Specimen Papers for the New 2017 IBDP History Syllabus

Paper 1


Section A: Military leaders
Read sources A to D carefully and answer the questions that follow. The sources and questions relate to the following aspect of the syllabus: Genghis Khan (c1200–1277): Leadership.

Source A  
Michael Rank, an historian and former journalist, writing in the popular history book History’s Greatest Generals: 10 Commanders Who Conquered Empires, Revolutionized Warfare, and Changed History Forever (2013).

Even at a young age, Genghis Khan saw that the nomadic Mongol tribes were a weak society due to
their endless internal warfare ...
Genghis Khan’s strength was in understanding the power of unity. By the age of 20, he used this wisdom to build an army that set out to destroy the divisions between tribes in what was soon to be his massive Mongol Empire. As he conquered, instead of exiling the region’s soldiers and killing the survivors, as commonly happened, he absorbed each conquered territory under his personal rule. This strategy helped him to expand the Mongol Empire quickly and efficiently, making use of all the talents, skills and abilities of the people in his newly acquired territories.
Genghis Khan had two primary directives: dominance and unity. He promoted army officers based on achievements rather than family ties. His was a system in which success and loyalty were rewarded. Due to his policies, tribal or ethnic divisions did not form in his ranks, ending the feudal alliances that had been so strong in medieval Mongolia.

Source B  
David Morgan, a professor of history, writing in an academic book, The Mongols (2007).

The question that had to be faced was: what now? The tribes of Mongolia had a supreme ruler.
Chinese policy had failed – it had failed to keep the tribes in conflict with each other. But unless something decisive was done with the newly formed military machine, it would go back to its earlier state. This, to my mind, is at least one explanation for the beginnings of the Mongols’ astonishing career of conquest. A superb army, potentially invincible in the field in thirteenth-century conditions, had been successfully created. But if it was not used against external enemies, it would not remain in existence for long. The only matter that required a decision was in which direction the armies were to advance.
 
Source C  
Reuven Amitai-Preiss, a professor of Muslim history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, writing in the academic book Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk–Ilkhanid War, 1260–1281 (1995).

The belief that it was destiny for the Mongols to rule was not the only, or even main, reason for the ongoing Mongol expansion under Genghis Khan and his successors. Other factors which helped Genghis Khan’s rise to power were the particular political relations within the region at this time ... as well as plain luck. On a more fundamental level, territorial expansion into neighbouring areas was essential for nomadic states in the region, motivated as they were by the desire to control the manufactured and agricultural goods which could be found there.
Expansion was also a crucial part of the role of the nomadic ruler, and a ruler who did not succeed in
this was soon abandoned by his followers. The flexible nature of Turko–Mongolian tribal society made possible both the rapid construction of larger tribes and the absorption of foreign nomadic groups, giving the tribal leader the power to launch his campaigns of expansion. The warrior culture and ethos of tribesmen must also have contributed to Turko–Mongol ambition. Finally, the archery and riding skills of the tribesmen, along with their endurance, made them excellent soldiers in the conquering armies.

Source D  
Map showing the extent of Mongol conquest by 1260.





Questions for Section A
1. (a) What, according to Source C, were the factors that motivated the Mongol conquests? [3]
(b) What is the message conveyed by Source D? [2]
2. With reference to its origin, purpose and content, analyse the value and limitations of
Source B for an historian studying the Mongol Empire. [4]
3. Compare and contrast what Sources B and C reveal about the Mongol conquests under
Genghis Khan. [6]
4. Using the sources and your own knowledge, evaluate the role of Genghis Khan in the launch
and success of the Mongol conquests. [9]


Section B: Conquest and its impact
Read sources A to D carefully and answer the questions that follow. The sources and questions relate to the following aspect of the syllabus: the conquest of Mexico and Peru (1519–1551): key events and actors.

Source A
 Miguel León-Portilla, an historian and anthropologist, writing in an academic book, The Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico (1962).

The book is based on contemporary Aztec accounts of the conquest of Mexico.

On November 8, 1519, the Spanish conquistadors first entered the great city of Mexico, the metropolis the Aztecs had built on a lake island. Cortés and his men entered the city, not only as guests, but also as gods coming home.
When the Spaniards were installed in the palace, they asked Moctezuma about the city’s resources and reserves and about the warriors’ ensigns and shields. They questioned him closely and demanded gold. Moctezuma guided them to it. They surrounded him and crowded close with their weapons. When they arrived at the treasure house, the riches of gold and feathers were brought out to them: ornaments made of quetzal feathers, richly worked shields, discs of gold, the necklace of idols, bracelets and crowns.
The Spaniards immediately stripped the feathers from the gold shields and ensigns. They gathered all the gold in a great pile and set fire to everything else, regardless of its value. Then they melted down the gold. They searched through the whole treasure house, questioning and quarreling, and seizing every object they thought was beautiful.
The Aztecs were too frightened to approach. They would not risk coming forward. Yet they did not abandon the Spaniards to hunger and thirst. They brought them whatever they needed. They delivered the supplies to the Spaniards with trembling hands, then turned and hurried away.

Source B  
Hernán Cortés, a Spanish conquistador, writing in a letter to Emperor Charles V (1520). Charles V was also known as Charles I, King of Spain.

The following morning, the Aztecs came out of the city to greet me with many trumpets and drums, including many persons whom they regard as priests in their temples, dressed in traditional clothes and singing, as they do in the temples. They led us into the city and gave us very good quarters, where all those in my company were most comfortable ...
During the three days I remained in that city they fed us worse each day, and the lords and principal persons of the city came only rarely to see and speak with me ... Because of this and because of other signs I had observed, I decided to attack, and I sent for some of the chiefs of the city, saying that I wished to speak with them. I put them in a room and meanwhile warned our men to be prepared to fall on the many Indians who were outside our quarters and on those who were inside.
We fought so hard that in two hours more than three thousand men were killed. We took them by surprise, they were easy to disperse, especially because I had imprisoned their leaders.

Source C 
 Emanuel Leutze, a German painter, depicts an attack by Cortés and his troops in the painting Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and his troops (1848).
 
Source D
Michael Meyer, William Sherman and Susan Deeds, professors of history, writing in the academic book The Course of Mexican History (2003).
Moctezuma and his nobles visited their guests’ quarters often to provide for all their needs.
Cortés understood with the greatest clarity that they were trapped if Moctezuma chose to make it
so. The Spaniards were surrounded by a multitude of Indians who could rise on signal. The Spanish soldiers expressed their anxiety to Cortés, who now resolved on a bold and desperate course – he would seize as hostage Moctezuma himself. This turn of events was inconceivable to the dignified lord of the Aztecs, but he finally submitted.
To limit the rising anger among his people, Moctezuma announced that he was not a prisoner; he resided with the strangers voluntarily, because it was the will of the gods. Furthermore, if Montezuma feared the revolt of nearby city-states then Cortés could provide the best means of coercing their alliance.
The Spanish captain agreed to depart whenever Moctezuma wished. The relieved ruler promised more gold and added that there was no great hurry in leaving. Cortés, of course, had no intention of departing.

Questions for Section B
5. (a) Why, according to Source D, did Moctezuma agree to remain a hostage of Cortés? [3]
(b) What is the message conveyed by Source C? [2]
6. With reference to its origin, purpose and content, analyse the value and limitations of
Source A for an historian studying the conquest of Mexico. [4]
7. Compare and contrast what Sources A and B reveal about the relationship between the
Spaniards and the Aztecs. [6]
8. “Mutual suspicion and misunderstanding between the Aztecs and the Spaniards played
a central role in the conquest of the Aztec Empire.” Using the sources and your own
knowledge, to what extent do you agree with this statement? [9]


Section C: The move to global war
Read sources A to D carefully and answer the questions that follow. The sources and questions relate to the following aspect of the syllabus: Japanese expansion in East Asia (1931–1941): Events.

Source A  
The first three articles of the Three Power/Tripartite Pact agreed between Germany, Italy and Japan in Berlin on 27 September 1940.

The governments of Germany, Italy and Japan have agreed as follows:
Article one: Japan recognizes and respects the leadership of Germany and Italy in establishment of a new order in Europe.
Article two: Germany and Italy recognize and respect the leadership of Japan in the establishment of a new order in greater East Asia.
Article three: Germany, Italy and Japan agree to cooperate in their efforts. They further agree to assist one another with all political, economic and military means when one of the three contracting powers is attacked by a power at present not involved in the European war or in the Chinese–Japanese conflict.

Source B  
Akira Iriye, a professor of History, writing in an academic book, The Origins of the Second World War in Asia and the Pacific (1987).

By September 1940, Britain could be assured of continued American support, and the United States had already implemented some of its embargoes against Japan. Under the circumstances, there would have been no way in which an Axis pact would cause the Anglo-American powers to soften their stand.
On the contrary, the pact could be expected to give them added resolve to stand firm. This is exactly what happened.
Japanese and German negotiators were fully aware of the developing ties between America and Britain, and for this very reason they hoped their alliance would serve to check and reduce the effectiveness
of American intervention. By then, as Matsuoka [the Japanese Foreign Minister] explained at the
time, it was becoming obvious that the United States was steadily involving itself not only in European but in Asian-Pacific affairs as well. It was tying itself not just to the British in the Atlantic but to the Commonwealth in Asia and the Pacific. The United States, in fact, would establish itself as a global power, with its influence in the Atlantic, Canada, the Western hemisphere, the Pacific Ocean and Asia.
It followed, then, that it would be an American-led coalition that Japan had to confront and be prepared to fight. It would no longer be China in isolation, but China assisted by the Soviet Union, Britain, and especially the United States.

Source C  
Ian Kershaw, a professor of Modern History, writing in an academic book,Fateful Choices: Ten Decisions that Changed the World, 1940–1941 (2007).

The American response quickly revealed the folly of Matsuoka’s claim – that the Tripartite [Three Power] Pact would serve as a deterrent. Instead, it merely confirmed American views that Japan was a belligerent [warlike], bullying, imperialist force in the Far East, an Asian equivalent of Nazi Germany, and had to be stopped. Such views seemed confirmed by the entry of Japanese troops into French Indochina on 23 September 1940. The essential purpose of the Tripartite Pact, from the Japanese perspective, was to deter the United States from intervening to prevent the southern advance seen as necessary to ensure Japan’s control of raw materials and, therefore, her future economic and political security.
The gamble in the pact was self-evident. What if the United States did not regard the pact as a deterrent, but as a provocation? What if the effect was to reinforce the determination to prevent Japanese expansion by threatening the lifeline of oil supplies? But from a Japanese perspective at
the time, the gamble had to be taken. To take it held great dangers, but also the potential of enormous rewards. Not to take it meant long-term domination by the Anglo-American powers. It meant, too, that the China War had been in vain. The need for boldness, not caution, carried the day in such a mentality.

Source D  
Harold “Mick” Armstrong, a cartoonist, depicts Japan announcing a “new order” in greater East Asia in a cartoon published in the Australian newspaper The Argus (1940).

 
Questions for Section C
9. (a) What, according to Source B, were the effects for Britain of the signing of the Three
Power/Tripartite Pact? [3] (b) What is the message conveyed by Source D? [2]
10. With reference to its origin, purpose and content, analyse the value and limitations of
Source A for an historian studying the Three Power/Tripartite Pact (September 1940). [4]
11. Compare and contrast what Sources B and C reveal about the significance of the Three Power/Tripartite Pact. [6]
12. Using the sources and your own knowledge, evaluate the consequences of the Three Power/Tripartite Pact for Japan, China and the US up to the end of 1941. [9]

Section D: Rights and protest
Read sources A to D carefully and answer the questions that follow. The sources and questions relate to the following aspect of the syllabus: the civil rights movement in the United States (1954–1965): Protests and action.

Source A
William J Simmons, a spokesman for a White Citizens’ Council [an organization that openly worked to preserve segregation] in an interview for a US television documentary about the civil rights movement, Eyes on the Prize (1987).

When the civil rights workers invaded the state [Mississippi] in the summer of 1964 to change us, presumably into their own image, they were met with a feeling of some curiosity, but mostly resentment. They spread across the state, made a great show of breaking up our customs, of challenging social practices that had been respected by people here over the years. That was the time of the hippies just coming in and they had on hippie uniforms and conducted themselves in hippie ways. They were not exactly the types of models that most people I knew wanted to copy and so the arrogance they showed in wanting to reform the whole state in the way they thought it should be created resentment.

Source B
Charles Patterson, an author and historian, writing in a student study guide The Civil Rights Movement (1995).

Freedom Summer was designed to register blacks for a real election – the 1964 presidential election. The ambitious goals of the project were to register as many blacks as possible across the state; organize a “Freedom Democratic Party” to challenge the official whites-only Mississippi Democratic Party; set up “freedom schools” for black children and establish community centers for blacks who needed medical or legal help. Student volunteers were recruited at elite colleges in the Northeast, large universities in the Midwest and black colleges in the South ... The day after the first wave of about 200 students arrived
in Mississippi – three young civil rights workers disappeared ... The disappearance of the civil rights workers failed to deter the work of the Freedom Summer volunteers, nor did the arrests, shootings and burnings of churches that served as “freedom schools”...
The most dramatic result of the Freedom Summer was the creation of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP). Organized by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) to challenge the legitimacy and supremacy of Mississippi’s all-white regular Democratic Party. Freedom Summer volunteers convinced 80 000 blacks to join the MFDP... Although the MFDP was never officially recognized by the state Democratic Party, its dramatic challenge marked the beginning of the end of exclusive white political control of the state ... Freedom Summer was also important for the civil rights movement itself because it moved the struggle to a new level, beyond the bus boycotts, freedom rides and sit-ins. Mississippi blacks demonstrated to the nation that they wanted to vote, elect representatives, and have a voice in government. They wanted the political power they were entitled to as American citizens, black people were fighting for more than a seat at the lunch counter, they were now fighting for seats in the legislature.

Source C
Frank Miller, a cartoonist, depicts a Mississippi sheriff [law enforcement officer] arresting a civil rights activist in a cartoon published in the US newspaper The Des Moines Register (July 1964). The caption on the t-shirt reads “civil rights volunteer”.
 Sheriff: “Caught him trespassing on private property!” 

Source D
Dwight Garner, a journalist and book critic, writing in the article Mississippi Invaded by Idealism”, published in The New York Times (2010).

More than 700 college students, in the summer of 1964, under the supervision of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, risked their lives to travel to Mississippi to register black voters and open schools ... Many Americans remember the names Andrew Goodman, James Cheney and Michael Schwerner, the three young volunteers who vanished that summer, their bodies later found buried under a dam. What many forget is that these three men disappeared on the very first day of the Mississippi Summer Project (Freedom Summer). Their abduction terrified the other volunteers.
Much more was to come. Some 35 black churches were burned in Mississippi that summer, and five dozen homes and safe houses were bombed. Volunteers were beaten, harassed by the police, arrested on fraudulent charges. Shotguns were fired into the houses where they slept. Pickup trucks filled with armed men followed volunteers around ... The summer of 1964 in Mississippi was in some ways a failure for the volunteers. They didn’t register as many voters as they had hoped. Their plans to replace Mississippi’s all-white delegation at the 1964 Democratic National Convention in Atlantic City came to nothing. But their actions brought the nation’s full attention to Mississippi’s second-class citizens.

Questions for Section D
13. (a) Why, according to Source A, was there resentment towards the civil rights workers? [3]
(b) What is the message conveyed by Source C? [2]
14. With reference to its origin, purpose and content, analyse the value and limitations of Source B for an historian studying the civil rights movement in the United States. [4]
15. Compare and contrast what Sources B and D reveal about the consequences of the Freedom Summer. [6]
16. Using the sources and your own knowledge, evaluate the success of the Freedom Summer in furthering the cause of black civil rights in the United States.[9]



Section E: Conflict and intervention
Read sources A to D carefully and answer the questions that follow. The sources and questions relate to the following aspect of the syllabus: Rwanda (1990–1998): Course and interventions.

Source A
Lieutenant General Roméo Dallaire, the Force Commander for the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR), writing in a fax sent to the United
Nations headquarters in New York (11 January 1994).

1. Force Commander was put in contact with informant [Jean-Pierre Abubakar Turatsinze] by an important government politician. Informant is a top-level trainer of the Interhamwe-armed militia ...
6. Principal aim of Interhamwe was to protect Kigali from the RPF [Rwandan Patriotic Front].
Since UNAMIR arrived he has been ordered to register all Tutsi in Kigali. He suspects it is for their extermination. Example he gave was that in 20 minutes his personnel could kill 1000 Tutsis.
7. Informant states he disagrees with anti-Tutsi extermination. He supports opposition to RPF but cannot support killing of innocent persons.
8. Informant is prepared to provide location of many weapons ... He was ready to go to the storage location tonight, if we guarantee that he and his family be placed under our protection.
9. It is our intention to take action within the next 36 hours ...
11. Force commander does have certain reservations on why the informant is now suddenly deciding to release such information. Possibility of a trap not excluded ...
13. Where there’s a will, there’s a way. Let’s go.

Source B
Lieutenant General Roméo Dallaire, the former Force Commander for the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR), writing in his memoirs of
the conflict in Rwanda, Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda (2003).

The message from Kofi Annan caught me by surprise. Annan spelled out in excruciating detail the limits New York was placing upon me: as force commander of a chapter-six peacekeeping operation I was not allowed to conduct deterrent operations in support of UNAMIR. Also, in the interests of transparency,
I was to pass on to President Habyarimana the information that Jean-Pierre Abubakar Turatsinze had given to us ... For the rest of the week, I made phone call after phone call to New York, arguing over the necessity of raiding the arms stores. During these exchanges, I got the feeling that New York saw me as unpredictable and uncontrollable. The deaths and injuries suffered by the American Rangers in Somalia must have had a huge impact on the DPKO [Department of Peacekeeping Operations] and many member nations ...
Just before going to see Habyarimana on January 12, I briefed the ambassadors of Belgium and the United States, and the chargé d’affaires of France. All of them acknowledged the information we provided and stated they would inform their respective governments. None of them appeared to be surprised, which led me to conclude that our informant was merely confirming what they already knew.

Source C
Michael Dobbs a journalist and research fellow, writing in the article “The Rwanda ‘Genocide Fax’: What We Know Now”, for the #Rwanda20yrs project of the US
Holocaust Memorial Museum and the National Security Archive (2014).

Over time, the “genocide fax” became a symbol of the failure of the international community to prevent mass-killing in Rwanda. Thanks to new documents, it is now possible to piece together a fuller account of the man who inspired the fax, and how and why UN officials responded, or failed to respond, to his warnings.
Half-Hutu and half-Tutsi, Jean-Pierre Abubakar Turatsinze [the informant] operated on both sides of the political and ethnic divisions in pre-genocidal Rwanda ... By 1990, he worked as an intermediary to the Interahamwe. He had been given the assignment of distributing weapons to Interahamwe members, but was suspected of selling many of these for personal profit ...
Turatsinze met with UNAMIR [United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda] officers through January and February 1994, but he declined to show them the lists of Tutsis identified for “extermination” that he claimed to have compiled on MRND [National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development, the ruling party in Rwanda] instructions ... Turatsinze misled UN peacekeepers on key points and exaggerated his own importance. One of the structural weaknesses of UNAMIR was the lack of a professional intelligence evaluation unit, to fully evaluate Turatsinze’s credibility.

Source D
Patrick Chappatte, a cartoonist, depicts the General Assembly of the United Nations in the cartoon “Anniversary of the Rwandan Genocide”, published in the Swiss newspaper Le Temps (7 April 2014).


 
Questions for Section E
17. (a) Why, according to Source B, did the UN not allow Lieutenant General Romeo Dallaire to act upon information provided by the secret informant? [3] 
(b) What is the message conveyed by Source D? [2]
18. With reference to its origin, purpose and content, analyse the value and limitations of Source B for an historian studying the international community’s response to the Rwandan genocide. [4]
19. Compare and contrast what Sources A and C reveal about the “genocide fax”. [6]
20. “The international community failed to effectively intervene in Rwanda because it lacked knowledge on the crisis.” Using the sources and your own knowledge, to what extent do you agree with this statement? [9]

Paper 2

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Topic 1: Society and economy (750–1400)
1. Evaluate the importance of famines and disease as causes of social and economic change.
2. With reference to one religion, examine the reasons for disputes between rulers and religious leaders.

Topic 2: Causes and effects of medieval wars (750–1500)
3. “Dynastic disputes lay at the heart of most medieval conflicts.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
4. Compare and contrast the military tactics used in two medieval conflicts, each chosen from a different region.

Topic 3: Dynasties and rulers (750–1500)
5. With reference to one medieval ruler, evaluate the importance of non-military methods as a means to expand and consolidate their rule.
6. Examine the extent to which the rule of two medieval leaders can be regarded as successful.

Topic 4: Societies in transition (1400–1700)
7. Examine the social impact of two scientific or technological developments from the period 1400 to 1700.
8. Evaluate the importance of merchants and travellers in bringing about economic change in the period 1400 to 1700.

Topic 5: Early Modern states (1450–1789)
9. Examine the relationship between religion and the state in any one Early Modern state.
10. Compare and contrast the reasons for resistance or rebellion in two colonial states, each chosen from a different region.

Topic 6: Causes and effects of Early Modern wars (1500–1750)
11. Compare and contrast the short-term causes of two Early Modern wars, each chosen from a different region.
12. Evaluate the role and importance of mercenaries in one Early Modern war.

Topic 7: Origins, development and impact of industrialization (1750–2005)
13. “The availability of natural resources was the most important cause of industrialization.” With reference to two countries, each chosen from a different region, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
14. Examine the impact of industrialization on standards of living and working conditions in one country.

Topic 8: Independence movements (1800–2000)
15. Evaluate the importance of war as a cause or catalyst for two independence movements, each chosen from a different region.
16. “The greatest challenges facing newly independent states were economic.” With reference to one newly independent state, to what extent do you agree with this statement?

Topic 9: Evolution and development of democratic states (1848–2000)
17. Compare and contrast the conditions that encouraged the demand for democratic reform in two states, each chosen from a different region.
18. “Government policies in democratic states rarely affect the distribution of wealth.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?

Topic 10: Authoritarian states (20th century)
19. “Successful foreign policy was essential for the maintenance of power by authoritarian leaders.”
With reference to one authoritarian leader, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
20. Compare and contrast the impact on women of the policies of two authoritarian states, each chosen from a different region.
Turn over

Topic 11: Causes and effects of 20th-century wars
21. Examine the role of ideology in causing two 20th-century civil wars, each chosen from a different region.
22. Compare and contrast the role of technology in determining the outcome of two 20th-century wars.

Topic 12: The Cold War: Superpower tensions and rivalries (20th century)
23. Examine the impact of the US policy of containment on superpower relations between 1947 and 1964.
24. Evaluate the impact on the course of the Cold War of two crises, each chosen from a different region.

Paper 3 – History of Europe
 
Monarchies in England and France (1066–1223)
1. Examine the reasons for William I’s success in establishing his authority as King of England.
2. To what extent were the Capetian kings of France successful in extending the royal demesne in the period from 1137 to 1223?

Muslims and Jews in medieval Europe (1095–1492)
3. Examine the reasons for the collapse of Islamic rule in Spain.
4. “The most significant impact of Jewish persecution was the loss of skill and ability from economic and cultural life.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?

Late medieval political crises (1300–1487)
5. Examine the reasons for English success in the Hundred Years War in the period from 1415 to 1427.
6. Compare and contrast the political challenges facing Henry VI and Edward IV of England.

The Renaissance (c1400–1600)
7. To what extent was the social and political structure in Florence responsible for the origins of the Renaissance?
8. Discuss the role and significance of Lorenzo de Medici in the patronage of art in Renaissance Italy.

The Age of Exploration and its impact (1400–1550)
9. Evaluate the significance of Henry the Navigator in the 15th-century exploration of Africa.
10. Examine the importance of religion as a motive for European exploration.

The Reformation (1517–1572)
11. To what extent were the attitudes of the German princes responsible for the spread of Lutheranism in Germany between 1517 and 1547?
12. Examine the importance of the Council of Trent for the Catholic Church.

Absolutism and Enlightenment (1650–1800)
13. Compare and contrast the political impact of Enlightenment ideas in two European states you have studied.
14. Examine the impact of monarchical patronage on the arts in any one country from the region.

The French Revolution and Napoleon I (1774–1815)
15. To what extent do you agree with the claim that Louis XVI caused the French Revolution?
16. Evaluate the success of Napoleon I’s domestic policies in the period from 1799 to 1815.

France (1815–1914)
17. Examine the causes and significance of the Revolution of 1830.
18. Evaluate the extent of political instability in the French Third Republic between 1871 and 1890.

Society, politics and economy in Britain and Ireland (1815–1914)
19. “Unrealistic and overambitious demands were the main reason for the failure of Chartism.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
20. Evaluate the success of Disraeli’s foreign policy.

Italy (1815–1871) and Germany (1815–1890)
21. Examine the consequences of Austrian dominance in Italy between 1815 and 1849.
22. “Bismarck was the sole architect of German unification, 1862 to 1871.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?

Imperial Russia, revolution and the establishment of the Soviet Union (1855–1924)
23. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of Alexander II and Alexander III.
24. Examine the reasons for Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War.

Europe and the First World War (1871–1918)
25. Evaluate the claim that German foreign policy was the main cause of the First World War.
26. Discuss the effects of the First World War on the civilian population in any one European country.

European states in the inter-war years (1918–1939)
27. Evaluate the reasons for the survival of the Weimar Republic in the period from 1918 to 1923.
28. Examine the reasons for the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War.

Versailles to Berlin: Diplomacy in Europe (1919–1945)
29. “The Treaty of Versailles was a fair and reasonable peace.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
30. Evaluate the successes and failures of the League of Nations in Europe.

The Soviet Union and post-Soviet Russia (1924–2000)
31. Discuss the reasons for Stalin’s success in the struggle for power during the period 1924 to 1929.
32. Evaluate the success of Brezhnev’s domestic policies.

Post-war western and northern Europe (1945–2000)
33. Examine the reasons for, and the extent of, European integration between 1945 and 2000.
34. Discuss the challenges to the establishment of democracy in Spain up to 1982.

Post-war central and eastern Europe (1945–2000)
35. Examine the extent of economic and social change in any one country in Central or Eastern Europe from 1989 to 2000.
36. “Popular support for local Communist parties was the main reason for Soviet dominance in Eastern Europe during the period 1945 to 1955.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?



conquest Silk Road Liegnitz EUROPE RUSSIA Mohir Kiev Constantinople Black Sea Caspian Sea Aral Sea SYRIA MESOPOTAMIA (IRAQ) Damascus PALESTINE Baghdad Bukhara Samarkand Herat KHWARZAM EMPIRE Persian Gulf ASIA Karakorum MONGOLIA XIA XIA JIN KOREA Beijing (Khanbalik) CHINA Hangzhou SONG South China Sea SPEC /3/HISTS/BP1/ ENG /TZ0/XX– 4 – Questions for Section A 1. (a) What, according to Source C, were the factors that motivated the Mongol conquests? (b) What is the message conveyed by Source D? [3] [2] 2. With reference to its origin, purpose and content, analyse the value and limitations of Source B for an historian studying the Mongol Empire. [4] 3. Compare and contrast what Sources B and C reveal about the Mongol conquests under Genghis Khan. [6] 4. Using the sources and your own knowledge, evaluate the role of Genghis Khan in the launch and success of the Mongol conquests. [9] SPEC/3/HISTS/BP1/ENG/TZ0/XX– 5 – Turn over Section B: Conquest and its impact Read sources A to D carefully and answer the questions that follow. The sources and questions relate to the following aspect of the syllabus: the conquest of Mexico and Peru (1519–1551): key events and actors. Sources in this paper have been edited: word additions or explanations are shown in square brackets [ ]; substantive deletions of text are indicated by ellipses … ; minor changes are not indicated. Source A Miguel León-Portilla, an historian and anthropologist, writing in an academic book, The Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico (1962). The book is based on contemporary Aztec accounts of the conquest of Mexico. On November 8, 1519, the Spanish conquistadors first entered the great city of Mexico, the metropolis the Aztecs had built on a lake island. Cortés and his men entered the city, not only as guests, but also as gods coming home. When the Spaniards were installed in the palace, they asked Moctezuma about the city’s resources and reserves and about the warriors’ ensigns and shields. They questioned him closely and demanded gold. Moctezuma guided them to it. They surrounded him and crowded close with their weapons. When they arrived at the treasure house, the riches of gold and feathers were brought out to them: ornaments made of quetzal feathers, richly worked shields, discs of gold, the necklace of idols, bracelets and crowns. The Spaniards immediately stripped the feathers from the gold shields and ensigns. They gathered all the gold in a great pile and set fire to everything else, regardless of its value. Then they melted down the gold. They searched through the whole treasure house, questioning and quarreling, and seizing every object they thought was beautiful. The Aztecs were too frightened to approach. They would not risk coming forward. Yet they did not abandon the Spaniards to hunger and thirst. They brought them whatever they needed. They delivered the supplies to the Spaniards with trembling hands, then turned and hurried away. Source B Hernán Cortés, a Spanish conquistador, writing in a letter to Emperor Charles V (1520). Charles V was also known as Charles I, King of Spain. The following morning, the Aztecs came out of the city to greet me with many trumpets and drums, including many persons whom they regard as priests in their temples, dressed in traditional clothes and singing, as they do in the temples. They led us into the city and gave us very good quarters, where all those in my company were most comfortable … During the three days I remained in that city they fed us worse each day, and the lords and principal persons of the city came only rarely to see and speak with me … Because of this and because of other signs I had observed, I decided to attack, and I sent for some of the chiefs of the city, saying that I wished to speak with them. I put them in a room and meanwhile warned our men to be prepared to fall on the many Indians who were outside our quarters and on those who were inside. We fought so hard that in two hours more than three thousand men were killed. We took them by surprise, they were easy to disperse, especially because I had imprisoned their leaders. SPEC/3/HISTS/BP1/ENG/TZ0/XX– 6 – Source C Emanuel Leutze, a German painter, depicts an attack by Cortés and his troops in the painting Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and his troops (1848). Source D Michael Meyer, William Sherman and Susan Deeds, professors of history, writing in the academic book The Course of Mexican History (2003). Moctezuma and his nobles visited their guests’ quarters often to provide for all their needs. Cortés understood with the greatest clarity that they were trapped if Moctezuma chose to make it so. The Spaniards were surrounded by a multitude of Indians who could rise on signal. The Spanish soldiers expressed their anxiety to Cortés, who now resolved on a bold and desperate course – he would seize as hostage Moctezuma himself. This turn of events was inconceivable to the dignifi ed lord of the Aztecs, but he fi nally submitted. To limit the rising anger among his people, Moctezuma announced that he was not a prisoner; he resided with the strangers voluntarily, because it was the will of the gods. Furthermore, if Montezuma feared the revolt of nearby city-states then Cortés could provide the best means of coercing their alliance. The Spanish captain agreed to depart whenever Moctezuma wished. The relieved ruler promised more gold and added that there was no great hurry in leaving. Cortés, of course, had no intention of departing. SPEC /3/HISTS/BP1/ ENG /TZ0/XX– 7 – Turn over Questions for Section B 5. (a) Why, according to Source D, did Moctezuma agree to remain a hostage of Cortés? (b) What is the message conveyed by Source C? [3] [2] 6. With reference to its origin, purpose and content, analyse the value and limitations of Source A for an historian studying the conquest of Mexico. [4] 7. Compare and contrast what Sources A and B reveal about the relationship between the Spaniards and the Aztecs. [6] 8. “Mutual suspicion and misunderstanding between the Aztecs and the Spaniards played a central role in the conquest of the Aztec Empire.” Using the sources and your own knowledge, to what extent do you agree with this statement? [9] SPEC/3/HISTS/BP1/ENG/TZ0/XX– 8 – Section C: The move to global war Read sources A to D carefully and answer the questions that follow. The sources and questions relate to the following aspect of the syllabus: Japanese expansion in East Asia (1931–1941): Events. Sources in this paper have been edited: word additions or explanations are shown in square brackets [ ]; substantive deletions of text are indicated by ellipses … ; minor changes are not indicated. Source A The first three articles of the Three Power/Tripartite Pact agreed between Germany, Italy and Japan in Berlin on 27 September 1940. The governments of Germany, Italy and Japan have agreed as follows: Article one: Japan recognizes and respects the leadership of Germany and Italy in establishment of a new order in Europe. Article two: Germany and Italy recognize and respect the leadership of Japan in the establishment of a new order in greater East Asia. Article three: Germany, Italy and Japan agree to cooperate in their efforts. They further agree to assist one another with all political, economic and military means when one of the three contracting powers is attacked by a power at present not involved in the European war or in the Chinese–Japanese conflict. Source B Akira Iriye, a professor of History, writing in an academic book, The Origins of the Second World War in Asia and the Pacific (1987). By September 1940, Britain could be assured of continued American support, and the United States had already implemented some of its embargoes against Japan. Under the circumstances, there would have been no way in which an Axis pact would cause the Anglo-American powers to soften their stand. On the contrary, the pact could be expected to give them added resolve to stand firm. This is exactly what happened. Japanese and German negotiators were fully aware of the developing ties between America and Britain, and for this very reason they hoped their alliance would serve to check and reduce the effectiveness of American intervention. By then, as Matsuoka [the Japanese Foreign Minister] explained at the time, it was becoming obvious that the United States was steadily involving itself not only in European but in Asian-Pacific affairs as well. It was tying itself not just to the British in the Atlantic but to the Commonwealth in Asia and the Pacific. The United States, in fact, would establish itself as a global power, with its influence in the Atlantic, Canada, the Western hemisphere, the Pacific Ocean and Asia. It followed, then, that it would be an American-led coalition that Japan had to confront and be prepared to fight. It would no longer be China in isolation, but China assisted by the Soviet Union, Britain, and especially the United States. SPEC/3/HISTS/BP1/ENG/TZ0/XX– 9 – Turn over Source C Ian Kershaw, a professor of Modern History, writing in an academic book, Fateful Choices: Ten Decisions that Changed the World, 1940–1941 (2007). The American response quickly revealed the folly of Matsuoka’s claim – that the Tripartite [Three Power] Pact would serve as a deterrent. Instead, it merely confi rmed American views that Japan was a belligerent [warlike], bullying, imperialist force in the Far East, an Asian equivalent of Nazi Germany, and had to be stopped. Such views seemed confi rmed by the entry of Japanese troops into French Indochina on 23 September 1940. The essential purpose of the Tripartite Pact, from the Japanese perspective, was to deter the United States from intervening to prevent the southern advance seen as necessary to ensure Japan’s control of raw materials and, therefore, her future economic and political security. The gamble in the pact was self-evident. What if the United States did not regard the pact as a deterrent, but as a provocation? What if the effect was to reinforce the determination to prevent Japanese expansion by threatening the lifeline of oil supplies? But from a Japanese perspective at the time, the gamble had to be taken. To take it held great dangers, but also the potential of enormous rewards. Not to take it meant long-term domination by the Anglo-American powers. It meant, too, that the China War had been in vain. The need for boldness, not caution, carried the day in such a mentality. Source D Harold “Mick” Armstrong, a cartoonist, depicts Japan announcing a “new order” in greater East Asia in a cartoon published in the Australian newspaper The Argus (1940). INDO- CHINheir response. Candidates may draw from a wide variety of states, and the specifics of the challenges facing the state will depend on the state chosen for discussion; • Economic challenges discussed may include: poor infrastructure, poverty and wealth distribution, continued dependence on a colonial power, lack of industrialization; • Reponses should also consider the relative importance of other factors that challenged states such as: political issues – creating political unity, new political institutions; social divisions – religious and ethnic; lack of welfare provision and education; continued influence of foreign powers; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will include a clear judgment on the extent to which the candidate agrees with the statement that the greatest challenges facing newly independent states were economic. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 19 – SPEC/3/HISTS/BP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/M Topic 9: Evolution and development of democratic states (1848–2000) 17. Compare and contrast the conditions that encouraged the demand for democratic reform in two states, each chosen from a different region. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question; in this case, candidates should examine both the similarities and differences between the conditions that encouraged the demand for democratic reform in two states, each from a different region. Points discussed may include: • Candidates must make explicit reference to two states, each chosen from a different region. Candidates may draw from a wide variety of interesting democratic states from the period, such as Lebanon, Ghana, Argentina, Mexico, India, Australia, Spain, Poland, etc; • The particular conditions that encouraged the demand for democratic reform will depend upon the specific examples chosen for discussion. Likely areas for discussion include political factors, wars, nationalism, urbanization, industrialization, education and the growth of the middle class. For example, the demand for democracy might come from a need to accommodate a growing industrial working class, or it might follow the collapse of an authoritarian regime following war or major political change. Responses may also focus on factors such as the pressure for reform from unrepresented classes; • Candidates must give an account of the similarities and differences in the conditions that encouraged the demand for democratic reform in two states, not simply describe the demand in the two states. A thematic approach is therefore likely to be more successful for this question; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will include a clear judgment on the similarities and differences between conditions that encouraged the demand for democratic reform in the two states chosen for discussion. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 20 – SPEC/3/HISTS/BP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/M 18. “Government policies in democratic states rarely affect the distribution of wealth.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question; in this case, candidates will need to discuss the extent to which they agree with the statement that government policies in democratic states rarely affect the distribution of wealth. Points discussed may include: • Candidates are expected to make reference to specific examples to support their argument. It is not expected that candidates will discuss large numbers of examples in their responses, as this could potentially lead to superficial analysis. Discussion of two specific examples can be sufficient; • Discussion may focus on the means by which states could affect the distribution of wealth. Was there a progressive taxation? Did the state take responsibility for social welfare and how extensive was it? Did the state encourage ownership of land and property beyond a narrow elite?; • There may be consideration of the ideological stance of the governing party(ies) and their attitude to privilege and poverty: for some governments redistribution of wealth was not an aim, let alone a priority. However, in some cases the concept of a collectivist state did encourage redistribution of wealth, and governments adopted policies accordingly; • Assessment of the impact of policies will focus on pattern of wealth distribution. What was the gap between rich and poor? Was wealth concentrated in the hands of the few? Did the welfare system manage to help the unemployed, the sick and disabled?; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will include a clear judgment on the extent to which the candidate agrees with the statement that government policies in democratic states rarely affect the distribution of wealth. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 21 – SPEC/3/HISTS/BP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/M Topic 10: Authoritarian states (20th century) 19. “Successful foreign policy was essential for the maintenance of power by authoritarian leaders.” With reference to one authoritarian leader, to what extent do you agree with this statement? Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question; in this case, candidates will need to discuss the extent to which they agree with the statement that successful foreign policy was essential for the maintenance of power for one authoritarian leader they have studied. Points discussed may include: • Candidates should make explicit reference to one example of an authoritarian leader. Examples may be drawn from a wide variety of leaders, such as Nyerere, Perón, Pinochet, Mao, Pol Pot, Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini; • Candidates should examine the extent to which a successful foreign policy was essential for the maintenance of power by the authoritarian leader being discussed. For example, in the case of Nasser, “Nasserism” was built on Egypt’s opposition to “imperialist influence” in the Arab world and a belief in the benefits of pan-Arab unity. Nationalism required the building of a strong state with a powerful military and a mission to defend the Arab world against imperialism and Zionism. Nasser’s charismatic leadership and nationalistic foreign policy legitimized the regime and helped him to maintain power; • Candidates may also weigh successful foreign policy against other factors that could be seen as essential for the maintenance of power. For example, domestic policies could be seen to play an essential role in the maintenance of power either as much as, or in fact more than, foreign policy. For example, in the case of Hitler policies such as reducing unemployment through government infrastructure projects, or expanding the armaments industries, providing employment, income, and a rising standard of living, which increased Hitler’s popularity and reduced opposition; • In addition to domestic economic policies, other factors aside from foreign policy that may be considered essential to maintaining power could include factors such as the removal of political opponents; censorship; propaganda; coercion; personal qualities and charisma; and support from key groups such as the armed forces; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will include a clear judgment on the extent to which they agree with the statement that a successful foreign policy was essential for the maintenance of power for their chosen example. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 22 – SPEC/3/HISTS/BP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/M 20. Compare and contrast the impact on women of the policies of two authoritarian states, each chosen from a different region. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question. Candidates must discuss both the similarities and differences in the impact on women of the policies of two authoritarian states, from two different regions. Points discussed may include: • Candidates must discuss two specific examples of authoritarian states, from two different regions. Examples may be drawn from a wide variety of states, such as Egypt under Nasser, Iraq under Saddam Hussein, Cuba under Castro, Haiti under Duvalier, Indonesia under Sukarno, Pakistan under Zia ul Haq, Spain under Franco, or Poland under Pilsudski; • The focus should be explicitly on similarities and differences in the impact on women of the policies of the two authoritarian states selected. Discussion may focus on areas such as whether women received improved treatment in terms of employment, education, marriage/divorce legislation and inheritance laws; whether their social, political and economic status deteriorated under the new authoritarian state due to the withdrawal of rights previously held; the extent to which ideology, as opposed to pragmatism, was present in the treatment of women, for example, in the field of employment, in the interests of literally “building” the state or during time of conflict; legal rights, etc; • Candidates must give an account of the similarities and differences in the impact on women of the policies of two authoritarian states, not simply describe the policies. A thematic approach is therefore likely to be more successful for this question. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 23 – SPEC/3/HISTS/BP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/M Topic 11: Causes and effects of 20th-century wars 21. Examine the role of ideology in causing two 20th-century civil wars, each chosen from a different region. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question; in this case candidates should make an appraisal of the role of ideology in causing two 20th-century civil wars, each chosen from a different region. Points discussed may include: • Candidates should refer to two specific 20th-century civil wars, each chosen from a different region. Examples may be drawn from a wide variety of civil wars, such as the Nigerian Civil War (1967–1970), the North Yemen Civil War (1962–1970), the Chinese Civil War (1927–1937 and/or 1946–1949), the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939), the Russian Civil War (1917–1922), etc; • Different ideologies could be discussed, such as communism, socialism, nationalism or fascism; • Candidates should focus on critically examining the role of ideology in causing the two wars chosen for discussion, not on simply describing the features of these ideologies; • Candidates may also discuss the role of related factors in causing the wars chosen for discussion. For example, the political, economic and social circumstances that permitted the ideologies to take hold will probably be relevant; • Candidates may also weigh the role of ideology in causing the two wars chosen for discussion against other factors that could be seen to be the cause of the wars. Ideology did play a significant role in some civil wars, whereas in others the key factors were religious, ethnic, economic or a combination thereof. It is likely, for example, that civil wars will occur in countries where there is political instability, caused by, for example, the collapse of central authority, repression or the enactment of unpopular policies. The degree to which civil war leaders exploited poverty, social division or domination by a foreign power may also be considered; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the role of ideology in causing the two 20th-century civil wars being discussed. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 24 – SPEC/3/HISTS/BP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/M 22. Compare and contrast the role of technology in determining the outcome of two 20th-century wars. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question; in this case, candidates should discuss both the similarities and the differences in the role of technology in determining the outcome of two 20th-century wars. Points discussed may include: • Examples may be drawn from a wide variety of 20th-century wars, such as the First World War, the Second World War, the Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988), the first Gulf War (1990–1991), Vietnam (1964–1975), Falklands/Malvinas War (1982), etc; • Candidates should not simply describe the role of technological developments, but should link them explicitly to their role in determining the outcome of the wars being discussed; • Technological developments could include not only weaponry, but also means of communication and reconnaissance, and the development of industrial capacity. Some developments tipped the balance of conflict, while others enabled armies to hold their own, perhaps against superior forces; • In most cases technology alone was not enough to determine the outcome of conflict: superior manpower was sometimes more important, as were the tactics used. Economic factors may come into play as countries lose the means to fight on; • Candidates must give an account of the similarities and differences in the role of technology in determining the outcome of the two wars discussed. A thematic approach is therefore likely to be more successful for this question; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will include a clear judgment on the similarities and differences in how the role of technology determined the outcome of two 20th-century wars. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 25 – SPEC/3/HISTS/BP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/M Topic 12: The Cold War: Superpower tensions and rivalries (20th century) 23. Examine the impact of the US policy of containment on superpower relations between 1947 and 1964. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question. In this case, candidates must examine the impact of containment on superpower relations, rather than simply describe a narrative of key events from the period. Points discussed may include: • Candidates are expected to refer to Cold War events that demonstrate the use and impact of the US policy of containment within the timeframe of 1947–1964. The starting point of 1947 may be linked to the Truman Doctrine. The end point of 1964 would allow candidates to consider the success or failure of the application of US policy to events up to the end of the Khrushchev era; • 1947 – The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan. The aim of both was to prevent the spread of Communism in the immediate aftermath of the war in Europe and can be seen as having been directed against the expansion of communism in Europe. The USSR response was to revive COMINTERN renamed as COMINFORM (1947) and to criticize the Marshall Plan as “dollar imperialism”. This episode worsened superpower relations and may be seen as having provoked the Czech coup of 1948; • 1948 – The Berlin blockade. This may be interpreted as the use of containment to prevent Soviet efforts to achieve the removal of the US, Britain and France from Berlin. The blockade and the Allied response demonstrated that relations were hampered by suspicion and rivalry but the blockade also indicated that US containment worked as it was called off in May 1949. Furthermore, it hastened the establishment of NATO (containment) and the division of Germany into two states; • 1950–1953 – The Korean War. Via the UN, the US made efforts to push back the forces of North Korea from the South and so to contain the spread of communism. How far this affected superpower relations could be interpreted in a number of different ways and candidates may include a reference to China. What became clear was that both superpowers were reluctant to escalate or to come into direct conflict; • 1958–1961 – Renewed efforts by Khrushchev (urged on by Ulbricht) to remove the Allies from Berlin failed and resulted in the building of the Berlin Wall, which may be viewed as an acknowledgement that containment has worked in Berlin; • 1962 – The Cuban Missile Crisis. Containment becomes brinkmanship with near dire consequences for superpower relations that are, ultimately, strengthened as a result of this near-miss of nuclear war; • Other possible examples of containment may include: the removal of President Arbenz in Guatemala in 1954; the 1953 coup in Iran; the Chinese Off-Shore Island Crises (Taiwan); • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the impact of the US policy of containment on superpower relations between 1947 and 1964. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 26 – SPEC/3/HISTS/BP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/M 24. Evaluate the impact on the course of the Cold War of two crises, each chosen from a different region. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question; in this case, candidates should make an appraisal of the impact on the course of the Cold War of two crises, each from a different region. Points discussed may include: • Candidates must make explicit reference to two examples of Cold War crises from different regions. Candidates may use cross-regional crises as examples in their response, but may not use the same crisis in different regions as both of their examples; • Cold War crises are “flashpoints” that involve a clear escalation in Cold War tensions. Superpower involvement in the crises may be direct, or may also be indirect. Examples may be drawn from a wide variety of Cold War crises, such as the Berlin blockade (1948–1949), the Suez Crisis (1956), the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962), the Prague spring (1968), US intervention in Chile (1973), or the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979); • It is important that candidates focus their response explicitly on appraising the impact of their selected crises on the course of the Cold War, rather than simply describing the major events of two crises; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will include a clear judgment on the impact upon the course of the Cold War of two crises, each from a different region. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AF History Higher level Paper 3 – history of Africa and the Middle East 5 pages © International Baccalaureate Organization 2015 Instructions to candidates y Do not open this examination paper until instructed to do so. y Answer any three questions. y Each question is worth [15 marks]. y The maximum mark for this examination paper is [45 marks]. 2 hours 30 minutes Specimen paper– 2 – The ‘Abbasid dynasty (750–1258) 1. “Military power was the most important reason for the ‘Abbasid defeat of the Umayyads.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? 2. “The first century of ‘Abbasid rule brought about significant economic and political change in the Islamic world.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? The Fatimids (909–1171) 3. Examine the ideological and cultural impact of the Fatimid Empire on the Islamic world. 4. “Internal problems rather than external challenges led to the collapse of the Fatimid Empire.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? The Crusades (1095–1291) 5. “Religious ideology was the primary motive for the Crusades.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? 6. Evaluate the impact of the Crusades on the Islamic world. The Ottomans (1281–1566) 7. Evaluate the significance of the fall of Constantinople in 1453. 8. Examine the contribution of either Selim I (1512–1520) or Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–1566) to the success of the Ottoman Empire during the 16th century. Trade and the rise and decline of African states and empires (800–1600) 9. Evaluate the reasons for the decline of the Ghana Empire. 10. “Trade was more important to the success of the Mali Empire than it was to the success of the Kingdom of Kongo.” Discuss. SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AF– 3 – Turn over Pre-colonial African states (1800–1900) 11. Compare and contrast the contributions of Tewodros II and Yohannes IV to the unification of Ethiopia. 12. “Moshoeshoe was a more successful ruler than Shaka Zulu.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? The slave trade in Africa and the Middle East (1500–1900) 13. Examine the social and economic impact of the slave trade on Africa and the Middle East up until the 19th century. 14. “Economic factors were the main reason for the decline of the Atlantic slave trade.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? European imperialism and the partition of Africa (1850–1900) 15. Examine the reasons for increased European interest in Africa in the second half of the 19th century. 16. “The annexation of Africa was only made possible by weaknesses within Africa.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? Response to European imperialism (1870–1920) 17. “The leadership of Menelik II was the most significant factor in Ethiopia maintaining its independence.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? 18. Discuss the reasons for, and results of, Kabaka Mwanga’s resistance to European imperialism. Africa under colonialism (1890–1980) 19. Evaluate the economic impact of Portuguese rule in Angola and Mozambique. 20. Examine the reasons for, and results of, the British decision to implement a system of indirect rule in Nigeria. SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AF– 4 – 20th-century nationalist and independence movements in Africa 21. Evaluate the contribution of the Mau Mau uprising to the achievement of independence in Kenya. 22. Compare and contrast the role of individual leaders in two 20th-century independence movements in Africa. The Ottoman Empire (c1800–1923) 23. Evaluate the impact of the Tanzimat reforms on the Ottoman Empire. 24. Examine the reasons for the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the first half of the 19th century. War and change in the Middle East and North Africa 1914–1945 25. To what extent did ineffective Allied diplomacy in the Middle East during the First World War lead to instability in the region? 26. Evaluate Ataturk’s impact on Turkish society. Africa, international organizations and the international community (20th century) 27. Discuss the role played by the Abyssinian Crisis in the failure of the League of Nations. 28. “The East African Community (EAC) was more of a success than a failure in the 20th century.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? Developments in South Africa 1880–1994 29. “The Boers lost the war but won the peace.” To what extent do you agree with this statement about the South African War (1899–1902)? 30. Examine the reasons for, and the effects of, the radicalization of resistance to the apartheid system in South Africa. SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AF– 5 – Social and cultural developments in Africa in the 19th and 20th centuries 31. Examine the factors that promoted and those that inhibited the spread of Christianity in Africa in the 19th and 20th centuries. 32. Discuss the impact of immigration and emigration on any two African countries in the 19th and 20th centuries. Post-war developments in the Middle East (1945–2000) 33. Compare and contrast the economic and social policies of Nasser and Sadat in Egypt. 34. Evaluate the importance of religious factors in causing the outbreak of the Lebanese Civil War in 1975. Post-independence politics in Africa to 2005 35. “Economic problems after independence were the main cause of civil war.” With reference to one civil war you have studied, to what extent do you agree with this statement? 36. Compare and contrast the factors that led to the return to multi-party democracy in two countries. SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AFSPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AF/M 38 pages Markscheme Specimen History Higher level Paper 3 – history of Africa and the Middle East– 2 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AF/M Note for examiners: The following pages of this markscheme outline what members of the paper setting team had in mind when they devised the questions. The points listed in the bullet points indicate possible areas candidates might cover in their answers. They are not compulsory points and are not necessarily the best possible points. They are only a framework to help examiners in their assessment. Examiners should be responsive to any other valid points or any other valid approaches. Markbands for paper 3 Marks Level descriptor 13–15 Responses are clearly focused, showing a high degree of awareness of the demands and implications of the question. Answers are well structured, balanced and effectively organized. Knowledge is detailed, accurate and relevant. Events are placed in their historical context, and there is a clear understanding of historical concepts. Examples used are appropriate and relevant, and are used effectively to support the analysis/evaluation. Arguments are clear and coherent. There is evaluation of different perspectives, and this evaluation is integrated effectively into the answer. The answer contains well-developed critical analysis. All, or nearly all, of the main points are substantiated, and the response argues to a reasoned conclusion. 10–12 The demands of the question are understood and addressed. Answers are generally well structured and organized, although there may be some repetition or lack of clarity in places. Knowledge is accurate and relevant. Events are placed in their historical context, and there is a clear understanding of historical concepts. Examples used are appropriate and relevant, and are used to support the analysis/evaluation. Arguments are mainly clear and coherent. There is some awareness and evaluation of different perspectives. The response contains critical analysis. Most of the main points are substantiated, and the response argues to a consistent conclusion. 7–9 The response indicates an understanding of the demands of the question, but these demands are only partially addressed. There is an attempt to follow a structured approach. Knowledge is mostly accurate and relevant. Events are generally placed in their historical context. Examples used are appropriate and relevant. The response moves beyond description to include some analysis or critical commentary, but this is not sustained. 4–6 The response indicates some understanding of the demands of the question. While there may be an attempt to follow a structured approach, the response lacks clarity and coherence. Knowledge is demonstrated but lacks accuracy and relevance. There is a superficial understanding of historical context. The answer makes use of specific examples, although these may be vague or lack relevance. There is some limited analysis, but the response is primarily narrative/descriptive in nature, rather than analytical. 1–3 There is little understanding of the demands of the question. The answer is poorly structured or, where there is a recognizable essay structure, there is minimal focus on the task. Little knowledge is present. Where specific examples are referred to, they are factually incorrect, irrelevant or vague. The response contains little or no critical analysis. It may consist mostly of generalizations and poorly substantiated assertions. 0 Answers do not reach a standard described by the descriptors above.– 3 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AF/M The ‘Abbasid dynasty (750–1258) 1. “Military power was the most important reason for the ‘Abbasid defeat of the Umayyads.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case the extent to which the candidate agrees that military power was the most important reason for the ‘Abbasid defeat of the Umayyads. Points discussed may include: • Feuds between southern (Kalb) and northern (Qays) Arab tribes reduced military power and later led to major revolts in Syria, Iraq and Khorasan; • Regional problems as Umayyad government was equated with Syrian government; did not include Muslims from Iraq, narrow base of support. Marwan’s policies lost him traditional support; • Fiscal reforms of ‘Umar II aimed at lessening opposition from non-Muslims created a financial crisis. Narrow support was made worse as Syria was not rich, and did not have a large Muslim population as did Iraq; Iraq produced more revenue; • Battle of the Zab, 750. Although the Umayyad force was larger, loyalty to the Caliph was limited. Abbasids were a coalition of Abbasids, Persians and Shias; • The Umayyads had no direct descent from the Prophet Muhammad, whereas the ‘Abbasids did. Many Muslims felt that charismatic, truly Islamic leadership was needed to establish rule of the Qur’an, only the family of the Prophet Muhammad could provide this; • Tactics in battle. Abbasid spear wall was able to withstand Umayyad cavalry charge. The ‘Abbasids pursued the remaining Umayyads, meeting little resistance in Syria as the area had been laid waste by earthquake and plague. The death of Marwan in a later battle ended Umayyad rule; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the extent to which the candidate agrees with the claim that military power was the most important reason for the Abbasid defeat of the Ummayads. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 4 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AF/M 2. “The first century of ‘Abbasid rule brought about significant economic and political change in the Islamic world.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case the extent to which they agree with the statement that the first century of Abbasid rule (750–850) brought about significant economic and political change in the Islamic world. Points discussed may include: • Political: built on achievements of the Umayyads, but more centralized attempts to ensure provinces contributed to finance of central government. Continued hereditary succession of the Umayyads. Appointment of Muslim judges was taken over by central government. Centre of government moved from Syria to Iraq; as Iraq provided the most revenue this made it easier to collect. Judges and bureaucrats became more important; • Development of bureau of taxes, accounts office and chancery, board for inspection of grievances, police department – some were developed from Umayyad rule. Continued division of provinces under governors; • Political: change in political elite; it became more varied in composition, not just Arabs, but also Iranians and Persians. Clerks of Christian origin joined by Iranians. Government often described as Persian in character, but Arabs still held high positions and Arabic was still the language of administration. Remained a Muslim state and claimed to base rule on Islam. Non-Arabs could hold high positions; • Creation of Baghdad. This also brought economic opportunities. Became a model for many new towns, for example Samarra and Cairo. Brought social change as towns were used to house followers and generate income. Impact on urban development; • Changed position of Khorasan; • Promotion of commerce and industry, increased position within the state for merchants. Prosperity based on Baghdad. Agricultural impetus under the Abbasids as the capital was well situated; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the extent to which the first century of Abbasid rule brought about significant economic and political change in the Islamic world. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 5 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AF/M The Fatimids (909–1171) 3. Examine the ideological and cultural impact of the Fatimid Empire on the Islamic world. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case an examination of the ideological and cultural impact of the Fatimid Empire on the Islamic world. It is important that responses focus specifically on the ideological and cultural impact of the Fatimid Empire, rather than on the impact more generally. Points discussed may include: • Scholarship/academics: the Fatimids funded one of the first universities in the world (the Al Azhar university) which was a major intellectual centre and still exists today. Extensive libraries were also established in Fatimid palaces; • The Fatimids advanced Islamic scholarship in science, and particular astronomy; • Religion: the Fatimids generally practiced tolerance of other faiths and sects and did not make extensive efforts to convert others to their faith. Candidates may also discuss the relationship between the Fatimid Empire and Ismaili beliefs, and the relationship with Sunni Muslims; • Arts: the Fatimids introduced new styles, especially in ceramics; • Architecture: new architectural styles were introduced, as seen for example in the al Hakim Mosque; • Candidates may discuss controversies about the ideological and cultural impact of the Fatimid Empire, particularly under Al Hakim; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the ideological and cultural impact of the Fatimid Empire on the Islamic world. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 6 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AF/M 4. “Internal problems rather than external challenges led to the collapse of the Fatimid Empire.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case the extent to which the candidate agrees with the claim that internal problems rather than external challenges led to the collapse of the Fatimid Empire. Points discussed may include: • Fatimid power rested on the efficiency of their military and government; their collapse began when internal division developed in the army and bureaucracy between Berber, Turkish and North African factions; • Internal strife caused the loss of Syria; • Caliphs lost power to viziers and generals, which weakened the regime; • Religious divisions between Druze and Assassins weakened the regime; attacks by the Seljuk Turks caused loss of territory and prestige; the Crusades captured Fatimid territory and caused a loss of prestige; • They failed to convert the population of their Empire to the Ismaili sect; revival of Sunni Islam, linked to the rise of Salah al-Din (Saladin); • Problems such as drought and famine; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the extent to which the candidate agrees with the claim that internal problems rather than external challenges led to the collapse of the Fatimid Empire. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 7 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AF/M The Crusades (1095–1291) 5. “Religious ideology was the primary motive for the Crusades.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case, the extent to which the candidate agrees that religious ideology was the primary motive for the Crusades. The dates of the topic (1095–1291) refer to the period from the calling of the First Crusade to the fall of Acre. Points discussed may include: • Religious motives could include following the call of a religious leader. In the case of Christians, for example, this could include responding to appeals from Popes and popular preachers (Urban II, Bernard); • Religious motives could also include: the chance to go on a pilgrimage; the chance to serve God; to obtain forgiveness of sins and salvation; a general sense of piety and religious devotion; or to visit, capture or recapture holy places; • Another motive for participation could be to avenge abuses; for example, as a response to stories of treatment of Christians following the fall of Jerusalem; • Economic motives could include: desire to gain land (including particularly second sons who would not inherit land and saw this as an opportunity to gain wealth); opportunities to obtain great wealth from plunder; lack of prospects at home; the opportunity to make fighting a career; trade – cities such as Venice and Genoa sought to profit; • Political reasons were complex, especially with the later Crusades, and with both Muslim and Christian participants. Frequently both made decisions and alliances that were personal and political. Originally political motives for Christians were to help the Byzantine Empire and to obtain land, a principality, and become a ruler. The Islamic world was far from united during the period between 1095 and 1291, and different sects and caliphs sought to maintain or enhance their positions; • Other motives for participation could include desire for travel, knowledge, excitement, or adventure, as many had never left their local areas before; or the opportunity to gain fame, respect and power at home if successful; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the extent to which the candidate agrees with the claim that religious ideology was the primary motive for the Crusades. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 8 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AF/M 6. Evaluate the impact of the Crusades on the Islamic world. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case an evaluation of the impact of the Crusades on the Islamic world. Points discussed may include: • The impact of the Crusades was largely negative in the Middle East as a result of the damage and casualties caused by war and increased political and religious divisions; • Loss of territory to the invaders for several centuries; • Led to stronger Muslim regimes as leaders such as Nur al-Din and Salah al-Din emerged and unified Muslims; new sense of Islamic unity and militancy to resist non-Muslim invaders; • Weakening of the Fatimid Empire contributing to its collapse; • The Crusades contributed to the decline in power of the Byzantine Empire and its replacement by a Muslim power; • Some increase in Muslim confidence occurred as a result of the defeat of the West and a more hostile attitude toward the West developed; • Loss of the Muslim states in Spain; • The presence of the Crusaders in the Middle East continued to undermine Muslim power; • The concept of jihad re-emerged as a result of the Crusades; • Increased commercial links with the West, particularly Italian cities; development occurred as Western merchants sought to expand trade with the Middle East and created increased demand for products from the region; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the impact of the Crusades on the Islamic world. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 9 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AF/M The Ottomans (1281–1566) 7. Evaluate the significance of the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case an evaluation of the significance of the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Points discussed may include: • Seen as significant for both the Ottoman Empire and Western Europe, which had seen it as the last stronghold of the East; • Prestige gained by the Ottomans and shock felt by the West; • Strategic issues: area from which to launch further attacks and the direction these attacks might take; • The Imperial view of the Ottoman Empire; • Consolidation of the Ottomans in the Mediterranean; • Threat to the Venetians and their possessions in the eastern Mediterranean, also threat to the Genoese. Discussions about trade following the fall of Constantinople; • Cultural impact and flight of scholars, documents etc; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the significance of the fall of Constantinople in 1453. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 10 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AF/M 8. Examine the contribution of either Selim I (1512–1520) or Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–1566) to the success of the Ottoman Empire during the 16th century. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case an evaluation of the contribution of either Selim I or Suleiman the Magnificent to the success of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century. Points discussed may include: Selim I • Selim’s focus was Anatolia and the Arab lands. Turned Ottomans into dominant power in the Islamic world with the conquest of Egypt. Conquests in the Middle East saw a change in direction of expansion; • Selim removed potential claimants, killing his father and secured position following civil strife and left only his son as claimant; • Reform of administration: Selim developed the concept of a self-funding conquest, developed trade routes in the East to bring in finances. Promoted by merit, often used former slaves and did not have to worry about power of nobility, unlike in the West; • Selim developed an efficient navy and system of government, and logistics designed to wage war; • Selim took the title of Caliph of Islam, the first Ottoman to have this title. Saw himself as the new Alexander the Great, defeated Muslim rival Shah Ismail of Iran and destroyed the Mamluk Empire in Egypt; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the contribution of Selim I to the success of the Ottoman Empire. Suleiman the Magnificent • Suleiman captured the island of Rhodes, the strategically important fortress city of Belgrade, which opened the way into the Danube Valley; victorious at the Battle of Mohács and occupied most of Hungary, but failed against Vienna and retreated; • Suleiman had ability as a leader and warrior. Suleiman led by example and quickly moved his army into the Balkans and personally led attack on Belgrade; seen as warrior leader, won him support; • Suleiman realized the need for a uniform legal system; created a quality civil service; efficient tax system which allowed raising of armies. He too promoted by merit; • Suleiman made effective use of siege artillery. Development of galley fleet which was able to defeat Venice, Spain and the Papacy; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the contribution of Suleiman the Magnificent to the success of the Ottoman Empire. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 11 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AF/M Trade and the rise and decline of African states and empires (800–1600) 9. Evaluate the reasons for the decline of the Ghana Empire. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case the reasons for the decline of the Ghana Empire. Much of the evidence on the slow collapse of the Ghana Empire is scant and fragmentary, meaning that there is uncertainty and controversy surrounding the reasons for its demise. However, it seems more than likely that the reason why the Ghana Empire emerged in the first place, the lucrative trade in salt and gold, was also a significant factor in its decline. Points discussed may include: • Emerging regional rivals such as the Sosso competed with Ghana for control of the trade routes and launched periodic raids on their territory. These incursions were both politically and economically debilitating; • New goldfields were discovered beyond the borders of the empire, most notably at Bure, and new trading routes were opened up to the east, further bypassing the empire and strengthening its competitors; • Rivalry with the Berber tribes which traded with Ghana was another decisive factor. Ghana’s conquest of the previously independent city state of Aughadost led to steadily worsening relations at precisely the moment that the Almoravid Berber dynasty emerged as a dominant political and military force in North Africa. The so-called Almoravid jihad probably led to the conquest of the imperial capital, Kumbi, in 1076. While the precise nature of conflict is disputed, there is little doubt that it represented a blow from which the empire never really recovered; • The political structure of the empire was also a factor in its demise. It was made up of a number of conquered kingdoms, each of which was keen to reassert its former independence if and when the opportunity arose. The final destruction of the empire was thus preceded by a prolonged period during which it weakened and slowly broke apart, leaving the residual rump vulnerable to a final attack from Mali; • Candidates may discuss the view that changes in climate played an important role in accelerating the decline of the empire. Droughts were increasingly frequent in the region in the 12th and 13th centuries, and this inhibited the capacity of the empire to sustain an agricultural economy. Attempts to turn arable land over to livestock grazing may have contributed to its further desertification. The resulting economic decline contributed to the empire’s internal instability and left it vulnerable to external conquest; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the reasons for the decline of the Ghana Empire. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 12 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AF/M 10. “Trade was more important to the success of the Mali Empire than it was to the success of the Kingdom of Kongo.” Discuss. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case a discussion of the claim that trade was more important to the success of the Mali Empire than it was to the success of the Kingdom of Kongo. Points discussed may include: • The vast wealth of the Mali Empire depended entirely on the trans-Saharan trade caravans, which brought salt to West Africa in exchange for gold, copper, slaves and other commodities. The most important of these items were salt and gold. Indeed, Mali was the source of most of the gold produced globally; • Contrastingly, slaves formed the mainstay of Kongo’s external trade with the Portuguese. Humans were exchanged for European goods such as cloths and firearms as the trade was an important factor in the growth of the kingdom; • In Mali, the vast bulk of state revenue came from taxes on external trade. The royal treasury was boosted by heavy taxes on all goods entering or leaving the empire. As well as this, all gold bars mined in the country were officially the property of the king; • In Kongo, the king tended to rely more on taxes on agricultural production as a means of raising revenue. In general, the authorities in the Kongo had less control over external trade than their counterparts in Mali, particularly as the demand for slaves in Portugal’s overseas empire (particularly Brazil) grew. Indeed, the insatiable Portuguese appetite for slaves undoubtedly led to the political destabilization of the country. This was a factor in the steady decline of the kingdom after the 16th century; • Internal trade was more important in the Kongo than in Mali, even though the internal trade in salt was particularly lucrative in the latter on account of the increase in its value in the southern parts of the empire. In the Kongo, iron, copper, salt and animal hides were traded as well as agricultural goods, and some of these commodities were also traded with the Portuguese; • Each empire also established currencies in order to regulate their trade. In Kongo this typically took the form of cowrie shells, while in Mali copper or salt bars were used, or even gold dust, depending on the region; • It could be argued that external trade was more important in Mali than it was in the Kongo, where the economy was more agricultural. While external trade undoubtedly benefited Mali, it ultimately worked to the detriment of the Kingdom of Kongo; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on whether trade was more important to the success of the Mali Empire than it was to the success of the Kingdom of Kongo. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 13 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AF/M Pre-colonial African states (1800–1900) 11. Compare and contrast the contributions of Tewodros II and Yohannes IV to the unification of Ethiopia. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case, they must examine both the similarities and the differences between the contributions of Tewodros II and Yohannes IV to the unification of Ethiopia. Points discussed may include: • Tewodros brought an end to the Zemana Mesafent, the fissiparous “era of the princes”, and ruled over a country which he unified for the first time in more than a century. Although his empire fell apart once again after his death, he left a strong legacy of centralization on which his successors could build. After Tewodros died, Yohannes defeated his main rival for the throne, Tekle Giyorgis. His coronation meant that an emperor ruled over a unified Ethiopia once again; • Comparison: Both Tewodros and Yohannes sacrificed their lives to the unification of their country and the need to protect it from foreign invasion. Tewodros chose to commit suicide rather than surrender to Napier’s expedition, while Yohannes was killed by a Mahdist sniper during the Battle of Metemma; • Comparison: both used conquest as a means of unifying Ethiopia and ensuring the survival of the empire. In Tewodros’ case, this involved the defeat of one rival warlord after another, while Yohannes fought external enemies in the form of the Italians, Egyptians and Sudanese Mahdists; • Contrast: Tewodros created a strongly centralized state by ruling directly over the lands of those he defeated. Yohannis instead sought to placate his main rivals, most notably Tekle Haymanot of Gojjam and Menelik of Shoa, by offering them considerable autonomy within a loosely federated political structure; • Contrast: Because of the brutal nature of his conquests and suppression of rebellions, as well as his extensive modernization programme, Tewodros incurred the animosity of many forces in Ethiopian society, most notably the Orthodox Church. The result is that, even before the death of Tewodros, the empire was once again in a state of political disarray. While some of Yohannes’s erstwhile allies eventually deserted him, a free and unified Ethiopia was his immediate and lasting legacy. Menelik II became emperor after his death and guaranteed Ethiopia’s independence at the Battle of Adwa; • Candidates must give an account of the similarities and differences between the contribution of the two leaders rather than simply describing their contribution. Thematic approaches are therefore likely to be more successful than end-on comparisons; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the similarities and differences between the contributions of Tewodros II and Yohannes IV to the unification of Ethiopia. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 14 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AF/M 12. “Moshoeshoe was a more successful ruler than Shaka Zulu.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case, the extent to which the candidate agrees with the claim that Moshoeshoe was a more successful ruler than Shaka Zulu. Candidate responses to this question will probably vary greatly and will likely hinge on how the term “successful” is defined. If success is associated more closely with military success, then Shaka Zulu is likely to be regarded as more successful, whereas if success is associated with statecraft and diplomacy then Moshoeshoe is likely to be regarded as more successful. Points discussed may include: • Successes of Moshoeshoe: his strategy of providing shelter to refugees of the Difaqane and incorporating them into his expanding Sotho state; his use of the mountain fortress of Thaba Bosiu as a defensive stronghold during hostile invasions; • Successes of Moshoeshoe: his use of the pitso system to discuss matters of state and resolve any disputes among his people; his decision to welcome French Catholic missionaries – who he then employed as foreign policy advisors – to his court; his encouragement of trade with the Boers and Griquas which allowed the Sotho nation to prosper; the mafisa system, whereby he lent cattle to newcomers in return for their political loyalty; • Successes of Moshoeshoe: his diplomatic skills – these were a key factor in his decision to request a British protectorate, a move which prevented defeat and annexation at the hands of the Boers and allowed him to continue as king of the Sotho; • Successes of Shaka Zulu: his bravery and prowess in battle; his military innovations such as the use of the iklwa and the ox-head formation, which led to the defeat of the Ndwandwe and other Nguni groups and the forging of a single Zulu nation; the adoption of the age grade regimental system; his practice of sparing the women and children of conquered peoples and incorporating them into the expanding Zulu population; • Successes of Shaka Zulu: his use of indunas, all of whom had already demonstrated their unswerving loyalty to him, as disciplined and effective political administrators; and the creation of a centralized Zulu state based on enormous cattle wealth, with a new capital built at kwaBulawayo; • Candidates may also stress the failures of Shaka Zulu and Moshoeshoe in their answers. With Shaka Zulu this may refer to the disastrous consequences of the Mfecane for the wider region, or indeed the arbitrary and ultimately self-defeating violence which characterized the final years of his life. In the case of Moshoeshoe, the main consequence of his decision to seek a British protectorate was the loss of Sotho independence; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the extent to which the candidate agrees with the claim that Moshoeshoe was a more successful ruler than Shaka Zulu. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 15 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AF/M The slave trade in Africa and the Middle East (1500–1900) 13. Examine the social and economic impact of the slave trade on Africa and the Middle East up until the 19th century. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case examining the huge social and economic impact of the slave trade on Africa and the Middle East. The focus of the essay must be on the social and economic impact of the slave trade, rather than on political consequences such as the collapse of political alliances. Points discussed may include: • The slave trade led to the loss of an estimated fifty million people in Africa, most of whom were young and economically productive, and a resulting demographic deficit which meant that the population of the continent remained static until well into the nineteenth century, leaving it vulnerable to colonial conquest. The trade also led to depopulation of urban areas in Africa as people fled the cities to avoid capture; • Candidates may also stress the sheer human suffering of the trade; for example, the terror wrought by the raids, the break-up of families and communities, the forced marches to the coast during which many died, and the incarceration of those captured in terrible conditions in the coastal forts before transportation by ship to the overseas slave markets; • While some individuals or even communities benefitted economically as a result of their involvement in the trade and their use of slaves, on the whole the effects were calamitous for Africa; • In the Middle East, wealthy individuals used slave as labour in large plantations and in mining, (where slaves were kept in awful conditions and life expectancy was extremely short), or for work in the household. Eunuchs were in high demand, hence the practice of forced castration; • Conversion to the Muslim faith for slaves in the Middle East was not that usual, as this would have conferred slaves with greater rights under Islamic law, including that of manumission. However, there was certainly a greater prospect of social mobility for black people in the Arab world than in the west. Many freed slaves went on to serve in the armies of emerging Islamic states (such as Morocco and Egypt) during the period; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the social and economic impact of the slave trade on Africa and the Middle East in the period. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 16 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AF/M 14. “Economic factors were the main reason for the decline of the Atlantic slave trade.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case the extent to which the candidate agrees with the claim that economic factors were the main reason for the decline of the Atlantic slave trade. Points discussed may include: • Economic factors which may be argued to have played an important role in the decline of the Atlantic slave trade may include: the waning of the sugar trade and its replacement by cotton production as the mainstay of British industry; the emergence of economic rivals (such as Java and Australia) which meant that the Caribbean sugar industry was already in a state of decline by the turn of the 19th century; the advent of industrial machinery which reduced the demand for slave labour on the plantations; the rise of “legitimate commerce” with West Africa resulting from the growing demand for palm oil (used as machine lubricants); and the recognition that Africa might one day serve as a valuable market for the products of British industry if it could be made more stable and prosperous by ending the slave trade; • Candidates may counter argue that the economic costs of abolishing the trade outweighed any benefits, and the cost of enforcing prohibition on the high seas was very high. The fact that the British ended it anyway may be argued to show that other factors were deemed more important than economic factors; • Candidates should also discuss non-economic reasons for the decline. These may include, for example, the changing moral climate in Britain associated with the rise of the evangelical Christian movement, and the campaigns of anti-slavery activists such as Thomas Clarkson and William Wilberforce as well as former slaves like Olaudah Equiano. Slave revolts in the Caribbean, and their brutal suppression by the authorities, also served to change the perception of slavery in the public mind. The result was a popular pressure that the British government could ultimately ignore no longer; • It may be pointed out that the Atlantic trade continued even after abolition in the British Empire in 1807, with several other European countries continuing with their own trade. Candidates may therefore point out that the real cause of the end of the trade was the passage of a number of anti-slave trade laws by different European countries after 1807, and indeed the struggle to enforce these; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the extent to which the candidate agrees with the claim that economic factors were the main reason for the decline of the Atlantic slave trade. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 17 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AF/M European imperialism and the partition of Africa (1850–1900) 15. Examine the reasons for increased European interest in Africa in the second half of the 19th century. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case, the reasons for increased European interest in Africa in the second half of the 19th century. Candidates are expected to have a clear understanding of the European background to the European interest in Africa and also to discuss events in Africa which contributed to European interest. Points discussed may include: • Factors such as the unification of Germany and Italy, and the role they played in the increased European interest in Africa; • The role played by industrialization in the need for imperial expansion in Africa with the aim of getting raw materials and markets for finished goods; • The role played by the development of the group of humanitarians whose aim was to help stop slave trade and slavery; • The role played by public opinion in Europe in propagating European interest in Africa; • The rivalry between the French and the Italians, which spilled over to North Africa; • Strategic factors which led to the British interest in areas like Egypt and Sudan; • French rivalry and German fear of French revenge after losing Alsace and Lorraine may also be considered. It is important for the candidates to demonstrate how this rivalry was evident in Bismarck’s activities in Africa; • The role played by King Leopold’s activities in the Congo, which led to the flaring up of European rivalry; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the reasons for the increased European interest in Africa in shing Nagaravatta, the first Khmer language newspaper. This paper criticized French colonial policies, foreign domination of their economy and the lack of opportunities for educated Khmer. In the Second World War Japanese calls of “Asia for the Asians” gained support amongst Cambodian nationalists. Demonstrations broke out following the arrest of a politically active Buddhist monk, Hem Chieu. The Vichy authorities arrested the demonstrators and imprisoned the leaders for life. In the final months of the war the Japanese disbanded the Vichy French administration and King Sihanouk responded by decreeing an independent Kampuchea; • Laos: The Laotians by and large accepted French control until the Second World War. In July 1940 Lao Nhay (Lao Renovation Movement) attempted to stage a coup d’état in Vientiane; although it failed, the students involved founded a new organization, Lao Pen Lao (Laos for the Lao). During the Second World War many Laotians fought alongside French agents using guerrilla tactics; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the impact of both wars on political developments in French Indo-China. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 28 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AS/M 26. “Sukarno’s collaboration with the Japanese was a key factor in the success of the Indonesian Independence Movement.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case the extent to which the candidate agrees with the claim that Sukarno’s collaboration with the Japanese was a key factor in the success of the Indonesian Independence Movement. Points discussed may include: • The importance of Sukarnos’s collaboration with the Japanese should be assessed in depth. In 1942 the Japanese invaded the Dutch East Indies. Both Sukarno and Hatta were willing to support the Japanese and were given control of Poesat Tenaga Rakjat whose objective was to encourage the Indonesian people to support Japanese occupation; • Sukarno was also in charge of militia units totalling 2 million by 1945. By mid-1945 the Japanese accepted the establishment of an Indonesian quasi-legislature, which was allowed to discuss the future of Indonesia as an independent state; • Following the Japanese unconditional surrender Sukarno and Hatta declared Indonesian independence and began to take control. Indonesian militia from the Second World War prepared for Allied intervention. British forces arrived in September and Sukarno attempted to appease the British by showing a willingness to establish a parliamentary democracy. Open conflict soon broke out and the British managed to gain control of key ports and the Dutch occupied the Outer Islands. However, the British wanted to withdraw and allowed Dutch forces to replace them. The British did encourage negotiations to take place between the Dutch and the Indonesians; • Other factors that may be considered include the beginnings of the Cold War, which also benefited the independence movement as Sukarno was seen as preferable to the Communists gaining power. In November 1946 the Linggadjati Agreement was signed. Sukarno agreed to accept Dutch sovereignty in the short term as long as there would be future discussions on the issue of independence. The Indonesian Communist Party rebelled against Sukarno’s actions but this was quickly put down and this gained Sukarno support from the US; • The Dutch broke the Linggadjati Agreement in 1947 and 1948 with massive offensives against Republican forces. Hatta and Sukarno were captured. There was international outrage towards the Dutch and the US put huge pressure on the Netherlands to release Sukarno and Hatta and agree to talks. The Dutch were eventually forced to accept Indonesian Independence in 1949; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the extent to which the candidate agrees with the claim that Sukarno’s collaboration with the Japanese was a key factor in the success of the Indonesian Independence movement. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 29 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AS/M The People’s Republic of China (1949–2005) 27. Evaluate Mao’s achievements as a nation builder in China between 1949 and 1976. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case an evaluation of both the strengths and limitations of Mao Tse-Tung as a nation builder during the period 1949 to 1976. Points discussed may include: • Candidates may make a distinction between Mao, the popular revolutionary leader who gained power in 1949, and Mao, the nation builder, who made mistakes; • Some candidates may initially discuss Maoism: concepts of land redistribution, peasant socialism, working alongside the peasants, class struggle, gender equality, right thinking, rectification, continuous revolution, the mass line, the Yan’an Spirit and Chinese nationalism; and evaluate the extent to which Mao disappointed in the application and achievement of these as a nation builder; • Mao’s policies and campaigns throughout the 27-year period include: the New China reconstruction period (1949–1952); the First Five Year Plan (1952–1957); the 100 Flowers and Anti-Rightist Campaigns (1956–1957); the Great Leap Forward (1958–1961); the moderate period (1961–1965); the Socialist Education Movement (1962); and the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966–1976). Candidates may consider how far these contributed towards building a nation; • Mao’s achievements in foreign policy may also be evaluated, including Sino–Soviet relations and Mao’s rapprochement with the United States in 1972 and its importance in the recognition of the People’s Republic of China as a nation; • Mao’s achievements in relation to the contributions of some of the leaders may also be discussed: Lin Biao, Liu Shaoqi, Deng Xiaoping, Zhou Enlai, Peng Dehuai and Jiang Qing; • Some candidates may mention the CCP’s reassessment of Mao in July 1981 and/or the split of 70 % good and 30 % bad that has become the accepted Chinese assessment of Mao; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on Mao’s achievements as a nation builder in China during the period. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 30 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AS/M 28. Examine the reasons why Deng Xiaoping emerged as the most powerful leader in China by 1982. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case the various reasons why Deng Xiaoping emerged as the most powerful leader in China by 1982. The question relates to the rise to power of Deng Xiaoping rather than his long-term policies as leader of China, and candidates will need to identify why Deng was designated “paramount leader” by 1982. Points discussed may include: • Candidates may refer to factors such as Deng’s long history within the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), and his military connections (eg he was a military leader during the Civil War 1946–1949); • In 1961 Mao was sidelined and Deng, with Liu Shaoqi, introduced more moderate and pragmatic measures to end the famine and restore the economy. Mao reasserted his power during the Cultural Revolution and Deng was purged and exiled to the countryside; • Zhou Enlai, China’s Foreign Minister and premier, used his influence with Mao to have Deng re-instated as vice-premier in 1974. In 1975 Deng worked with Zhou drafting the Four Modernizations, a new economic reform programme; • In January 1976 Zhou Enlai died and, in April 1976, thousands rallied in Tiananmen Square in memory of him. The Gang of Four blamed Deng and he was dismissed from all his posts while Hua Guofeng was promoted to premier and Mao’s successor. Mao died in September and Hua arrested the Gang of Four in October. After this, calls to reinstate Deng were made by the people and from inside the Party. One year after Zhou’s death, Tiananmen Square again filled with pro-Deng rallies, with popular support another reason why Deng emerged as leader after Mao; • In July 1977, Deng returned to all his former posts and he proceeded to undermine Hua’s authority. In preparation for the Third Plenum of the Eleventh Party National People’s Congress in 1978, Deng criticized Hua’s adherence to Mao’s ideology and advocated new directions; • The Four Modernizations were accepted at this meeting as the basis for future economic development and began to be successfully implemented between 1978 and 1982. Thus Deng’s economic appeal was also a reason; • The Gang of Four were tried and sentenced in 1980–1981. Hua was removed from office by 1982; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the reasons why Deng emerged as the most powerful leader in China by 1982. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 31 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AS/M Cold War conflicts in Asia 29. To what extent was the Vietnam War responsible for the rise of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia? Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case, the extent to which the Vietnam War was responsible for the rise of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia. Candidates should assess the impact the Vietnam War had on the rise of the Khmer Rouge, as well as considering other factors that could be regarded as responsible for the rise. Points discussed may include: • The leader of Cambodia, Sihanouk, had tried to keep Cambodia neutral as far as its position in the Vietnam War was concerned. However, North Vietnamese troops began to use Cambodian territory to supply their forces stationed in South Vietnam, which resulted in US bombing raids in 1969 on Cambodia. These bombing raids reduced support for Sihanouk and also benefited the Khmer Rouge because people fled the cities for the countryside; • Sihanouk was deposed by General Lon Nol in 1970. This unpopular move, combined with continued US bombing and the increasing influence of the NVA in Cambodia further increased support for the Khmer Rouge; • Following his removal from power Sihanouk began to support the Khmer Rouge. Sihanouk's popular support in rural Cambodia allowed the Khmer Rouge to extend its influence over the Cambodian people. Many people in Cambodia who helped the Khmer Rouge against the Lon Nol government thought they were fighting for the restoration of Sihanouk; • In March 1970, the North Vietnamese invaded Cambodia claiming that the invasion was at the request of the Khmer Rouge. The NVA quickly overran large parts of Cambodia, defeating government forces and turning the newly acquired territories over to the Khmer Rouge; • Candidates may consider other factors that led to the rise of the Khmer Rouge such as long-term social and economic problems or the policies and tactics of the Khmer Rouge; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the extent to which the Vietnam War was responsible for the rise of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 32 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AS/M 30. To what extent were foreign powers responsible for the outbreak of the Korean War? Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case the extent to which foreign powers were responsible for the outbreak of the Korean War. Candidates should assess the roles of foreign powers, most notably the USSR, US, China and the United Nations, in the outbreak of the Korean War, as well as considering other factors which could be regarded as responsible for the outbreak of the war. Points discussed may include: • Candidates may include some context of the impact of the beginnings of the Cold War on the Korean peninsula. At the Yalta Conference it was decided that Korea should be temporarily divided along the 38th parallel. The emerging Cold War conflict saw the declaration of two Korean states in 1948, the Communist north and a non-Communist south. The Soviet-backed communist regime in the North was led by Kim Il Sung, and the Americans supported the anti-communist Syngman Rhee, who became leader of the Republic of Korea (ROK); • The importance of the UN intervention should also be addressed. The North Korean invasion of the South in June 1950 intensified US fears of the spread of communism. A vote in the UN Security Council authorized UN intervention, and US forces (joined by those of other non-Communist powers) entered the conflict, pursuing the North Koreans towards the Yalu River border with China. The USSR was absent during the UN vote, which enabled the US to gain UN authorization; • The People’s Republic of China wanted to preserve a North Korean Communist State (the DPRK) to serve as a buffer between Manchuria and the US-dominated ROK. The PRC was concerned that the US had broken its promise not to cross the 38th Parallel. The Chinese planned a surprise attack, secretly moving troops across the Yalu. China did not declare war and claimed the troops to be “volunteers” so that it could officially deny responsibility. Chinese “volunteers” drove the UN forces back to the 38th parallel where the war reached a stalemate until a ceasefire in 1953. The DPRK became a bastion of Communism under Kim Il Sung and formed a close alliance with China; • Candidates may suggest other factors were also responsible such as the oppressive nature of Syngman Rhee’s regime before war broke out. Thousands of suspected Communists were jailed or killed. Others fled to prepare for guerrilla war against the US-sponsored Republic Of Korea government. Other factors also included the Cold War and Kim’s desire to unite the Korean peninsula. • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the extent to which foreign powers were responsible for the outbreak of the Korean War. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 33 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AS/M Developments and challenges in South Asia after 1947 31. Discuss the nature of the problems facing Pakistan, and the extent to which they had been resolved by the end of the 20th century. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question. In this case candidates should discuss the nature of range of social, political and economic problems facing Pakistan, and also assess the extent to which those problems had been resolved by the end of the 20th century. Points discussed may include: • Pakistan was created from the two regions where Muslims were the majority but this resulted in the new nation being a divided one, separated by Indian territory. East Pakistanis felt exploited by the West Pakistan-dominated central government. Linguistic, cultural, and ethnic differences also contributed to the estrangement of East from West Pakistan. This division into East and West Pakistan would eventually lead to conflict and the creation of Bangladesh in 1971; • Kashmir also added to the problems facing the new Pakistani government. Kashmir quickly became disputed territory with India and Pakistan, was a cause of wars between the two nations in 1965, 1971 and 1999, and was clearly not resolved by 2000; • The economic situation in Pakistan was also very difficult. The wealth of British India had been granted to India whereas Pakistan initially had little to support it. Pakistan had hoped for a share of India’s material, financial, and military assets but this was not to be. Millions of refugees on both sides of the divide also caused further difficulties. Economic problems remained an ongoing issue. However, during the Khan era there were improvements in both agricultural and industrial sectors, partly as a result of US funding; • Jinnah had held the country together in these early days but his death led to a power vacuum. Prime ministers that followed him lacked his strength of personality to deal with the regional issues and religious differences/extremism that would continue to hinder Pakistan’s development up until the end of the century; • Violence, instability and dictatorial rule dominated the new nation. In 1958 a military government was established and martial law declared, which would last over three years; • The role of religion in politics would also remain an ongoing issue for Pakistan. Jinnah managed to promote religious equality and tolerance but the prime ministers that followed failed to do so. Ayub Khan had attempted to bring about a series of social reforms regarding women/family life but many conservative Muslims saw them as too western. Under Zia’s leadership of Pakistan religious tradition would dominate all aspects of daily life. Islamization therefore became the guiding principle in Zia’s plan to reform Pakistan, to reassure its unity, and to galvanize the country to meet all threats, both foreign and domestic; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the nature of the problems facing Pakistan and the extent to which they had been resolved by the end of the 20th century. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 34 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AS/M 32. To what extent could Indira Gandhi’s leadership of India be regarded as successful? Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case the extent to which Indira Gandhi’s leadership of India could be regarded as successful. Candidates should assess a range of Indira Gandhi’s policies and actions to determine the extent to which they were successful. Points discussed may include: • Indira Gandhi was the prime minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in 1984, and was the dominant figure in India for almost two decades. Her political career was often dogged by controversy; • Positive social developments made under her leadership could include social equality, dealing with the caste system, women’s rights, health, religious divisions, and education. However, some of her policies, such as controlling population growth through a forced sterilization programme, were disliked because of their authoritarian nature; • A good deal had already been accomplished by her father (Jawaharlal Nehru) in terms of economic development, as a result of a series of Five Year Plans. Indira’s economic policies were initially a continuation of Nehru’s. She introduced left wing economic policies and promoted agricultural productivity. However, by the mid-1970s India was facing an economic crisis, to which it could be argued she failed to respond effectively; • Indira’s style of leadership of India was often criticized. She was found guilty of electoral malpractice in the 1975 elections and her support for her son Rajiv led to accusation of nepotism and corruption. Indira was authoritarian by nature and her most controversial measure was the State of Emergency in 1975, which enabled her to stay in power. In 1984 she authorized the Indian army to forcibly enter the Sikh sacred Golden Temple in Amritsar to arrest insurgents. She was assassinated in 1984 by a disgruntled Sikh bodyguard; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the extent to which Indira Gandhi’s leadership of India could be regarded as successful. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 35 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AS/M Developments in Oceania after the Second World War (1945–2005) 33. Evaluate the significance of immigration patterns in shaping society in Australia and New Zealand since the Second World War. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case the significance of immigration patterns in shaping society in both Australia and New Zealand during the period 1945 to 2005. In 1945 both Australia and New Zealand were conservative societies strongly influenced by a British political, legal, economic and cultural heritage. Prior to 1945 both countries had restricted immigration policies; after 1945 employment needs for modernization and development meant both countries embarked on extensive immigration campaigns. Points discussed may include: • For Australia, immigration patterns discussed may include: Calwell as Minister for Immigration in 1945 commented that Australia must “populate or perish”. Calwell wanted ten British for every non-English-speaking immigrant but this was unattainable, so immigrants from continental Europe were encouraged. The ethnic mix of immigrants changed significantly over the decades; • For New Zealand, there was a similar pattern with accepting displaced persons, British immigration and post-war assisted immigration schemes. In 1950, the National Government brought skilled immigrants from the Netherlands and other Northern European countries. New Zealand also had limited visas for unskilled labour from the Pacific Islands, but the racially restricted immigration policy was not changed until 1987. New Zealand’s economy and social patterns were also shaped by the demands of Maori urbanization and the immigration of a greater number of Pacific Islanders; • Initially, immigrants were given little government help and were expected to assimilate. Many experienced prejudice and overseas qualifications were not recognized. Nevertheless, immigration contributed to creating Australia’s and New Zealand’s post-war prosperity because it allowed the economies to expand rapidly; • Successive waves of immigrants caused demographic changes and stimulated the expansion of infrastructure and essential services such as education and welfare. Immigration also impacted on the social and cultural nature of Australian and New Zealand societies. This was apparent by the 1980s and 1990s in the development of a café culture; changes to liquor licensing laws; diversity of sports played; religious composition; etc; • On the surface, both countries became much more open and tolerant societies, although there were still instances of racism and discrimination. Nevertheless, elements of traditional conservative societies still remained: the considerable influence of Australia’s Returned Servicemen’s League (RSL) and New Zealand’s Returned Services Association (RSA); the formation of radical right-wing anti-immigration parties; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the significance of immigration patterns in shaping society in Australia and New Zealand during the period. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 36 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AS/M 34. Examine the changes in the foreign and economic policies of either Australia or New Zealand that led to the development of closer relations with countries in Asia and the Pacific Islands between 1945 and 2000. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case an examination of the changes in both the foreign and economic policies of either Australia or New Zealand between 1945 and 2000. The focus of the response should be specifically on the changes in these policies that led to closer relations with countries in Asia and the Pacific Islands, so developments such as changes in relations with Britain should be discussed within this context. Points discussed may include: • The Second World War caused Australia and New Zealand to realize that they could not depend on Britain for defence. This led to the ANZUS Pact (1951) between Australia, New Zealand and the United States providing mutual defence; • The rise of Communism in Asia presented another perceived threat and in 1954 Australia and New Zealand joined the South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). These agreements assumed a policy of forward defence so that Australia and New Zealand sent forces to resist North Korea’s invasion of South Korea and to fight communist insurgents in Malaya, Borneo and Vietnam; • Australia and New Zealand were involved with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries and the Pacific Island states to promote regional cooperation on security issues. Australia and New Zealand played key role in the Colombo Plan, which provided developing nations in the region with aid and expertise; • Britain’s entry into the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1972 reduced the access of former British colonies and dominions in the region to British trade and markets. This caused New Zealand to turn to East and South East Asia as economic partners, particularly to China. Both countries formally recognized the People’s Republic of China in 1972 and these bilateral relationships grew to become most important; • Australia gave support to the United Nations and its activities in the region, including leading an international peacekeeping force to East Timor in 1999 when Indonesia withdrew. Another focus for Australia was relations between the developed and developing nations in the region; • New Zealand was instrumental in establishing the South Pacific Forum in 1971, which in 1999 became the Pacific Island Forum. Australia was also a member of this group, which met annually to discuss issues of mutual concern to the region such as economic development, tourism, trade, security and education; • Much of New Zealand’s foreign policy was focused on the Pacific region and economic assistance was given to projects in the South Pacific Island states. In the late 20th century New Zealand followed an increasingly isolationist policy and a strong anti-nuclear stance opposed to French and US policies in the region; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the changes in the foreign and economic policies that led to the development of closer relations with countries in Asia and the Pacific Islands in the period. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 37 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AS/M Social, cultural and economic developments in Asia (excluding China, Japan and India) (1980–2005) 35. To what extent has technology transformed the society and economy of two countries in the region (excluding China, Japan and India)? Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question. Candidates should select any two countries in the region (apart from China, Japan and India) and assess the extent to which technology has transformed both their society and economy. Popular countries chosen for discussion are likely to include South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore, but any two countries from the region (apart from China, Japan and India) are acceptable. Points discussed may include: • Computing and communication technologies significantly transformed most countries in the region during the last two decades of the 20th century. A key development was the mass production and widespread use of computers and cellular phones. During the 1980s millions of computers made their way into schools, homes, business, and industry and were responsible for transforming the nature of society and economic progress; • By 1983 cellular phones became widely available and from 1990 to 2000, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew from 12.4 million to 750 million. Growth was rapid even in the developing world where cellular phones provided a solution to a shortage of landline connections; • The World Wide Web became accessible to the public in 1991 and most countries had a connection to it by 1999. The economic impact of the World Wide Web has been significant. Without the World Wide Web, for example, globalization would not have occurred to the extent it has, transforming the way individuals and companies interact with each other. The ability to share information on a global scale has also had political consequences as it presented new opportunities for communication and information-sharing in countries where this had previously been difficult; • The response should focus on how technology has transformed both the society and the economy of the countries selected for discussion. As part of the discussion of the impact on society the ways technology has transformed education, medicine, sport and the arts could all be considered; • Candidates should be able to discuss the extent to which these developments transformed any two countries in the region. They should consider the different ways digital technology has transformed the economy and society of those nations. While many of the results identified are likely to be positive in nature, stronger candidates may also have considered the problems brought about by these new technologies, the extent to which they really have had an impact on society, or inequality in the impact on different groups in societies; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the extent to which technology transformed the society and economy of the two countries selected for discussion. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 38 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/AS/M 36. Discuss the extent to which women gained equality in one country in the region by 2005 (excluding China, Japan and India). Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case the extent to which women gained equality in one country from the region (apart from China, Japan and India) by 2005. The detail of candidates’ responses will vary according to the country they choose to discuss. Points discussed may include: • The time frame for this question is 1980 to 2005. Candidates may discuss the status of women prior to this time frame as a means of establishing the extent to which this changed, but this should not be the main focus of the response; • Candidates should give details of policies, attitudes and/or actions of governments towards women to measure the extent to which they did gain equality; • Candidates may give political examples such as political representation and participation in politics at local and national level, etc; • Candidates may give economic examples such as greater social mobility, access to new careers, property and inheritance legal rights, etc; • Candidates may give social examples such as increased educational opportunities, access to healthcare especially family planning, etc; • Candidates may give examples from culture and sport such as women’s sporting events being given more prestige, equal pay and credit given to women in the arts, film, music, etc; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the extent to which women gained equality in the country selected for discussion by 2005. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU History Higher level Paper 3 – history of Europe 5 pages © International Baccalaureate Organization 2015 Instructions to candidates y Do not open this examination paper until instructed to do so. y Answer any three questions. y Each question is worth [15 marks]. y The maximum mark for this examination paper is [45 marks]. 2 hours 30 minutes Specimen paper– 2 – Monarchies in England and France (1066–1223) 1. Examine the reasons for William I’s success in establishing his authority as King of England. 2. To what extent were the Capetian kings of France successful in extending the royal demesne in the period from 1137 to 1223? Muslims and Jews in medieval Europe (1095–1492) 3. Examine the reasons for the collapse of Islamic rule in Spain. 4. “The most significant impact of Jewish persecution was the loss of skill and ability from economic and cultural life.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? Late medieval political crises (1300–1487) 5. Examine the reasons for English success in the Hundred Years War in the period from 1415 to 1427. 6. Compare and contrast the political challenges facing Henry VI and Edward IV of England. The Renaissance (c1400–1600) 7. To what extent was the social and political structure in Florence responsible for the origins of the Renaissance? 8. Discuss the role and significance of Lorenzo de Medici in the patronage of art in Renaissance Italy. The Age of Exploration and its impact (1400–1550) 9. Evaluate the significance of Henry the Navigator in the 15th-century exploration of Africa. 10. Examine the importance of religion as a motive for European exploration. SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU– 3 – Turn over The Reformation (1517–1572) 11. To what extent were the attitudes of the German princes responsible for the spread of Lutheranism in Germany between 1517 and 1547? 12. Examine the importance of the Council of Trent for the Catholic Church. Absolutism and Enlightenment (1650–1800) 13. Compare and contrast the political impact of Enlightenment ideas in two European states you have studied. 14. Examine the impact of monarchical patronage on the arts in any one country from the region. The French Revolution and Napoleon I (1774–1815) 15. To what extent do you agree with the claim that Louis XVI caused the French Revolution? 16. Evaluate the success of Napoleon I’s domestic policies in the period from 1799 to 1815. France (1815–1914) 17. Examine the causes and significance of the Revolution of 1830. 18. Evaluate the extent of political instability in the French Third Republic between 1871 and 1890. Society, politics and economy in Britain and Ireland (1815–1914) 19. “Unrealistic and overambitious demands were the main reason for the failure of Chartism.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? 20. Evaluate the success of Disraeli’s foreign policy. SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU– 4 – Italy (1815–1871) and Germany (1815–1890) 21. Examine the consequences of Austrian dominance in Italy between 1815 and 1849. 22. “Bismarck was the sole architect of German unification, 1862 to 1871.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? Imperial Russia, revolution and the establishment of the Soviet Union (1855–1924) 23. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of Alexander II and Alexander III. 24. Examine the reasons for Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War. Europe and the First World War (1871–1918) 25. Evaluate the claim that German foreign policy was the main cause of the First World War. 26. Discuss the effects of the First World War on the civilian population in any one European country. European states in the inter-war years (1918–1939) 27. Evaluate the reasons for the survival of the Weimar Republic in the period from 1918 to 1923. 28. Examine the reasons for the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War. Versailles to Berlin: Diplomacy in Europe (1919–1945) 29. “The Treaty of Versailles was a fair and reasonable peace.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? 30. Evaluate the successes and failures of the League of Nations in Europe. The Soviet Union and post-Soviet Russia (1924–2000) 31. Discuss the reasons for Stalin’s success in the struggle for power during the period 1924 to 1929. 32. Evaluate the success of Brezhnev’s domestic policies. SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU– 5 – Post-war western and northern Europe (1945–2000) 33. Examine the reasons for, and the extent of, European integration between 1945 and 2000. 34. Discuss the challenges to the establishment of democracy in Spain up to 1982. Post-war central and eastern Europe (1945–2000) 35. Examine the extent of economic and social change in any one country in Central or Eastern Europe from 1989 to 2000. 36. “Popular support for local Communist parties was the main reason for Soviet dominance in Eastern Europe during the period 1945 to 1955.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EUSPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M 38 pages Markscheme Specimen History Higher level Paper 3 – history of Europe– 2 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M Note for examiners: The following pages of this markscheme outline what members of the paper setting team had in mind when they devised the questions. The points listed in the bullet points indicate possible areas candidates might cover in their answers. They are not compulsory points and are not necessarily the best possible points. They are only a framework to help examiners in their assessment. Examiners should be responsive to any other valid points or any other valid approaches. Markbands for paper 3 Marks Level descriptor 13–15 Responses are clearly focused, showing a high degree of awareness of the demands and implications of the question. Answers are well structured, balanced and effectively organized. Knowledge is detailed, accurate and relevant. Events are placed in their historical context, and there is a clear understanding of historical concepts. Examples used are appropriate and relevant, and are used effectively to support the analysis/evaluation. Arguments are clear and coherent. There is evaluation of different perspectives, and this evaluation is integrated effectively into the answer. The answer contains well-developed critical analysis. All, or nearly all, of the main points are substantiated, and the response argues to a reasoned conclusion. 10–12 The demands of the question are understood and addressed. Answers are generally well structured and organized, although there may be some repetition or lack of clarity in places. Knowledge is accurate and relevant. Events are placed in their historical context, and there is a clear understanding of historical concepts. Examples used are appropriate and relevant, and are used to support the analysis/evaluation. Arguments are mainly clear and coherent. There is some awareness and evaluation of different perspectives. The response contains critical analysis. Most of the main points are substantiated, and the response argues to a consistent conclusion. 7–9 The response indicates an understanding of the demands of the question, but these demands are only partially addressed. There is an attempt to follow a structured approach. Knowledge is mostly accurate and relevant. Events are generally placed in their historical context. Examples used are appropriate and relevant. The response moves beyond description to include some analysis or critical commentary, but this is not sustained. 4–6 The response indicates some understanding of the demands of the question. While there may be an attempt to follow a structured approach, the response lacks clarity and coherence. Knowledge is demonstrated but lacks accuracy and relevance. There is a superficial understanding of historical context. The answer makes use of specific examples, although these may be vague or lack relevance. There is some limited analysis, but the response is primarily narrative/descriptive in nature, rather than analytical. 1–3 There is little understanding of the demands of the question. The answer is poorly structured or, where there is a recognizable essay structure, there is minimal focus on the task. Little knowledge is present. Where specific examples are referred to, they are factually incorrect, irrelevant or vague. The response contains little or no critical analysis. It may consist mostly of generalizations and poorly substantiated assertions. 0 Answers do not reach a standard described by the descriptors above.– 3 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M Monarchies in England and France (1066–1223) 1. Examine the reasons for William I’s success in establishing his authority as King of England. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case the reasons for William I’s success in establishing his rule in England in the decades after 1066. William I, Duke of Normandy (1028–1087), also known as William the Conqueror, and as William I of England, ruled from 1066 until his death in 1087. Points discussed may include: • William I’s use of force, including the harrying of the north, to enforce his authority following the victory at Hastings; • William I’s implantation of a new French-speaking military, bureaucratic and ecclesiastical elite to govern his kingdom; • William I’s use of castles as a means of imposing military authority and control; • William I’s administrative policies, including the Domesday Survey and the growth of written governance; • William I’s continuation of some pre-existing institutions and systems, including the office of earl and sheriff, the use of writs and the re-introduction of Geld as a tax; • William I’s use of force to suppress rebellions in the north and southwest; for example, the rebellion in 1069 was crushed and many leaders executed; • William I’s control over the Church in England; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the reasons for William I’s success in establishing his authority as King of England. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 4 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M 2. To what extent were the Capetian kings of France successful in extending the royal demesne in the period from 1137 to 1223? Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case the extent to which the Capetian kings of France were able to extend their lands during the reigns of Louis VII and Philip II. Points discussed may include: • The prospect of the absorption of Aquitaine following Louis’s marriage to Eleanor; • The inability of Louis VII to resist the expansion of Angevin rule and influence into Aquitaine, Normandy and Brittany; • Louis VII’s interventions in the family politics of Henry II in order to seek to divide his enemies and their territories; • Philip II’s early expansion of the royal demesne through purchase, eg Amiens and Tournai; • Philip II’s successful war against Henry II in 1187 to 1189, resulting in the conquest of Touraine and Maine; • Philip II’s successful war against John, and the conquest of Normandy (1203–4); • The Albigensian Crusade and the successful extension of royal power into the South of France; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the extent to which the Capetian kings of France were able to extend their lands during the period. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 5 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M Muslims and Jews in medieval Europe (1095–1492) 3. Examine the reasons for the collapse of Islamic rule in Spain. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case, the reasons for the collapse of Islamic rule in Spain. Points discussed may include: • The reasons for the collapse of Islamic rule may be found in a combination of Islamic problems and changes in the Christian world; • Constant strife amongst Muslim kingdoms weakened the Muslim grip on power, whereas the Christian kingdoms joined together and became stronger; • Muslim states made alliances with Christian states to fight other Muslim states, which increased Christian wealth and power while weakening the Muslim states; • The Almohads and Almoravids could not restore Muslim power due to strife between them and their unpopularity with many Muslims in Spain; • The Christians in Spain received major reinforcements from Europe as part of the crusading movement. This allowed them to be victorious at Las Navas de Tolosa which was a major blow to Muslim power; • Military orders, such as the Templars, established themselves in Spain to fight against the Muslims and added strength to Christian armies; • Christian states gained in wealth and power by adopting Muslim knowledge, technology and military tactics; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the reasons for the collapse of Islamic rule in Spain. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 6 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M 4. “The most significant impact of Jewish persecution was the loss of skill and ability from economic and cultural life.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case, the extent to which the candidate agrees with the claim that the most significant impact of Jewish persecution was the loss of skill and ability from economic and cultural life. Candidates should discuss the significance of this particular impact of Jewish persecution, as well as discussing the relative significance of other impacts, both of the persecution on the Jews themselves and also of the persecution on society. Points discussed may include: • The persecution of Jews in medieval Europe worsened during the Crusades, and Jews were also blamed for the spread of the Black Death; • The Jewish persecution had a significant impact on economic and cultural life. Many Jews previously held important roles in finance and, in Spain, Córdoba had previously been a centre for Jewish scholarship and philosophy; • The persecution was evident throughout Europe. Under the Almohads many Jews and Christians were expelled from Islamic Spain. There were restrictions on the official posts Jews could hold in medieval Europe, such as the restrictions introduced by Pope Gregory VII, and numerous expulsions, such as the expulsions from England under Edward I and France under Charles IV; • The impact on Jewish people of this persecution included violent riots and attacks on Jewish populations. This included massacres such as the Strasbourg massacre (1349) and the massacre in Seville in 1391. Following the massacre in Seville many synagogues were converted into churches and Jewish buildings were burnt down, and violence spread to other areas such as Barcelona; • In both Sicily and Spain, Jews were forced to wear badges to identify themselves, and were forced to live in segregated areas; • The time period for this question runs until 1492, allowing candidates to include discussion of the establishment of the Spanish Inquisition under Ferdinand and Isabella, and the Alhambra Decree of 1492; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the extent to which the candidate agrees with the claim that the most significant impact of Jewish persecution was the loss of skill and ability from economic and cultural life. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 7 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M Late medieval political crises (1300–1487) 5. Examine the reasons for English success in the Hundred Years War in the period from 1415 to 1427. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case the reasons why King Henry V and his brothers were able to conquer Normandy and much of North-West France in the years 1415 to 1427. Points discussed may include: • The incapacity of Charles VI, contrasted with the vigour and ambition of Henry V; • The significance of the Civil War in France; division between Burgundy and Orleans; • The impact of the battles of Agincourt (1415) and Verneuil (1424); and the conquest of Normandy (1417); • The role of English archers and men-at-arms in the military successes of this period; • The role of Parliament in enabling war finance for Henry V’s armies; • The impact of the Treaty of Troyes (1420); • The successful continuation of the war under John, Duke of Bedford, following Henry V’s death; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the reasons for English success in the Hundred Years War in the specified period. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 8 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M 6. Compare and contrast the political challenges facing Henry VI and Edward IV of England. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case by comparing and contrasting the problems faced by Henry VI and Edward IV during the Wars of the Roses. Points discussed may include: • Comparison: both Henry VI and Edward IV had insecure titles derived from conquest and debatable hereditary claims; • Comparison: Both Henry VI and Edward IV had queens who polarized their opponents: Margaret of Anjou and Elizabeth Woodville; • Contrast: Henry VI faced a wave of unpopularity due to his perceived responsibility for defeats in France, whereas Edward IV secured a French pension in the 1470s to deter him from invading; • Contrast: the Lancastrian family was broadly loyal to Henry VI, whereas Edward IV experienced disloyalty from his brother Clarence, and the Earl of Warwick; • Contrast: Henry VI was incapable of ruling for much of his reign, whereas Edward IV was competent and able from the beginning of his reign; • Contrast: Henry VI was overwhelmed by the strength of political opposition in the 1460s, whereas Edward IV was secure during much of his reign, and died as king; • Contrast: Henry VI faced major popular opposition in Parliament and during the 1450 uprising; whereas Edward IV had more support in the south; • Candidates must give an account of the similarities and differences in the political challenges facing the two rulers, not simply give a description of the nature of those challenges. Thematic approaches are therefore likely to be more successful than end-on comparisons. • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the similarities and differences between the political challenges facing Henry VI and Edward IV of England. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 9 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M The Renaissance (c1400–1600) 7. To what extent was the social and political structure in Florence responsible for the origins of the Renaissance? Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case the extent to which the particular social and political structure in Florence was responsible for the origins of the Renaissance. Florence was extremely powerful and influential at this time, as well as having strong traditions of humanism and civic organization. Points discussed may include: • Florence was a self-governing city state, in contrast to, for example, Milan. Social status was closely linked to occupation – power was mostly held by elite families of bankers and merchants; • The self-governance of city states such as Florence fostered competition between city states such as Florence, Venice, Pisa and Siena; the rivalry between these city states during the period helped to inspire them to new achievements in a variety of areas of endeavour; • Candidates may discuss the importance of patronage of the arts in Florence; particularly the importance of the ambitions of individual patrons and rulers such as Lorenzo de Medici; • Candidates may discuss the extent to which other factors, such as economic factors, could be regarded as responsible for the origins of the Renaissance; for example, Italy’s location linking northern Europe to the Mediterranean world and the East, and to the world’s trade routes. Florence in particular had gained a great deal of wealth from trade and industry, particularly from cloth and banking; • Candidates may discuss the extent to which other factors, such as religious and ideological factors, could be regarded as responsible for the origins of the Renaissance; for example, crises in the Catholic Church such as the Avignon Papacy controversy led to a dissatisfaction with medieval values, or the strong tradition of humanism in Florence; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the extent to which the particular social and political structure in Florence was responsible for the origins of the Renaissance. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 10 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M 8. Discuss the role and significance of Lorenzo de Medici in the patronage of art in Renaissance Italy. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case the role and significance of Lorenzo de Medici in the patronage of art in Renaissance Italy. The Medici family dominated politics in Florence for much of the 15th century, and Lorenzo was particularly renowned for being an artistic patron for artists such as Michelangelo. Points discussed may include: • Lorenzo as the patron of individual artists such as Da Vinci, Michelangelo, Verrocchio and Botticelli; • Lorenzo was also a literary patron, expanding the library begun by his father; • Lorenzo supported the development of Humanism, bringing together philosophers to discuss classical texts and helping Florence to become an important centre of Renaissance Humanism; • Lorenzo’s pride and ambition for the city of Florence was expressed in his own spending on public projects; • Some recent historians argue that although Lorenzo de Medici played an important role in the patronage of art in Italy, his significance is sometimes exaggerated or overstated; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the role and significance of Lorenzo de Medici in the patronage of art in Renaissance Italy. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 11 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M The Age of Exploration and its impact (1400–1550) 9. Evaluate the significance of Henry the Navigator in the 15th-century exploration of Africa. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case the significance of Henry the Navigator in the 15th-century exploration of Africa. Points discussed may include: • Henry’s patronage of exploration, including his supposed creation of a community of cartographers on the Sagres peninsula, including Jehuda Cresques; • Henry’s involvement in both enslavement and conversion and the debate over his reputation; • The importance of expeditions ordered by Henry under the leadership of sailors such as Cadamosto, Eanes, Velho, Perestrelo, Zarco and Teixeira; • His patronage of the University of Lisbon, and its link to his scientific interests; • His patronage of naval design to facilitate explorations of longer duration; • The failure of the expedition to Tangier in 1437; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the significance of Henry the Navigator in the 15th-century exploration of Africa. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 12 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M 10. Examine the importance of religion as a motive for European exploration. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case the relative importance of religion as a motive for European exploration in the 15th and early 16th centuries. There are numerous possible motives for European exploration, and candidates must assess the relative importance of religion. Points discussed may include: • Religious motives: desire to convert people in new lands; continue the Crusades against Islam; contact Christian kingdoms in Africa that some people believed to exist; • Commercial motives: searching for gold, spices and other luxury products from the East; the Ottoman conquest of Byzantium threatened to close trade routes to the East – new ones had to be opened; • Political motives: European countries saw exploration as a way to increase their wealth and strategic power versus rivals; patronage of influential leaders such as Henry the Navigator inspired the movement; • Individual motives: ambitious individuals such as Columbus and Cabot set out to seek personal fortunes and influence; stories of the East by individuals such as Marco Polo inspired others to seek these territories; • Other reasons for exploration: improvements in ship design, navigational instruments and maps made increased exploration possible; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the importance of religion as a motive for European exploration. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 13 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M The Reformation (1517–1572) 11. To what extent were the attitudes of the German princes responsible for the spread of Lutheranism in Germany between 1517 and 1547? Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case the extent to which the attitudes of the German princes were responsible for the spread of Lutheranism in Germany in the first half of the 16th century. Points discussed may include: • The power of the German princes and their instincts for political autonomy, eg Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony; • The resistance of German princes to Papal taxation and, especially, the sale of indulgences within Germany; • Luther’s challenge to the position and authority of the Papacy over the Church in the German states; • The appeal of Lutheran doctrine and ideology to other Humanists and Reformers; • The importance of the printing press, hymns and church music in disseminating Lutheran ideas; • The use of Luther by the German princes as a means of asserting their autonomy against Charles V; • The variety of pressures on Charles V, from France, his own Spanish kingdoms, and from the Turks, preventing concerted action against the Lutherans in Germany; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the extent to which the attitudes of the German princes were responsible for the spread of Lutheranism in Germany in the first half of the 16th century. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 14 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M 12. Examine the importance of the Council of Trent for the Catholic Church. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case, the importance of the Council of Trent (1545–1563). Candidates are likely to focus on the importance of the Council itself, and also of the reforms that it introduced, such as the reissuing of the Vulgate Bible, improved education for priests, and the tightening of discipline. Points discussed may include: • The Council of Trent is often regarded as the beginning of a period of Catholic revival, and was a response to the Protestant Reformation. It played an important role by providing a re-assertion of Catholic doctrine against Protestant ideas such as “Justification by Faith Alone”; • The Council clarified Catholic doctrines and teachings. It had a direct impact on Church practices; for example, the decision was taken to increase regulation of the texts used in Mass ceremonies, a decision that was implemented through the Roman Missal of 1570; • The Council rejected compromise with the Protestants, and affirmed the existing structure of the Catholic Church; • The Council had limitations; for example, it was heavily dominated by Italian bishops, and only a small percentage of the bishops eligible to attend actually did so. The Council took a long time to actually come about, because of factors such as the opposition of Clement VII and the wider political instability in Europe; • The Council of Trent was an important factor in bringing about reform in the Catholic Church, but there were other factors that drove reform too. For example, candidates may discuss the relative importance of the Council as compared to the role of individual priests, preachers and leaders such as Ingnatius of Loyola, or may discuss the importance of new religious orders, especially the Jesuits; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the importance of the Council of Trent for the Catholic Church. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 15 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M Absolutism and Enlightenment (1650–1800) 13. Compare and contrast the political impact of Enlightenment ideas in two European states you have studied. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case, discussion of both similarities and differences in the political impact of Enlightenment ideas in two European states. The detail of candidates’ answers will vary according to the particular states they choose to discuss, but candidates should make links between the ideas of the Enlightenment and the extent to which these led to political change in their chosen examples. Candidates should focus their response on the political impact of Enlightenment ideas, rather than on a detailed philosophical discussion of the ideas themselves. Points discussed may include: • Candidates may identify Enlightenment ideas of particular relevance, such as the focus on reason rather than on tradition and faith; • How these ideas could promote change or be used to support existing regimes; • The French example is likely to be especially popular as one of the two states used in the comparison, but is not required; • The ways in which Enlightenment ideas had an impact on public opinion and debate, and led to desire for political reform; • How Enlightenment ideas influenced discussion around individual rights and political constitutions; • The use of Enlightenment ideas in strengthening nation states; • Candidates must give an account of the similarities and differences in the political impact of Enlightenment ideas in the two states chosen for discussion, not simply give a description of the features of those ideas, or an account of the impact in each. Thematic approaches are therefore likely to be more successful than end-on comparisons. • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the similarities and differences between the political impact of Enlightenment ideas in two European states. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 16 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M 14. Examine the impact of monarchical patronage on the arts in any one country from the region. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case, candidates should show a clear understanding of how patronage operated and may argue that it was positive or negative for the development of the arts. Points discussed may include: • The detail of candidates’ answers will vary according to the country they choose to discuss; • Monarchs used the arts to reinforce their position; • The impact of financial support for artistic endeavour supplied by monarchs; • The arts were moved away from domination by the Church with the rise of monarchical patronage, and the impact that this had; • Discussion of the impact on the arts could include the impact on architecture, music, drama and literature as well as painting and sculpture; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the impact of monarchical patronage on the arts in the country selected for discussion. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 17 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M The French Revolution and Napoleon I (1774–1815) 15. To what extent do you agree with the claim that Louis XVI caused the French Revolution? Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case, the extent to which it was the misjudgments of Louis XVI that caused the French Revolution rather than any other factors. Points discussed may include: • Louis XVI’s decision to intervene in the American War of Independence with the resultant financial cost and possible spread of Enlightenment ideas via returning French troops; • Vacillating leadership of Louis XVI; appointment of a succession of ministers (for example Turgot, Necker, Calonne) but failure to support ministers’ reform measures; • Louis XVI’s indecision post-1789, sometimes seeming to work with those wanting a constitutional monarchy, but then Flight to Varennes and discovery of the armoire de fer; • In order to balance arguments that focus on Louis XVI, there could be other points raised. These could include social inequality inherent in the Áncien Régime; estates system and taxation; • Candidates may also include Enlightenment ideas and their role in the revolution; • Some candidates may point out the interrelated nature of some of the factors above; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the extent to which the candidate agrees with the claim that Louis XVI caused the French Revolution. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 18 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M 16. Evaluate the success of Napoleon I’s domestic policies in the period from 1799 to 1815. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case, the aims of Napoleon I’s domestic policies should be identified so that an evaluation of success can be made. Aims could include establishment and preservation of the Empire and creating a stable and efficient state. Points discussed may include: • Code Napoléon; • Concordat with the Pope; • Administrative, fiscal and economic policies; • Education reforms; • The strengthening of the state including law enforcement and repression of opposition; • The honours and merit system; légion d’honneur; • Confirmation of ownership of former church and émigré land; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the success of Napoleon I’s domestic policies in the period 1799 to 1815. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 19 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M France (1815–1914) 17. Examine the causes and significance of the Revolution of 1830. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case, candidates should identify the main reasons for the unpopularity of the Bourbon regime and Charles X by 1830. With regard to significance, candidates may comment on the increasing importance of popular support in maintaining a regime. Points discussed may include: • Revival of the Ultras from c1820 including the re-establishment of censorship and adjustment of the electoral law in the interests of the wealthy; • Under Charles X from 1824, there was compensation for the émigrés and a clerical revival; • Growth of an opposition press which became popular as a vehicle for criticism of reactionary policies; • Charles X’s choice of Polignac as prime minister in 1829; • Ordinances of St. Cloud in July 1830; • Other factors could include economic problems and a poor harvest which increased opposition, leading to strikes and demonstrations especially in Paris; • For significance, candidates could argue that the fact that the revolution occurred underlined the importance of a degree of popular consent for the regime; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the causes and significance of the Revolution of 1830. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 20 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M 18. Evaluate the extent of political instability in the French Third Republic between 1871 and 1890. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case whether the French Third Republic was really as unstable as it appeared to be. Candidates may consider different phases in the life of the Republic within this period or consider the extent of danger represented by different crises. Points discussed may include: • Post-war reconstruction and issues around possible monarchical restoration. The struggle between the National Assembly and the President (Thiers and MacMahon); • The changing nature of the National Assembly (increased Republican representation) and the tension this created with MacMahon; • The period to 1877 was characterized by a lack of clarity as to whether the Republic would survive; • Corruption and scandals, eg the second presidency of Grévy (the sale of honours); • The rise of Boulangisme and the extent to which Boulanger posed a real threat; • Throughout the period, there was apparent instability with regular changes of government and fragmented political parties. However, some may argue that there was in fact a great deal of continuity in terms of membership of governments; • An argument could be made that Republican unity against enemies on the Right ensured the survival of the Republic, suggesting an underlying stability; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the extent of political instability in the Third Republic between 1871 and 1890. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 21 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M Society, politics and economy in Britain and Ireland (1815–1914) 19. “Unrealistic and overambitious demands were the main reason for the failure of Chartism.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case candidates should identify the demands of the People’s Charter, consider the political context in which these demands were made, and examine levels of Chartist support in order to arrive at an evaluation of how realistic these demands were. Points discussed may include: • The extent to which Chartist support fluctuated according to the state of the economy; • Post-1832 parliament was unwilling to consider any further electoral reform; • Other factors for the failure of Chartism include divided leadership as to methods; moral vs. physical force; • The flexibility of the response by the British state; on the one hand to react promptly and effectively to Chartist violence and on the other to legislate to ameliorate social and economic grievances (Repeal of the Corn Laws, Mines Act); • Lack of middle class support arguably also undermined credibility; • Some might argue there was a confusion of social and political aims within the movement (O’Connor Land Scheme); • Some candidates may argue that Chartism did not ultimately fail as many of the demands of the Charter were enacted over the following decades; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the extent to which the candidate agrees with the claim that unrealistic and overambitious demands were the main reason for the failure of Chartism. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 22 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M 20. Evaluate the success of Disraeli’s foreign policy. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case candidates should identify the goals of Disraeli’s foreign policy as well as the consequences in order to arrive at an evaluation of success. Points discussed may include: • There is some debate as to how far Disraeli had clear aims, the extent to which he was an opportunist and how far his policy was driven by decisions of men on the ground, eg in South Africa and Afghanistan; • Imperial policy including Suez Canal shares, Empress of India Act, Zulu War, wars in Afghanistan; • European policy including Congress of Berlin; • As far as the Suez Canal was concerned, the route to India was safeguarded and access to the Empire improved (Australia and New Zealand). French influence was also limited. However, it did increase the British role in Egyptian affairs which led to problems in the 1880s; • As far as South Africa and Afghanistan are concerned, candidates may argue that initial military reverses were overcome; however, at a cost to Disraeli’s popularity. In addition, problems continued in these areas; later conflicts in South Africa; • Turning to the Congress of Berlin, Disraeli’s main aim was to limit Russian influence in the Balkans in order to protect British interests. This was largely successful in the short term (Russian influence was reduced and Britain gained Cyprus). However, Gladstone’s denunciation of “Bulgarian atrocities” contributed to Disraeli’s defeat at the 1880 election; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the success of Disraeli’s foreign policy. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 23 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M Italy (1815–1871) and Germany (1815–1890) 21. Examine the consequences of Austrian dominance in Italy between 1815 and 1849. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case candidates should understand the provisions of the Congress of Vienna insofar as they relate to Austrian dominance in Italy and their impact. Points discussed may include: • Direct Austrian rule over Lombardy and Venetia; • Indirect Austrian rule in the Central Duchies; • Austrian role in suppression of rebellions, eg in Naples and Piedmont in 1821 and in 1831–2 in the Central Duchies; • Austrian role in suppression of 1848 revolutions in Italy and defeat of Piedmont at Novara and Custoza; • Some may argue that consequences included the development of a degree of Italian national consciousness as a reaction to Austrian repression; • Some may argue that Austria limited the extent of liberal reform in the Central Duchies; • Austrian defeat of Piedmont in 1849 also meant that Piedmont was seen as a standard bearer for Italian unification in the following decades. (This point is permissible as consequences of Austrian dominance could be argued to continue post-1849); • Some may point out that there were consequences for Austria; arguably its repressive role in Italy meant that it failed to reform domestically and failed to respond adequately to the growth of Prussian power in Germany; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the consequences of Austrian dominance in Italy in the specified period. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 24 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M 22. “Bismarck was the sole architect of German unification, 1862 to 1871.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case candidates should consider how important Bismarck’s contribution to German unification was, as well as looking at the role of others. There could also be some discussion of to what extent Bismarck planned unification, as implied by the term “architect”, or whether he was an opportunist who improvised successfully. Points discussed may include: • Bismarck’s role in strengthening Prussia (military reforms and economic measures); • Bismarck’s foreign policy; his resistance to Austrian dominance of the German federation; • Bismarck’s role in the wars of unification: Danish War of 1864, Austro–Prussian War of 1866 and Franco–Prussian War of 1870–71; • The use of the term “architect” implies planning by Bismarck; candidates could discuss how far Bismarck planned each stage of the process, or whether he reacted to events; • Other factors that led to unification could include growing German nationalism, decline of Austria, weakness and failure of Napoleon III, role of King William IV of Prussia and the Prussian military (Roon and Moltke); • There could also be some consideration of the broader international context in which unification occurred (non-intervention of Britain and Russia); • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the extent to which the candidate agrees with the claim that Bismarck was the sole architect of German unification during the period 1862 to 1871. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 25 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M Imperial Russia, revolution and the establishment of the Soviet Union (1855–1924) 23. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of Alexander II and Alexander III. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case, examining in detail the reigns of both Tsars and identifying clearly where they were fundamentally in agreement, such as maintaining the Autocracy and strengthening Russia by encouraging economic growth. It could be argued that they were both very similar in their aims but differed as to how they could be achieved. Points discussed may include: • Candidates may focus on the contrast between Alexander II as the “Reforming Tsar” and Alexander III as the “Reactionary Tsar”; • Discussion should be supported by reference to specific policies, for example, Alexander III’s reversal of Zemstva power by the appointment of Land Commandants, increasing control of education, support for the Church etc; • In terms of the general attitudes of both Tsars, Alexander II was open to western ideas to some extent whereas Alexander III was very much a Slavophile; • Comparisons could include the key point that both were determined to maintain the monarchy; • Both pursued Russian dominance within the Empire; Alexander II being less willing to make concessions to national minorities after the Polish revolt of 1863; • Both sought economic growth. It is often forgotten that Alexander III appointed Witte as finance minister; • Candidates must give an account of the similarities and differences in the domestic policies of the two Tsars, not simply give a description of the features of these policies. Thematic approaches are therefore likely to be more successful than end-on comparisons. • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the similarities and differences between the domestic policies of Alexander II and Alexander III. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 26 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M 24. Examine the reasons for Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case the relative strength of the Bolsheviks and weakness of the White opposition. Points discussed may include: • Effective military leadership by Trotsky and political leadership by Lenin (War Communism and increase in Party control); • Divisions between and among the Whites and Greens, both in terms of aims and military objectives; • Aims of the Bolsheviks were very clear: protection of the Revolution and resistance to foreign intervention (nationalist aspect); • Some popular support for the Bolsheviks was linked to policies of land and peace (Brest Litovsk) and an unwillingness to revert to any approximation of Tsarist rule; • Bolsheviks controlled central areas and key cities of Russia, giving a geographical advantage over their opposition; • Decline of foreign support for the Whites due to a lack of popular support for involvement in Russia’s Civil War; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the reasons for Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 27 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M Europe and the First World War (1871–1918) 25. Evaluate the claim that German foreign policy was the main cause of the First World War. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case examination of various causes of the First World War and a consideration of the significance of German foreign policy in provoking the war. Points discussed may include: • Weltpolitik, “Place in the sun”; examples could include the First and Second Moroccan crises, naval race with Britain; • German failure to renew the Reinsurance Treaty and greater support for Austria-Hungary (eg the Bosnian crisis of 1908–9 and the “blank cheque” of July 1914); • Some may argue that the erratic nature of German foreign policy was due to some extent to the character of Wilhelm II and that this led to distrust of Germany; • Looking at other causes of the war, candidates could discuss the development of “two armed camps” between the Triple Entente and the Triple Alliance; • Broader problems of increased nationalism, particularly in the Balkans, led to instability as did the decline of the Ottoman Empire; • There could be an examination of the failure to manage the July 1914 crisis successfully by all the major powers (war had been averted in previous crises); • Some may argue that many nations were willing to go to war in 1914 as a distraction from domestic problems (eg Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia, Britain, France); • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the claim that German foreign policy was the main cause of the First World War. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 28 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M 26. Discuss the effects of the First World War on the civilian population in any one European country. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case candidates should focus clearly on effects of the war on the civilian population in their chosen country and avoid discussion of military events. Points discussed may include: • Britain, Germany, France and Russia are likely to be popular choices, but candidates may write about any other European country; • Initial national unity and support for respective governments; • The impact of conscription including the movement of women into the workforce; • Economic impact; increased government control of the economy; • Health of the population and rationing; civilian casualties where appropriate; • Growth of labour unrest and political radicalism, especially in Germany and Russia; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the effects of the First World War on the civilian population in the country selected for discussion. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 29 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M European states in the inter-war years (1918–1939) 27. Evaluate the reasons for the survival of the Weimar Republic in the period from 1918 to 1923. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case, candidates need to identify the threats to the Republic and the reasons why they were overcome. Points discussed may include: • Threats included Spartacist Rebellion, Bavarian Republic, Kapp Putsch, Munich Putsch; • They were overcome either because of military support for the Republic (Spartacist Rebellion and Bavarian Republic, Groener Ebert Pact) or popular support (Kapp); • Mainstream Weimar parties (Centre, SPD, DVP and DDP) had significant levels of popularity in the country, whereas the extremist parties, KPD, NSDAP and DNVP had limited support; • Some candidates may argue that in these years the Allies would have intervened against an overthrow of the Republic by revolutionary or monarchical forces; • During the crisis of 1923, Ebert as president allowed the use of Article 48 to enable politicians to take effective decisions to resolve the crisis, eg Stresemann issuing of the Rentenmark and calling off of Passive Resistance; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the reasons for the survival of the Weimar Republic in the period 1918 to 1923. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 30 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M 28. Examine the reasons for the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case candidates should assess why the Nationalists under Franco were able to win the war looking both at the advantages of the Nationalist side and the weaknesses of the Republicans. Points discussed may include: • Nationalist advantages could include the fact that the majority of the armed forces were on their side; the importance of the experienced Army of Africa could be underlined; • The role of foreign intervention could be discussed; Nazi/Fascist support for the Nationalists and the failure of the British and French governments to aid the Republicans; failure of the Non-Intervention Committee. The extent and significance of Soviet assistance to the Republican side could be debated; • Candidates may focus on the degree of political and military organization on both sides; some may argue that disunity on the Republican side (eg conflicts between PCE and POUM in Catalonia) was a disadvantage for them and that this contrasted with the way in which different elements of the Nationalist side worked together: Carlists, Falangists, Army; • There was arguably clearer leadership on the Nationalist side, with Franco appointed as Generalísimo in autumn 1936. This contrasted with divisions in the leadership of the Republican side (for example, Largo Caballero was replaced by Negrín in May 1937); • Role of the Church in endorsing the Nationalist side; extent to which this helped to generate popular support in some areas for the Nationalists; • Role of landowners and big business in supporting the Nationalists financially; and their alienation from the Republicans; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the reasons for the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 31 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M Versailles to Berlin: Diplomacy in Europe (1919–1945) 29. “The Treaty of Versailles was a fair and reasonable peace.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case, examining the major terms of the treaty with reference to the words “fair “ and “reasonable”. Some may disagree while others will agree with the statement. In either case, there should be some consideration of the context in which the treaty was drawn up ie the aftermath of a devastating war, the fact that Germany admitted defeat but that this was a new democratic Germany, the belief that Wilson’s 14 points would form the basis for negotiations. Points discussed may include: • The issue of the “War Guilt Clause” with perhaps reference to different historical theories. Possibly linking war guilt to the payment of reparations; • Territorial losses – Alsace-Lorraine, Schleswig-Holstein, Polish Corridor etc, did these conflict with the principle of National Self-Determination?; • Disarmament clauses; did these leave Germany unprotected and weak or did they satisfy the French need for security?; • Reparations: were these legitimate? Were they too much?; • Responses that agree with the statement may argue that German aggression was the main cause of the war, that Germany had suffered little material damage and that actually the peace could have been much harsher (eg Clemenceau was prevented from pursuing the establishment of an independent Rhineland state). In addition, comparisons could be made with the draconian provisions of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk imposed by Germany on Russia in March 1918; • Responses that disagree may argue the treaty was a Diktat, that it left Germany unable to recover economically because of the burden of reparations (although they did not cause inflation in 1923), that it was unfair to enforce a peace on the new democratic republic when the justification for such a peace were the policies of the German Empire; • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the extent to which the candidate agrees with the claim that the Treaty of Versailles was a fair and reasonable peace. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 32 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M 30. Evaluate the successes and failures of the League of Nations in Europe. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case candidates should be able to identify and evaluate the successes and failures of the League of Nations in Europe to 1939. Points discussed may include: • For successes, candidates could focus on the Aaland Islands dispute, the Upper Silesia settlement, Greek–Bulgarian Crisis of 1925. A variety of non-territorial successes could be discussed: for example the Nansen passport for displaced persons. • For failures, many candidates will no doubt discuss the collapse of attempts at disarmament, the withdrawal of key nations from the League (Germany, Italy) and perhaps the weakness of the Non-Intervention Committee on the Spanish Civil War. • The League also failed to act when the Treaty of Versailles was breached; eg German remilitarization of the Rhineland in March 1936. • Some candidates may look at weaknesses in the League’s structure as well as the choice of some nations not to join and the exclusion of others. Even when the Soviet Union joined in 1934, there was little cooperation due to the West’s fear of communism. • Some candidates may argue that the League was more successful in the 1920s than the 1930s due to the impact of the Depression in the latter decade. Arguably the Depression led to the rise of aggressive militaristic states (Germany), who flouted the League and that it led other states to pursue their own interests in foreign policy with little reference to the League (eg British policy on sanctions against Italy after the invasion of Abyssinia and the British policy of Appeasement of Germany). • A way of linking together successes and failures could be to argue that the League could be effective in Europe when the issues were related to relatively small powers but that this was not the case when major powers were concerned • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the successes and failures of the League of Nations in Europe. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 33 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M The Soviet Union and post- Soviet Russia (1924–2000) 31. Discuss the reasons for Stalin’s success in the struggle for power during the period 1924 to 1929. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case why Stalin, who had been very much a bureaucrat in the early years, had by 1929 become the dominant politician in the party and Trotsky, the hero of the revolution and civil war had been removed. Responses should indicate that the struggle was very much within the party and took place behind a debate on the future direction of the Soviet Union both politically and economically – Socialism in One Country versus Permanent Revolution. Points discussed may include: • Stalin’s position as General Secretary and how he used that increased control of the party (Lenin Enrolment, appointment of supporters to key posts within the party, his control of the agenda at party meetings etc), his failure to inform Trotsky of the date of Lenin’s funeral, his use of the Ban on Faction to eliminate rivals. • Stalin’s flexibility with regard to allies, he formed the Troika with Kamenev and Zinoviev to undermine Trotsky, then allied with Bukharin and the Right of the Party to eliminate the Left Opposition. • His flexibility on economic policy, initially supporting a continuation of NEP when Trotsky was urging radical economic transformation. By 1929 Stalin reinterpreted the idea of Socialism in One Country to mean what Trotsky had advocated in 1924 • For balance, responses should consider the weakness/mistakes of rivals such as Trotsky, Kamenev, Zinoviev and Bukharin. • Trotsky was seen by some as a threat because of his links with the Army; his adherence to the idea of Permanent Revolution was unpopular in the party, his failure to attend Lenin’s funeral was considered disrespectful and he failed to build a power base in the Party. • Trotsky also lacked political judgment, he voted to suppress Lenin’s Testament to maintain party unity; it was not until 1926 that the Left Opposition emerged, by which time Stalin had control of the Politburo. Kamenev and Zinoviev were still doubted because of their lack of enthusiasm for revolution in October 1917 and Bukharin’s economic ideas were considered too moderate and unrevolutionary • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the reasons for Stalin’s success in the struggle for power in 1924 to 1929. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 34 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M 32. Evaluate the success of Brezhnev’s domestic policies. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case candidates should identify the aims of Brezhnev’s domestic policies and make a judgment as to how successful his policies were in achieving his aims. Points discussed may include: • Brezhnev’s main domestic policy focus was stability after the upheavals of the Khrushchev era. • This was the case for economic policy where the Liberman reforms were abandoned, despite initial support from Kosygin. Centralized comprehensive planning remained in place focussed on heavy industry and defence. • De-Stalinization was also reversed to some extent with more favourable references to Stalin being introduced. Brezhnev introduced the “Trust in Cadres” slogan in 1965, welcomed by established Party bureaucrats. • As far as dissent was concerned, despite signing the Helsinki Accords on human rights, dissidents were persecuted; eg Sakharov, Solzhenitsyn. • In terms of the degree of success, many candidates may argue that in his lifetime, Brezhnev was successful in re-establishing stability and clamping down on dissent. However, in the longer term, it could be argued that the Soviet Union paid a heavy price for this success with an ageing Party leadership and a faltering economy, which would lead to problems in the 1980s • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the success of Brezhnev’s domestic policies. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 35 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M Post-war western and northern Europe (1945–2000) 33. Examine the reasons for, and the extent of, European integration between 1945 and 2000. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case both the reasons for, and the extent of, European integration between 1945 and 2000. Integration should be taken to mean both political and economic integration. Reasons for economic integration could include stimulating trade, opening new markets, reducing financial barriers such as national currencies. Reasons for political integration could include security for individual nations, reduction of tensions and giving nations more international impact as part of a supranational body. Points discussed may include: • Candidates may discuss economic integration, including the various economic bodies established to promote economic cooperation including Benelux Union, ECSC (European Coal and Steel Community), the EEC (1958) or Common Market with six members as well as EFTA (1959). In 1972, negotiations were completed for Britain’s entry alongside Ireland and Denmark with Greece, Spain and Portugal joining in the 1980s and Austria, Sweden and Finland in 1995. • In the post-Maastricht Era with the formation of the European Union and the introduction of the EURO, economic integration became much more developed • Candidates may consider the economic issues that challenged integration such as the controversial Common Agricultural Policy, overproduction “butter mountains” etc, fisheries quotas and constant disputes over Britain’s budget contributions/rebates. • In terms of political integration in the 1950s organizations such as NATO seemed to obviate the need for political integration; politicians such as De Gaulle remained suspicious of political integration. As the EEC expanded in the 1970s the main focus was on economic rather than political integration. • In 1979 the European Parliament was formed with directly elected members, but, as closer monetary union was established post-Maastricht, some member states were anxious about surrendering national sovereignty, which limited political integration • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the reasons for and the extent of European integration during the period 1945 to 2000. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 36 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M 34. Discuss the challenges to the establishment of democracy in Spain up to 1982. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case candidates should focus on the obstacles to the establishment of democracy in Spain, ranging from the legacy of the Civil War up to the PSOE victory in the elections of October 1982, but with the focus on the years after Franco’s death in November 1975. Points discussed may include: • In general, candidates could discuss the legacy of civil war and repression under Franco; this meant that deep divisions remained in Spanish society, arguably making a move to democracy more difficult. An example could be the difficulty with which the PCE was legalized in April 1977. • Many supporters of the Franco regime were unwilling to accept change, eg Arias Navarro, prime minister until July 1976, and many in the armed forces. In the latter case, this culminated in the failed coup of Tejero in February 1981. • The position of the king was initially weak; seen by many as representing continuity with the dictatorship, he was nicknamed Juan Carlos el Breve, (indicating that many thought his reign would be brief). • The economic context was also a challenge to the establishment of democracy. There were sharp rises in inflation and unemployment in Spain in the later 1970s. • Regional separatism was also growing in the aftermath of Franco’s death. Basque terrorism by ETA was especially important in 1978–81, leading to repression and further terror. Catalan separatism also grew in this period. • There were political divisions in the major political parties in this period: in the case of the UCD, this led to its steady decline from 1980–1982. In the case of the PSOE, the main opposition party 1977–82, there were splits over whether to keep Marxism as the party’s official ideology, which was not resolved until an Extraordinary Congress of September 1979 • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the challenges to the establishment of democracy in Spain up to 1982. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 37 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M Post-war central and eastern Europe (1945–2000) 35. Examine the extent of economic and social change in any one country in Central or Eastern Europe from 1989 to 2000. Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case the impact of the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold war on the former satellite states or on Germany because of eventual unification. Points discussed may include: • In order to answer this question successfully candidates need to have undertaken a case study of social and economic conditions in their chosen country from Central and Eastern Europe during the period 1989 to 2000. • Examples of social change could include aspects such as: greater social mobility because of wider access to educational opportunities; demographic changes; social change as a consequence of immigration; increased social diversity; more urbanized societies; impact on living standards (these could be negative as well as positive); changes to life expectancy; religious change; changes to family life • Examples of economic change could include aspects such as: the impact of the introduction of market economics in place of state controlled economies and privatizations of state enterprises. Employment opportunities (or lack of them); leisure; poverty and wealth could also be examined. • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the extent of economic and social change in any one country in Central or Eastern Europe during the period 1989 to 2000 The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.– 38 – SPEC/3/HISTS/HP3/ENG/TZ0/EU/M 36. “Popular support for local Communist parties was the main reason for Soviet dominance in Eastern Europe during the period 1945 to 1955.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? Candidates must demonstrate a clear understanding of the requirements of the question and effectively deploy knowledge of the key issue(s) raised by the question; in this case the ways in which Soviet dominance of Eastern Europe was established in the 10 years after the end of the Second World War. Points discussed may include: • The levels of support for local Communist parties, some of which gained some electoral support. Most national communist parties were linked with resistance to German occupation. • The strength of alternative parties and the tactics used by Communist parties, forming alliances with socialists (Poland, Hungary) to gain access to government and then using that access to gain control of key institutions such as the police and armed forces (Czechoslovakia) • Some candidates may argue that many alternative parties lacked credibility because of association with German occupation, or were too conservative and reactionary (Peasants Party in Poland), causing more moderate parties to ally with the Communists and thus providing the Communists with access to political control. • Other reasons for Soviet dominance that candidates may discuss could include: political interference and control by Moscow and economic dominance via Comecon. • Many would argue that the use and presence of Soviet troops was also extremely important in supporting local Communist parties as they extended their control and ensured Soviet dominance • Responses achieving marks in the top bands will provide a clear judgment on the extent to which the candidate agrees with the claim that popular support for local Communist parties was the main reason for Soviet dominance in Eastern Europe in the period 1945 to 1955. The above material is an indication of what candidates may elect to write about in their responses; however, it is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and no set answer is required. Examiners are reminded of the need to apply the markbands that provide the “best fit” to the responses given by candidates and to award credit wherever it is possible to do so.