Winnipeg in its glory and today

 Residence on Bannatyne 1903 and today
 The J.H. Ashdown Hardware Company Ltd. warehouse at the corner of Rorie Street and Bannatyne Avenue with its own connection to the railway main line through which its own train, the Ashdown Special, ran.
At McDermot, looking South. 
Looking from the other direction from the corner of Ross Ave.
Bannatyne Avenue looking West from Isabel
The Union Bank (next to the lost Leland Hotel) and City Hall in 1912 and the site today.
The two periods mashed
 James Street looking west from Main St. showing the Campbell block on the corner 
The police courts and station at the corner of King and James on 223 James Street, built in 1903. It was demolished in 1988 and replaced with this reproduction, now referred to as the Mandarin building. 
Princess Street with the Exchange Building built at 160 Princess Street in 1898 as an annex to the Grain Exchange building at 164 Princess, now being used as a library by Red River Community College.
The Exchange Building, 160 Princess Street, built 1898
Senator William Sanford’s Warehouse at the corner of Princess Street and Bannatyne Avenue; built in 1891, it was reduced to a single floor in a 1942 fire. 
The Bedford Building then and now, serving Reiss Furs. 

The Massey Block (1885)
Located at 70 Albert Street, the Telegram Building was the largest newspaper office west of Toronto and was taken over by the Winnipeg Tribune in 1920.
Mariaggi's Hotel at 86 Albert Street and 227-237 McDermot, formerly part of the Alexandra Block and the basement Grotto restaurant
   Carscaden and Peck Warehouse at the corner of Notre Dame Avenue and Princess Street from 1893
 Maw's Garage dating from 1906, home to one of the city's first car dealerships and described as "beyond doubt, the largest automobile floor on the continent in which there are no posts" and capable of holding one hundred and forty cars.
J. F. Galt Wholesale Grocer from 1887 at 92-104 Arthur Street

 The King Building (or Ryan Block) at 104 King St., originally built for former mayor Thomas Ryan in 1895, was left derelict after a massive fire caused by arson in 1991. It had served as a location for films like the Oscar-winning “Capote” and now its facade is being used as cover for 186 parking stalls.
The Birks Building on the corner of Portage Avenue and Smith Street, completed in 1901 for the YMCA which had purchased the land in June 1890. Designed by local architect George Browne, the building cost $88,500 and was officially opened January 18, 1901 and included a rotunda, reading rooms, parlour, a 150-seat lecture hall, 600-seat auditorium, running track, gymnasium, recreation room, boys' quarters, two meeting halls, classrooms, a library, boardroom and furnished bedrooms, showers, lockers and two bowling alleys. It also featured Winnipeg's first indoor pool. Birks acquired the building in September 1912 and had it significantly reworked to accommodate the jewellery store, adding distinctive Renaissance Revival palace façades designed by Percy Nobbs, featuring terracotta, granite, bronze and Tyndall stone. Above the third-floor openings are six terracotta medallions depicting the sources of the materials used by jewellers, with a seventh medallion on the north façade. These medallions depict turquoise (representing semi-precious stones), an elephant (representing ivory), a Kimberley Negro searching for diamonds, a man diving for pearls, an oceanic wave delivering the riches of the sea (mother-of-pearl, coral and a tortoise shell), a precious metal-smelting gnome, and a silversmith surrounded by the tools of his trade. Above the medallions is a frieze depicting such characters and places as King Solomon, the Queen of Sheba, gates of Jerusalem, Hiram, king of Tyre, Negroes and an Indian, and the three wise men giving and receiving gifts. $150,000 of alterations to the ground-floor show-window area in 1951 included a granite base and Tyndall stone facings surrounding the solid bronze show windows, as well as corner columns and vestibule walls lined with Travertine marble. The building was the Winnipeg showpiece for Birks for nearly eighty years. By 1991, the basement, first, second and third floors had all been substantially altered by the Birks Company, leaving only the fourth floor of dormitories unaltered from the YMCA era. Birks continued in this building until the 1987 when it moved to Portage Place.
Broadway, seen from the Union Station on Main Street
Dominion Bank, at the southwest corner of Main Street and McDermot Avenue around 1912 and the remaining British North American Bank.
Officially opening in October, 1912, visitors to the Canadian Bank of Commerce entered through huge bronze doors, and were treated to a lobby with a 14-foot high semi-circular ceiling. Marble walls rose to ceiling height and marble floors graced the foyer. From 1912 to 1969 the well-constructed facility required minimal renovations and remains one of the best examples on the prairies of Beaux-Arts classicism.
Portage Avenue at Garry looking West 
Garry Street then and now
Normal School, 1911. 
The Manitoba Club, Western Canada's oldest private club
 1st Baptist Church 1903 and today- Calvary Temple
Hargrave Street at Qu’Appelle Avenue
Main Street
Main Street north of City Hall, near present location of the Manitoba Museum. The McLaren Hotel stands at right.
 The Palace Livery & Boarding Stables at Smith Street and Graham Avenue. Built in 1882 and now demolished.
 Bank of Montreal at the corner of Portage and Main in 1915, where it's been since 1913.
Main Street underpass at Canadian Pacific Railway crossing, near the site of the Royal Alexandra Hotel at left (now demolished). When the Canadian Pacific Railway opened the Royal Alexandra Hotel on July 19, 1906, it was one of the finest in Canada. It cost a million dollars to build and was designed with the sophisticated business traveller and lavish Winnipeg party host in mind. With 450 rooms, including many luxury suites, it was a dramatic testament to Winnipeg’s self-proclaimed reputation as the fastest growing city in the Dominion. In a story about the opening, The Winnipeg Tribune called the impressive hotel a “guarantee in brick and stone that the future growth of Winnipeg is assured.” That lasted until the hotel closed its doors in 1967 and was demolished in 1971. The interior of its dining room was carefully disassembled, then reassembled at the Canadian Museum of Rail Travel at Cranbrook, British Columbia.

Winnipeg's Skid Row-  West side of Main, looking north toward Logan Ave in 1921 and today- only the McKerchar block remains. The Columbia movie theatre next to it, and the long, rambling Montreal House both burned down in a huge blaze in 1986. The Empire Block at far right, under the flagpole, was demolished in the 1950s.
Main Street south of Portage Avenue at York Avenue, near the Empire Hotel, which had been built in 1883 for Joseph-Edouard Cauchon, Manitoba’s first francophone Lieutenant Governor. It had been intended to be a commercial building but an economic slowdown made it difficult for Cauchon to rent out space, and he was eventually forced to sell it to a new owner, who converted the Empire into the city’s first apartment block. In 1896, after a fire, the building was extensively renovated to become the Assiniboine Block, Winnipeg’s first apartment block. It was again transformed in 1904-05, under the supervision of architect Alexander D. Melville, into its longest-standing incarnation, the Empire Hotel, after the Canadian Northern Railway’s main line and yards were established at the rear of the site.  In 1974, Great West Life Assurance Company purchased the building and an adjoining lot. After a feasibility study found the building too costly to renovate and was demolished in 1982.
Osborne Village, looking south from River Avenue where I had my first flat.
Wesley College, now the University of Winnipeg
Constructed in 1902, at a cost of $21,000 by the Grand Orange Lodge "in memory of the late Brother Thomas Scott, who was executed by the rebel Riel for his loyalty to Queen and country,” this building measured 50 ft. by 90 ft. with a full basement, mezzanine, third floor dance hall and lodge meeting rooms on the second floor. A major fire in 1943 destroyed the original interior and resulted in extensive alterations at a cost of $19,584.22 and was completed by September, 1943. After the fire, the dance hall was moved to the first floor and rest and cloakrooms were constructed in the basement. A two room caretaker’s suite was added on to the third floor.     
 The Grand Trunk Pacific, joined its east and west lines in Winnipeg in 1911 at Union Station and shortly after announced plans for a large hotel nearby. The new hotel was to be named "The Selkirk" but became the Fort Garry after the Upper Fort Garry fort, which had been located east of the hotel.
Built in 1881, the Vaughan Street gaol is the oldest and last remaining public building in the city from that year still standing. 
Louis Riel house at 330 River Road, St. Vital. He himself never actually resided in this house. He visited only briefly in the summer of 1883, but it was here that Riel's body lay in state for two days in December of 1885 following his execution for his involvement in treason during the North-West Rebellion. It was also in this house that his young wife, Marguerite, died in May of 1886.
Since 1883, the stately three-storey mansion located at 10 Kennedy Street in the heart of downtown Winnipeg, has been known as Government House and has been the residence of Manitoba's lieutenant-governors.  The photo on the left shows the visit of the Prince of Wales in 1919 followed by another eleven years later.

Upper Fort Garry Gate circa 1885 and today.
Located at the intersection of three major thoroughfares in downtown Winnipeg, the Lindsay Building is one of a handful of terracotta office towers erected during the city’s pre-Great War development boom.
The Royal Bank of Canada Building at 460 Main Street back in 1907 when it served as The Imperial Dry Goods Block and today. Unlike its competitors on the so-called Bankers' Row on Main between Portage and William avenues with their neoclassical façades, the Royal chose to build Winnipeg's only Italian Renaissance palazzo-style bank through the prestigious American firm of Carrère and Hastings.
The Woodbine Hotel at 466 Main St., built in 1899, in 1907 and today
Baker Block (Birt Saddlery) in 1903 and today

 The Crocus Building, formerly the J.H. Ashdown Hardware Store at 476 Main Street just before it burned down in 1904 and today. Two replacement storeys were built so that Ashdown would not miss the Christmas season. In 1905, an additional four storeys were built at a cost of $110,000.  Architects Moody and Moore added a one-storey northern addition and substantial changes to the face of the old building in 1959. The buildings solid red brick walls were plastered over and the windows covered on the front half of the Bannatyne elevation. Front windows were reworked into broad, horizontal frames and most other windows were painted over. The cornice was removed. In 2001 the building's exterior was restored with a $6 million transformation that incorporated as much of its old interior layout as was possible.
 East Kildonan City Hall in 1953 flying the proper Canadian flags and displaying loyalty and today, about to be demolished.
St. Boniface City Hall in 1907 with the original tower and 1911, flying the holy Union Flag from the
new tower. Construction of the City Hall began in 1905. It was completed in 1906 but the architect had 'cut corners' on tower as money ran out resulting in a squat, plain tower that was completely closed in. The tower so offended people that by 1908 the City Council insisted that the architect rebuild the tower and dome closer to the original plans, with the existing tower as the result. 
St. Boniface Normal School in 1909 and what's left of it today 
La Maison Gabrielle-Roy House at 375 Rue Deschambault in 1910 and today
 The Assiniboine Park Foot Bridge in 1915 and today

 St. Matthews Church (Now the West End Cultural Centre)

 The Winnipeg Tribune's special edition of If Day, a simulated Nazi German invasion and occupation of Winnipeg and surrounding areas (in Neepawa 'Nazi' soldiers confronted citizens in the streets, Virden was renamed "Virdenberg" and a mock attack was planned for strategic targets in Brandon)  during the Second World War. It was organised by the Greater Winnipeg Victory Loan organization, which was led by prominent Winnipeg businessman J. D. Perrin. The event was the largest military exercise in Winnipeg to that point.  If Day included a staged firefight between Canadian troops and volunteers dressed as German soldiers, the internment of prominent politicians, the imposition of Nazi rule, and a parade. The event was a fundraiser for the war effort: over $3 million was collected in Winnipeg on that day. It was the subject of a 2006 documentary, and was included in Guy Maddin's film My Winnipeg.
1. This territory is now a part of the Greater Reich and under the jurisdiction of Col. Erich Von Neuremburg, Gauleiter of the Fuehrer.
2. No civilians will be permitted on the streets between 9:30 p.m. and daybreak.
3. All public places are out of bounds to civilians, and not more than 8 persons can gather at one time in any place.
4. Every householder must provide billeting for 5 soldiers.
5. All organizations of a military, semi-military or fraternal nature are hereby disbanded and banned. Girl Guide, Boy Scout and similar youth organizations will remain in existence but under direction of the Gauleiter and Storm troops.
6. All owners of motor cars, trucks and buses must register same at Occupation Headquarters where they will be taken over by the Army of Occupation.
7. Each farmer must immediately report all stocks of grain and livestock and no farm produce may be sold except through the office of the Kommandant of supplies in Winnipeg. He may not keep any for his own consumption but must buy it back through the Central Authority in Winnipeg.
8. All national emblems excluding the Swastika must be immediately destroyed.
9. Each inhabitant will be furnished with a ration card, and food and clothing may only be purchased on presentation of this card.
10. The following offences will result in death without trial
a) Attempting to organise resistance against the Army of Occupation
b) Entering or leaving the province without permission.
c) Failure to report all goods possessed when ordered to do so.
d) Possession of firearms.
published and ordered by the Authority of (signed) Erich Von Neuremburg
'Nazis' burning books outside the Carnegie Library, now serving as the City of Winnipeg Archives building at 380 William Avenue
'Nazis' driving tanks down Main Street

$2.00 ~\I.'3d An Illustrated Guide to C '- h .nipeg's Historic Commercial District By M. Ross Waddell 'oduced by: Heritage Winnipeg Corporation - ,~I~m~l~nm "~ ~~,,~,,_ _~~ ~'" _ _ _~~w~~~~~Wi§. of THE EXCHANGE DISTRICT Monday to Saturday II am & 1:30 pm Wednesday & Thursday 7 pm Sunday I pm & 3 pm (DURING JULY &AUGUST) Departing from the foyer of the Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature (Main St. & Rupert Ave.) For further information call 774-3514 TOURS MADE POSSIBLE THROUGH THE CO"OPERATION OF: The Museum of Man and Nature: The City of Winnipeg, Department of Environmental Planning. Department of Parks & Recreation (City Centre! Fort Rouge): Heritage Winnipeg " Welcome to the Exchange District William Norrie, O.c. Mayor City of Winnipeg Every modern city had its beginning somewhere within what is now its downtown area. This was the heart of the new city, the central pulse, a vibrant core which contained the first hotels, saloons, stores and newspapers. Its buildings reflected the unique taste and character of the times. If any district in Winnipeg has claim to this status, it is certainly the area designated as "The Exchange District", north of the corner of Portage and Main. The revitalization of this area has retained the unique character of its buildings and transformed it once again into a vital part of downtown Winnipeg. Further enhancing the attractiveness of the area is the Stephen Juba Park which will connect it to a major redevelopment known as "The Forks", at the junction of our Red and Assiniboine Rivers. As a visitor to Winnipeg and The Exchange District. I am sure you will enjoy this living urban museum with its many shops, wide variety of businesses, entertainment and cultural facilities set against a background of ornamental lighting, decorative paving, trees and benches. Bonnie Mitchelson Minister of Culture Heritage and Recreation Province of Manitoba As Minister of Manitoba Culture, Heritage and Recreation, I take pleasure in welcoming you to Historic Winnipeg, a place which • has been a focus of human activity for many generations. As far back as 3,000 years ago, Native people hunted and fished in the locality now known as Winnipeg. The area also served as a focus for festive occasions and important meetings. With the arrival of Europeans in Manitoba, Winnipeg became an important trade and administrative centre. Winnipeg was also the first significant commercial centre in western Canada, a distinction which arrived with the railroad. Known as the "Gateway to the West". the city's economic base grew after the I 880s. The city's prosperity was reflected in the substantial number of commercial bUildings erected in the Exchange District. By 1920, Winnipeg possessed what is considered to be the finest warehouse district in North America. Today, Winnipeg's Exchange District is being rediscovered and enhanced. The treasures of our past and present are well worth exploring. I hope all who receive this guide will take the opportunity to do so. 2 3 William McKay President Heritage Winnipeg Corporation The publication of the second edition of this Illustrated Guide also marks the tenth anniversary of Heritage Winnipeg's partici- pation in this unique and historic district where Winnipeg's commercial and wholesale area began. We hope that the users of this gUide will share our enthusiasm and appreciation of the very distinguished historic structures contained in the pages follOWing. Heritage Winnipeg is an independent non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation of Winnipeg's historic bUildings. Heritage Winnipeg plays an advocacy role in the challenge brought about by the constant modernization of the city. It also provides educational programs, produces publications, and offers facilities for research and promotion of Winnipeg's historic resources. On behalf of the Board of Directors I would like to express our appreciation for the assistance provided by the Winnipeg Core Area Initiative, and also to the Manitoba Heritage Federation for their financial and other assistance in the completion of this all new revised edition. We wish you a pleasant walk through our historic past and please come back again. The Board of Directors of Heritage Winnipeg Corporation Mr. Wm. G. McKay, President, Member-at-Large: Mrs. Christine Singh, Vice-President, Member-at-Large, (Armstrong's Point Association): Mr. David J. McDowell. Past President, (Manitoba Historical Society): Mr. Robert Roehle, Treasurer, Member-at-Large, (Heritage St. Norbert): Mr. W. Douglas Harper, (Canadian Parks Service): Professor Wm. P. Thompson, Member-at-Large: Councillor Magnus Eliason: Councillor Helen Promislow: Councillor Donovan Timmers: Mr. Ken Kelly, (Manitoba Governor, Heritage Canada Foundation): Mr. Bernie Wolfe, Member-at-Large: Mr. R. Thomas Dixon, Member-at-Large, (Exi;hange District Association): Mrs. Elly Heber, Member-at-Large, (Point Douglas Historical Society): Mr. John White, Member-at-Large, (Manitoba Association of Architects): Mr. Randy Van Vliet. Member-at-Large: Dr. Robert McGinnis, Member-at-Large. 4 Table of Contents PAGE HISTORY OF THE Stovel Building 20. Whitla Building I/Telegram Building 21. Lyon Building 22. Alexandra Block 23. Criterion Hotel 24. Royal Albert Arms Hotel 67 History of the Business District The Exchange District lies in Downtown Winnipeg just north of Canada's most famous corner - Portage and Main. The District derives its name from the Winnipeg Grain Exchange, the centre of the grain industry in Canada, and the many other exchanges which developed in Winnipeg during the period from 1881-1918. Winnipeg was one of the fastest growing cities in North America at the turn of the century and was known as the Chicago of the North. Indeed, some of its architects came north from the Windy City to practice in Winnipeg and most local architects were strongly influenced by the Chicago style. What remains of their work today is The Exchange District - one of the most historically intact turn-of-the-century commercial districts on the continent. Known throughout North America for its Chicago-style buildings, The Exchange District is the historic centre of commerce in Western Canada. The District developed from the banks of the Red River at the foot of Bannatyne and McDermot Avenues. Most commercial traffic came along the Red River from st. PauL Minnesota where the nearest rail line passed. Goods were shipped to Winnipeg by steamer (or by ox-driven Red River carts) but this could only be done during high water in the spring. The first shipment of wheat left the levee at Post Office Street (now Lombard Avenue) in 1876, moving south to St. Paul then through the United States by railroad to Eastern Canada. In 1878, a branch line was constructed from st. Paul to Winnipeg which allowed goods to be shipped more cheaply to and from the main line markets. Looking soutnwest along Artnur St .. c. 1905 8 McDermot Avenue. looking west from Albert Street. c. 1905 9 The Canadian Pacific Railway eventually decided to build its transcontinental line through Winnipeg even though one of the governments of the day had wanted to route it through Selkirk on Lake Winnipeg. It established its Western Canadian headquarters in Winnipeg and with the arrival of the main line in 1881, an unprecedented land boom followed. Main Street land prices reached over $2,000 per lineal foot. surpassing even those in Chicago. These prices were not to be reached again until recent years. Thousands of settlers came west from Europe and Eastern Canada to farm the land. As a result. Winnipeg business developed quickly to meet the needs of the growing western population. Businessmen lobbied for the reduction of freight rates over which the railroad had a monopoly and in 1886 and 1890 respectively, Winnipeg received special rates for shipping goods to Western Canada and from Eastern Canada. Eastern Canadian wholesalers together with Winnipeg businessmen opened branches in the District and built huge warehouses to store goods which were shipped to the city on the Canadian Pacific line. There developed in Winnipeg a commercial elite of men from Ontario and Ouebec who were Anglo-Saxon, Protestant and mostly self-made. They were to take an important role in the establishment of many Winnipeg institutions and many were to serve as mayor or aldermen. J.H. Ashdown Warehouse Co. Stores, c. 1903 Deliveries along Princess 51. in the emerging wholesale district 10 II The Winnipeg Grain and Produce Exchange was founded in 1887 and within a few years, Winnipeg had become one of the worlds fastest-growing grain centres. As well,· Winnipeg was one of the largest rail centres in North America with twelve lines passing through the city by 1890 and over eighty wholesale businesses located in the District. Wholesale goods were shipped in from the Lake Superior ports in the spring and grain was shipped out from Winnipeg to the Lakehead in the fall. The Exchange represented Canada throughout the world and it largely financed Winnipeg's growth. Together with a strong world economy supported by an increase in gold reserves, the Exchange attracted many British and Eastern Canadian banks, trust, insurance and mortgage companies to the District to do business. Through the Winnipeg Grain Exchange, the city was linked to other major financial centres of London and Liverpool and New York and Chicago. Most Canadian financial institutions established their Western Canadian headquarters in Winnipeg and by 1910, there were almost twenty banking halls and offices on Main Street between City Hall and Portage Avenue. Many Winnipeg-based financial companies were also established. It was fully expected that Winnipeg would become one of North America's most important cities and that Western Canada would surpass Eastern Canada in economic importance. In 1904, Winnipeg was the fastest growing city in Canada; in 1905, it was the fastest growing city of its size in North America. Winnipeg did become the third largest city in the Dominion of Canada by 191 I with twenty-four rail lines converging on it and over 200 wholesale businesses. The Great War from 1914-18 slowed its growth however. and with the opening of the Panama Canal in I 9 I 3, there was a new route for shipping goods from Eastern Canada and Europe to the West Coast and from the Far East to the larger markets on the East Coast. Most of Winnipeg's development thereafter occurred on Portage Avenue and streets to the south. Winnipeg's slow growth did mean though that few of the District's Chicago-style buildings would be demolished. View of Winnipeg. c. 1912 12 13 VICTORIAN BUILDINGS Most Victorian buildings in Winnipeg were later replaced by larger structures that would serve its expanding businesses. The Victorian grouping on Princess Street remains however, as one of the best examples of such buildings in Winnipeg while others can be found on Main Street north of the District. Many Victorian buildings are ltalianate in style and are constructed of heavy wood post and beam (some including fireproof iron columns) with heavily detailed masonry load-bearing walls, variously arched windows and metal or corbelled brick cornices. The prominent architects of the day, Charles A. and Earle W. Barber. designed more than eighty such structures before 1898. There are only four of Barber and Barber's buildings still standing today. three of which are in the District. CHICAGO AND THE ROMANESQUE REVIVAL Some of the finest warehouses in North America based on an American Romanesque style can be found in Winnipeg. This style was developed by Chicago architect, Henry Hobson Richardson and used in the Marshall Field Warehouse constructed in Chicago in 1885. Thereafter, it was also used by Winnipeg's foremost warehouse architects - Charles H. Wheeler, James H. Cadham, George Browne, S. Frank Peters and John H.G. Russell. The Romanesque warehouses are typically of heavy wood post and beam construction with foundations of large rough-faced stone blocks set with deep, recessed joints (called rustication) and brick walls with piers and stone spandrels to support heavy loads. The Romanesque or round-head arch is used in the tunnels through the buildings which proVided for protected loading and unloading of goods within, and in the large windows which provided natural light to the interior before electric light was affordable. John H.G. Russell was born in Toronto, Ontario and apprenticed with H.B. Gordon, a prominent local architect. He visited Winnipeg in I 882 and then travelled south and worked in Chicago, Sioux City, Tacoma and Spokane. Russell returned to Winnipeg in 1893 and opened his architectural practice in the city in 1895. The first Manitoban to be elected President of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada (in 1912), he was Winnipeg's most prolific architect, working in the American Romanesque style and another transitional style of the Edwardian era. John H.G. Russell. c. 1913 14 Campbell-Wilson Building. Princess Street. c. 1910 15 The Buildings and their Architects VICTORIAN BUILDINGS Most Victorian buildings in Winnipeg were later replaced by larger structures that would serve its expanding businesses. The Victorian grouping on Princess Street remains however. as one of the best examples of such buildings in Winnipeg while others can be found on Main Street north of the District. Many Victorian buildings are ltalianate in style and are constructed of heavy wood post and beam (some including fireproof iron columns) with heavily detailed masonry load-bearing walls, variously arched windows and metal or corbelled brick cornices. The prominent architects of the day, Charles A. and Earle W. Barber, designed more than eighty such structures before 1898. There are only four of Barber and Barber's buildings still standing today, three of which are in the District. CHICAGO AND THE ROMANESQUE REVIVAL Some of the finest warehouses in North America based on an American Romanesque style can be found in Winnipeg. This style was developed by Chicago architect, Henry Hobson Richardson and used in the Marshall Field Warehouse constructed in Chicago in 1885. Thereafter, it was also used by Winnipeg's foremost warehouse architects - Charles H. Wheeler, james H. Cadham, George Browne, S. Frank Peters and john H.G. Russell. The Romanesque warehouses are typically of heavy wood post and beam construction with foundations of large rough-faced stone blocks set with deep, recessed joints (called rustication) and brick walls with piers and stone spandrels to support heavy loads. The Romanesque or round-head arch is used in the tunnels through the buildings which proVided for protected loading and unloading of goods within, and in the large windows which provided natural light to the interior before electric light was affordable. john H.G. Russell was born in Toronto, Ontario and apprenticed with H.B. Gordon, a prominent local architect. He visited Winnipeg in 1882 and then travelled south and worked in Chicago, Sioux City, Tacoma and Spokane. Russell returned to Winnipeg in 1893 and opened his architectural practice in the city in 1895. The first Manitoban to be elected President of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada (in 1912), he was Winnipeg's most prolific architect, working in the American Romanesque style and another transitional style of the Edwardian era. John H.G. Russell. c. 1913 14 Campbell-Wilson Building. Princess Street. c. 1910 15 EDWARDIAN BUILDINGS AND THE BEAUX-ARTS SCHOOL: A REVIVAL OF HISTORICISM There was a revival of historicist styles in North America brought about by the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. The Exposition featured the work of many American architects who had been trained in Paris at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Some of America's foremost Beaux- Arts firms - McKim Mead & White and Carrere & Hastings of New York - also designed buildings in the District. Their Neo-Classical and Renaissance Revival styles were seen as a reflection of Canadian and American wealth - particularly favoured by banks and other financial institutions. Canada's foremost firm - Darling & Pearson of Toronto - became the leading bank designer in Winnipeg, having developed corporate styles for many of its clients. Edwardian banks and offices constructed of steel faced with decorative stone and terra cotta (moulded, fired and unglazed clay) quickly replaced earlier stone and brick buildings. Darling and Pearson was one of Canada's leading commercial architectural firms at the turn of the century. Frank Darling, the senior partner of the firm, was considered one of the greatest architects in the British Empire. He trained in Britain and entered a partnership with John Pearson in 1895. Darling was presented with the Royal Gold Medal for Architecture in 191 5 by the Royal Institute of British Architects. Pearson was born in England and emigrated to Canada in 1888, apprenticing with Darling. He became best known as the architect for the Center Block of the Parliament Buildings in Ottawa. Those District buildings that are transitional between Victorian and Edwardian eras made use of the newer steel- frame and concrete technology together with masonry load- bearing walls. They often feature dressed or smooth-faced stone foundations, red clay brick walls without much detail, rectangular or round-head windows with stone keystones, and dentilled or toothed metal cornices at the roofline. Bank of Commerce. Darling and Pearson. c. 1928 WINNIPEG BUILDERS EXCHANGE The Winnipeg Builders Exchange was first located at 482 Main Street. in the Leckie Building from 1904-09 and later in the Confederation Life Building from 1926-56. The Exchange assisted Winnipeg's contractors with advice on the costs of construction, dealing'with workers, and the legalities of the business. As well, the Exchange office would be sent tenders for construction on which contractors could then bid. From its founding in 1904 with over forty contractors as members, the Exchange grew to become the largest in North America at its incorporation in 1910 with 400 members. It is now known as the Winnipeg Construction Association. 17 16 THE CHICAGO SCHOOL At the turn of the century, Chicago was the centre of North American architecture. Jenney and Mundie developed the first metal-frame building, the Home Insurance Building, there in 1884-85; Louis Sullivan, who had trained with them, developed the first steel frame and reinforced concrete buildings - the Wainright Building in St. Louis in 1890 and the Guaranty Building in Buffalo in 1895 - which could be built higher than before because the walls were not load- bearing (and because the electric lift had been invented in 1881). Sullivan used stone and terra cotta on the exterior, suspended by metal shelves bolted to the frame. He favoured terra cotta with simple details which complimented rather than completely covered the surface as in earlier heavily-detailed historicist styles. Thus the modern building was born. John D. Atchison was born in Monmouth, Illinois and studied at the Chicago Art Institute. Working in the office of Jenney and Mundie, he was involved in the planning of the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. Atchison left Great-West Life Building. Lombard Avenue. c. 1913 John D. Atchison John D. Atchison. c. 1913 Jenney and Mundie in 1895 and began his own practice in Chicago, visiting Winnipeg in a professional capacity in the early 1900s. He opened a Winnipeg office in 1905, closing his American office the following year. Atchison was the foremost Chicago School architect in the city. He remained in practice in Winnipeg for about twenty years. Union Trust Tower. Lombard and Main. c. 1915 John D. Atchison 18 19 PUBLIC BUILDINGS, EARLY AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY BUILDINGS & AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY WAREHOUSES Following the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1881, The Exchange District became the centre of the agricultural industry in Western Canada. Companies based in Eastern Canada which served the industry opened branches in the District. Massey Manufacturing Co. and Harris Implement Co. which merged to form the Massey-Harris Co., John Deere Plow Co. and the Cockshutt Plow Co. ali had warehouses in the area around City Hall and the Civic Market. These warehouses, which were shared with locally based agricultural businesses, had large showrooms and storefront windows for the display of the latest machinery. With the construction of the Exchange Buildings on Princess Street in 1892 and 1898, the importance of the business area west of Main Street had been established. But with the move to the new Grain Exchange Building on Lombard Avenue in 1908, the centre of the grain trade shifted back to the east side of Main Street. THE WINNIPEG GRAIN AND PRODUCE EXCHANGE The Winnipeg Grain and Produce Exchange was founded in 1887 (following a first meeting in 1883) and officially opened on December 7th of that year in the City Hall on Main Street. At its founding, the Exchange had twelve members (who each paid fifteen dollars for their membership) trading in wheat. oats and barley. The Exchange served as a place for buyers and sellers to meet to conduct business, provide< rules of trade, published prices, settled disputes and provided a link with other markets throughout the world. It was incorporated in 1891 and then became an unincorporatel association in 1908. That same year, the Winnipeg Grain Exchange moved to the new Grain Exchange Building on Lombard Avenue. By the I 920s, this Winnipeg institution had become the most important grain market in the world with over half of world sales in wheat. Today, the Exchange has over 330 members from all over the world and has been relocated to the Commodity Exchange Tower at Portage and Main. Traders of the Grain ExLhange. c. 1896 ExLnange Building. 160 Princess 51. 20 21 Tour Begins OLD CITY HALL o 1883-86 Charles A. & Earle W Barber Demolished 1962 The second Winnipeg City Hall was constructed to replace an earlier building on the site. This new Victorian 'Gingerbread' structure featured a rough-faced stone foundation and dark reddish-brown clay brick walls with heavy detailing and contrasting Iight~oloured stone bands. There were four towers at each corner and two grand staircases which led to the main entries below the clock tower in the center. OffiCially opened in 1886, the building became the home of Winnipeg City Council and the Board of Trade, of which many of the District's most powerful businessmen were to serve as Mayor and President. This City Hall, thoroughly Victorian but thought ugly by some, was demolished in 1962 together with the Civic Market to make way for the new Civic Centre. CMCMARKET 1889-1890 George Browne 1919-1920 Conversion to offices Demolished 1964 The first Market Building was constructed on a site to the west of City Hall in 1877 and reconstructed in 1889-1890. Managed by the Market Committee or Market Court of City Council. the two-storey building with its three-storey central tower was an important meeting place for Winnipeggers buying and selling produce. The Market was closed in 1919 as many stores had by then opened throughout Winnipeg to serve the public's needs. There was also political pressure from businessmen for its closing because the Market had become the gathering place for workers involved in the Winnipeg General Strike of I 919. The Victorian building was converted to civic offices though produce continued to be sold in the square around the building until its demolition. 22 LELAND HOTEL 218-222 William Avenue 1883-84 Possibly Charles A. & Earle W Barber 1892 Four storeys added, Charles A. Barber 191 3-14 Three storeys removed Centrally located across from City Hall. the three-storey Leland HOUSE was owned by Archibald Wright, a prominent businessman and alderman and one of the city's first school trustees, and managed by Captain William Douglas, a hotelier and former steamship captain. Thl name of the hotel was famous throughout the United States for providing first class accommodation. This Victorian ltalianate structurE was given a brick and wood addition with a mansard roof together wit cast iron porticos on William Avenue and at the ladies' entrance on Albert Street. The larger hotel could accommodate over one hundrec commercial travellers and businessmen and had all the modern conveniences including a barbershop, showroom, billiard, reading an< dining rooms, and an oyster bar. Following a fire in 1913, the upper three wooden storeys were removed and in 1956, the porticos were removed. 23 EXCHANGE BUILDING II BAWLF BUILDING n 164-166 Princess Street 1892 Charles A. Barber 1902 One storey added Samuel Hooper The second home of the Winnipeg Grain and Produce Exchange, this building was erected by one of its founders, Nicholas Bawlf, who became a prominent businessman in the city. The Victorian Commercial structure was the center of the grain industry upon its opening. The trading room was located on the third floor of the building, offices were on the second floor and the main floor contained showrooms, spanned by metal trusses, for agricultural implements. A central well illuminated the interior of the building. The Board of Trade, which later became the Chamber of Commerce also occupied the building, and the Hudson's Bay Company fur exchange did business here from 1930 to 1950. EXCHANGE BUILDING n 160 Princess Street 1898 Samuel Hooper The third home of the Winnipeg Grain and Produce Exchange, this Victorian Commercial structure contained the offices of many businesses involved in the grain industry. The trading room was extended from the third floor of the adjacent building and is marked on the exterior by a wrought iron balcony. Upon the relocation of the Grain and Produce Exchange to the new Grain Exchange Building on Lombard Avenue in 1908, the Chamber of Commerce took over the structure. It occupied the building until 1943. HARRIS BUILDING 154 Princess Street 1882 James Chisholm The oldest agricultural implement warehouse in the District was constructed for A. Harris, Son & Co. This Ontario-based agricultural implement manufacturer opened a Winnipeg branch in 1872 to serviCE the growing grain industry. It built this Victorian Eclectic warehouse with details of sheaves of wheat on the facade. An arch in the cornice once contained a statue of Ceres, a Roman goddess, carrying a sheaf of wheat. A. Harris & Son merged with Massey Manufacturing Co. in 1891 to form the Massey-Harris Co. It then moved to its warehouse at 296 William Avenue. The Harris Building was subsequently leased to the Cockshutt Plow Co. which occupied it until 1903. Since then, it has served mainly as a boot and shoe wholesale warehouse. BAWLF BUILDING I 148 Princess Street 1882 Charles A. & Etirle W. Barber BENSON BUILDING 146 Princess Street 1882 Charles A. & Etirle W. Barber These two buildings were erected by businessmen Nicholas Bawlf and Joseph Benson as revenue properties. Bawlf was a feed supplier and Benson owned a stable on the site of the buildings. The Victorian Eclectic buildings had numerous uses - the Bawlf Building was used mostly as a warehouse and the Benson Building was used as a hotel. 24 25 MASSEY-HARRIS BUILDING FRATERNAL ORGANIZATIONS The Independent Order of Odd Fellows Lodge was one of many fraternal orders of business and working class men in Winnipeg. The Manitoba Lodge No. I was formed in 1873; there were thirteen subordinate lodges in Manitoba with over 1,000 members when the new Manitoba Lodge No. I on Princess Street opened in 1884. The order was one of mutual benefit - each member paid weekly dues that were used by others in need: family men suddenly out of work or disabled by ill health or accident. widows of deceased members or their orphaned families. Today, there are about 5,000 members of the Odd Fellows and Rebekahs, its sister organization, in Manitoba. ODDFELLOWS HALL 72 -74 Princess Street 1883-4 Hugh McCowan The Independent Order of Oddfellows constructed this three-storey building with a metal cornice shOWing the initials IOOF and ML No. I (Manitoba Lodge No. I) together with the cryptic symbols of the mystic order - a crescent moon with seven stars and a three-link chain. The Victorian structure was partially leased to commercial tenants to provide revenue to the order. Its first tenant was the clothing wholesaler. Carscadden & Peck. which later built its own building at 33 Princess Street. The meeting hall for the Oddfellows, including a mezzanine, was located on the third floor. Its walls and ceiling are completely covered in embossed tin, a common material of the day which can still be found in many bUildings. Following a fire in 1930, the main floor facades were substantially altered. 294 William Avenue 1885 George Browne 1904 Four-storeyaddition S. Frank Peters This warehouse was constructed for the Massey Manufacturing Co.. an Ontario-based agricultural implement manufacturer. The company established a branch office in Winnipeg in 1881, the year the transcontinental railway reached the city. The Victorian Commercial building was constructed in a transitional style - its ltalianate influences are more restrained than with earlier buildings in the District. Unfortunately, the original metal cornices have been removed. The Massey Manufacturing Co. merged with A. Harris, Son & Co. in 1891 and later, a simple addition was constructed to the east of the original building. The Massey-Harris Co.. which became Canada's largest farm implement manufacturer, remained in the building until 1944. Today, the building is used for government offices. FAIRCHILD BUILDING I 10-120 Princess Street 1906-07 John D. Atchison with Herbert B. Rugh This modern warehouse was among the last to be constructed in the District. It was built by the F.A. Fairchild Co. which was established in Winnipeg in 1877 as Wesbrook and Fairchild, one of the first farm implement dealerships in the city. The building is an excellent example of the Chicago School style as influenced by architect Louis Sullivan. Constructed of steel and reinforced concrete, it also makes use of cast iron columns. The structure has characteristic Sullivanesque terra cotta detailing including Fairchild Co. monograms on the facade. Most of the rear of the building is glass, providing extensive light to the interior; the main floor with its large windows was once used to display machinery. During the construction of the building, the F.A. Fairchild Company merged with the John Deere Plow Co. which remained there until 1953. 26 27 HARDWARE. DRY GOODS AND GROCERY WHOLESALE WAREHOUSES The Canadian Pacific Railway held a monopoly on freight rates in Winnipeg at the turn of the century which greatly affected the cost of shipping goods from Eastern Canada and throughout the West. Winnipeg businessmen fought for preferential rates and in 1886 and 1890. the CPR granted concessions to the city. This ensured that The Exchange District would become the major wholesale center for all goods being sold in Western Canada. Major Eastern Canadian companies and Winnipeg-based businesses - Thomas Ryan Co.. George D. Wood Co.. R.J. Whitla & Co., Gault Bros. Co. and J.H. Ashdown Co. among them - opened large warehouses in the District to supply the growing West. Many of the warehouses were located on railway spur lines where goods could be shipped in large lots, broken down into smaller lots and then packaged with the wholesalers' own labels for sale in Western Canada. Today, the names and products of these important companies can still be seen on the rooftop and wall signs on buildings throughout the District. MANUFACTURING AND WHOLESALE AGENTS The Exchange District was the home base for thousands of salesmen who travelled throughout Western Canada selling wholesale goods manufactured or stored in warehouses in the city. The Northwest Commercial Travellers Association, an organization providing services to travelling salesmen based in Western Canada, was founded in Winnipeg in 1882. Association members were provided with office space, club and dining rooms, reduced train and hotel rates and insurance policies. The Association had two thousand members when the Travellers Building, its new headquarters, was erected on Bannatyne Avenue in 1906. Today, it has approximately 10,000 members. Ryan Building, King Street. 18905 Bannatyne Avenue, Looking West from King Street. c. 1910 28 29 GALT BUILDING 103 Princess Street/290 Bannatyne Avenue 1887 Charles H. Wheeler 190 lOne storey added, Four-storey addition james H. Cadham The first Romanesque Revival style warehouse in the District was built for the G.F. & I. Galt Company. one of Canada's leading grocery wholesalers. This firm was well-known for its Blue Ribbon brand of products. George Galt was an executive of the Blue Ribbon Manufacturing Company which sold teas, coffees, spices and baking products. He was also a founder and Vice-President of the Winnipeg Grain and Produce Exchange. The English Romanesque Revival style of the original warehouse pre-dated the American version in the District. It has a rounded corner entrance and round-head arched windows typical of the Romanesque style which were extended when additions were made to the building. These additions remain among the best in the District. in keeping with the character of the original three-storey building. This company also built a second warehouse at 82 Arthur Streeti87 King Street in 190 I. CAMPBELL-WILSON BUILDING 92-100 Princess Street 1903 john H.G. Russell I 9 I 3 Two storeys added This Romanesque Revival warehouse in the style of Chicago architect H.H. Richardson was constructed for one of Western Canada's largest grocery wholesalers. Campbell Brothers and Wilson was founded by R.I. Campbell and his brother in 1885 and later joined by R.R. Wilson. The original building was one of the most fully-serviced warehouses in the District with a railway spur line running immediately behind it. Goods could be shipped directly to the warehouse from the main line; a driveway entered from Princess Street (now closed) provided for protected loading and unloading within the building. The later addition to the three-storey building, GAULT BUILDING AND ANNEX 92 - 100 Arthur Street/93-99 King Street I 900 George Browne 1903 Two storeys added, Six-storey addition James H. Cadham One of the finest Richardson Romanesque warehouses in the District. this building was constructed for Gault Brothers Company, Ltd. The company was a branch of A.F. Gault and Company, a Montreal-based dry goods wholesaler. Gault Brothers occupied the eastern section of the original four-storey building and Clark Brothers & Co., a wholesale stationer, occupied the western section. The Gault Brothers Company i ' home of Artspace Inc" a visual and literary arts centre. WHITLA BUILDING II AND ANNEX 54-70 Arthur Street/264-266 McDermot Avenue 1899 james H. Cadham I906 Two storeys added I 9 I I Six-storey addition John H. G. Russell This massive warehouse is among many built in the District for the wholesale dry goods firm, R.J. Whitla & Co. The Winnipeg- based company was begun by Robert J. Whitla as a retail and wholesale dry goods store on Main Street in 1879. He built his first wholesale warehouse, at 70 Albert Street during 1882- 1884 and the second, the Imperial Dry Goods Building at 460 Main Street (now 91 Albert Street) in 1899- 1900. One of the largest Richardson Romanesque warehouses in the District, this structure features an enclosed driveway which provided for protected loading and unloading of goods within. The various additions to the original four-storey building, some of which have cast iron frames, reflect the rapid growth of this important company. A prominent businessman and politician, Whitla also served as President of the Board of Trade. 33 i ! Ltd. grew rapidly - the Winnipeg warehouse at one time contained over twice the stock of its Montreal parent. An annex which included a covered driveway was added anc leased to wholesale tenants. Notable is the rooftop sign fence, one of the few remaining in the District, on which the name "Gaults Ltd. Wholesale Dry Goods" was once advertised. Gaults Ltd. occupied the building until 1973 when it merged with another company. The building is now the I which did not extend the round-head arches to the roof, was not as successful as some others in the District. I.M. Sinclair, another grocery whole- saler purchased the building in 1945 and occupied it until 1958. The building is now a retail store. 32 TRAVELLERS BUILDING 283 - 285 Bannatyne Avenue 1906 Darling & Pearson, Toronto The Northwest Commercial Travellers Association, constructed this building to provide business offices and services for its members. The six-storey building originally included a barbershop and turkish baths in the basement: a restaurant on the main floor: the Association's offices together with dining, club, smoking and reading rooms on the second floor: members offices on the fourth and fifth floors: and, showrooms on the sixth floor. Typically Edwardian, it is of concrete construction with red clay brick facades, a restrained dressed stone arch at the entrance and marble and oak on the interior. The building was occupied from 1945 until the 1970s by the Government of Canada. Today, it contains offices with restaurants on the main floor and in the basement. MAW GARAGE I I2- I I4 King Street/ I09 Princess Street 1906-07 H.C. Stone Montreal Joseph Maw was a prominent businessman who built Western Canada's largest automobile showroom with space for sale and service of 140 cars. Maw had come to Winnipeg from Ontario as an agent for the Massey Manufacturing Co. Following a move to Calgary he returned to Winnipeg in 1882 and opened a carriage business under the name Ross & Maw. This partnership later dissolved and the business continued on under the name, Joseph Maw & Co. at 128 William Avenue. The new Maw Garage was built with steel trusses that allowed a free span of the showroom floor. Large plate glass windows provided a view of the many automobiles on display. As an amateur automobile racing enthusiast. Maw won the five-mile Winnipeg Industrial Exhibition race of I 905 travelling at an average speed of 35 miles per hour. Part of the building is now used as a restaurant. 34 MALTESE CROSS BUILDING 286 McDermot Avenue/66 King Street I909 John D. Atchison This fireproof warehouse was constructed for the Gutta Percha and Rubber Co. Ltd. of Toronto. manufacturer of 'Maltese Cross' and 'Lion brand rubber footwear and clothing. The firm began its wholesale business in Winnipeg under the name Winnipeg Rubber Co. Ltd. and at one time operated from the Peck Building at 33 - 41 Princess. This Edwardian building has characteristic red clay brick facades with dressed stone on the main floor. Details in the shape of the maltese cr~s~ are featured throughout. There is no wood used in the building - It IS constructed only of steel and reinforced concrete and is completely fireproof. Through the King Street entrance with its bronze canopy, custom-fabricated metal stairs incorporating tiny maltese crosses lead to the upper floors of this modern warehouse. 35 NEWSPAPERS AND PRINTERS McDermot Avenue was the home to many newspapers and businesses serving the printing and publishing industry at the turn of the century. It became known as "Newspaper Row" and was an attraction to Winnipeggers who often congregated outside the offices of the Manitoba Free Press. the Winnipeg Telegram or the Winnipeg Tribune to read the latest news posted on the walls or shouted through megaphones from office windows. Newspaper wars frequently broke out between the Free Press (Liberal), the Telegram (Conservative) across the street and the Tribune (Independent) next door. but it was the Free Press that was the most influential. promoting the policies of Liberal governments of the day. Of the many daily newspapers published in the District at the turn of the century, only the Free Press remains in print today. THE CANADIAN PRESS The Canadian Pacific Telegraph office, which was located on McDermot Avenue at Main Street. had a monopoly on the Associated Press news service that travelled through its wires from New York at the turn of the century. The Manitoba Free Press subscribed to the Associated Press but felt that the rates were too high; the Winnipeg Telegram had its own costly news service from New York; the Winnipeg Tribune had no wire service at all. These Winnipeg newspapers could not convince Canadian Pacific to reduce its rates and therefore, they joined together in 1907 to form the city's first news service which became the Canadian Press, known by the letters CP, in 1917. HOTELS The Exchange District's hotels offered rooms to many visiting bUSinessmen and travelling salesmen who made the District their home base at the turn of the century. Many offered Continental service with bed-sitting rooms for the weary traveller, dining rooms where a ten-course meal could be had for a few dollars and bars, each of which claimed to be 'the longest in the West'. Most of the Districts hotels were moderately priced with the bars doing most of the business. They were the favourite watering holes of McDermot Avenue's newspaper men though business dried up with Prohibition in 1916. StaffoftheWinnipegTelegram. 1917 36 Start of the telegram 20-mile road race. corner of McDermot and Albert. 1909 37 NEWSPAPERS AND PRINTERS McDermot Avenue was the home to many newspapers and businesses serving the printing and publishing industry at the turn of the century. It became known as "Newspaper Row" and was an attraction to Winnipeggers who often congregated outside the offices of the Manitoba Free Press, the Winnipeg Telegram or the Winnipeg Tribune to read the latest news posted on the walls or shouted through megaphones from office windows. Newspaper wars frequently broke out between the Free Press (Libera\), the Telegram (Conservative) across the street and the Tribune (Independent) next door. but it was the Free Press that was the most influentiaL promoting the policies of Liberal governments of the day. Of the many daily newspapers published in the District at the turn of the century, only the Free Press remains in print today. I; i~ I I I THE CANADIAN PRESS The Canadian Pacific Telegraph office, which was located on McDermot Avenue at Main Street had a monopoly on the Associated Press news service that travelled through its wires from New York at the turn of the century. The Manitoba Free Press subscribed to the Associated Press but felt that the rates were too high; the Winnipeg Telegram had its own costly news service from New York; the Winnipeg Tribune had no wire service at all. These Winnipeg newspapers could not convince Canadian Pacific to reduce its rates and therefore, they jOined together in 1907 to form the city's first news service which became the Canadian Press, known by the letters CP, in 1917. HOTELS The Exchange District's hotels offered rooms to many visiting businessmen and travelling salesmen who made the District their home base at the turn of the century. Many offered Continental service with bed-sitting rooms for the weary traveIIer. dining rooms where a ten-course meal could be had for a few doIIars and bars, each of which claimed to be 'the longest in the West'. Most of the District's hotels were moderately priced with the bars doing most of the business. They were the favourite watering holes of McDermot Avenue's newspaper men though business dried up with Prohibition in 1916. Start of the telegram 20-mile road race, wYner of MeDermot and Albert, 1909 37 Staff of the Winnipeg Telegrmn, 1917 36 STOVEL BUILDING 245-247 McDennot Avenue 1893-94 Hugh McCowan 1900 Two storeys added, Four-storey addition The last Victorian building in the District to be constructed in such a heavily detailed style, this was the home of the Stovel Printing and Lithographing Co. This firm was one of Canada's largest printing companies, renowned for its work on commercial magazines and newspapers and for its highly specialized three-colour engraving services. Among many newspapers printed here was the Winnipeg Telegram. The original two-storey building had two additions which included a rounded corner entrance and a heavy corbelled brick cornice topped with ornamental finials. The Stovel Printing and Lithography Co. moved from the building in 1916 and it was then used until 1920 as a warehouse for the T. Eaton Co. WHITLA I/TELEGRAM BUILDING 70 Albert Street/242 McDennot Avenue 1882-84 William Hodgson, Ottawa Undoubtedly the finest Victorian Eclectic remaining in the District, this building was constructed for R.I. Whitla & Co" dry goods wholesaler. There is little known about the architect of this structure which incorporates pre-fabricated cast iron columns. Though common to Victorian buildings and much used in early warehouses partly because they were fireproof. cast iron columns are not often found in the District. R.I. Whitla & Co. constructed a larger warehouse on McDermot Avenue between Arthur and King Streets in 1899 and this smaller building was sold to the Winnipeg Telegram Printing Co. The Telegram, a conservative daily newspaper. operated from the building until it was bought out by the Winnipeg Tribune in 1920. The building now contains offices and retail stores. 38 LYON BUILDING 217-225 McDennot Avenue 1883 Blackmore or Blackstone 1905-06 Two storeys added John H.G. Russell This Victorian building was one of the first in the District to show a Romanesque Revival influence, constructed as a three-storey warehouse for Lyon, MacKenzie & Powis, a wholesale grocery firm. William Henry Lyon was one of the first merchants in the city and his grocery firm was the oldest in the District. The building was taken over by the Thompson- Codville Co., wholesale grocers in 1891 when McKenzie & Powis built a new warehouse on Princess Street. The law firm of Aikins, Loftus bought the building in 1898 and leased it to the Manitoba Free Press from 1900 to 1905. Aikins, Loftus then converted it to legal and financial offices with retail stores on the main floor. Sir lames Aikins, one of the partners of the firm, founded the Canadian Bar Association in 1914 and became the Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba from 1916-17. 39 ALEXANDRA BLOCK e 76-86 Nbert Street/83-87 Arthur Streetl227-237 McDermot Avenue 1901 Fremont D. Orf(, Minneapolis The first Edwardian building in the District and the only one constructed for residential use, the Alexandra Apartment House was home for many of Winnipeg's turn-of-the-century businessmen. The building offered bedsitting rooms on the upper floors and a restaurant and retail stores on the main floor. Restaurateur Frank Mariaggi opened the Alexandra Cafe in the building, his Alexandra farm on the outskirts of the city supplying fresh produce for the kitchen. The restaurant's basement grotto featured a bar with a splashing waterfall and pond complete with goldfish. In I 903, Mariaggi bought the building and converted it to a luxurious hotel which featured brass beds, oriental divans and carpets, leather couches and chairs as well as electric lights and telephones. The hotel closed in 191 5 and was converted back to an apartment block in 191 7. CRITERION HOTEL 214 McDermot Avenue 1903 H.S. Griffith 19 15 Colored terra cotta added This hotel was opened by restaurateur John Wilkes, and quickly became the watering hole for the many newspapermen who worked on McDermot Avenue. Wilkes had run the popular Criterion Restaurant at 426 Main Street for many years before. The building occupies a small site and was constructed with skylights designed to bring light to the middle floors. It has a rough-faced limestone facade with a false balcony and unique colored terra cotta detailing which was added to the main floor. The terra cotta is also featured on the interior of the main floor which once contained a bar and billiard room. A dining room served patrons on the second floor Even after the newspaper compani~s moved from McDermot Avenue and Prohibition from 1916 to 1928 dampened its business, the Criterion re-emerged as a popular drinking spot. ROYAL ALBERT ARMS HOTEL 48 Albert Street 1913 E.D. McGuire Ope~ed in the same year as the Fort Garry Hotel. the Royal Albert Arms proVided accommodation for the hundreds of commercial travellers who made Winnipeg their headquarters early in the century. The four- storey hotel proVided service on the 'European Plan' and its red-tile roof and wrought Bachelor5 Dinner at the Mariaggi Hotel. 1905 iron lights and balconies reminded the visitor of a Mediterranean villa. The front of the bUilding is faced on the main floor with dressed stone inscribed with the hotel name and decorated with the provincial coat of arms. The main floor restaurant and handsomely-fitted bar are illuminated by a stained glass skylight. The building remains in use as a hotel. 40 41 LATER AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY BUILDINGS The Winnipeg Grain and Produce Exchange moved to the new Grain Exchange Building in 1908 and with it the center of business shifted to the east side of Main Street. Renamed the Winnipeg Grain Exchange, it had become the most influential institution in the development of Winnipeg. The Grain Exchange Building was the largest office bUilding in the Dominion at the time of its construction and from its two- storey trading floor, business was carried on with the rest of the world. Most of Winnipegs grain companies conducted business from within the Grain Exchange Building and to this day, many still remain in the District. Main Street and Lombard Avenue also became the home of other financial institutions which had been attracted to Winnipeg by the Exchange. The Exchange moved to its new home at the southwest corner of Portage and Main in 1980. BANKS AND OTHER FINANCIAL BUILDINGS Main's 'Banker's Row' was so named for the many banks whICh opened their doors in Winnipeg at the turn of the century. There were over twenty banks and other financial institutions on Main Street between City Hall and Portage Avenue including the Bank of Montreal. the Canadian Bank of Commerce and Imperial Bank (which merged to form the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce) the Royal Bank, and the Bank of Toronto and the Dominio~ Bank (which merged to form the Toronto-Dominion Bank). !"10s~Of.the banks had their Western regional headquarters In WIn~lpeg and one, the Union Bank of Canada, moved its c::ana~la~ h~ad~uarters to the city. As well, many important financial Institutions such as the Great-West Life Assurance Co. and other trust and insurance companies were founded in the city. THE WINNIPEG STOCK EXCHANGE The Winnipeg Stock Exchange was founded in 1903 and officially opened trading on February I, 1909. The Grain Exchange Building became the home of this institution with the first six stocks called being those of the Canadian Pacific Railway, Canada Landed and National Trust. Northern Trust. the Great-West Life Assurance Co. and the Winnipeg Street Railway Co. There were twenty-four traders on opening day. The Winnipeg Stock Exchange moved to 423 Main Street in 1927 (on the site of the Canadian Wheat Board in the one- storey building) but later relocated back to the Grain Exchange Building. Grain Ex!;nange Building. Lnmbard Avenue. c. 1915 42 Winnipeg Stock Ex!;nange. Main Street. c. 1938 43 LAKE OF THE WOODS HOUSE 21 2 McDennot Avenue 190I John H.C. Russell An unusual example of Romanesque Revival architecture, this fine building was constructed for the Lake of the Woods Milling Co.. the largest such company in Canada at the turn of the century. Based in Montreal. it owned the largest mill in the country at Keewatin, Ontario and had a large warehouse, purchasing and manufacturing capacity in Winnipeg. The building features two red brick facades with round-head windows on the main floor and a sandstone-faced entrance on McDermot Avenue inscribed with the name of the company (Sandstone is quite soft and was not commonly used in local buildings). A dentilled brick and metal cornice, rounded at the corner and supported by unusual turret-like brick corbelling caps the building. DAWSON RICHARDSON BUILDING 169-I 71 McDennot Avenue 1921 Charles S. Bridgman William Sanford Evans, Mayor from 1909-1 I and the one-time editor of the Telegram newspaper, and Dawson Richardson, a grain broker, togetlher founded a publishing firm in 1920 specializing in grain industry news. The two-storey building contained t1he printing plant and offices of Richardson Publishing which produced Grain Trade News and other periodicals. The structure was surrounded by a number of Victorian buildings used by t1he printing industry including the Franklin Press PORTER BUILDING I 65 McDennot Avenue 1906 John H.C. Russell This is one of the first transitional warehouses to be constructed in the District during the Edwardian era. It was built for James Porter & Company, a wholesale crockery, china and glass firm. The building, with its red clay brick and dressed limestone facades, contrasts with the many heavily-detailed Victorian buildings on this block of McDermot Avenue. It occupied a favourable business location adjacent to the new Grain Exchange Building on Lombard Avenue and was intended for conversion to office use. The plan was thwarted, however, by the First World War. James Porter & Co. closed its doors in 1943 and the building was subsequently occupied by Sanford Evans & Co. This grain news publishing firm was founded by William Sanford Evans and is now one of the largest publishers in Winnipeg. The six-storey building was later occupied by the Galpern Candy Co. INLAND REVENUE WAREHOUSE 145 McDennot Avenue 1908 Department of Public Works, Ottawa A fine example of the Edwardian Romanesque Revival style, this large warehouse was constructed by the Canadian Department of Public Works for use by the Department of Inland Revenue in customs inspection. Situated across from the new Grain Exchange Building on Lombard Avenue, the building is of wood and concrete construction. It has red brick facades on all four sides with rounded-head openings leading to covered driveways at the northwest corner and an annex at the eastern end of the building. Building at 168 Bannatyne Avenue, the Toronto Type Foundry at 173 McDermot Avenue and the T.W. Taylor Building atI77McDermot Avenue. It was the last to be constructed in the District for the printing and publishing industry. The Dawson Richardson Building and the adjacent Porter Building now contain a nightclub. Through these openings, shipments coming into o r , out of the District on adjacent rail lines were delivered for inspection. This building remains in use today as a warehouse for the Government of Canada. "'M~":'Y,lit?,~)(Ji#!t,';>j,!\~):~: 44 45 GRAIN EXCHANGE BUILDING III 167 Lombard Avenue 1906-08 Seven storeys Darling & Pearson, Toronto 191 3 Seven-storey addition Jordan & Over 1916, 1923 & 1928 Three storeys added The center of commerce in The Exchange District, the Grain Exchange Building reflected the growth of Winnipeg at the turn of the century. The original seven-storey building was designed by Canada's foremost architects, Darling & Pearson of Toronto with subsequent additions by their Winnipeg associate, Jordan and Over. Built in the Renaissance palazzo or palace style, the structure features stone and terra cotta details including a false balcony on the second floor. A row of arched Windows on the sixth floor shows the location of the two-storey trading room which has now been divided and houses the Chamber of Commerce. Though the Winnipeg Grain Exchange, now known as the Winnipeg Commodity Exchange, moved to the southwest corner of Portage and Main in 1980, the building continues to be occupied by businesses involved in the grain industry. GREAT-WEST LIFE BUILDING 177 Lombard Avenue 1909-11 John D. Atchison 1922 Four storeys added Erected for one of Western Canada's largest financial institutions, this building is a fine example of the French Beaux-Arts School style. The ELECTRIC RAILWAY CHAMBERS 2 13 Notre Dame Avenue 1913 Pratt & Ross, Winnipeg Charles S. Frost, Chicago ~ch arch of t~eElectric Railway Chambers is studded with electric hg.hts.- 6,000 In a l l - which are lit every year at Christmas. The WInnipeg Electric Railway Co" a firm which operated the city's electric streetcar system and its first hydro-electric utility, constructed this steel- frame and concrete building. It is one of the finest buildings to be erected in the District in the Chicago School style as influenced by architect Louis Sullivan. The Italian Renaissance facades are of polished granite on the lower two floors with typical Sullivanesque terra cotta detailing, including lion statuary on the upper floors. The Winnipeg Electric (Railway) Co. was taken over by the Government of Manitoba in 1953. The eleven-storey building today contains offices. UNION TRUST TOWER 191 Lombard Avenuel387 Main Street 1912-13 John D. Atchison The Union Trust Tower is a typical Chicago School skyscraper occupying an unusually long and narrow site at the corner of Lombard Avenue and Main Street. It was built for the Union Trust Co" a Toronto-based financial firm. The Italian Renaissance structure is of steel frame and concrete with terra cotta on the upper floors and marble on the first two floors. The window and door frames are bronze. On the interior. the banking hall is finished in marble and bronze and includes a mezzanine level. The Union Trust Co. faltered in 194 I and the bUilding was purchased by the Great-West Life Assurance Co. in 1946-7. The original cornice was removed in 1953. This thirteen-storey building is once again being used as a bank with various business offices on the upper floors. 47 Great-West Life Assurance Company was founded in 1891 and its board of directors included the city's business elite. The building was originally four storeys constructed with a steel frame and tile arches that made it fireproof. Canadian materials were used throughout - the exterior is faced with grey marble and features bronze window frames and doors while the interior is finished in white marble. The building continued to be occupied by the Great-West Life Assurance Co. until 1958-59 when the company built new headquarters on Osborne Street. In a reverse of historical trends, this was one of the few Winnipeg companies to open a branch office in Toronto. Today the building contains government offices with a restaurant and in Winnipeg many of retail store on the main floor. 46 BANK OF MONTREAL PorUige and Main 1911-13 McKim, Mead & White, New York North America's foremost turn-of-the-century Neo-Classical architects, McKim, Mead and White of New York, designed this structure for Canada's largest financial institution. The Bank of Montreal opened in Winnipeg in 1877 and constructed this Western headquarters in the style of a Roman temple. Stone steps lead through a colonnade mounted by a massive entablature with an inscription chiselled in the granite. Each Corinthian column weighs twelve tons. The interior banking hall features a marble colonnade supporting a mezzanine on which the board room and western director's office were located: the remainder was occupied by the Royal Trust Co.. a subsidiary. A second colonnade rises to the ornately painted ceiling finished in gold leaf, and stained glass windows bearing the coats of arms of Canada, Manitoba and the Bank of Montreal light the hall. This four-storey bank remains one of the few still in use by its builder. CANADIAN BANK OF COMMERCE 389 Main Street 1910-12 Darling & Pearson, Toronto Canada's second largest financial institution opened in Winnipeg in 1893 and constructed its Western headquarters in the style of a Greek temple. The Doric colonnade is constructed of granite and topped by an entablature - through the colonnade, solid bronze doors (bearing the name of the bank and showing a banker exchanging funds with two patrons and accepting sheaves of wheat from two merchants) lead to the banking hall. The hall features a huge stained glass dome with the coats of arms of Great Britain, Canada, Manitoba and the Bank of BANK OF BRITISH NORTH AMERICA 436 Main Street 1903 A.T. Taylor, Montreal 1909 Banking hall renovations Darling & Pearson, Toronto Extension Pratt & Ross, Montreal The oldest bank remaining on Main Street was built for the Bank of Britis~ North Am.erica, based in London and Montreal. The only British bank In Ca~ada, It opened its Winnipeg branch in 1887. Following the Neo-Palladlan style popular in Britain, it is typical of the early bank structures found on Main Street. Constructed of steel frame and concrete - possibly the oldest such structure in the city - it has a sandstone facade with vermiculated or worm-like detailing on the main floor. There are Ionic columns rising to an entablature inscribed with the name of the bank (now the Royal Trust Co.) and topped by the typically Palladian pediment bearing the coat of arms of the bank. Offices were leased on the second floor. The Bank of British North America merged with the Bank of Montreal in 1918 and the building was taken over by a subsidiary, the Royal Trust Co.. which occupied it until the I 960s. BANK OF HAMILTON 395 Main Street 19 I 6- 18 John D. Atchison Commerce at the four corners of the ceiling. Adjacent to the banking hall was the manager's office which is finished in marble and walnut and hung with rich tapestries: the western regional superintendent's office and those of the chief inspector and solicitor were located on the third, fourth and fifth floors. The bank closed its doors in 1969 and awaits a new use. 48 This was the last important building to be constructed on Main Street befo~e the e~d of the First World War. It was erected by the Bank of H~ml!ton whIch founded in Hamilton, Ontario and opened its first Winnipeg branch In 1896. Built in the Renaissance palazzo or palace style, the structure is sheathed in dressed limestone and features a rounded-head entrance with a stone medallion bearing the initials of the institution. The entrance opens to the main floor banking hall and mezzanine finished in marble and bronze with ornately boxed or coffered and painted ceilings. An unusual elliptical marble staircase with bronze handrail leads to the second floor. In 1923, the Bank of Hamilton merged with the Canadian Bank of Commerce which continued to use the building until 1969. The City of Winnipeg now occupies the ten-storey building. 49 BANK OF TORONTO 456 Main Street 1905-07 H.C. Stone. Montreal The Bank of Toronto opened its first office on Main Street in 1905. To attract customers from already established banks. it built this structure in the French Renaissance style. The building is one of the few in Canada with a marble facade and features four Corinthian columns with characteristic foliate capitals: a second recessed facade is cast iron with stylized lion head and floral details. On the interior. the banking hall is finished in marble and a sweeping marble staircase and bronze-caged open elevator lead to the upper floors. The Bank of Toronto remained here until 1953 though the building was sold to Credit Foncier. a Montreal-based trust company. seven years earlier. For many years. architect John D. Atchison had his office in the building together with realtors and insurance companies. The building now contains offices. ROYAL BANK OF CANADA 460 Main Street 191 1 Carrere & Hastings. New York This is the only building in Winnipeg to be designed by the important New York architectural firm of Carrere and Hastings. It was constructed in the American Renaissance style as developed by this firm and is based on the Italian Renaissance palazzo or palace style. The Royal Bank. then based in Halifax. arrived in the city in 1906. It was the last major financial institution to open its doors in Winnipeg. The bank is reconstructed from part of an existing building. the new structure of steel frame clad with pink granite. Bronze entrance and lobby doors with pediments lead to a banking hall finished in marble and illuminated by skylights and bronze-grill windows. The upper floors contained offices for lease. The Royal Bank remained in the building until 1926 and the Canadian Colonization Department was the chief tenant until 1950. The building continues in office use. 50 IMPERIAL BANK OF CANADA 441 Main Street/193 Bannatyne Avenue 1906 Darling & Pearson. Toronto One of the two banks which merged to form the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce. this Toronto-based financial institution established its Winnipeg office in 188 I . This building is constructed in the corporate style of the Bank of England. the Neo-Palladian style. which can also be seen in the Bank of British North America. The structure is steel and reinforced concrete with a sandstone facade. Typically Palladian pediment details are featured on the building together with false balconies. The two-storey banking hall is finished with two-toned marble floors and marble counters. mahogany walls and detailed ceilings penetrated by skylights. A mezzanine originally contained offices with the oak-panelled third floor used by the western inspector. CONFEDERATION LIFE BUILDING 457 Main Street 1912 J. Wilson Gray. Toronto The Confederation Life Building is one of the finest Chicago School style buildings in the District. It is also one of the most unusual. its curved facade following the bend in Main Street. Built for the Confederation Life Insurance Co. which was based in Toronto and which had established its Winnipeg branch in 1879. it replaced an earlier company office on the site. The twelve-storey building is constructed of steel and reinforced concrete and has a white terra cotta facade with a base of polished granite. The interior is finished in marble and bronze. Occupied by various financial. legal and manufacturers' agents offices. the building was also the home of the Winnipeg Builders Exchange from 1926 to 1956. The Confederation Life Insurance Co. sold the building in 1960. It is now occupied by government offices. 51 UNION BANK TOWER AND ANNEX 500~504 Main Street!l39 Letinsky Place 1903~04 Darling & Pearson, Toronto W. Percy Over, Winnipeg 192 1 Reconstructed Annex Northwood & OJrey The oldest Chicago School skyscraper still standing in Western Canada was built for the Union Bank of Canada. This eastern-based financial institution opened its first branch office in Winnipeg in 1882. The eleven- storey steel and reinforced concrete building has terra cotta facing on the first three floors and on the eleventh floor surrounding unusual porthole windows, as well as'a heavily bracketed terra cotta cornice. The bank aspired to be the leading financial institution in Western Canada and in 191 2 moved its head office from Ouebec City to Winnipeg; it later reconstructed an adjacent 1898 building for use as a savings annex. The interiors of the banking halls are finished in coloured marble with ornately coffered and painted ceilings in the main bank and stained glass skylights in the annex. In 1925, the Union Bank merged with the Royal Bank of Canada which still occupies the banking hall. ASHDOWN WAREHOUSE 167~179 Bannatyne Avenue 1895 S. Frank Peters 1899,1902,1906,1908 & 1911 Various additions john H.G. Russell James H. Ashdown was probably Winnipeg's best-known businessman. described as the city's "Merchant Prince". He served as Mayor from 1907-08 and was a founding member of the Board of Trade. Ashdown came to Winnipeg in 1868 and opened his first retail hardware store in 1869, moving it to the present northwest corner of Main Street and Bannatyne Avenue a year later. This Richardson Romanesque warehouse, originally four storeys, was constructed at the corner of Rorie Street and Bannatyne Avenue with a rail spur behind it connecting it to the main line. As the business grew, so did the warehouse with five additions having been made by I91 I. The J.H. Ashdown Company's own train, the Ashdown Special. distributed hardware throughout Western Canada from the warehouse. Recently, the building was converted to residential use. PUBLIC WORKS CD HYDRO SUB~STATION NO. I 54 King Street 1910~11 j.PWest Smith, Kerry & Chace, City of Winnipeg Engineers 191 3 One storey added (central section) james Chisolm City Light & Power Company, the first public utility in Western Canada began. o~erationin .191 I . The utility had entered into competition with the WInnipeg Electric (Railway) Co. which operated the first water- generate~ el:ctrica.1 system beginning in 1903. From a generating station on the WInnipeg RIver at Pointe du Bois to a terminal station in Point Douglas through this substation, electricity flowed to businesses. The brought about by this competition made electricity affordable to DIstrIct m~nufacturers (primarily in the clothing trade) and dramatically effected theIr growth. The unique building is constructed of brick and sandstone suspended on a steel frame and is highly detailed; there have been numerous additions sin<;e. With the construction of the downtown steam heating plant on Amy Street in 1924, the station became a distribution point for this system. HIGH PRESSURE PUMPING STATION 109 james Avenue 1906 Lt. Col. Henry Norlande Ruttan City of Winnipeg Engineer The High Pressure Pumping Station served the District as one of the most sophisticated of its kind in the world. It was constructed under pre.ssure from Winnipeg citizens after river water was pumped into the maIn water system and typhoid broke out following a major fire in 1904. The Pu.mping Station supplied over seventy fire hydrants in the downtown wIth water drawn initially from the Red River. but later from Shoal Lake. Water was pumped through eight miles of mains separated from the domestic supply - the mains system was controlled from the Central Fire Hall (on the present site of Market Square) while City Waterworks operated the gas engine pumping system. Most of the cost was raised through taxation of downtown businesses which benefitted from the reduced insurance rates and the improved fire safety which the system brought about. In the near future this structure will be converted to a museum interpreting the original role the building performed. 52 53 VICTORIA PARK & GARDENS ROSS HOUSE & COLONY GARDENS One of Winnipeg's first four public parks was Victoria Park, opened in 1894 on the site of Victoria and Colony Gardens at the foot of James Avenue facing the Red River. Victoria Gardens was an amusement park named in 1885 for the British Empire's long reigning monarch; Colony Gardens before it was begun in 1843 by Alexander Ross, the Red River settlement's first sheriff whose eldest son, William, became its first postmaster in 1855. William Ross constructed a house the year before at the foot of Market Avenue which became the home of the post office. It was built of hand-hewn squared logs in the style known as Red River Frame. Following the death of William Ross in 1856, his widow, Jemima and her second husband William Coldwell continued to occupy the house until 1904. The Ross family was responsible for donating the Civic Market site and for selling the City Hall site on Main Street to a group of businessmen who in turn donated it to the City. Ross House was saved from demolition by the Manitoba Historical Society and following two moves, it was relocated to Joe Zuken Heritage Park in Point Douglas where it is open to the public. STEPHEN JUBA PARK Named for Winnipeg's longest serving mayor. Stephen Juba Park on the Red River was opened in 1984. It is part of the Red River Corridor. a system of parks which stretches from St. Norbert, south of Winnipeg to Netley Creek on the north. This park occupies a site which, prior to the arrival of the transcontinental railway in 1881, served as the com~ercial centre of Winnipeg. Ship Street suggests the early history of thiS area when most settlers and goods coming to the new city were transported by boat from St. Paul. Minnesota where the closest rail line passed. Alexander Dock still stands at the northern end of the park. More recently, a railway spur line that had serviced the many ware- houses which were built in the District has been removed and the land ha: been r~developedas a landscaped walk called Theatre Way. Freight trams contmue to pass over the bridge at the southern end of the park. Victoria Park, c. 1903 54 55 Theatres Winnipeg stages attracted many stars of the British Theatre of Varieties and American Vaudeville theatre. Some of the Vaudeville circuits through Western Canada began in Winnipeg and many vaudevillians got their first break in the city - there was a saying that if an act could make it in Winnipeg, it could make it anywhere. Fatty Arbuckle, Buster Keaton, Charles Chaplin and the Marx Brothers all appeared on Winnipeg stages (the Marx Brothers first saw Chaplin in this city) and went on to appear in Hollywood films. Winnipeg's discriminating audiences had sent them on their way to stardom. The Pantages and Orpheum circuits which featured their acts were the most popular. offering three shows a day including a matinee. Unfortunately, Vaudeville was overtaken in popularity by Hollywood films starring the famous names that had once tramped the boards in Winnipeg. The Winnipeg Film Exchange was located in the Lyon Building at 2 17-225 McDermot Avenue from 191 7-23. Through the Exchange, Winnipeggers could rent copies of the latest Hollywood films. The Winnipeg Film Exchange's theatre at 646 Main Street still stands as one of the oldest film theatres in Winnipeg. PANTAGES THEATRE 180 Market Avenue 1913-14 B. Marcus Priteca, Seattle The words "Pantages Unequalled Vaudeville" are inscribed above the entrance to one of Canada's finest post-I 900 vaudeville theatres. The Pantages Theatre circuit was begun by Alexander Pantages, a wealthy American businessman who made his fortune in the Klondike. He built seventeen theatres across North America. the Winnipeg stage being the first on the western circuit. The Pantages Theatre opened on February 9, 1914 with Mademoiselle Adgie and her Twelve Dancing Lions performing their Dance of Death. There were three shows a day offering patrons seats at 10 cents, 15 cents. or 25 cents in the exclusive boxes. Vaudeville waned as silent films with piano accompaniment were added to the bill. The Pantages closed its doors in 1923. reopening the same year for use in local productions. It was taken over by the City of Winnipeg in 1935. Stagehands at the Pantages Theatre. c. 1915-16 56 The renowned act of Mademoiselle Adgie featured her Lions in a Dance of Death while a tango played from the orchestra pit. Following one of the performances during the second week, the night watchman was making his rounds when he met one of the lions sauntering down the aisle. So the story goes, it was time for the lion's the horrified night watchman disappeared in the shadows, the lion is said to have looked surprised. 57 Pfwtographk Credits PROVINCIAL ARCHIVES OF MANITOBA CITY OF WINNIPEG All other archival photographs. HERITAGE WINNIPEG All other contemporary photographs by George Siamandas for Heritage Winnipeg. Ardiitedural Terms Page 8/9 Page 12/13 Page 15 Page 15 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 19 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 28 Page 29 Page 36 Page 37 Page 40 Page 42 Page 43 Page 52 Page 53 View of the District. southwest from Albert and Arthur c. 1905 [Winnipeg - Views c. 1905 - I] View of Winnipeg c. 1912 [Winnipeg - Views c. 1912 - I:J.L. Wiseman. Photographer: N8374] Campbell-Wilson Building. Princess Street c. 1910 [I.H.G. Russell Collection 13] John H.G. Russell c. 1913 [Collective Personalities 5/66: T.J. Leatherdale. Photographer: N4700] Bank of Commerce. [Darling and Pearson. c. 1928] John D. Atchison c. 1913 [Collective Personalities 5/65: N5240] Union Trust Tower. Lombard and Main 2 c. 1915 [Winnipeg - Buildings - Business: N8698] Great West Life Building. Lombard Avenue 4 c. 1913 [Winnipeg - Buildings - Business: N I 0054] Traders of the Grain Exchange c. 1896 Arch: Balustrade: Bay: Bracket: Capital: Coffer: Colonnade: Column: Corbelling: Cornice: Dentil: Entablature: Keystone: Lintel Moulding: Order: Parapet: Pediment: Pier: Pilaster: Portiw: Ouoins: Spandrel: Vault: Voussoir: A rounded or squared member spanning an opening and built of masonry blocks which keep one another in place. A round-head arch is semi-circular: a segmental arch comprises an arc smaller than a semi-circle. A row of short pillars or posts supporting a rail. A vertical division of a building. A small piece supporting a projecting weight as in a cornice. The head or uppermost part of a column or pilaster. A panel deeply recessed in a ceiling. A series of columns supporting an entablature. The lower part of an order supporting an entablature. A vertical member. circular in section and usually slightly tapering. consisting of base. shaft and capital. Those rows of masonry. often supporting a horizontal member. in which successive rows project beyond those below as in a cornice. The top section of an entablature or any horizontal moulding projecting from a building and overhanging a wall to throw off rain water. A small square block used in a series in cornices. The upper part of an order supported by columns. Consists of an architrave. frieze and cornice. The central stone in an arch. A horizontal member spanning an opening such as a window or door and usually supporting the wall. A band projecting from the surface of a building above a window or doorway to throw off rain water. The classical columns and entablature which they support. A low wall guarding the edge of a roof. The triangular gable above a roof. window or door. A vertical masonry support projecting from a wall which is usually rectangular or square in section. A rectangular column projecting from a wall. A roofed space projecting from or receding into a building and containing the entrance. The large. rectangular stones at the corner of a building. usually laid with their side and end faces alternating. The part of a wall between adjacent vertical supports and between the window sill above and the window head below. An arched roof or ceiling. A tunnel vault is semi-circular or pointed and continuous. A wedged-shaped brick or stone forming part of an arch. 59 [Winnipeg - Buildings - Old City Hall c. 1884 [Winnipeg - Buildings - Business: Grain Exchange. Princess 2] Municipal: City Hall (1886) 84: N4741] Municipal] Civic Market 3 c. 1890 [Winnipeg - Buildings - Ryan Building. King Street I890's [Winnipeg - Buildings - Business: Ryan Building. King I: N7562] Bannatyne Avenue. Looking west from King Street 2 c. 1910 [Winnipeg - Streets - Bannatyne] Staff of the Winnipeg Telegram 3 191 7 [Winnipeg - Buildings - Business: N7111] Start of the Telegram 20-mile road race. corner of McDermot and Albert 1909 [M.S.H.F.&M. Collection 110: Track and Field - Men - Long Distance] Bachelors' dinner at the Mariaggi Hotel 1905 [Winnipeg - Hotels - Mariaggi 2] Grain Exchange Building. Lombard Avenue c. 191 5 [Foote Collection 433: N2033] Winnipeg stock Exchange. Main Street c. 1938 [Winnipeg - Buildings - Business: Wheat Pool: N7360] Union Bank of Canada I c. 1908 [Winnipeg - Banks: Union Bank. Main Street 3] High Pressure Pumping Station. James Avenue [Architectural Survey - Winnipeg: N47i70] Stagehands at the Pantages Theatre c. 191 5-16 [Winnipeg - Theatres: Playhouse 12: N4216] Page 56 WESTERN CANADA PICTORIAL INDEX Cover Page 8/9 Page II Page 34 Page 41 Page 57 Lombard Avenue. Looking west [Cargill Ltd. Collection: CRA 196161477] McDermot Avenue. Looking west from Albert Street [University of Manitoba Tribune Collection: WTA083324897] J.H. Ashdown Warehouse Co. Stores [lAA0560 17690] Maw Garage. King Street [Don and Hedy Wiebe Collection: SWA 151650400] Criterion Hotel. McDermot Avenue [Architectural Survey of Manitoba: MAA017605528] Pantages Theatre. Market Avenue [WAA0509 I 6280] 58 This brochure has been produced by Heritage Winnipeg with the financial assistance of the Winnipeg Core Area Initiative and the Manitoba Heritage Federation. We would like to express our thanks for their essential financial support which made this publication possible. Heritage Winnipeg is an independent charitable, non-profit corporation active in the preservation of Winnipeg's historic architecture. The Winnipeg Core Area Initiative is a $ I 96 million, tri-governmental agreement designed to improve economic, social and physical conditions in the heart of our city. Winnipeg lies at the confluence of the Assiniboine and the Red River of the North, a location now known as "The Forks". This point was at the crossroads of canoe routes travelled by First Nations before European contact.[13] The name Winnipeg is a transcription of the Western Cree word wi-nipe-k meaning "muddy waters";[14] the area was populated for several thousand years by First Nations. Evidence provided by archaeology, petroglyphs, rock art and oral history indicates that native peoples used the area in prehistoric times for camping, hunting, tool making, fishing, trading and, farther north, for agriculture.[15] Estimates of the date of first settlement in this area are varied and range from 11,500 years ago for a site southwest of the present city to 6,000 years ago at the Forks.[16][17] In 1805, First Nations peoples were observed engaging in farming activity along the Red River. The practice quickly expanded, driven by the demand by traders for provisions.[18] The rivers provided an extensive transportation network linking northern First Peoples with those to the south along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The Ojibwe made some of the first maps on birch bark, which helped fur traders navigate the waterways of the area.[19] Settlement Winnipeg's old City Hall in 1887 Sieur de La Vérendrye built the first fur trading post on the site, called Fort Rouge, in 1738.[20][21] French trading continued at this site for several decades before the arrival of the British Hudson's Bay Company.[22] Many French and later British men who were trappers married First Nations women; their mixed-race children, the Métis, hunted, traded, and lived in the area.[23] Lord Selkirk was involved with the first permanent settlement (known as the Red River Colony), the purchase of land from the Hudson's Bay Company, and a survey of river lots in the early 19th century.[24] The North West Company built Fort Gibraltar in 1809, and the Hudson's Bay Company built Fort Douglas in 1812, both in the area of present-day Winnipeg.[25] The two companies competed fiercely over trade.[26] The Métis and Lord Selkirk's settlers fought at the Battle of Seven Oaks in 1816. In 1821, the Hudson's Bay and North West Companies merged, ending their long-standing rivalry.[27] Fort Gibraltar was renamed Fort Garry in 1822 and became the leading post in the region for the Hudson's Bay Company.[28] The fort was destroyed by a flood in 1826 and was not rebuilt until 1835.[28] A rebuilt section of the fort, consisting of the front gate and a section of the wall, can be found near the modern-day corner of Main Street and Broadway Avenue in downtown Winnipeg.[29] In 1869–70, present-day Winnipeg was the site of the Red River Rebellion, a conflict between the local provisional government of Métis, led by Louis Riel, and newcomers from eastern Canada. General Garnet Wolseley was sent to put down the uprising. The Manitoba Act of 1870 made Manitoba the fifth province of the three-year-old Canadian Confederation.[30][31][32] On 8 November 1873, Winnipeg was incorporated as a city, with the Selkirk settlement as its nucleus.[33] Métis legislator and interpreter James McKay named the city.[34] Winnipeg developed rapidly after the coming of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1881.[35] The railway divided the North End, which housed mainly Eastern Europeans, from the richer Anglo-Saxon southern part of the city.[17] It also contributed to a demographic shift beginning shortly after Confederation that saw the francophone population decrease from a majority to a small minority group. This shift resulted in Premier Thomas Greenway controversially ending legislative bilingualism and removing funding for French Catholic Schools in 1890.[36] By 1911, Winnipeg was Canada's third-largest city.[17] However, the city faced financial difficulty when the Panama Canal opened in 1914.[37] The canal reduced reliance on Canada's rail system for international trade; the increase in shipping traffic helped Vancouver to surpass Winnipeg in both prosperity and population by the end of World War I.[38] 1919 Strike to present The Winnipeg General Strike, 21 June 1919 More than 30,000 workers walked off their jobs in May 1919 in what came to be known as the Winnipeg General Strike.[39] The strike was a product of postwar recession, labour conditions, the activity of union organizers and a large influx of returning World War I soldiers seeking work.[40] After many arrests, deportations, and incidents of violence, the strike ended on 21 June 1919, when the Riot Act was read and a group of Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers charged a group of strikers.[41] Two strikers were killed and at least thirty others were injured on the day that became known as Bloody Saturday; the event polarized the population.[41] One of the leaders of the strike, J. S. Woodsworth, went on to found Canada's first major socialist party, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, which later became the New Democratic Party.[42] The Manitoba Legislative Building, constructed mainly of Tyndall stone, opened in 1920; its dome supports a bronze statue finished in gold leaf, titled "Eternal Youth and the Spirit of Enterprise" (commonly known as the "Golden Boy").[43] The stock market crash of 1929 and the Great Depression resulted in widespread unemployment, worsened by drought and low agricultural prices.[44] The Depression ended after the start of World War II in 1939.[17] In the Battle of Hong Kong, The Winnipeg Grenadiers were among the first Canadians to engage in combat against Japan. Battalion members who survived combat were taken prisoner and endured brutal treatment in prisoner of war camps.[45] In 1942, the Victory Loan Campaign staged a mock Nazi invasion of Winnipeg to promote awareness of the stakes of the war in Europe.[46][47] When the war ended, pent-up demand generated a boom in housing development, although building activity was checked by the 1950 Red River Flood.[48] The federal government estimated damages at over $26 million, although the province indicated that it was at least double that.[49] Prior to 1972, Winnipeg was the largest of thirteen cities and towns in a metropolitan area around the Red and Assiniboine Rivers. A consolidated metropolitan "unicity" government was established on 27 July 1971, taking effect in 1972.[50] The City of Winnipeg Act incorporated the current city.[17] Winnipeg experienced a severe economic downturn in advance of the early 1980s recession, during which the city incurred closures of prominent businesses, including the Winnipeg Tribune, as well as the Swift's and Canada Packers meat packing plants.[51] In 1981, Winnipeg was one of the first cities in Canada to sign a tripartite agreement with the province and federal government to redevelop its downtown area,[52] and the three levels of government contributed over $271 million to its development.[53] In 1989, the reclamation and redevelopment of the CNR rail yards turned The Forks into Winnipeg's most popular tourist attraction.[13][17] The city was threatened by the 1997 Red River Flood as well as further floods in 2009 and 2011.[54] Geography Main article: Geography and climate of Winnipeg River walkway near The Forks, with St. Boniface Cathedral in the background Winnipeg lies at the bottom of the Red River Valley, a flood plain with an extremely flat topography.[55] It is on the eastern edge of the Canadian Prairies in Western Canada and is known as the "Gateway to the West".[17] Winnipeg is bordered by tallgrass prairie to the west and south and the aspen parkland to the northeast, although most of the native prairie grasses have been removed for agriculture and urbanization.[56] It is relatively close to many large Canadian Shield lakes and parks, as well as Lake Winnipeg (the Earth's 11th largest freshwater lake).[57] Winnipeg contains North America's largest extant mature urban elm forest.[58] The city has a total area of 464.08 km2 (179.18 sq mi).[5] Winnipeg has four major rivers: the Red, Assiniboine, La Salle and Seine.[59] The city was subject to severe flooding in the past. The Red River reached its greatest flood height in 1826. Another large flood occurred in 1950, which caused millions of dollars in damages and mass evacuations.[60] This flood prompted Duff Roblin's provincial government to build the Red River Floodway to protect the city; the project began in 1962 and was completed in 1968.[17] In the 1997 flood, flood control dikes were reinforced and raised using sandbags; Winnipeg suffered very limited damage compared to the flood's impact on cities without such structures, such as Grand Forks, North Dakota.[61] The generally flat terrain and the poor drainage of the Red River Valley's clay-based soil also results in many mosquitoes during wetter years.[62] Climate Winnipeg's location in the Canadian Prairies gives it a humid continental climate[63] (Köppen Dfb[64]). Winnipeg has four distinct seasons, with short transitional periods between winter and summer. Summers are warm and humid with frequent thunderstorms,[65] winters are very cold and dry, and spring and fall are temperate. Snow occasionally lasts six months of the year.[66][67] Temperatures do occasionally drop below −40.0 °C (−40 °F) but this has become quite rare in the last few decades and has in fact not occurred since February 2007.[68] Temperatures exceed 30°C on average 14 days a year.[69] On average there are 317.8 days per year with measurable sunshine, with July seeing the most on average.[70] Total annual precipitation (both rain and snow) is just over 20 inches (51 cm).[17] In spite of Winnipeg's very cold winters, the climate is not subarctic since five months average above 10 °C (50 °F) with respect to mean temperature.[71] The January daily mean of −16.4 °C (2.5 °F), albeit colder than other metropolises in Canada, is typical of the prairies and for southern parts of Manitoba in general. [show]Climate data for Winnipeg (Winnipeg Airport) Cityscape See also: List of Winnipeg neighbourhoods, List of tallest buildings in Winnipeg and Subdivisions of Winnipeg Downtown Winnipeg and the Exchange District There are officially 236 neighbourhoods in Winnipeg.[78] Downtown Winnipeg, the city's financial heart and economic core, is centred on the intersection of Portage Avenue and Main Street. It covers an area of about 1 square mile (2.6 km2) and is the fastest growing high-income neighbourhood in the city.[79] More than 72,000 people work downtown, and over 40,000 students attend classes at its universities and colleges.[79] The past few decades have seen the downtown undergo major revitalization efforts; since 1999, over C$1.2 billion has been invested.[79] Downtown Winnipeg's Exchange District is named after the area's original grain exchange, which operated from 1880 to 1913.[79] The 30-block district received National Historic Site of Canada status in 1997; it includes North America's most extensive collection of early 20th-century terracotta and cut stone architecture, 62 of downtown Winnipeg's 86 heritage structures,[79] Stephen Juba Park, and Old Market Square.[79] Other major downtown areas are The Forks, Central Park, Broadway-Assiniboine and Chinatown. Many of Downtown Winnipeg's major buildings are linked with the Winnipeg Walkway.[80] Various residential neighbourhoods surround downtown in all directions; expansion is greatest to the south and west, although several areas remain underdeveloped.[81] The largest park in the city, Assiniboine Park, houses the Assiniboine Park Zoo and the Leo Mol Sculpture Garden.[82] Other large city parks include Kildonan Park and St. Vital Park. The major commercial areas in the city are Polo Park, Kildonan Crossing, South St. Vital, Garden City (West Kildonan), Osborne Village, and the Corydon strip.[83] The main cultural and nightlife areas are the Exchange District, The Forks, Osborne Village and Corydon Village (both in Fort Rouge), Sargent and Ellice Avenues (West End) and Old St. Boniface.[84] Osborne Village is Winnipeg's most densely populated neighbourhood,[85] as well as one of the most densely populated neighbourhoods in Western Canada.[86] Demographics Main article: Demographics of Winnipeg As of the Canada 2011 Census there were 663,617 people living in Winnipeg proper,[87] with approximately 730,018 living in the Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area (CMA).[88] Thus, Winnipeg is Manitoba's largest city and Canada's seventh largest city. Furthermore, the city represents 54.9% of the population of the province of Manitoba, the highest population concentration in one city of any province in Canada.[89][90] Apart from the city of Winnipeg, the Winnipeg CMA includes the rural municipalities of Springfield, St. Clements, Taché, East St. Paul, Macdonald, Ritchot, West St. Paul, Headingley, the Brokenhead 4 reserve, and Rosser and St. François Xavier.[91] Statistics Canada's estimate of the Winnipeg CMA population as of 1 July 2014 is 782,640.[92] Ethnic origins, 2006[93] Population % English 137,075 21.1 Scottish 113,465 17.4 Canadian 108,955 16.76 German 105,910 16.2 Ukrainian 98,860 15.2 Irish 85,800 13.2 French 85,025 13.1 Aboriginal 76,055 11.7 Filipino 58,255 9.0 Polish 50,385 7.8 As of the 2006 census, 48.3 percent of residents were male and 51.7 percent were female. 24.3 percent were 19 years old or younger, 27.4 percent were between 20 and 30 years old, and 34.0 percent were between 40 and 64 years old. The average age of a Winnipegger in May 2006 was 38.7, compared to an average of 39.5 for Canada as a whole.[94] Between the censuses of 2006 and 2011, Winnipeg's population increased by 4.8 percent, compared to 5.2 percent for Manitoba as a whole. The population density of the city of Winnipeg averaged 1,430 people per km2, compared with 2.2 for Manitoba.[95] Winnipeg has a significant and increasing Aboriginal population, with both the highest percentage of Aboriginal peoples (11.7%) for any major Canadian city, and the highest total number of Aboriginals (76,055) for any single non-reserve municipality.[93] The Aboriginal population grew by 22% between 2001 and 2006, compared to an increase of 3% for the city as a whole; this population tends to be younger and less wealthy than non-Aboriginal residents.[96] Winnipeg also has the highest Métis population in both percentage (6.3%) and numbers (41,005); the growth rate for this population between 2001 and 2006 was 30%.[93][96] The city has the greatest percentage of Filipino residents (8.7%) of any major Canadian city, although Toronto has more Filipinos by total population. In 2006, Winnipeg ranked seventh of the Canadian cities for percentage of residents of a visible minority.[93][97] The population is 67.5% white as of 2011 (down from 73.5% in 2006), while non-aboriginal visible minorities represent 21.4% as of 2011 (up from 16.3% in 2006).[93][94] The city receives over 10,000 net international immigrants per year.[98] More than a hundred languages are spoken in Winnipeg, of which the most common is English: 99 percent of Winnipeggers are fluent English speakers, 88 percent speak only English, and 0.1 percent speak only French (Canada's other official language). 10 percent speak both English and French, while 1.3 percent speak neither. Other languages spoken as a mother tongue in Winnipeg include Tagalog (5.0%), German (2.5%), and Punjabi and Ukrainian (both 1.4%). Several Aboriginal languages are also spoken, such as Ojibwe (0.3%) and Cree (0.2%).[95] The 2011 National Household Survey reported the religious make-up of Winnipeg as: 63.7% Christian, including 29.7% Catholic, 8.1% United Church, and 4.6% Anglican; 1.7% Muslim; 1.6% Jewish; 1.5% Sikh; 1.0% Hindu; 1.0% Buddhist; 0.3% traditional (aboriginal) spirituality; 0.4% other; and 28.7% no religious affiliation.[93] [show]Population growth since 1871 Winnipeg skyline as of 12 May 2013 Economy Royal Canadian Mint See also: List of corporations based in Winnipeg Winnipeg is an economic base and regional centre. It has one of the country's most diversified economies,[107] with major employment in the trade (15.2%), manufacturing (9.8%), educational (7.7%), and health care and social assistance (15.2%) sectors.[107] There were approximately 21,000 employers in the city as of 2012.[107] In 2013, The CIBC Metropolitan Economic Activity Index rated Winnipeg's economy as fourth in a national survey of 25 city economies, behind Toronto, Calgary, and Regina.[108] According to the Conference Board of Canada, Winnipeg is projected to experience a real GDP growth of 2 percent in 2014.[109] Unlike most of Canada, the city experienced a decrease in unemployment in 2013, ending the year at a rate of 5.8 percent.[110] As of 2010, median household income in the city was $72,050.[107] As of January 2014, approximately 416,700 people are employed in Winnipeg and the surrounding area.[111] Some of Winnipeg's largest employers are government and government-funded institutions, including: the Province of Manitoba, the City of Winnipeg, the University of Manitoba, the Health Sciences Centre, and Manitoba Hydro.[112] Approximately 54,000 people (14% of the work force) are employed in the public sector as of 2008.[113] Large private sector employers include Shaw Communications, Manitoba Telecom Services, Ipsos-Reid, Palliser Furniture, Great-West Life Assurance, Motor Coach Industries, New Flyer Industries, Boeing Canada Technology, Magellan Aerospace, Nygård International, Canad Inns and Investors Group.[114] The Royal Canadian Mint, established in 1976, is where all circulating coinage in Canada is produced.[115] The plant, located in southeastern Winnipeg, also produces coins for many other countries.[116] In 2012, Winnipeg was ranked by KPMG as the least expensive location to do business in western Canada.[117] Like many prairie cities, Winnipeg has a relatively low cost of living.[118] According to the Canadian Real Estate Association, the average house price in Winnipeg was $260,000 as of 2013.[119] As of May 2014, the Consumer Price Index was 125.8 relative to 2002 prices, reflecting consumer costs at the Canadian average.[120][121] Culture Main article: Winnipeg arts and culture See also: List of people from Winnipeg, Category:Museums in Winnipeg, Category:Theatre companies in Manitoba, List of TV and films shot in Winnipeg, List of Winnipeg musicians and Category:Festivals in Manitoba The Esplanade Riel, a pedestrian-only side-spar cable-stayed bridge, is home to the Winnipeg-based restaurant Chez Sophie. Winnipeg was named the Cultural Capital of Canada in 2010 by Canadian Heritage.[122] As of 2012, there are 26 National Historic Sites of Canada in Winnipeg.[123] One of these, The Forks, attracts four million visitors a year.[124] It is home to the City television studio, Manitoba Theatre for Young People, the Winnipeg International Children's Festival, and the Manitoba Children's Museum. It also features a 30,000-square-foot (2,800 m2) skate plaza, a 8,500-square-foot (790 m2) bowl complex, the Esplanade Riel bridge,[125] a river walkway, Shaw Park, and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights.[124] The Winnipeg Public Library is a public library network with 20 branches throughout the city, including the main Millennium Library.[126] Winnipeg the Bear, which would later become the inspiration for part of the name of Winnie-the-Pooh, was purchased in Ontario by Lieutenant Harry Colebourn of the Fort Garry Horse. He named the bear after the regiment's home town of Winnipeg.[127] A. A. Milne later wrote a series of books featuring the fictional Winnie-the-Pooh. The series' illustrator, Ernest H. Shepard, created the only known oil painting of Winnipeg's adopted fictional bear, displayed in Assiniboine Park.[128] The city has developed many distinct dishes and cooking styles, notably in the areas of confectionery and hot-smoked fish. Both the First Nations and more recent Eastern Canadian, European, and Asian immigrants have helped shape Winnipeg's dining scene, giving birth to dishes such as the desserts schmoo torte and wafer pie.[129][130] Winnipeg's three largest performing arts venues, the Centennial Concert Hall, Manitoba Theatre Centre (MTC) and the Pantages Playhouse Theatre, are located downtown. MTC is Canada's oldest English-language regional theatre, with over 250 performances yearly.[131] The Pantages Playhouse Theatre opened as a vaudeville house in 1913.[132] Other city theatres include the Burton Cummings Theatre (a National Historic Site of Canada built in 1906[133]) and Prairie Theatre Exchange. Le Cercle Molière, based in St Boniface, is the oldest theatre company in Canada; it was founded in 1925.[134] Rainbow Stage is a musical theatre production company based in Kildonan Park which produces professional, live Broadway musical shows and is Canada's longest-surviving outdoor theatre.[17][135] The Manitoba Theatre for Young People at The Forks is one of only two Theatres for Young Audiences in Canada with a permanent residence, and is the only Theatre for Young Audiences that offers a full season of plays for teenagers.[136] The Winnipeg Jewish Theatre is the only professional theatre in Canada dedicated to Jewish themes.[137] Shakespeare in the Ruins (SIR) presents adaptations of Shakespeare plays.[138] Winnipeg has hosted a number of Hollywood productions: Shall We Dance? (2004), Capote (2005), The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford (2007), and Goon (2011) among others had parts filmed in the city.[139] The Winnipeg Film Group has produced numerous award-winning films.[140] There are several TV and film production companies in Winnipeg: the most prominent are Farpoint Films, Frantic Films, Buffalo Gal Pictures, and Les Productions Rivard.[141] Guy Maddin's My Winnipeg, an independent film released in 2008, is a comedic rumination on the city's history.[142] The Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra is the largest and oldest professional musical ensemble in Winnipeg.[143] The Manitoba Chamber Orchestra runs a series of chamber orchestral concerts each year.[144] Manitoba Opera is Manitoba's only full-time professional opera company.[145] Among the most notable musical acts associated with Winnipeg are Bachman–Turner Overdrive,[146] the Crash Test Dummies,[147] The Guess Who,[148] Neil Young,[149] The Wailin' Jennys, and The Weakerthans.[146] The Canadian Museum for Human Rights under construction (2012) The Royal Winnipeg Ballet (RWB) is Canada's oldest ballet company and the longest continuously operating ballet company in North America. It was the first organization to be granted a royal title by Queen Elizabeth II, and has included notable dancers such as Evelyn Hart and Mikhail Baryshnikov. The RWB also runs a full-time classical dance school.[150] The Manitoba Museum is the largest museum in the city, and depicts the history of the city and province. The full-size replica of the ship Nonsuch is the museum's showcase piece.[151] The Manitoba Children's Museum is a nonprofit children's museum located at The Forks that features twelve permanent galleries.[152][153] The Winnipeg Art Gallery is Western Canada's oldest public art gallery, founded in 1912. It is the sixth-largest in the country[154] and includes the world's largest public collection of contemporary Inuit art.[17][155] The Canadian Museum for Human Rights will be the second Canadian national museum for human rights.[156] The federal government has contributed $100 million towards the estimated $311-million project.[157] Construction of the museum began on 1 April 2008,[158] and the museum opened to the public September 27, 2014.[159] Folklorama is a popular summer festival. The Western Canada Aviation Museum, located in a hangar at Winnipeg's James Richardson International Airport, features military jets, commercial aircraft, Canada's first helicopter, the "flying saucer" Avrocar, flight simulators, and a Black Brant rocket built in Manitoba by Bristol Aerospace.[160] The Winnipeg Railway Museum is located at Via Rail Station and contains various locomotives, notably the Countess of Dufferin, the first steam locomotive in Western Canada.[161] Festival du Voyageur, Western Canada's largest winter festival, celebrates the early French explorers of the Red River Valley.[162] Folklorama is the largest and longest-running cultural celebration festival in the world.[163] The Jazz Winnipeg Festival and the Winnipeg Folk Festival both celebrate Winnipeg's music community. The Winnipeg Music Festival offers a competition venue to amateur musicians. The Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival is the second-largest alternative theatre festival in North America.[164] The Winnipeg International Writers Festival (also called THIN AIR) brings writers to Winnipeg for workshops and readings.[165] The LGBT community in the city is served by Pride Winnipeg, an annual gay pride festival and parade, and Reel Pride, a film festival of LGBT-themed films.[166] Sports Main article: Sport in Winnipeg MTS Centre, home arena of the Winnipeg Jets Winnipeg has been home to several professional hockey teams. The Winnipeg Jets of the National Hockey League (NHL) have called the city home since 2011.[167] The original Winnipeg Jets, the city's former NHL team, left for Phoenix, Arizona after the 1995–96 season due to mounting financial troubles, despite a campaign effort to "Save the Jets".[168] The Jets play at MTS Centre, which is currently ranked the world's 19th-busiest arena among non-sporting touring events, 13th-busiest among facilities in North America, and 3rd-busiest in Canada as of 2009.[169] Past professional hockey teams based in Winnipeg include the Winnipeg Maroons, Winnipeg Warriors, and the Manitoba Moose.[170][171] In amateur hockey, the Winnipeg Blues of the Manitoba Junior Hockey League play out of the MTS Iceplex.[172] On the international stage, Winnipeg has hosted national and world hockey championships on a number of occasions, most notably the 1999 World Junior Hockey Championship and 2007 Women's World Hockey Championship.[173][174] The Winnipeg Blue Bombers play in the Canadian Football League. The Blue Bombers are ten-time Grey Cup champions, their last championship in 1990.[175] From 1953 to 2012, the Blue Bombers called Canad Inns Stadium home; they have since moved to Investors Group Field. Due to construction delays and cost overruns, the stadium was not ready in time for the 2012 CFL season, instead opening in 2013. The $200-million facility is also the home to the CIS' University of Manitoba Bisons and the Winnipeg Rifles of the Canadian Junior Football League.[176][177] The University of Manitoba Bisons and the University of Winnipeg Wesmen represent the city in interuniversity sport.[178] In soccer, it is represented by the Winnipeg Alliance FC in the Canadian Major Indoor Soccer League and the WSA Winnipeg in the USL Premier Development League.[179] Winnipeg has been home to a number of professional baseball teams, most recently the Winnipeg Goldeyes since 1994. The Goldeyes play at Shaw Park, which was completed in 1999. The team had led the Northern League for ten straight years in average attendance through 2010, with more than 300,000 annual fan visits, until the league collapsed and merged into the American Association of Independent Professional Baseball.[180] Winnipeg was the first Canadian city to ever host the Pan American Games, and the second city to host the event twice, in 1967 and again in 1999.[181] The Pan Am Pool, built for the 1967 Pan Am Games, hosts aquatic events, including diving, speed swimming, synchronized swimming and water polo.[182] Winnipeg will co-host the FIFA Women's World Cup in 2015.[183] The city has been selected to host the 2017 Canada Summer Games.[184] Professional sports teams Club Sport League Venue Established Championships Winnipeg Blue Bombers Football CFL Investors Group Field 1930 10 Winnipeg Jets Hockey NHL MTS Centre Original: 1972–1996; Present-day: since 2011 3 (WHA Avco Cup) Winnipeg Goldeyes Baseball American Association Shaw Park 1994 2 Local media Main article: Media in Winnipeg Historic Free Press building Winnipeg has three daily newspapers: the Winnipeg Free Press, the Winnipeg Sun, and the Metro Winnipeg.[185] There are five weekly newspapers delivered free to most Winnipeg households by region. There are also several ethnic weekly newspapers.[186] Television broadcasting in Winnipeg started in 1954. The federal government refused to license any private broadcaster until the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation had created a national network. In May 1954, CBWT went on the air with four hours of broadcasting per day.[187] There are now five English-language stations and one French-language station based in Winnipeg. Additionally, some American network affiliates are available over-the-air.[188] Winnipeg is home to 33 AM and FM radio stations, two of which are French-language stations.[189] CBC Radio One and CBC Radio 2 broadcast local and national programming in the city.[190] NCI is devoted to Aboriginal programming.[191] Law and government Main article: Law, government, and crime in Winnipeg Winnipeg City Hall Since 1992, the city of Winnipeg has been represented by 15 city councillors and a mayor, both elected every four years.[192] The present mayor, Brian Bowman, was elected to office in 2014.[17] The city is a single-tier municipality, governed by a mayor-council system.[17] The structure of the municipal government is set by the provincial legislature in the City of Winnipeg Charter Act, which replaced the old City of Winnipeg Act in 2003.[193] The mayor is elected by direct popular vote to serve as the chief executive of the city.[194] At Council meetings, the mayor has one of 16 votes. The City Council is a unicameral legislative body, representing geographical wards throughout the city.[193] Manitoba Legislative Building In provincial politics, Winnipeg is represented by 31 of the 57 provincial Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs). As of 2014, 25 Winnipeg districts are represented by members of the New Democratic Party (NDP), 4 by members of the Progressive Conservative Party, one by the Liberal Party, and one by an Independent. All three leaders of the provincial parties represent Winnipeg districts in the legislature.[195] In federal politics, as of 2013 Winnipeg is represented by eight Members of Parliament: six Conservatives, one New Democrat and one Liberal.[196] There are six Senators representing Manitoba in Ottawa: three Liberals, two Conservatives, and one Independent.[197] Crime Main article: Crime in Winnipeg From 2007 to 2011, Winnipeg was the "murder capital" of Canada, with the highest per-capita rate of homicides; it fell to second place in 2012, behind Thunder Bay.[198][199] Winnipeg has had the highest violent crime index since 2009. The robbery rate in 2012 was between 250.1 and 272.9.[200][201] Despite high overall violent crime rates, crime in Winnipeg is mostly concentrated in the inner city, which makes up only 19% of the population[202] but was the site of 86.4% of the city's shootings, 66.5% of the robberies, 63.3% of the homicides and 59.5% of the sexual assaults in 2012.[200] From the early 1990s to the mid-2000s, Winnipeg had a significant auto-theft problem, with the rate peaking at 2,165.0 per 100,000 residents in 2006[203] compared to 487 auto-thefts per 100,000 residents for Canada as a whole.[204] To combat auto theft, Manitoba Public Insurance established financial incentives for motor vehicle owners to install ignition immobilizers in their vehicles, and now requires owners of high-risk vehicles to install immobilizers.[205] The auto-theft rate has been on a constant drop since 2006. Other types of property crime have also decreased, but rates are still fairly high.[201][206] Winnipeg is protected by the Winnipeg Police Service, which in 2012 had 1,442 police officers.[206] In November 2013, the national police union reviewed the Winnipeg Police Force and found high average response times for several categories of calls.[207][208] Education See also: List of schools of Winnipeg University of Manitoba's Administration Building There are seven school divisions in Winnipeg: Winnipeg School Division, St. James-Assiniboia School Division, Pembina Trails School Division, Seven Oaks School Division, Division Scolaire Franco-Manitobaine, River East Transcona School Division, and Louis Riel School Division.[209] Winnipeg also has a number of religious and secular private schools.[210][211] The University of Manitoba is the largest university in Manitoba.[212] It was founded in 1877, making it Western Canada's first university.[212] In a typical year, the university has an enrolment of 24,500 undergraduate students and 4,000 graduate students.[213] Université de Saint-Boniface is the city's only French Canadian university.[214] The University of Winnipeg received its charter in 1967.[215] Until 2007, it was an undergraduate institution that offered some joint graduate studies programs; it now offers independent graduate programs.[215] The Canadian Mennonite University is a private Mennonite undergraduate university established in 1999.[216] Red River College's Roblin Centre in the Exchange District campus Winnipeg also has two independent colleges: Red River College and Booth University College. Red River College offers diploma, certificate, and apprenticeship programs and, starting in 2009, began offering some degree programs.[217] Booth University College is a private Christian Salvation Army university college established in 1982. It offers mostly arts and seminary training.[218][219] Infrastructure Transportation Main article: Transport in Winnipeg Winnipeg has had public transit since 1882, starting with horse-drawn streetcars.[220] They were replaced by electric trolley cars. The trolley cars ran from 1892 to 1955, supplemented by motor buses after 1918, and electric trolleybuses from 1938 to 1970.[220] Winnipeg Transit now runs diesel buses on its routes.[221] Winnipeg is a railway hub and is served by Via Rail, Canadian National Railway, Canadian Pacific Railway, Burlington Northern Santa Fe Manitoba, and the Central Manitoba Railway. It is the only city between Vancouver and Thunder Bay with direct US connections by rail.[222] Winnipeg is the largest and best connected city within Manitoba, and has highways leading in all directions from the city. To the south, Winnipeg is connected to the United States via Provincial Trunk Highway 75 (PTH 75) (a continuation of I-29 and US 75, known as Pembina Highway or Route 42 within Winnipeg). The highway runs 107 km (66 mi) to Emerson, Manitoba, and is the busiest Canada – United States border crossing on the Prairies.[223] The four-lane Perimeter Highway, built in 1969, serves as a Ring Road, with at-grade intersections and a few interchanges. It allows travellers on the Trans-Canada Highway to bypass the city. A recent study cited dangerous intersections and low efficiency as its primary shortfalls.[224] The Trans-Canada Highway runs east to west through the city (city route), or circles around the city on the Perimeter Highway (beltway). Some of the city's major arterial roads include Route 80 (Waverley St.), Route 155 (McGillivray Blvd), Route 165 (Bishop Grandin Blvd.), Route 17 (Chief Peguis Trail), and Route 90 (Brookside Blvd., Oak Point Hwy., King Edward St., Century St., Kenaston Blvd.).[225] Winnipeg International Airport arrivals hall The Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport completed a $585-million redevelopment in October 2011. The development includes a new terminal, a four-level parking facility, and other infrastructure improvements.[226] Winnipeg Bus Terminal, located at Winnipeg International Airport, offers domestic and international service by Greyhound Canada, Grey Goose Bus Lines, Winnipeg Shuttle Service and Brandon Air Shuttle.[227] Approximately 20,000 acres (81 km2) of land to the north and west of the airport has been designated as an inland port, CentrePort Canada, and is Canada's first Foreign Trade Zone. It is a private sector initiative to develop the infrastructure for Manitoba's trucking, air, rail and sea industries.[228] In 2009, construction began on a $212-million four-lane freeway that would eventually connect CentrePort with the Perimeter Highway.[229] Named CentrePort Canada Way, it was opened in November 2013.[230] Winnipeg is served by several taxi companies, the three largest being Unicity, Duffy's Taxi and Spring Taxi. Fifty percent of Winnipeg residents use a taxi at least once during the year.[231] Cycling is popular in Winnipeg, and there are many bicycle trails and lanes around the city. Winnipeg holds an annual Bike-to-Work Day[232] and Cyclovia,[233] and bicycle commuters may be seen year-round, even in the winter. Active living infrastructure in Winnipeg encourages bicycling through the inclusion of bike lanes[234] and sharrows.[235] Medical centres and hospitals See also: List of hospitals in Manitoba Winnipeg's major hospitals include Health Sciences Centre, Concordia Hospital, Deer Lodge Centre, Grace Hospital, Misericordia Health Centre, Riverview Health Centre, Saint Boniface General Hospital, Seven Oaks General Hospital, Victoria General Hospital, and The Children's Hospital of Winnipeg.[236] The National Microbiology Laboratory in Winnipeg is one of only a handful of biosafety level 4 microbiology laboratories in the world.[237] There are also research facilities operated through hospitals and private biotechnology companies.[238][239] Utilities Water and sewage services are provided by the city.[240] The city draws its water via an aqueduct from Shoal Lake, treating and fluoridating it at the Deacon Reservoir just outside the city prior to pumping it into the Winnipeg system.[241] The city's system comprises over 2,500 kilometres (1,600 mi) of underground water mains, which are subject to breakage during extreme weather conditions.[242] Electricity and natural gas are provided by Manitoba Hydro, a provincial crown corporation headquartered in the city; it uses primarily hydroelectric power.[243] The primary telecommunications carrier is MTS,[244] although a number of other corporations offer telephone, cellular, television and internet services in the city. Winnipeg contracts out several services to private companies, including garbage and recycling collection and street plowing and snow removal. This practice represents a significant budget expenditure and is more expansive than in comparable communities. The services have faced numerous complaints from residents in 2013–14 about missed service.[245][246][247] Military See also: CFB Winnipeg Canadian Forces Base Winnipeg, co-located at the airport, is home to many flight operations support divisions and several training schools. It is also the headquarters of 1 Canadian Air Division and the Canadian North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) Region,[248] as well as the home base of 17 Wing of the Canadian Forces. The Wing comprises three squadrons and six schools; it also provides support to the Central Flying School.[249] Excluding the three levels of government, 17 Wing is the fourth largest employer in the city.[250] The Wing supports 113 units, stretching from Thunder Bay to the Saskatchewan–Alberta border, and from the 49th parallel to the high Arctic.[249] 17 Wing also acts as a deployed operating base for CF-18 Hornet fighter-bombers assigned to the Canadian NORAD Region.[249] There are two squadrons based in the city. The 402 "City of Winnipeg" Squadron flies the Canadian-designed and produced de Havilland CT-142 Dash 8 navigation trainer.[251] The 435 "Chinthe" Transport and Rescue Squadron flies the Lockheed CC-130 Hercules in airlift search and rescue roles.[252] In addition, 435 Squadron is the only Royal Canadian Air Force squadron equipped and trained to conduct tactical air-to-air refueling of fighter aircraft.[252] For many years, Winnipeg was the home of the Second Battalion of Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry. Initially, the battalion was based at the Fort Osborne Barracks, the location of which now houses the Rady Jewish Community Centre.[253] They eventually moved to the Kapyong Barracks located between River Heights and Tuxedo. Since 2004, the battalion has operated out of CFB Shilo near Brandon. Between 1983 and 199I $13 million is being spent in the revitalization of the historic Exchange District. This money is stimulating further expenditures by the private and public sector to create an enhanced district as an attraction for all to work, live, shop, dine and relax. We trust this publication will encourage interest in the area's buildings and in the forces that made the district grow at the tum of the century. The Board of Directors of Heritage Winnipeg Corporation would like to thank the following individuals and organizations for making this publication possible. Ross Waddell for writing of copy and overall assistance with design and photo selections. Kip Park for the original 1983 edition of this publication. Department of Environmental Planning, City of Winnipeg for the original historical research and Giles Bugailiskis. Historic Resources Branch, of Manitoba Culture, Heritage and Recreation, and Randy Rostecki. Ken Kelly, Stephanie Van Nest and Randy Van Vliet for proofing & comments. George Siamandas for contemporary photographs, editing, and overall coordination of this publication. Heritage Winnipeg September I 5, 1989 60 c==]tvIHHHp·==c MANITOBA HERITAGE FEDERATION INC. Canada Manitoba~ Winnipeg@ 131 Letinsky Place (Albert Stl Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B IG6 " -... WINNIPEG CORE AREA INITIATIVE OPERATION CENTRE·VILLE DEWBNNIPEG HERITAGE WINNIPEG (204) 942-2663 Lombard Avenue, Looking west