler did not deign to put in a public appearance once the exhibition opened. But he inaugurated it vicariously the day before in a raging speech. '...The end of madness in German art and, with it, the cultural destruction of our people has begun,' he proclaimed. 'From this moment we shall conduct a merciless war against the remnants of our cultural disintegration.' On he sputtered, reviling 'the cliques of chatterboxes, dilettantes and art swindlers.'
Like enemy prisoners being thrown to the lions in the Colosseum, the victims were to be seen and mocked by the crowd before being consumed. The show was deigned to demonstrate that Modernist art was not simply ugly, indecent and deranged but that it also directly assaulted traditional social mores by disparaging motherhood, military heroism, religion and whatever was healthy, clean and chaste.Hitler's criteria- post1910 German works- were generally followed, though stretched to include such adoptive Germans as Chagall and Jawlensky, and two non-Germans., Mondrian and Munch. The work by the good Nordic Munch caused such ideological indigestion that after a few days the room where it hung was closed. The paintings, presented in a way to heighten ridicule, were not so much displayed as plastered helter-skelter on the walls, though this may have resulted partly from the haste with which the show was assembled. To leave no doubt about their iniquity, the works were labelled with such propagandistic slogans as 'madness becomes a method', 'nature as seen by sick minds' and 'a insult to German womanhood.' Ensuring that no one could have the slightest doubt about the iniquity of the works, it is said that actors were sent to the exhibit to make raucous fun of what they saw.
It was the biggest blockbuster show of all time. Hitler ordered that entry should be without charge and encouraged the public to attend. And attend it did. One million people went in the first six weeks alone and more than two million in the remaining six months in Munich. Another million or so saw the exhibition when it travelled to twelve other cities between February 1938 and April 1941. By all accounts spectators went to bury, not to praise. 'It became increasingly obvious to me that most people had come to see the exhibition with the intention of disliking everything,' it was later commented. Some non-Nazis, some non-Germans also applauded. A Boston art critic commented, 'There are probably plenty of people- art lovers- in Boston, who will side with Hitler in this particular purge.' The Fuehrer was enormously pleased with the popular response. It appeared to prove his point that Modernism was an elitist phenomenon that had lost meaning for the great mass of the public. It further seemed to support his belief in 'the people as the judge of art.' So gratified was he, in fact, that at his direction a pamphlet with illustrations of the works accompanied by hostile commentary was published and widely circulated. He had achieved his purpose. The event was a stunning demonstration of his power to crush what he opposed. In so doing, he brought to an end the most exciting school of painting and sculpture in modern German history.
 Amongst those attacked are the sculptures shown here by Marg Moll, Otto Braun, Eugen Hoffmann and Rudolf Belling;
 The 'Dada Wall'
In the foreground left: Marg Moll's 'Tänzerin' (Dancer, around 1930) and in the foreground on the right: Otto Baum, 'Stehendes Mädchen' (Standing Girl, 1930)
The Deutsches Historisches Museum in Berlin has a miniature recreation of the exhibition's layout, from our 2013 school trip

In a Rediscovered Trove of Art, a Triumph Over the Nazis’ Will

However,  the 1938 law that allowed the Nazis to seize thousands of other Modernist artworks deemed “degenerate” because Hitler viewed them as un-German or Jewish in nature remains on the books to this day.

Luftgaukommando, Prinzregentenstraße
VII Regional HQ of the Luftwaffe)

Topping-out ceremony May 12, 1937 and today.
Built between 1935-1936 by the architect German Bestelmayer, this building still displays the steel helmets, eagles, and, incredibly (and illegally) swastika window grills today:

Inside the Nazi eagle still greets visitors, albeit sans swastika.

At night the grills are actually lit up from within the building even though the German Strafgesetzbuch in § 86a outlaws "use of symbols of unconstitutional organisations" as used on this government building:
right across the street is the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum

According to Jonathan Petropoulos in The Faustian Bargain - The Art World in Nazi Germany (27) "many Jewish galleries, like the renowned Bernheimer firm in Munich, were taken over by Aryan trustees. As the confiscated works mounted up, [museum director Ernst] Buchner cooperated with the Gestapo by making rooms available in the Bavarian National Museum."
Over the side door a Nazi eagle remains, missing only its swastika whilst at the other end a wreath is shorn of its offending symbol as well.
Inside lying in storage is the guillotine with which the Scholl siblings were executed.

One casualty of the Luftgaukommando was the Hubertusbrunnen, built from 1903-1907 after a design by Adolf Hildebrand in the form of a covered temple. Inside was the actual fountain and the statue of a deer. St. According to the legend of Hubertus found a stag located in the well house carrying a cross between its antlers. It was originally located in front of the Bavarian National Museum but removed in 1937 and in 1954 re-established at its current location.
Demolition work on Hubertusbrunnen in Prinzregentenstraße March, 1937.
The Hubertusbrunnen is now located in the west of Munich at the eastern end of the Nymphenburg canal.

Munich's Angel of Peace (Friedensengel) at the other end of Prinzregentenstr. during the Day of German Art and today. Just beyond is Hitler's Residence- Prinzregentenplatz 16
In 1938 and today
The residence in 1937 and today. This was Hitler's residence which, from 1929, was paid for by Hitler's publisher until a decade later when Hitler paid for it outright. Hitler’s private apartment on the third floor of 16 Prinzregentenplatz was located in an apartment house and consisted of nine living rooms, two kitchens, two walk-in closets, two bathrooms, and furnishings. Hitler’s patron, Hugo Bruckmann, had procured the apartment for him. The annual rent was 4,176 marks. The term of the lease contract was first to run until April 1, 1934, with a six-month term of notice. Hitler moved into the apartment on October 1, 1929.
Angela Maria Raubal,nicknamed “Geli”, was born on June 4, 1908 in Linz. She was the daughter of the deputy head of the tax department, Raubal, and his wife Angela, born Hitler (from the second marriage of Hitler’s father, Alois). She studied singing in Munich, although her voice was only average. When Hitler took up residence at Prinzregentenplatz No. 16 in 1929, she got her own room in the huge but sinister apartment of her uncle. She committed suicide there on September 18, 1931. By the time Hitler returned from an engagement in Nuremberg, her corpse had already been removed. Hitler did not attend the funeral in Vienna but instead retreated to the home of his publisher Müller at the Tegernsee. He spent several days there in seclusion. His court photographer Heinrich Hoffmann was the only one allowed to accompany him. Many feared the shock of Geli’s unexpected death might lead him to commit suicide, too. On the anniversary of his niece’s death on September 18, 1932, Hitler secretly visited her grave in Vienna. Goebbels noted in his diary: “Führer gone to Vienna for private visit. Nobody knows about it so that there won’t be any crowds.” News of Hitler’s presence in Vienna leaked, however, and led to many political rumours. On Hitler’s orders, Geli’s room remained untouched. Before the war, he spent every Christmas Eve there in sentimental reflection.
Hitler also met with Mussolini there on September 25, 1937. During their hour-long summit conference, the German and Italian leaders agreed to continue supporting Francisco Franco in Spain, to seek better relations with Imperial Japan, and to oppose Franco-British policies that prevented their joint expansion of power and territorial acquisitions—a great strengthening of the Axis Pact of 1935 and the Anti-Comintern (Communist International) Pact of 1936.
On September 30, 1938, Hitler hosted Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain at the apartment following the signing of the four-power Munich Pact, but before the signing of the Anglo-German Declaration that led Chamberlain to declare that he had brought “peace for our time” home with honour from Germany.
As for Hitler, he later boasted to his intimates: “I saw our enemies at Munich—they are little worms!” Because of the document signed in Hitler’s apartment, Chamberlain mistakenly thought they’d guaranteed European peace for a generation. Nazi Germany occupied the German Sudetenland—taken from the Czechs—the next day.
Hitler looking out from the balcony. After the American Army had entered Munich, it became the headquarters of an American Section. The furnishings were removed and the Munich Financing Office took up its quarters in the building and today the third floor is a actually police station.
Kunstbunker Tumulka
Down the road on Prinzregentenstrasse 97, this was built in 1944 as a set of flats surrounded by bunkers, one of which serves as the venue for contemporary art exhibitions.

In this May 1945 photo one can see both Hitler's residence in the top centre and the apartment at the bottom-left.

Other Munich Pages

Die Prinzregentenstraße liegt in West-Ost-Richtung und gliedert sich in drei Teile: Sie beginnt am Prinz-Carl-Palais, der Schnittstelle zwischen Hofgarten und Englischem Garten; der erste Teil reicht über die Luitpoldbrücke bis zum Friedensengel am östlichen Isar-Hochufer, den sie in einem rechten und linken Bogen umfährt; der zweite Teil vom Friedensengel / Europaplatz bis zum Prinzregentenplatz, der dritte beginnt am Prinzregentenplatz, überquert den Mittleren Ring (Richard-Strauss-Straße) und mündet in den Vogelweideplatz, von dem aus die Töginger Straße / A 94 beginnt. Geschichte Königliche Zeit  Die Planungen für eine Prachtstraße zum östlichen Isar-Hochufer gehen bis in das Jahr 1852 zurück. Prinzregent Luitpold gab schließlich 1890 den Auftrag. 1891 war Baubeginn, 1901 wurde die letzte große städtebauliche Erweiterung vollendet.  Im Gegensatz zur Ludwigstraße, der großen Prachtstraße seines Vaters Ludwig I. und zur Maximilianstraße, der Prachtstraße seines Bruders Maximilians II., war die Prinzregentenstraße nicht als Verwaltungszentrum geplant mit eigens entwickeltem Stil; sie war als bürgerliche Nobelstraße projektiert. Dadurch spiegelt sie nicht nur bürgerliche Ideale wider, sondern war Ausdruck des guten Verhältnisses zwischen der Bürgerschaft, vor allem des Groß- und Bildungsbürgertums, und dem Hause Wittelsbach. Gleichzeitig demonstriert sie die Prosperität um 1900.  Davon ausgehend sind drei Entscheidungen auffallend, die den bürgerlichen Charakter der Straße bestimmten:      Die Prinzregentenstraße beginnt nicht mit einem Symbol wie z.B. die Feldherrnhalle, sondern mit einem Park, der aus der Verbindung zwischen dem königlichen Hofgarten und dem eher bürgerlichen Englischen Garten bestand. Das Prinz-Carl-Palais markiert den Eingangsbereich dieses offenen Grüngürtels, das den nördlichen Teil der Prinzregentenstraße bestimmte.     Großformatige Bauten wurden vermieden. Selbst das Bayerische Nationalmuseum wurde von Gabriel von Seidl so geplant, dass der Baukörper sich optisch in mehreren Einheiten untergliedert und ein Piazza-Effekt einstellte.     Die Prinzregentenstraße endet optisch am Prinzregentenplatz nicht mit der Fassade des Prinzregententheaters, sondern mit der eines Bürgerhauses.  Alleenbepflanzung, Cafés, kleine Plätze bestimmten das Leben in der Prinzregentenstraße ebenso wie politische Entscheidungen des Prinzregenten. So trägt der Friedensengel als Nike des Paionios aus Olympia (um 421 v. Chr.) in ihrer Rechten einen Palmzweig und in ihrer Linken eine Statue der Pallas Athene: Der Sieg bringt nicht den militärischen Erfolg, sondern Frieden, Wohlstand und Wissenschaft. Damit setzt sich Luitpold bewusst von der Symbolik der Berliner Siegessäule ab, bei der die Nike den militärischen Sieg bringt. NS-Umbauten  Für Adolf Hitler, dessen Privatwohnung sich hier befand (zweite Etage des Anwesens Prinzregentenplatz 16), entsprach die Prinzregentenstraße überhaupt nicht seinen Vorstellungen einer Prachtstraße, die für ihn auch immer Ausdruck von Macht und politischer Bedeutung war. Insofern wurde bald die Prinzregentenstraße umgebaut. Zuerst wurde 1933-1937 das Haus der Kunst am nördlichen Anfang der Prachtstraße errichtet. Der Baukörper mit einer schier endlos wirkenden Säulenhalle, von Kunsthistorikern oft als viel zu breit gelagert beschrieben, riegelt den Englischen Garten rigoros ab und unterbricht so den fließenden Übergang des Englischen Gartens zum Hofgarten und Stadt. Des Weiteren wurden mehrere Bürgerhäuser abgebrochen, so z. B. gegenüber dem Bayerischen Nationalmuseum; dort entstand 1937 das Luftgaukommando, das heute Sitz des Bayerischen Staatsministeriums für Wirtschaft, Infrastruktur, Verkehr und Technologie ist. Dadurch verlor die Prinzregentenstraße ihre Leichtigkeit und erhielt im ersten Abschnitt ihre Strenge, die sie bis heute prägt.  Im dritten Abschnitt, zwischen Wilhelm-Tell- und Brucknerstraße, liegen zwischen 1941 und 1943 errichtete Wohnblöcke, die als Versuchsbauten für die nicht realisierte Südstadt konzipiert waren. Die Reihe dieser viergeschossigen Blockbauten mit 3,23 m hohen Hauptgeschossen wird an beiden Enden von quadtratischen Luftschutzbunkern flankiert, die sich in den Baublock einfügen. Die Südstadt hätte als NS-Modellstadt mit rund 14.500 Wohneinheiten vom geplanten Gaugebäude auf dem Gasteig stadtauswärts verlaufen sollen. Alle Wohnblöcke sollten von vorneherein mit Hochbunken ausgestattet sein, entweder wie bei den Versuchsbauten in der Prinzregentenstraße als seitlicher Abschluss der Blockbauten, oder in der Mitte der Gebäude mit direktem Zugang von den Wohnungen. Die Versuchsbauten sind nahezu unverändert erhalten, einer der beiden siebenstöckigen Bunker präsentiert als Kunstbunker Tumulka seit 1993 in seinen Räumen nationale und internationale Einzelpräsentationen und Gruppenausstellungen.[1] Nach 1945  Die Prinzregentenstraße erhielt vor allem im westlichen Teil unter den Voraussetzungen einer „autogerechten Stadt“ einschneidende Umbauten. So wurde 1970-1972 das Prinz-Carl-Palais mit einem Autotunnel (dem heutigen Altstadtringtunnel) untertunnelt, der in Höhe Haus der Kunst wieder an die Oberfläche austritt. Gleichzeitig wurde durch den Durchbruch des heutigen Franz-Josef-Strauß-Ringes die Prinzregentenstraße aufgerissen. Die NS-Architektur wurde erhalten. Immer wieder taucht die Diskussion um eine Wiederherstellung des Charakters der Prinzregentenstraße auf: so zuletzt ab 2000 bei der Diskussion um die Zukunft des baufälligen Hauses der Kunst; Alexander Freiherr von Branca hat einen Kunstpavillon vorgeschlagen, der seiner Meinung nach sowohl den Englischen Garten wieder öffnet als auch die Erfordernisse des modernen Kunstbetriebes voll zufriedenstellt.  Im Zuge des Neubaus der Bayerischen Staatskanzlei, die bis 1993 ihren Sitz in der Prinzregentenstraße 7 hatte, auf dem Grund des zerstörten Bayerischen Armeemuseums wurde der Übergang zwischen Hofgarten und Englischem Garten neu gestaltet. Dadurch sollte die Abriegelung abgemildert werden. Besondere Ereignisse  Am 4. August 1971 fand zum ersten Mal in der Bundesrepublik ein Überfall auf eine Bankfiliale mit Geiselnahme statt. Dabei starben sowohl die Geisel als auch einer der zwei Täter.[2] Verkehr  Die Prinzregentenstraße gehört zu den meistbefahrenen Ein- und Ausfallstraßen der bayerischen Landeshauptstadt. Sie verbindet die Altstadt mit den Stadtteilen Lehel, Bogenhausen und Haidhausen sowie mit dem Mittleren Ring und der A 94.  Der öffentliche Personennahverkehr beschränkt sich vor allem auf MVG-Buslinien; zusätzlich queren die Trambahnlinien 17 (Haltestelle Nationalmuseum/Haus der Kunst) und 16 (Haltestelle Friedensengel) sowie die U4 (U-Bahnhof Prinzregentenplatz) die Prinzregentenstraße.  Bis zur Eröffnung des Flughafens München Franz Josef Strauß 1992 stellte die Prinzregentenstraße auch eine der Hauptrouten zum Flughafen München-Riem dar. Öffentliche Einrichtungen Museen      Haus der Kunst (ehemals Haus der Deutschen Kunst, Prinzregentenstr.1) (Paul Ludwig Troost, 1933-1937)     Bayerisches Nationalmuseum (Prinzregentenstr.3) (Gabriel von Seidl, 1894-1900)     Schackgalerie (ehemals Preußische Gesandtschaft, Prinzregentenstr.9) (Max Littmann, 1907-1909)     Villa Stuck  Theater      Prinzregententheater (Max Littmann, 1900/01)  Sonstige Öffentliche Einrichtungen      Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Wirtschaft, Infrastruktur, Verkehr und Technologie     Prinzregentenstadion, erbaut ca. 1933 (Eislauf, vormals unbedachte Eishockeyspielfläche)     Prinzregentenbad (Freibad hinter dem Prinzregentenstadion)  Bauten und Denkmäler      Luitpoldbrücke (ehemals Prinzregentenbrücke) mit allegorischen Figuren von Bayern, Franken, Schwaben und der Pfalz (Theodor Fischer, 1900/01)     St. Gabriel     Reiterstandbild Prinzregent Luitpold vor dem Bayerischen Nationalmuseum; (Adolf von Hildebrand, 1913)     Friedensdenkmal (genannt Friedensengel) (1869/99)     Richard-Wagner-Denkmal, am Prinzregentenplatz (Heinrich Waderé, 1913)  Literatur      Stefan Fisch: Die Prinzregentenstraße. Moderne Stadtplanung zwischen Hof, Verwaltung und Terraininteressen. In: Friedrich Prinz (Hrsg.): München - Musenstadt mit Hinterhöfen. Die Prinzregentenzeit 1886 - 1912. C.H. Beck, München 1988, ISBN 3-406-33395-8, S. 82-89.     Klaus Gallas: München. Von der welfischen Gründung Heinrichs des Löwen bis zur Gegenwart: Kunst, Kultur, Geschichte. DuMont, Köln 1979, ISBN 3-7701-1094-3 (DuMont-Dokumente: DuMont-Kunst-Reiseführer). 摄政王街(德語:Prinzregentenstrasse)是德国慕尼黑的4条皇家大道之一,兴建于1891年以后,摄政王柳特波德统治时期,成为当时中产阶级主要居住地。  摄政王街与马克西米利安街平行,开始于旧城东北部的摄政王卡尔大厅。沿街有许多博物馆,例如国际知名的艺术之家、巴伐利亚国立博物馆和沙克美术馆。大街过河后环绕着“和平天使”纪念碑,沿路有Villa Stuck。另一个重要的剧院摄政王剧院,和希特勒故居(摄政王广场16号),则位于更东面的摄政王广场。