9 (a) Describe the pattern of birth places in 1990 and how it has changed by 2010. [2+2 marks]
In 1990, the focus is UK and Europe [1 mark] with an additional [1 mark] for quantification, clarification or elaboration.
There is a wider geographical distribution in 2010 than in 1990 [1 mark].
Award [1 mark] for quantification, clarification or elaboration e.g. North America had no players in 1990 but now has several.
(b) Suggest three possible reasons why the sphere of influence of this league’s supporters has grown in size since 1990. [3×2 marks]
The answer requires three separate, valid reasons. Possible answers include:
• Growth in popularity
• Increased advertising and marketing in new areas
• Increased exposure in different media
• Increased wealth and development allow for growth of new markets
• Impact of globalization
• Impact of global competitions sparking interest
• Greater population mobility.
Each valid reason should be credited [1 mark] with an additional [1 mark] for saying how the factor has altered the sphere of influence.
(c) “Local people do not benefit from hosting an international sporting event.” Discuss this statement. [10 marks]
Reasons to agree with the statement include:
• Organization of events is usually done at national or international level
therefore some leakage can occur. Multinational investment and sponsorship
prevents the needs of local people being met.
• Likely increase in local problems – traffic, house prices etc.
• Effects are short term and interest in local issues wanes after event.
Reasons to disagree with the statement include:
• Legacy of investment in infrastructure and amenities for use by the community
• Employment provided
• Inward investment
• Requirements for sustainable development are more likely to be met.
While examples are not a specific requirement of the question, those answers that provide supporting examples are likely to access the higher markbands.
To access bands E and F, responses should present a balanced discussion that consider both reasons to agree and disagree with the statement and may realize that some benefits are not always clear cut and have a temporal aspect – short term/long term.
10 (a) Describe the changes in international tourist arrivals shown in the graph. [4 marks]
There is some growth until July 2008, [1 mark] then figures decline sharply [1 mark].
Award additional marks for any of the following:
• Some attempt at quantification
• Noting that highest growth is in February 2008
• Noting that April 2008 is an anomaly with greatly reduced growth
• Biggest decrease is in March 2009, or other valid points.
(b) Explain three reasons why international tourist arrivals can change in one named rural or urban location. [3×2 marks]
Possible reasons for a decrease include:
• Security concerns
• Rise of alternative attractions
• Stagnation or decline phase of Butler’s model
• Decline in investment
• Environmental decline or hazard
• Adverse exchange rates.
Possible reasons for an increase include:
• New facilities
• New investment
• Government policies
• Loss of alternate destinations
• Favourable exchange rates.
[1 mark] should be awarded for each basic reason stated and [1 mark] for additional explanation, clarification or elaboration.
(c) “Most recreational and sports facilities in urban areas are located near the city centre.” Discuss this statement. [10 marks]
There are many possible approaches to this question and the candidate’s argument and conclusion are likely to depend on the examples chosen for discussion.
In many cities, facilities for recreational activities (such as swimming pools and gyms for fitness training, for example) tend to be well developed in the city centre.
Facilities for spectator sports may depend on the age of the stadium. Older stadiums tend to be nearer the city centre (and therefore often experience traffic problems) than newer stadiums, which tend to be built on larger, less expensive sites, situated near the edge of the city, and close to inter-city or international communication links.
Participatory sports facilities such as tennis courts, golf courses and sports fields tend to reflect the distribution of residential areas, and are often absent from industrial or commercial zones.
It is not necessary to discuss the complete range of recreational and sports facilities, provided that enough variety is considered for some realistic conclusions to be reached.
It is expected that answers reaching bands E and F will offer supporting evidence and/or exemplification before arriving at a clear conclusion to the question.
Marks should be allocated according to the markbands.
The map shows an area in Utah, USA, where tourism is important.
9. (a) Identify one possible heritage tourism location and one possible ecotourism location shown on the map and justify your choice. [2+2 marks]
Ecotourism focuses on the natural environment; heritage tourism is based on a historic legacy.
Heritage tourism locations include:
Old Irontown Ruins – clearly a historical site, celebrating the industrial history of the area
Parowan Gap Petroglyphs – petroglyphs represent the culture and activities of ancient societies – the attraction is historical.
Ecotourism locations include:
Yankee Meadow Reservoir.
Other suggestions that are suitably justified are equally acceptable. 1 mark should be awarded for the site location with the remaining 1 mark awarded for the valid justification.
(b) Explain how the carrying capacity may be different for two of the activities at Three Peaks recreation area. [6 marks]
Answers may distinguish between different kinds of carrying capacity (environmental/perceptual). Carrying capacity is defined as the maximum number of people that a site/event can satisfy at one time. If this limit is exceeded, then there may be immediate impact on the environment (e.g. erosion caused by mountain biking and 4×4) or some users consider usage excessive (e.g. a picnic spot that becomes overcrowded and overused). Award up to 2 marks for each well developed idea, reserving the final 2 marks for demonstrating a clear understanding of the term “carrying capacity”.
A maximum of 4 marks should be awarded if variance in carrying capacity is identified but not explained.
(c) Discuss the factors affecting the distribution of leisure facilities in urban areas. [10 marks]
Leisure includes sport, tourism and recreation. Candidates are expected to include a range of factors that could include: bid rent, population densities, socio-economic influences, government grants/policies, cultural influences, accessibility, transport, demographic considerations, physical factors (e.g. rivers for rowing), availability of land.
Some candidates may illustrate differences between urban areas in economically rich and poor regions/countries.
While examples are not a specific requirement of the question, those answers that provide supporting examples are likely to access the higher markbands.
10. (a) Define:
(i) leisure, [2 marks]
Leisure is a freely chosen activity or experience [1 mark] that takes place in non-work time [1 mark].
(ii) tourism. [2 marks]
Tourism involves travel away from home [1 mark] for at least one night [1 mark].
All tourists are involved with leisure but not all leisure is tourism.
(b) Analyse three geographic factors, other than accessibility and affluence, that determine levels of participation in one named sport you have studied. [2+2+2 marks]
Participation may be on a local, national or international scale.
Candidates are expected to consider three distinct factors. [2 marks] are available for each developed factor up to a maximum of [6 marks]. The range of answers is wide, but could include socio-economic factors, education levels, funding, investment in infrastructure, marketing, role of governing body, media exposure, facility requirements. The answer may focus on the numbers of nations participating in international sports or individuals participating in sports. There may be other valid approaches, such as levels of spectator participation.
(c) Compare the influence of accessibility and affluence on the growth of either recreation or tourism or sport. [10 marks]
Sport, recreation and tourism are all leisure activities.
In general, increased affluence is likely to increase the participation in any of these leisure activities because of increases in disposable income, and increased investment in leisure facilities and infrastructure. A greater range of leisure resources are more accessible because of the ability to meet transport costs and membership/access fees.
Accessibility is likely to increase with affluence. As affluence allows investment in more leisure facilities and infrastructure, so accessibility increases. Accessibility for minority groups can be increased because of investment.
Answers are expected to provide obvious comparison between the relative influences of affluence and accessibility. Answers that provide only description of the influences should be limited to markband D.
While examples are not a specific requirement of the question, those answers that provide supporting examples are likely to access the higher markbands.
9. (a)The graph shows government investment in tourism for selected regions from 1995 to 2020.
All values are relative to the 1995 index of 100.
Describe the trends shown in the graph. [4 marks]
-government expenditure has grown in all areas
-south Asia and Caribbean growth higher than world average, Europe lower suggesting a developed world/developing world divergence the period of divergence begins in mid-2000s
- growth flattened for south Asia around 2008–2009
there may be other relevant observations.
Award [1 mark] for each valid statement up to a maximum of [4 marks]. Quantification is desirable but not essential given the complex nature of indexed data.
(b) Using a located example, explain two strategies used to develop tourism in low-income countries. [6 marks]
Strategies could include government and/or private initiatives. Examples could range from a local ecotourism initiative in a low-income country to a national-scale promotion. Responsible tourism that safeguards the interests of indigenous people may be another approach. There may be other approaches.
Possible strategies that may be explored include investing in marketing and branding, infrastructure (such as airports, roads, communications etc.), investment in education and training for local people (very important in low-income countries), conserving tourism resources for the future, providing subsidies and financial incentives for tourist developments, specific planning legislation to support tourist development.
Award up to [3 marks] for the explanation of each strategy, provided it is accompanied by a located example.
(c) For a country you have studied, to what extent do the economic benefits of tourism outweigh the environmental costs? [10 marks]
Answers will vary depending upon the case study chosen, but could include economic advantages such as employment and investment (as well as benefits to overseas tourism operators through leakages, etc.). Increased employment in the hospitality sector provides income (albeit often poorly paid and seasonal – and a good answer may want to comment on the sometimes debatable nature of the economic benefits).
The other side of the debate should focus on the environmental costs (e.g. natural resource consumption), waste (energy and water), loss of habitats (e.g. coral reefs, mangroves, etc.) because of development / visitor pressures. May use carrying capacity concept linked to trampling, etc.
There may be other approaches. Answers are expected to compare the costs and benefits rather than simply stating them and should arrive at an evaluative conclusion at band E. Direct reference to a relevant case study is required to access markbands above band D.
10. (a) Outline one political and one economic factor that affect participation in sport. [2+2 marks]
Political factors could include investment in sports facilities, public health and education investment, education policies, subsidies for sporting activities and governing bodies, legislation.
Economic factors could include availability of private sports facilities, level of public investment in sports facilities, quantity of personal disposable income, cost of sporting equipment. Any single factor may have different effects at different scales (local, national, international).
In each case, award [1 mark] for identifying a valid factor and [1 mark] for a brief outline of how it affects sports participation. For example, investment in public health and education can impact participation because it raises public awareness of the personal health benefits of involvement in sport, making it more likely for people to participate. Public education also makes people more likely to participate because they are frequently prompted to participate by the public information.
b) Referring to a national sports league you have studied, explain the factors that have determined the home location of its teams. [6 marks]
Answers will vary depending upon the sport chosen and its context but must examine a sports league of national importance. Factors are likely to include population density, socio-economic factors, cultural and historical factors, government and private investment, and proximity to competing teams. There are other valid responses that should be credited.
Award up to [3 marks] for each factor that is well explained. A wider range of factors can compensate for less depth. A generic answer, or one using an inappropriate example, should not be awarded more than [3 marks].
c) To what extent can tourism ever be made sustainable? [10 marks]
Answers may make use of contrasting examples, some successful, some not. Answers should show a sound understanding of the concept of sustainability (supporting local people while conserving resources for the future).
Answers are likely to make reference to the pressures resulting from tourism, efforts to minimize impact of the tourism activity, including transport, accommodation, tourist activities and resource use and waste disposal. These efforts should be evaluated rather than simply described as a success or failure in order to access the higher markbands.
Responses may evaluate the effectiveness of tourism in sustaining both societies and ecosystems in the long-term.
9. The graph shows the impact of hosting the Olympic Games on the GNI of a country.
(i) during the year of the Olympic Games 
+0.4 %. (accept +0.35 % to +0.45 %)
(ii) one year after the Olympic Games. 
–0.7 %. (accept –0.65 % to –0.75 %)
(b) Describe what is meant by the sphere of influence of a sporting event. 
The area (do not accept distance) from which a sporting event draws [1 mark] its competitors and/or supporters [1 mark].
(c) Suggest reasons why a country’s GNI increases before and during the Olympic Games. 
The answer can offer reasons for the specific changes shown in the graph, or may offer a general explanation (or one based on a case study). Any of these approaches is acceptable. For full marks both “before” and “during” must be addressed, but balance is not important.
Award up to [4 marks] for reasons why GNI is boosted before the Games. Reasons for growth could include investment (public and private), economic optimism, infrastructure development and its multiplier effect, sponsorship, development of specific sporting facilities etc. Credit any attempt made to distinguish between the higher and lower phases of growth shown in the graph (but do not expect this).
Award up to [4 marks] for each developed reason why GNI is boosted during the Games. Reasons for growth include tourism, retail sales, newspaper and media sales, food sales, transport receipts, etc.
In each case, award only [1 mark] for a list of benefits with no development, exemplification or use of data.
(d) Examine the changes in the international tourism industry that have led to the development of more remote tourism locations. 
Responses are expected to acknowledge the overall global increase in tourist numbers and the associated increase in revenues. This increase in the overall industry has increased the saturation of existing locations and led to new, more remote locations being developed. Reference to models of tourism may be relevant here. Ecotourism, adventure tourism, high value luxury tourism and back-packing are types of tourism that may occur in remote locations. In addition, an increase in transport infrastructure and reduced flight costs has made new locations more financially viable. Global warming may be opening up some remote locations to tourism, such as Greenland and Svalbard. A recognition amongst governments of the development potential provided by tourism has increased investment thus increasing access. Increasing standards of living in emerging economies is leading to an increase in the volume of global tourists in recognized markets. This is compounded by mass media and marketing.
While examples are not a specific requirement of the question, those answers that provide supporting examples are likely to access the higher markbands. At band D, at least two changes are described and linked to perceived remote locations. To access bands E and F a variety of changes are examined (eg may examine the most important change, or categorise the changes).
10. The graph shows responses from hikers to the question “How many people would you like to encounter during a hike*?” for two rural locations, A and B.
Maximum number of visitors/participants that a site can satisfy at one time.
(ii) State whether location A or B has the higher perceptual carrying capacity and justify your answer. [1+2]
Location B [1 mark] because more people are prepared to tolerate more people [1 mark]. Award [1 mark] for some attempt at quantification or for a definition of perceptual carrying capacity as maximum number before a specific group of visitors considers the level of impact to be excessive.
(b) Explain three factors that affect the distribution of sports facilities in urban areas. [2+2+2]
There are many factors that affect the distribution of sports facilities. Sports facilities might include large stadiums as well as parks, swimming pools, gyms, running tracks, and golf courses as well as other sports courts and fields.
Factors include accessibility, land values and the physical and socio-economic characteristics of urban zones. Accessibility – better accessibility makes it more available to larger numbers. Land availability and price – more land and cheaper land is generally available in suburban or edge of town locations (rural urban fringe). Competing land uses, such as commercial or residential developments, may affect choice of site. Rowing clubs and golf courses, for example, are closely linked to physical landscape. Socio-economic characteristics of the population of different urban zones may create a demand for different types of sports clubs, fitness centres etc.
Each valid suggestion should be awarded [1 mark] with up to a further [1 mark] awarded for development.
(c) Examine the effectiveness of using sport and recreation to promote urban regeneration. 
Candidates are expected to identify the characteristics of effective urban regeneration. Arguments in support of sport and recreation include community cohesiveness, investment in associated infrastructure, community health benefits, creation of tourist destination, creation of jobs and reduction in crime.
Alternative arguments include lack of long-term production jobs, lack of inclusion of entire community (eg elderly), possible changes in popularity of sport, and fluctuations in success of sports teams.
At band D, at least two effects should be described. For bands E and F there should be some evaluation of the effectiveness (eg arrives at a judgement, or examines from different perspectives).
9. (a) (i) Define the term leisure.
Any freely chosen activity or experience that takes place in non-work time. 
(ii) Define the term tourism.
 Travel away from home for at least one night [1 mark] usually for the purpose of leisure.
(b) Suggest two reasons why demand for international tourist services has increased rapidly in recent decades. [2+2]
1 mark for each valid reason offered. Possible reasons include: rising incomes, increased leisure time, cheaper tourist packages generating greater demand, advertising, growth of international chains/tourist TNCs, “no-frills” airlines, more student travel, ease of internet booking raising demand, “ageing” population of “sun-seekers”. There may be other valid reasons.
In each case award another [1 mark] for development or exemplification of the growth of international demand, for example, one which explains incomes are rising in post-industrial MEDCs, or new emerging middle-class in India/China.
(c) Explain two ways in which environmental damage from tourism has been minimized in one named city or large town. [2+2]
Answer is context-specific but award [1 mark] for each action described and [1 mark] for each link established with environmental protection, for example, reduced vehicle emissions, reduced noise pollution, pedestrianized areas, provision of bicycles for tourists, waste disposal strategies, control of effluent from coastal towns, usage zoning.
In Oxford [1 mark] increased traffic congestion resulting from tourism has been reduced by traffic management strategies [1 mark].
Damage limitation should be specific to the chosen town/city (do not credit “reduced carbon footprint”, etc). Award no more than [3 marks] if case study not given.
(d) Examine the view that tourism offers a guaranteed route towards economic development for low-income countries. 
Answer invites debate around “guaranteed”, in addition to recognizing that there are positives and negatives in any case, which in itself makes the statement controversial.
Economic benefits can be discussed for individuals working in the tourist industry or for national income. Expect details of multiplier effects, foreign earnings. This must be balanced against financial losses (leakage of profits from foreign-owned ventures). Good answers should recognize that tourism is not a one-size-fits-all development strategy: it may not be the best strategy in some cases (and parallel strategies might exist).
For band D, there should be an understanding of how tourism may lead to economic development, and an awareness of the limitations of tourism to economic development.
At band E the general truth of the statement should be explored, using exemplification.
10. (a) Identify two possible sport or recreational facilities that Map C might be showing. 
Likely answers might include:
• sports stadium
• music arena
• multiplex cinema
• large theatre
• art gallery
• theme parks.
Do not accept individual sports; sport facilities must be identified.
There may be other examples appropriate to a larger settlement in the hierarchy. Award [1 mark] for each valid suggestion.
(b) Analyse the maps for evidence of a leisure hierarchy. 
Possible answers might include:
• a settlement hierarchy is observable, comprising city, large towns, small towns etc
• this is linked to a leisure services hierarchy – higher-order functions, for example, golf courses only appear in/around larger towns [1 mark]
• people are prepared to travel further for high-order services / high-order services have greater range/larger catchment [1 mark]
• presence of highest-order services in highest-order places is also linked to settlement size / need for threshold population to be met [1 mark]
• high-order places have low-order functions too [1 mark].
Award a maximum of [3 marks] if no quantification (may compare numbers of settlements shown on maps or estimate distances being travelled).
(c) Explain two ways in which ecotourism is a sustainable industry. [2+2]
Environmental sustainability is met by conserving or preserving environmental amenities so that future generations can enjoy them too. This can be achieved through strict carrying capacity controls etc. Credit examples.
Socio-economic sustainability is met by providing jobs for local/indigenous people, for example, as tour guides (“hunters turned gamekeepers”). This provides long-term employment and gives future generations a chance to make a living. Credit examples.
Award up to [2 marks] for each developed idea. It is acceptable for both ideas to come from either branch of sustainability (natural environment or local communities).
(d) “Leisure, sports and tourism bring more problems than benefits to urban areas.” Discuss this statement. 
Candidates are expected to have evaluated the impacts of tourism on a named urban area and to also be able to discuss the role sports and recreation play in urban regeneration. Some reference to all three activities should be made, but balanced treatment is not expected.
The statement is presented as a discussion, encouraging candidates to argue both for and against. On the one hand, positive effects can follow from large sporting events / new stadia (for example, London Olympics 2012). Some regeneration successes are strongly linked with sports and recreation. On the other hand, long-term effects are hard to measure/debatable / recovery may be limited/stall.
A broader look at environmental and social costs could draw on carrying capacity concepts, etc. The statement’s truth (or not) may hinge on the effectiveness of management strategies.
For band D both problems and benefits in an identified urban area should be described.
At band E problems and benefits should be discussed in a balanced way.
At band F there should be a well balanced attempt at evaluation of the statement.
(i) Define the term environmental carrying capacity. 
The (maximum) number of people/visitors [1mark] before the local environment/area becomes damaged/harmed [1 mark]. Accept alternative phrasing.
(ii) Define the term perceptual carrying capacity. 
Award up to [2 marks] for any of the following:
• amount of people before the environment/area/activity is spoiled/not
enjoyed by those people or others
• provides details of different user groups and their perceptions/feelings
• provides detail of specific issues linked to negative feelings eg noise,
(b) Referring to specific activities, analyse why the leisure facilities in a central business district (CBD) differ from those in the rural–urban fringe. 
Differences could include different types of activity or differences in the size, scale and target users of the facilities.
Award up to [2 marks] for the range of activities covered by the answer (should have at least two in each case). Typical facilities in a CBD could include cinemas, theatres, restaurants, museums, whereas the rural–urban fringe may contain specialist sports grounds, garden centres, multiplex cinema, country parks. Also credit rural activities eg mountaineering facilities, ski slopes, mountain biking facilities.
Award up to [4 marks] for an analysis of why differences exist. Likely reasons that can be identified for [1 mark] each include:
• high accessibility in CBD attracts activities requiring many visitors
• land prices are lower at fringe so attracts activities needing space (do not credit
simply “more space”)
• CBD may be old, so home to historic visitor attractions
• younger people in CBD / older at fringes and this affects local facilities
• outdoor facilities linked with forest (eg paintballing), topography, etc
• clustering of activities in CBD where tourists gather
• high profits in CBD (due to high footfall) attract high threshold retailing (lower
profit/not for profit at fringes).
Alternatively, two reasons, well explained (uses examples or concepts like threshold) would merit [4 marks].
(c) “Sport and recreation are an effective means of regeneration for urban areas.” Discuss this statement. 
Candidates may agree or disagree with this statement. Barcelona and Beijing are often given as good examples of how sport can help regenerate a city. The London 2012 Olympics is considered to be a major success in the regeneration of London’s East End whereas Atlanta and Athens may be examples of where sport has had less success. Other methods could be discussed, such as property-led regeneration, new retail developments, urban development corporations, provided they are legitimate spin-off effects from the initial investment in sport rather than entirely alternate strategies.
The effectiveness of some strategies may only be evident over the long-term, and it may not be possible to assess “effectiveness” in the case of recent case studies such as the 2012 London Olympics.
Different groups may have differing perspectives on whether the changes are “effective” for them or others, eg those displaced by gentrification or those who do not like the noisy visitors that sport can attract.
At band D, responses are likely to be descriptive and might only consider one side of the argument.
At band E, expect either a wider range of more detailed impacts of sports/recreation regeneration for urban areas or some more explicit discussion of effectiveness.
At band F, expect both.
10. The map shows participating teams for one international sport.
Award [1 mark] for any of the following:
• they are globally dispersed / spread out / scattered
• covering most continents
• often only one or two per continent
• they are mainly between the tropics
• although England is an exception
• only the West Indies and Guyana are west (of the prime meridian/western
hemisphere) / most are east (of prime meridian)
• they are mainly coastal
• although Zimbabwe is an exception
• with the exception of England, this sport is mainly played in a country that has a
neighbouring country that also plays this sport
• credit other distributional points.
Do not credit “mostly LEDCs” or “ex-colonies of the UK” (as these are not descriptive points).
(b) Using examples, suggest how social and cultural factors can affect people’s participation in international sports. 
The focus should be on social/cultural factors. Credit economic/cost factors if linked to idea of social groups / classes / poverty / inequalities in society.
There are many possible factors to discuss:
• some sports are associated with relatively affluent people – equestrian, polo, golf
• other sports are associated with poorer people – football, boxing
• gender/ethnicity have played a role now or in the past in barring access eg,
women and boxing
• some sports are associated with diasporas (Gaelic football and hurling with the
Irish diaspora, for example)
• sports associated with political developments, eg, in cricket most of the countries
were part of the former British Empire
• more recent adopters could be related to media exposure/TV access (credit as
• links with education, aspirations and role models.
Award [1 mark] for each factor that is correctly linked to a sport and is a valid influence on participation. Also award [1 mark] for a further development/rationale (eg, cost of buying golf clubs, etc for those in low-income social groups).
Full marks could be achieved by three factors with development example or rationale provided, or six factors identified. Do not expect explicit separation of social and cultural factors.
(c) “Physical factors influence the location of tourist activities more than human factors.” Discuss this statement, with reference to examples. 
Physical factors include climate, relief and landscape, flora and fauna, oceans, lakes and rivers. These give rise to a wide variety of tourist activities such as beach holidays, climbing, skiing, bird watching, diving, sailing, surfing, fishing and so on. However, physical factors alone can never be sufficient to generate a tourism industry, as tourists require transport, accommodation and catering.
Human factors include transport (accessibility), culture, heritage, food and drink, political, entertainment, family, economic (affordability), and the provision of secondary tourist resources (hotels, airports, catering). They also include factors relating to the tourists themselves (age, gender, wealth, culture).
Most types of tourism depend on a mix of physical and human factors. Coastal resorts (eg, Costa del Sol) depend on sun, sand and sea but also air transport, hotels, catering and entertainment.
Responses that achieve band D are likely to be descriptive accounts, and might only consider physical or human factors.
At band E candidates should either provide some balanced explanation of physical and human factors supported by examples, or some explicit evaluation of the statement (eg, answer depends on type of tourist activity).
At band F, expect both (explanation and evaluation). Marks should be allocated according to the markbands.