Showing posts with label Waldfriedhof. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Waldfriedhof. Show all posts


The Nazis opened their first concentration camp at Dachau, near Munich, in March 1933, only two months after Adolf Hitler came to power. This camp was the model for the many others to follow. It operated continuously until April 1945, when the allies liberated the inmates. Originally intended for the temporary detention of political prisoners, the camps became permanent institutions manned by the Schutzstaffel (ϟϟ) Totenkopfverbande (Death’s Head detachments). In these camps, the more sadistic guards, of whom there was no shortage in the ϟϟ, were more or less free to inflict indescribable cruelties on the inmates without fear of disciplinary action. The camp system gradually evolved from penal camps to the infamous death mills of Auschwitz, Belzec, Chelmno, Maidanek, Sobibor, and Treblinka.
From the Dachauer Volksblatt, 6 April 1933:
In a press conference on 20 March the Police Commissioner of Munich [Heinrich Himmler] made the following announcement: The first concentration camp will be opened on Wednesday near Dachau. It has a capacity of 5,000 people. All of the Communist functionaries and, insofar as necessary, the Reichsbanner and Marxist functionaries who threaten the security of the state will be assembled here. Leaving individual Communist functionaries in the courthouse jails is not possible for the long term without putting too much strain on the apparatus of the state. On the other hand, it is not appropriate, either, to let them go free again. Isolated attempts we have made in this regard resulted in continued efforts by the functionaries to agitate and organise. We have taken these steps regardless of minor misgivings, in the conviction that our actions serve to reassure the national population and are in their interest. Police Commissioner Himmler further asserted that protective custody of individuals would not be continued any longer than necessary. But it is understandable that the unexpectedly large amount of evidence confiscated will take a long time to examine. The police will simply be delayed in this process if they are constantly being asked when this or that person in protective custody will be set free. The inaccuracy of rumours that are frequently spread about the treatment of persons in protective custody is shown by the fact that visits by a priest were freely granted to several persons in protective custody who wished them, such as Dr. Gerlich and Baron von Aretin.
On Wednesday, 22 March, the concentration camp at the former gunpowder factory received its first allocation of 200 inmates. The Dachau camp consists of over 20 one- to two-story stone buildings, each of which can hold 200 to 250 men. At first the occupancy of the camp will gradually increase to 2,500 men and will possibly be expanded to 5,000 men later. A labour service detachment recently prepared the barrack for the first 200 men and secured it for the time being with a barrier of triple barbed-wire. The first job of the camp inmates will be to restore the other stone buildings, which are very run-down. Once that is accomplished, they will be led out in small groups of about 50 men into the countryside, where extensive land cultivation projects wait to be implemented. Perhaps later some of the camp inmates will be offered the possibility of settling here. The guard unit will initially consist of a contingent of one hundred state police (Landespolizei), which is to be further reinforced by SA auxiliary police guards. Meals will be taken in the large dining hall of the former ammunition factory, which can hold up to 1,500 people. But cooking will be done in field kitchens. No visits are allowed at the Concentration Camp in Dachau.
In total, over 200,000 prisoners from more than 30 countries were housed in Dachau of whom two-thirds were political prisoners and nearly one-third were Jews. 25,613 prisoners are believed to have died in the camp and almost another 10,000 in its subcamps, primarily from disease, malnutrition and suicide. In early 1945, there was a typhus epidemic in the camp followed by an evacuation, in which large numbers of the weaker prisoners died.

Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau holds a significant place in public memory because it was the second camp to be liberated by British or American forces. Therefore, it was one of the first places where the West was exposed to the reality of Nazi brutality through firsthand journalist accounts and through newsreels.

In front of the Jourhaus- the main gate to the camp. It was the first building prisoners had to build during the 1936 redevelopment of the camp.

During liberation and today. The tower shown here was one of seven watchtowers making up the guard installations. Richard Evans relates that at Auschwitz,
Over the entrance, (Kommandant Rudolf] Höss placed a wrought-iron archway with the words Arbeit macht frei, 'work liberates', a slogan he had learned in Dachau.
The motto at Dachau, “Arbeit macht frei” (Work Is Liberty), is well known; it was also used elsewhere, a hollow, cynical promise from the tradition of the work society. No prisoner was ever released because of hard work and good performance.
Sofsky (61)
Historic gate at Dachau concentration camp stolen
Photos I took November 19, 2014 showing the missing Gate. The gate itself was a reconstruction; the current whereabouts of the original is a mystery. When the US military administration used the site, it removed the gate and dismantled the watchtower. These were not reconstructed until 1972. Shown is German blacksmith Michael Poitner who has painstakingly rebuilt the 1.87 meter-high, 108-kg gate in time for the 70th anniversary commemorations for the liberation of the camp. "A lot of thought went into how to make this cynical Nazi slogan close to the original - which is important as some 800,000 people visit the Dachau memorial each year," said Poitner, 36, who was born in town of Dachau. "You can feel all that cynicism with this gate."  He studied pictures and documents about the original gate, which was installed in 1936, and used techniques like high-temperature brazing, which was more common than soldering in the 1930s.

In fact, this photo from the late 1940s shows the Jourhaus with gate without the inscription (and in 2015 with the door itself missing), leading the memorial site to conclude that based on such existing historical photos, a document from May 1972 from an inspection of the grounds by the CID, the local Building Authority, which refers how “[t]he inscription ‘Arbeit macht frei’ removed from the iron entrance gate needs to be reinserted” , the revised view of the architectural historian, and the general knowledge as to how the Americans dealt with the architectural legacy of the former concentration camp, the gate is most likely original, but the sign itself is a reconstruction added in 1972.

The site soon after the war and today

The road I cycle down, showing how the camp was anything but hidden away

Site of roll call and as it appears today
The prisoners marched out by block onto the Appellplatz and waited there for the ϟϟ to appear. The block personnel counted the inmates and reported the results to those on duty in the prisoner orderly room. They in turn passed the total on to the ϟϟ rapport leader. The ϟϟ block leaders double-checked the results, running through another count so that the reporting officer could compare the two totals. In order to make sure the final tally was correct, the prisoners in the sick bay and those who had died during the night also had to be counted. This double bureaucratic procedure should hardly have required more than half an hour, given the experienced and well-rehearsed chain of reporting. But the process was often delayed or interrupted by violence. Despite the fixed time for morning roll call, the ϟϟ was often late. Illuminated by searchlights, the columns had to wait in the first light of dawn in every conceivable type of weather until the camp lords took the stage. Their entrance was a carefully calculated show of power. To leave thousands waiting is always a demonstration of total power. And time was something the camp masters had plenty of. Inmates did not march off to their places of work until it was light. Consequently, morning roll call in the winter months could drag on for more than ninety minutes, until the command was given over the loudspeakers for the prisoners to form up into Kommandos. The accommodation of working hours to daylight was the only concession the camp regime made to natural time.
Sofsky (75)
The memorial is now being used to promote other  "attractions" on buses
After the Second World War, a kind of 'dark tourism’ emerged in Germany, as the former sites of death and terror in the Third Reich became 'must see’ sights on the tourist trail. Today, Dachau, Buchenwald, Sachsenhausen and other 'fatal attractions’ linked to the Hitler dictatorship draw thousands of visitors each year. The most recent Lonely Planet guide to Germany, for example, lists the former concentration camp at Dachau as one of the key attractions around Munich, alongside the Chiem Lake, the Andechs brewery and the Alpamare water park. 
The monument to 'the unknown prisoner at Dachau' in 1950 and today which reads:
To Honour the Dead, To Warn the Living.
 Two other memorials- shown in 1950 and today
Inspection by the Nazi party led by Hess and Himmler, 8 May 1936

Himmler with his daughter Gudrun (shown right in a recent photo) visiting Dachau in 1941 with Reinhard Heydrich (in background) and Karl Wolff (2nd from right). The sign reads "(G)efangenen- (sa)mmelstelle" ("(Co)llection Point for (P)risoners"). In her diary Gudrun wrote:
Today we went to the ϟϟ concentration camp at Dachau. We saw everything we could. We saw the gardening work. We saw the pear trees. We saw all the pictures painted by the prisoners. Marvellous. And afterwards we had a lot to eat ... it was very nice.
She is still alive and has never renounced the Nazi ideology, repeatedly justifying the actions of her father. For decades she has been a prominent leader in Stille Hilfe which provides support for Nazi war criminals as in the case of Anton Malloth who was extradited to Germany in 1988 and sentenced in 2001 to life in prison. She had arranged his stay at an expensive nursing home in Pullach in the south of Munich which had originally served as the property of Rudolf Hess.

Prisoners' barracks
Bodies lined up outside the barracks upon liberation; shortly after liberation and the same view today
Inside the reconstructed barracks. After the 9-11 attacks in 2001, the barracks were targeted with anti-Semitic vandalism from neo-Nazis.
During the new construction of the camp in 1937-38 the prisoners had to build 34 barracks. The first two barracks on the left of the camp road were used for a variety of purposes in the course of the years. Located here were, for example, the canteen, the camp clerk office, the library and the ϟϟ museum as well as training rooms for the prisoner personnel and workshops serving the armaments industry. Located behind these barracks were those housing the prisoners. Every barrack was divided into four so-called Stuben, comprising of a day room and dormitory. The barracks were fitted to each hold 200 prisoners; towards the end of the war however they were completely overfilled, holding up to 2,000 prisoners. On the right-hand side of the camp road was the infirmary, which expanded continuously in the course of the war. Behind the infirmary were the penal blocks and the quarantine barracks for the prisoners newly arriving at the camp.

The reconstructed baracks at the Buchenwald concentration camp look almost the same as the dimensions used for the barracks used at the Dachau Refugee Camp I take my students to every Tuesday in the town.
Watchtower then and now
The prisoner baths (Häftlingsbad) in 1942, shortly after liberation, and today. 
Shown here are the beams for the “pole hanging” used as torture (between the pillars) during the inspection of the Dachau concentration camp by Erhard Milch, General Inspector of the Luftwaffe (front middle). The prisoner baths, located in the maintenance building erected in 1937/38, belonged to the central rooms in the new camp. The admissions procedure for the new prisoners concluded here with the shaving of body hair, disinfection, showering, and putting on the prisoner uniform. At first weekly, later less frequently, the prisoners were taken to bathe – a procedure often accompanied by harassment. From 1941/42 “pole hanging” was carried out on the beams between the pillars in the baths. Corporal punishment was also at times inflicted in the baths.
Beginning in the summer of 1933, the camp island already resembled a bulwark. In front of the wire fence, charged with high-voltage current at night, there was a low, slatted fence that marked out the “neutral zone.” Whoever entered it was shot down without warning. Directly behind it ran a concrete wall three meters high that surrounded the entire area of the camp. Patrols moved in the area between the wall and the internal fence; these patrols maintained eye contact with the two sentries posted on each of the four watchtowers. Machine guns were pointed at the camp from all directions. Searchlights illuminated the grounds at night. Every corner could be lit up brightly and brought under fire at will. In the beginning, the patrols had to drive away strangers and the curious, but this was a problem that soon took care of itself. After modernization, the entire area was surrounded by a high wall and encircled during the day by the Große Postenkette. Patrols with dogs scoured the areas in between. The prisoner camp was enclosed by a moat; then came the concrete wall with the wire fence and watch- towers, a path for the nightly patrols, and a double row of electrified barbed wire. Finally, there was the death strip, covered with white gravel to make any shadow readily visible at night.
Wolfgang Sofsky (56)

Gustav Hinz, died on February 19, 1941 by hanging from the sink. The top right shows Franz Rabanda, died on May 29, 1940, in the electrified fence and below Josef Stessel, “shot while trying to escape” on August 11, 1940. It occurred that prisoners crossed the guard chain, which meant certain death by shooting, out of despair. Often, however, they were violently forced over the guard line by the guards and then shot “while trying to escape”.
With the mass committal of foreign prisoners from 1940 onwards, the number of deaths in the Dachau concentration camp rose dramatically. Death became an everyday event. Dying took place without any sign of piety and sympathy, the dead were robbed of all dignity. In order to conceal the horrific reality from the public, the ϟϟ built a crematorium in the camp in 1940. In June 1941 an independent registry office, Dachau II, was set up to register the deaths in the Dachau concentration camp.

Bodies found in and outside the crematorium after liberation
And how inhumanely the corpses were treated! The last piece of clothing they wore was taken from them. In the barracks there was barely enough room for the living. The naked corpses were therefore carried out onto the road and stacked in piles. There they lay in the dirt in the road. Once or twice a day a wagon pulled by prisoners came along and picked up the dead. They were covered with tarpaulin, taken to the crematorium and unloaded there onto the heaps of corpses which had arrived from other camps. The corpses were stacked one above the other like logs.
 Original crematorium used by the Nazis   
 American soldiers finishing their inspection of the site on November 18, 1945

The crematorium built 1943 from the front and standing at back

This secretly taken photo on the left by the Belgian prisoner Jean Brichaux from the summer of 1944 is the only surviving shot of the crematorium facility taken during the existence of the concentration camp.  The photo shows the smoking chimney of the crematorium ovens and is thus the obvious proof for an operating crematorium. The difference in size of the chimney then and now is due to the Bavarian state's alteration in light of safety concerns, forcing it to be shortened. On the right are bodies piled up outside and the view today
Holocaust deniers such as Matt Giwer and another site on the right claim that a photograph taken after liberation shows a fraudulent gas chamber at Dachau-
The words on this door are warnings of danger and the lethality of the gas. Even for the iliterate (SIC!), the skull and crossbones a clear warning. No one could be tricked into believing this is a shower.
In fact, the sign above the door actually reveals that the room served as disinfection chambers. It is then shown next to a photo of a completely different site-  the actual shower entrance- to claim that the site has been tampered with. The The Nizkor Project devotes a page to this anti-semite's deplorable statements which shows the purpose behind his lies as well a page concerning him at
Standing beside both doors showing how they are completely different sites.
U.S. Congressmen visiting the showers planned to later be used to exterminate and the room today. Meanwhile Artur Żmijewski's Game of Tag, a film showing an explicit nude game of tag in a Nazi gas chamber, is currently part of an exhibition titled “Poland – Israel – Germany. The experience of Auschwitz,” which opened May 2015 at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Krakow (MOCAK)which was endorsed and sponsored by the Israeli Embassy in Poland. 

The so-called bunker (camp prison), then and now, showing an inspection of the penal company of the ϟϟ penal camp in the Bunker-yard by ϟϟ judges in either 1941 or 1942. I'm standing in front of the so-called "death wall"
The mass executions at the “death wall” in the main camp were generally achieved by bullets to the nape of the neck. Thousands of men, women, and children were shot at this site. In Dachau as well, mass executions were carried out in the yard of the bunker or the garden of the crematorium, generally by bullets to the nape of the neck. Groups of fifteen to thirty prisoners were forced first to disrobe completely and then to kneel down in a row. The associates went from person to person, pressing a pistol to the base of each skull and pulling the trigger. This procedure had no military tradition behind it: killing by Genickschuß was a method first used by the secret police. Although the act of killing here was done by an individual, the sequence of slaughter was just as anonymous as in the case of a firing squad. The perpetrator saw the victim only from behind. Direct eye contact was precluded. Soldiers condemned to death stand erect and await a hail of bullets to their faces. Honour demands that they stand directly facing the enemy. By contrast, the concentration camp in- mates were forced to kneel down, bending their necks forward, and were then liquidated in rows, one after the other.
Sofsky (233)
Individual cells inside the so-called bunker used for prisoners such as Georg Elser. Today, these cells provide first-hand accounts from bunker prisoners through audio and visual terminals with biographical information on some of the prisoners that were detained here.
The desk at which new arrivals to Dachau would be processed. The photo on the right shows where prisoners were brought here, strapped down and whipped by two ϟϟ officers whilst having to count the blows, as demonstrated to Patton and Eisenhower at Ohrdruf.

An undated list for internal ϟϟ use prepared during the war mentions no fewer than forty-seven crimes punishable by official flogging. A few examples: ten strokes of the cane were given for “negligence at work and undisciplined behaviour,” twenty for “absence from the work place” and stealing of food, fifteen for “insolence toward a member of the ϟϟ” or “cutting up a woollen blanket”; the “theft of a potato” was punishable by five strokes on the whipping block.
Sofsky (332)
Massacre of Guards during the liberation of Dachau by Allied soldiers

Upon liberation, a coal yard near the ϟϟ hospital was used to contain the ϟϟ POWs from the hospital, NCO school and finance centre.  Lieutenant Sparks, shown above trying to call an halt to the massacre, later described the area as enclosed by an “L-shaped masonry wall, about eight feet high, which had been used as a coal bin. The ground was covered with coal dust, and a narrow gauge railroad track, laid on top of the ground, led into the area.”  The prisoners were placed under the command of Lt. Walsh, the same man who had shot four ϟϟ guards on the so-called Death Train. The number of men present varies enormously between accounts, but according to the investigation carried out by the Assistant Inspector General of the 7th Army, Joseph M. Whitaker (known as the IG report); all estimates were in the range of 50-125, with the majority in the range of 50-75.  From this point, the accounts of what happened to these men diverge wildly. Walsh gave the order to the machine gunner identified in the IG report as “C” and the other soldiers present to shoot the POWs if they moved. An eyewitness, Karl Mann, remembered the I-Company officers deciding to shoot the ϟϟ men when Sparks was no longer in sight, although this also conflicts with the IG report.  According to the IG report, the ϟϟ men thought they were going to be executed when the machine gunner loaded his weapon, and lurched forward, triggering the shooting. However, other eyewitness reports, including the gunman himself, indicate that the trigger had rather been someone shouting “fire”. This incident, which took a matter of moments, was interrupted by an irate Colonel Sparks, who ran from where he had been stationed “about 100 to 200 meters on the other side of the wall”  To stop the shooting, Sparks shot his “.45 in the air while shouting 'Cease Fire!'”, before kicking the shooter away from the gun.
After the hospital shooting was stopped, some of the U.S. soldiers allegedly gave a number of handguns to the now-liberated inmates. It has been claimed by eyewitnesses that the freed inmates tortured and killed a number of captured German troops, in retaliation for their treatment in the camp. The same witnesses claim that many of the German soldiers killed by the inmates were beaten to death with shovels and other tools. A number of Kapo prisoner-guards were also killed, torn apart by the inmates.
 At first the prisoners indulged in an innocent game of making the guards dance to their tune. They shouted ‘Mützen ab!’ And the SS men had to doff their caps. Then the Americans aided and abetted the prisoners in their revenge. One soldier lent an inmate a bayonet to behead a guard. A kapo was found lying naked with cuts all over his body and a gunshot wound to his head. They had rubbed salt into his wounds. Another was beaten to death with spades. Other guards were shot in the legs to immobilise them. Later reports drew a veil over what happened then, although it is clear that some of the Germans were ripped limb from limb. It seems that around forty more guards and kapos died this way.
MacDonogh (67) After the Reich
Watchtowers in 1945, 1950 and today
ϟϟ guards being fished out of the canal, and as it appears today
After entry into the camp, personnel of the 42nd Division discovered the presence of guards, presumed to be ϟϟ men, in a tower to the left of the main gate of the inmate stockade. This tower was attacked by Tec 3 Henry J. Wells 39271327, Headquarters Military Intelligence Service, ETO, covered and aided by a party under Lt. Col. Walter J. Fellenz, 0-23055, 222 Infantry. No fire was delivered against them by the guards in the tower. A number of Germans were taken prisoner; after they were taken, and within a few feet of the tower, from which they were taken, they were shot and killed.
from the IG Report of the U.S. Seventh Army
video video video video
A few of my students presenting short biographies of former inmates of Dachau as part of the Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site extensive research project: “The book of remembrance for the victims of the Dachau Concentration Camp”. Names and other biographical information of those who died in the Dachau Concentration Camp were collected for the book. Of the more than 40,000 dead over 33,000 victims coming from nearly forty nations can now be called by their name - far more than originally expected.

Gedenkbuch für NS-Opfer Den zahllosen Toten ihre Geschichte zurückgeben

 Having the honour of welcoming Mr. Bill Glied to my school January 28, 2013. In April 1944, he was deported with his family to Auschwitz-Birkenau from his home in Serbia. In June that year he was transferred to the Dachau concentration camp where he worked as a slave labourer. He was liberated by the Americans on April 29, 1945 and moved to the Dominion of Canada as an orphan in 1947 where he married an Hungarian Holocaust survivor. He gives regular talks to schools; in fact, he recently spoke to his grandson Josh’s Grade 9 class in Ontario. Recently he testified at the trial of former ϟϟ sergeant Oskar Gröning, the so-called 'Bookkeeper from Auschwitz,' who helped keep guard as thousands of Jews were led to the gas chambers at Auschwitz.

Sites Outside the Main Camp
 Located where the current Information centre and in front of the Jourhaus (the Kommandant's HQ in the background), these metal corners mark the exact position of the building of the political department. The chief function of the Political Department was to screen and process all political and other types of criminals, the keeping of their records, the notification of the higher interning authorities of deaths, discharges, or other disposition of the internees. Death sentences of internees were received by this department (from Berlin), and these sentences were referred for execution to Abteilung III (Schutzhaftlager), and upon the execution of the above, this department was responsible for turning in a final report of the carrying out of these orders. Gestapo came from Munich to carry on interrogations at Dachau. It was the responsibility of this department to interrogate and abuse Russian prisoners of war who were brought here for that specific purpose. Orders for the inhumane interrogation of the Russian prisoners of war were carried out by this department. Another function of this department was to recruit internees by intimidation for sabotage and espionage work.
The ϟϟ Wirtschaftsbetriebe or 'business enterprises' that served as the main factory for prisoners. It had been built around the time of the Great War; the period photo dates from 1941.
Although scarcity was ubiquitous, the personnel used the workshops in Dachau, which already employed five hundred artisans in 1933, for its own private orders. This was the origin of the system of graft and corruption in which many members of the commandant office staffs were implicated later on. When the Dachau workshops were transferred from the supervision of the central Inspektion and placed under Pohl’s Administrative Office, that move met with fierce opposition from the clique of commandants. The shift to commercial principles curtailed their private power of control. This line of conflict between the economic administration echelon and the camp ϟϟ also resurfaced in differences over the later deployment of prisoners in arms manufacture.
Sofsky (174)

This is what is left of the former ϟϟ main guardhouse directly across from the ϟϟ Wirtschaftsbetriebe. From 1935, this served as the entrance to the camp. Harassed and beaten prisoners would pass through it from the railway station as well as prisoner transport such as buses and lorries. The ϟϟ members used it too when entering, and most lived further down this road to the ϟϟ residences. The foundations were uncovered as recently as 2008.

Straße der ϟϟ
These buildings on what was the 'Strasse der ss ϟϟ' , now within the Bavarian Riot Police HQ compound, served as residences for members of the ϟϟ.
The centre of power was located in the administrative area. The offices of the camp commandant, the Political Department, and the administrative department were in close proximity to the prisoner camp, but just outside the barbed-wire perimeter. Every office of the KZ-Inspektion had its branch in this administrative zone. It served as the local representative of the central bureaucracy. A leafy, wooded area was set aside for the living quarters of the ϟϟ officers. In Dachau, these were located on the Straße der ϟϟ outside the camp.
Sofsky (49)
In front of the Bavarian Riot Police HQ ( Bayerische Bereitschaftspolizei Abteilung VI. Dachau), then the main entrance to the ϟϟ training area. 
This was the Dachau Kommandantur (headquarters) just outside the memorial site. The area of the commandant's headquarters in the ϟϟ concentration camp was located directly next to the prisoner camp. The commandant had almost unrestricted control over the camp. The headquarters staff and the guard units carried out his orders.
In the major Dachau war crimes case (United States of America v. Martin Gottfried Weiss, forty-two officials of Dachau were tried from November to December 1945. All were found guilty – thirty-six of the defendants were sentenced to death on December 13, 1945, of whom 23 were hanged on the May 28–29, 1946, including the commandant, ϟϟ-Obersturmbannführer Martin Gottfried Weiss, ϟϟ -Obersturmführer Freidrich Wilhelm Ruppert and camp doctors Karl Schilling and Fritz Hintermeyer. Camp commandant Weiss admitted in affidavit testimony that most of the deaths at Dachau during his administration were due to “typhus, TB, dysentery, pneumonia, pleurisy, and body weakness brought about by lack of food.” His testimony also admitted to deaths by shootings, hangings and medical experiments.

 The Plantation (Kräutergarten)

In 1938 concentration camp prisoners were forced to build an herb garden (plantation) on the other side of the Alte Römerstrasse, east of the camp. The cultivation of local herbs was the idea of the 'working group for medicinal plants studies' and Reichsführer ϟϟ Heinrich Himmler showed particular interest in the plan. Germany should have no need to import foreign medicines and herbs. The economic importance of the work done by the prisoners in the herb garden increased as the war progressed. The ϟϟ guards marched the prisoners to work on the large open-air site under abusive threats and blows, and prisoners were arbitrarily shot 'while attempting to escape'. Less brutal working conditions reigned only in the buildings and greenhouses. There a work detail of draughtsmen was supposed to produce a plant collection for Himmler. At the risk of losing their lives, some of the prisoners managed to depict the crimes committed by ϟϟ guards in secret notes.  The ϟϟ set up a shop as part of the herb garden to sell produce from the 'plantation' to residents from Dachau and neighbouring communities. Some prisoners succeeded in establishing secret contact to the civilian population.

Himmler in the Dachau herb garden and the site today.
Beside the plantation buildings on the way to Hebertshausen shooting range one goes past housing used by members of the SS. They are shown here beside the Plantation complex in the scale model of the camp in the memorial site. Today one of the inhabitants chooses to fly the Confederate flag outside. 
Meanwhile AMAZON nixes rebel flag, continues selling Nazi memorabilia...

Hebertshausen ϟϟ Range
The ϟϟ guard house then, with the ϟϟ flag in front, and my senior class today
In Hebertshausen, a municipality adjoining Dachau, is a shooting range that had been built for the ϟϟ in 1937. This is where roughly 4,000 imprisoned Soviet soldiers were executed from November 25 1941 to the final year of the war. The prisoners brought to Dachau for execution were not recorded in the concentration camp files. The former ϟϟ guardhouse shown above is used today as an homeless shelter.
 Standing at the entrance to the shooting range April 30, 1945 and today; the ϟϟ runes have been removed but their traces remain on the now superfluous posts.
The route to the execution site just after liberation and today.
In front of the coffin depot and shooting range in 1938 and today. The victims were killed as they were handcuffed to posts on the left side of the range shown on the right.
Former Czech political prisoner Karel Kasak's photo of the site immediately after the war, and sketch of the execution site by former ϟϟ member Max Lengfelder from 29.iv.1954. Lengfelder would receive a sentence of life imprisonment after the Anton Stinglwagner trial 12-14.viii.1947.
 Maria Seidenberger took these photos from the second floor window of her family's home whilst her mother stood outside and gave potatoes to the prisoners. Karel Kasak is shown standing with his back to the camera in the first photo, wearing a white shirt. According to Kasak's diary the prisoners were coming from Nuremberg.  Maria Seidenberger is the second child of Georg and Katharina Seidenberger. In 1943 she made the acquaintance of Karel Kasak, a Czech prisoner who was assigned to take photographs of flowers in the gardens right outside the main entrance to Dachau. He took advantage of his position to also photograph other prisoners and needed a safe place to hide his photos. Having learned that Maria worked in a photo lab, he asked if she would hide his clandestine photos. She also secretly stored Dachau prisoner photos and letters in her family's beehive and mailed them to the prisoner's relatives back in Czechoslovakia. Furthermore, she even hid the personal papers and human remains (a heart and death mask) of Masryk's personal archivist, Jaroslav Simsov, who died of typhus in Dachau.  Near her house is a small memorial on the side of the road, a shooting site where many Soviet POWs were shot sometime in 1942-44. Maria explained how she and her mother heard the constant noise of the gun firing in her house during the day and stood frozen over the kitchen sink sobbing, knowing that each bullet meant the death of a person. On a Sunday Maria and Kasak, searched for the site where the Soviet POWs were buried and found the mass grave. Maria went to the mass grave site to establish that mass murder had indeed happened and photographed the site. She gave her negatives to the Czech prisoner, Karel Kasak. During the final weeks of the war, Maria photographed the death march from Buchenwald to Dachau from inside her home in Hebertshausen. One photograph shows her mother distributing potatoes to the prisoners. After the war, Maria accompanied Kasak back to Czechoslovakia before returning to Hebertshausen in 1959.

Concentration Camp Memorial Cemetery Dachau-Leitenberg

Dachau residents transporting the dead to the cemetery at Dachau-Leitenberg on the left, and depositing the bodies on arrival.

On the right, disinterred bodies at the site.
From February 28 to April 27 1945, eight mass graves were dug on the Leitenberg located in Etzenhausen just outside Dachau although the first mass grave may have already been dug there in October 1944. According to the Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site,
[t]here is demonstrable proof that 4,318 dead concentration camp prisoners were buried there up until liberation on April 29, 1945. A further 1,879 dead prisoners as well as regular German army troops killed in fighting around Dachau were buried in two further mass graves by May 18, 1945 at the latest...
... according to counts made by the responsible authorities, a total of 7,609 dead are buried at the concentration camp cemetery Leitenberg, of whom only 204 are known by name.
Dachau Town
The station immediately during liberation, with clothes scattered all over, and today. Frühlingstrasse, which leads to the bus and railway stations, was renamed Adolf-Hitler-Strasse on March 24, 1933. The documents on the right made this official after the Dachau town council voted unanimously whilst Lord Mayor Georg Seufert of the Catholic Bavarian People's Party declared Hitler an honorary citizen. Prisoners who arrived at the train station would march down this street to the concentration camp.
Friedenstrasse off Frühlingstrasse was the first residential street set up after the First World War, hence its name- 'Freedom Street'. Here it is shown in April 1945 and today with student, showing Dachau residents forced to haul the enormous number of corpses up to Leitenberg mass grave.
The rathaus in 1903 and, bottom, after it was destroyed and rebuilt in 1936.In the passageway through the new town hall on the right are these two plaques that commemorate the Jews of Dachau who died in the Holocaust. The plaque on top refers to Reichskristallnacht. The one below it lists the names of five of the twelve Jews of Dachau who would die in the death camps: Julius Kohn, Max Wallach, Melly Wallach, Hans Neumeyer, and Vera Neumeyer.

On the left is the Hörhammerbräu Inn where, in November 1922, the Bund Oberland was established which would later become the Dachau Nazi party in 1929 and where it would hold regular meetings; one speaker had been Rudolf Hess. Because the KPD did as well, violent fights would break out.
On the right is the Obere Apotheke, which had been damaged in the fighting on April 30, 1919 between the Freikorps Görlitz, sent by the government from Berlin, and the Red Army which had occupied Dachau since winning "The Battle of Dachau" on April 16, 1919. The Freikorps was also known as the White Guard because they wore white armbands while the Red Army wore red armbands. After a battle that lasted one day, the Freikorps liberated the town of Dachau from the Communists. The white armbands, worn by the Freikorps, were decorated with an ancient emblem called the swastika. The Obere Apotheke supplied the medicine to the prisoners at the camp, delivered St. Jakob church and even provided medication illegally to prisoners working in the town on work details.
Heldengedenktag commemoration conducted by the Nazis next to St. Jakob church at Schrannenplatz; today a large tree has all but obscured the war memorial behind it which was designed by Karl Kroher and dedicated in 1929. It shows the martyrdom of St. Sebastian and reads: "To protect Dachau and you, the heroes went to battle. We offer them our thanksgiving. So great was their sacrifice." Behind there had been an air-raid shelter during the Second World War.
The Stadtkeller shown on the left has had its name since July 1936 when SA man Paul Taut, serving on the town council, leased the building to open a restaurant. Up to then it had been owned by the Dachau Association of Free Trade Unions where the Social Democrats held their party meetings and as a result it became the centre for the trade unions. When the Nazis won the March 5, 1933 elections, union leaders met here to plan their defence against the coming persecution.The Brückenwirt Inn, site of a particular tragedy during the NSDAP era. Its innkeeper and butcher, Ludwig Rosner, was arrested after making anti-Nazi remarks here and sent to the camp. During the time he was incarcerated his wife had suffered an emotional breakdown and had taken their two sons (aged about six and seven) where they were last seen in a shop in Eschenried where she bought them candy. They remained missing when Rosner had been released months later until the bodies were found in Ziegelwald, all dead by the mother using the man's pistol. Past the inn, one arrives at the Mühlbachweg, which was the path women from Dachau used when they accompanied escaped prisoners from the concentration camp during the Dachau Uprising on April 28, 1945.

Further along the street after the Brückenwirt Inn, the New Gallery was once the site of the Dachau Labour Service Camp shown in 1937 and today. In 1935 those between the ages of 18 to 25 as well as the unemployed were made to volunteer for one year of labour service. By the end of the war teenagers and those over the age of 60 were called up into the Volkssturm and this was its base. 
On the morning of April 28, 1945 an armed revolt broke out in Dachau in which, besides concentration camp prisoners, a company of these Volkssturm also took part. At around 8.30 am they occupied the Town Hall but, due to the superior forces of the deployed ϟϟ units, it was bloodily suppressed in a few hours. Nevertheless, the revolt not only contributed to saving the town of Dachau from destruction by the Allies, but also to ending the evacuation transports from the concentration camp.
The Unterbräu Inn in 1934 and today. It is apparently the oldest brewery in Dachau. On April 16, 1919 this was the headquarters of the Red Army when it controlled Dachau before being overthrown over a week later by Freikorps Görlit. It holds a place in Nazi mythology as the site where the Dachau NSDAP Ortsgruppe was officially founded on February 1, 1930 under the chairmanship of NSDAP Gauleiter for Upper Bavaria, Fritz Reinhardt who, on April 1, 1933 was appointed State Secretary in the Reich Ministry of Finance. In fact, it was to this man that “Aktion Reinhardt” was named whereby the Jews of the Polish General Government became the first large group of Jews to be liquidated by gas in 1942–43. Fritz Reinhardt (1895–1969) had by then become the official in the Finance Ministry responsible for administering the valuables, including dental gold, taken from the victims before or after their deaths.
However, a more infamous event took place here on Sunday, July 17 1932- the so-called Battle of Unterbräu Inn where seven SA men had fled after having antagonised members of the Reichsbanner by stealing a flag from the Jungsozialisten. They were protected by the innkeeper who stood in the doorway with two dogs until they were saved by a Bavarian state police riot squad.

This chapel in the Alter Stadtfriedhof, Dachau's oldest cemetery on Gottesacker off Augsburgerstrasse, was dedicated to the town's war dead in 1961.

In the foreground in the photo of Augsburgerstraße on the right is the Bäckerei Teufelhart which had supplied bread to the camp and to prisoners in the town on labour detail.
Memorial in the town designed by Israeli Abraham Borenstein for the 50th anniversary of the camp's liberation. It is made up of original railway track near where the 45th Thunderbird division discovered the so-called "death train" within which the remains of 2,310 prisoners shipped from Buchenwald three weeks before were left.
The second memorial shown in the next two photographs is one designed by Hubertus von Pilgrim in the town itself, dedicated to the concentration camp inmates who where sent on so-called Todesmärsche (death marches) from Dachau in April 1945 southwards. this is one of 23 such memorials that are along the routes of the marches (apart from the last which is in Jerusalem).

After the Second World War 1,268 KZ-prisoners, who had died after the freeing of the concentration camp Dachau, were laid to rest here at the Waldfriedhof. The four-metre high monument shown in these photos overlooking both Jewish and non-Jewish graves, is dedicated to the Jewish prisoners killed on the death march from from the Flossenbürg camp as the war ended. The last photo shows a memorial specifically to Austrian victims.


This tiny hamlet just to the Northwest of Dachau was the site of a massacre the day the camp was liberated. A Waffen-SS unit had arrived to take up defensive positions in trenches dug around the farms by French POW workers in order to delay the advance of American tanks of the 20th Armoured Division and infantry units of the 7th US Army which was approaching Dachau. The farms, mostly run by women (whose husbands were either dead, prisoners of war or still fighting) with the help of French POWs, came under fire on the morning of April 29 forcing all inhabitants to rush for the cellars. One soldier of Company F of the US 222nd Infantry Regiment of the 42nd Rainbow Division was killed upon entering the hamlet under fire from the Waffen-SS unit. This led the first German to emerge from the cellar, the farm's owner Herr Furtmayer, to be immediately shot. The French POWs then informed the Americans that that only civilians were actually hiding in the cellars which led the soldiers to round up the men of the ϟϟ unit. First to surrender was an officer, Freiherr von Truchsess, heading a detachment of seventeen men who was then struck with a trenching tool splitting his head open. The others were lined up in the farmyard and summarily shot. On a slight rise behind the hamlet, another group of eight ϟϟ were shot. Their bodies were found lying in a straight line with their weapons and ammunition belts neatly laid on the ground suggesting that the men were shot after they surrendered. Altogether, one ϟϟ officer and forty one men lay dead as the infantry regiment proceeded on their way towards Dachau. Next day the local people, with the help of the French POWs, buried the bodies in a field to be later exhumed by the German War Graves Commission and returned to their families.
The site today is remembered by a memorial; photos taken on the anniversary of the massacre.
On George Duncan's WWII massacre website:  
On the same day that the Dachau Concentration Camp was discovered, a massacre took place in the little hamlet of Webling, about ten kilometres from the camp. A Waffen-SS unit had arrived at the hamlet, which consisted of about half a dozen farm houses, barns and the Chapel of St. Leonhard, to take up defensive positions in trenches dug around the farms by French POW workers. Their orders were to delay the advance of American tanks of the 20th Armoured Division and infantry units of the 7th. US Army which was approaching Dachau. The farms, mostly run by women (whose husbands were either dead, prisoners of war or still fighting) with the help of French POWs, came under fire on the morning of 29th.April causing all inhabitants to rush for the cellars. One soldier of Company F of the US 222nd Infantry Regiment of the 42nd Rainbow Division, was killed as they entered the hamlet under fire from the Waffen-SS unit. The first German to emerge from the cellar was the owner of the farm, Herr Furtmayer. He was promptly shot dead. Informed by the French POWs that only civilians, not ϟϟ , were in hiding in the cellars, the GIs proceeded to round up the men of the ϟϟ unit. First to surrender was an officer, Freiherr von Truchsess, heading a detachment of seventeen men. The officer was immediately struck with a trenching tool splitting his head open. The other seventeen were lined up in the farmyard and shot. On a slight rise behind the hamlet, another group of eight ϟϟ were shot. Their bodies were found lying in a straight line with their weapons and ammunition belts neatly laid on the ground. This would suggest that the men were shot after they surrendered. Altogether, one ϟϟ officer and forty one men lay dead as the infantry regiment proceeded on their way towards Dachau. Next day the local people, with the help of the French POWs, buried the bodies in a field to be later exhumed by the German War Graves Commission and returned to their families.
History after the Reichstag Fire of the National Socialist political opponents have begun destruction. They were arrested in the otherwise-minded politicians, including opposition representatives in the Reichstag. [4] The convicts in different places in the so-called "wild camps" placed. These early camps were part of the SA, the SS or the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Interior under. In addition to the Dachau camp every other wild camps were closed before the Second World War. Political Terror (1933-1935) of the image file includes notes Heinrich Himmler Theodor Eicke, 1933 March 20, Himmler, who was chief of police in Munich two weeks ago, ordered the construction of a political concentration camp Dachaunál. [5] The camp was designed to accommodate 5,000 prisoners, which has He indicated previously planned persecution of magnitude. On 22 March, 150 prisoners were taken to Landsberg, neudecki and stadelheimi prison camp at Dachau. First, the Bavarian state police guarding them, [6] and 11 April of the police and the SS provided with supervision of the camp where the SS as an auxiliary police were present. The next day already committed the first murder Benario, Goldman and detainees' names Kahn detriment. [6] In May, Hans Beimler prisoner, who was a member of parliament for the Communist Party before incarceration, he managed to escape. [7] Abroad disclose the Im Mörderlager Dachau [8] brochure. The first commander was Hilmar Wäckerle who wrote in May, the first temporary camp regimen. [9] This regulation determined that all of the jurisdictions commander who can bring a death sentence on the basis of Himmler's provisions. The only restriction was that this two - designated by the master - the person also had to agree. From the beginning of June, the SS took over supervision of custody. At the end of the month, Theodor Eicke became the camp commander. He sought to isolate the camp totally from the outside world. Even the fire brigade was forbidden to enter and check all the fire prevention rules. [10] At the time of the Munich public prosecutor's office three arrests execution found out, but because of the concentration camp of law does not prevail, a few months later terminated the proceeding. [6] In the beginning especially the regime's political enemies, communists, social democrats, trade unionists and some conservative, liberal, monarchist-minded public figure interned. The arrests intimidated the population. Known politicians also were taken to the Dachau camp as the provincial parliament and local Alois Hundhammert member of the Reichstag, Ernst Heilmannt. Hitler's personal enemies is conducted here, including Hans Litten lawyer. The camp's name struck fear in the society and many dissidents are no longer dared to utter a review [11] Already long before the outbreak of war idioms spread about the camp. "Lieber Gott, mach 'mich Stumm, Dass ich nicht nach Dachau Kumm' [ 12] "-" Dear God, do dumb to Dachau do not allow "at that time about 100, mainly smaller concentration camps existed, which was held under the so-called protective custody (Schutzhaft) opposition to it was confusing as to who abducted a few local party people!.. the arbitrary depended on who were arrested and who were released. Power debate about who owns the jurisdiction within the NSDAP organizations. for example, the SA team leader, Wilhelm Schmid, who was a member of the upper Bavarian government, wrote to Ludwig Siebert Bavarian Prime Minister "Die Autorité des Staates steht in Gefahr durch die allseitigen, unberechtigten Eingriffe politischer Funktionäre in das Räderwerk der normale Verwaltung Jeder NSBO-Mann [Nationalsozialistische Betriebszellenorganisation] NSBO-Ortsgruppenleiter, NSBO-Kreisleiter [...] jeder politische Stützpunktleiter, Ortsgruppenleiter, politische. Kreisleiter erlässt Verfügungen, die in die unter der Befehlsgewalten Ministerio eingreifen, Lower Befehlsbefugnisse der in die Kreisregierungen, Bezirksämter, runter bis zur kleinsten Gendarmeriestation. Jeder verhaftet jeden [...] jeder droht jedem what Dachau [...] Bis zur kleinsten Gendarmeriestation ist bei den besten und zuverlässigsten Beamten eine Instanzenunsicherheit eingetreten, die sich unbedingt verheerend und staatszerstörend auswirken muss. "[10]" The state's authority is at risk of coming from all directions due to unauthorized political functionaries who interfere with the normal administration of the thread. All NSBO-s [ "National Socialist operating cell body"] in every NSBO division leader [...] all the political fulcrum of a leading local groups leading to policy areas leading to measures that interfere with the lower levels of the ministry's powers, so the district governments, district governments have the powers, down to the smallest gendarmerie. Everyone arrested everyone [...], everyone is everyone Dachau threaten [...] In fact, the smallest gendarmerie station insecurity occurred in the best and most trusted servants using, which is absolutely overwhelming and State devastating effect. "The National Socialist press, a lot of propaganda articles were read. July 16, 1933 in the newspaper Münchner Illustrierte Presse published a report on what he said about the camp. It was called to Frühappell im Erziehungslager ( "Breakfast lined up in the foster camp"). The címképen properly dressed and clean convicts to see. [13] Postcard of a prisoner (August 1933) in July 1933 was a priest in Dachau regular Sunday Mass at which an average of 20 people attended. The prisoners then still wore their own clothes. For example, ordinary food artificial coffee, bread and dish Sunday soup and a slice of roast pork, potato salad was. The detainees per month up to 30 Reichsmarks (RM) were on their own, or sent from outside funds. The mess could reach bread, butter, sausages and fruit consideration. In autumn they furnished it in a directory, which in addition to Hitler's book Mein Kampf, including Karl May's books could be found. [14] On October 1 Eicke announced the second order in camp, which was much stronger than the first. By introducing the so-called Postenpflichtet (guard duty), which, according to the guards had to shoot down all the prisoners who try to escape. You can also use the gun was mandatory when an inmate attacked a guard. other forms of protection were strictly forbidden. The camp "was a state within a state", the outside world is completely fenced place where it was applicable only to its own laws. The death sentences carried out without any prior negotiation. On October 20, he ordered the ban, that no one shall be freely released. This Regulation has been in force for two weeks. The 1933 amnesty in November, allowed the prisoners to participate in the parliamentary elections. The adoption of the Enabling Act (March 23), the Reichstag gave up the right of the legislature, so the government alone could bring Hitler's laws and the parliament only formally existed. On 9 December, 400 were released prisoner during a Christmas amnesty. However, if we consider the previous ban, this figure is relatively low. A second day of amnesty is published in the National Socialist takeover anniversary. [6] during 1933 they were shipped to the Dachau concentration camp a total of 4821 [4] people. At year-end 2425 of them are [4] have been in captivity. taking away the power of the SA January 1934 Himmler managed to increase its influence within the NSDAP. The dominance of the party paramilitary organization SA as also further strengthened. Almost all provinces have the political police commander. Especially Hermann Goering and Wilhelm Frick wanted to tensions between the SA and the SS to dissolve the party and create clear conditions. Therefore, they closed the 'wild' camps and reduced the number of persons under protective custody (Schutzhaft), and limited the power of the SS and SA. 34 October 1933 emptied the camp, partly in addition to participation in armed police. The prisoners or released or transferred. 9 May 1934 until 14 camps have been closed. Goering felszámoltatta a spy, Wuppertal and Szczecin concentration camps. Some excesses notorious guard [10] punished. Only a few remained in camp, Dachau was also among them. The other camp is known today was created later. Ernst Röhm of the inmates have been observed on June 29 in preparation for executions. Most of the SS left the camp. When on July 1 and 2 at back, at least 17 people were executed, [15] Members of the SA's administration, but the regime against the culprits, who were in no way related to the SA. Among them was Fritz Gerlich, Bernhard Rudolf Gustav von Kahr and Stempfle who in 1923 averted the coup Beer. Besides these five convicts they were killed in the camp that night. [16] At the end of July 1934 the SS finally managed to take over the power of the SA and to destroy its leadership layer. With the aim to become an official reason is, the so-called spread. Röhm-coup rumors on. Ernst Rohm [17] and the SA leadership never really planned coup, but the SA became too independent power within the NSDAP. This Hitler did not want to continue to tolerate it. 1934 July 1, the Long Knives Night, Eicke, who is also a former member of the SA, following Hitler's command shot Rohm the nearby stadelheimi prison. [10] Six days later, Eicke was appointed to the total concentration camp administrator. Heinrich Deuba, one of the first members of the SS, on December 10 became the new commander of the Dachau camp. About 1935 to 1935 not only political prisoners were taken to the camp, but ordinary criminals. More and more it became an inmate who had actually sat down in the sentence. Often fortunate were those who remained in traditional prisons, because there was a much greater chance of survival. [6] At this time, strengthened the implementation of the National Socialist ideology that Roma, Sinti, Jews, Jehovah's Witnesses and homosexuals were also arrested. Transition period (1936-1938) the transitional period between the years 1936 and 1938 were reported to camp life. The regime has consolidated the first phase instruments of terror and war preparation has become a central task. 1936 BDM (Bund Deutscher Mädel, German Women's Association) leaders to visit, KZ Dachau, May 8, 1936, the Bavarian Political Police (Bayerische Politische Polizei) in 1936 issued a directive to the imposition of protective custody (Schutzhaft), which is the so-called enemies of the "people "(Volksschädlinge [18]) has been made. The Directive has been önkényesebb imprisonment of innocent people. According to the ideology of anyone who did not comply with the ideas of the Nazis, it had to be removed from society. Since it was not possible under existing laws and regulations are taken, which could be carried out ideological objectives. Already it was enough if someone beggars, tramps, gypsies, munkakerülőnek, lazy, prostitutes, alcoholics, rude, Querulous, or psychotic mental patient named. These categories show the Nazis discriminatory wording. Wilhelm Frick, the Reich Minister of the Interior issued a circular, for example, which called for combating the so-called "Gypsy Peril" (Zigeunerplage). On March 1, Hans Loritz was commander of the camp. In this position, it has introduced a new identification system. According to the old clothes in the color dots and stripes showed the detentions, while he introduced the striped uniforms. This month the prisoners were able to participate again in the Reichstag elections. At the end of the year, the National Socialist Illustrierter Beobachter was a weekly paper published a photo report of the Dachau camp. The article stressed "educate" the impact and success of the camp, which "work therapy" and discipline achieved. Friedrich Bauer pictures taken in the camp, were partly manipulated to show through as "genetic defects" [19] improved resistivity. He also stressed how good the conditions and nutrition in the camp, which was supposed to be better than outside. In Switzerland, Julius Zerfaß released the Dachau - Eine Chronik book entitled, under the pseudonym Walter Hornung. In the book, describing those experiences that you experienced as a prisoner at Dachau. This year, eleven [4] people died in the camp. Bauer Nazi propaganda photographer some photos: While forced labor at (1933) Guarded working Eating (May 1933), lining (1938, June 28) in 1937 At the beginning of the year began with a large area to build up the detainees for which there was a 583 x 278 m and part of the old camp borders. Then they built a new gathering among more space fabarakkokat, a cover and a farm building. The new beds they were still similar to the former military barracks on Twitter. The eastern side of the camp was a garden where herbs are grown. This year 38 [4] people died in the camp. 1-1938 on April 1938, three weeks after the Anschluss, 151 person were taken to the first, so-called Prominententransporttal (so named after the Austrian arrested opposition politicians.) [20] to Dachau. These politicians were representatives of different political trends. Lining up in June 1938 in the same year arose from the Dachau Song (Dachaulied). One prisoner, Jura Soyfer wrote the text and colleague, Herbert Zipper composed the music to it. Soyfer developed into the "Arbeit macht frei" gate address to the chorus. The detainees, there was no paper, so text and noted Zipper head composed the melody for what it taught me a guitar and a violinist as well. Of these, only he lived in captivity Zipper too, Soyfer died of typhus in 1940. In June, another large wave of arrests occurred when the Aktion during Arbeitsscheu Reich were taken into captivity for 10 000 people in the "asocial" behavior. That's categorized based on their people and arrested them. [21] The foreign journalists and representatives of humanitarian organizations already in 1933 was invited to visit the camp before the national socialism. In 1938, Guillaume Favre, member of the International Red Cross Committee, on 19 August the following letter he wrote to Himmler: "Deshalb möchte ich hier nur hervorheben, Dass alles, was ich zu sehen und hören frog ebenso in Bezug auf die Wohnverhältnisse, die Materielle und hygienischen Einrichtungen des Lagers, wie auch in Bezug auf die Behandlung, die Ernährung und die Arbeit der Inhaftierten, mir einen sehr günstige Eindruck hinterlassen six. "[22]" Because here I just want to emphasize that everything we have seen and heard housing conditions of the camp material and sanitary equipment, the treatment of detainees nutrition and work in relation to a very favorable impression on me, "a Jewish prisoner card, whom Kristallnacht deported to the Dachau camp (recognizable by the Sch.J.. - Schutzhaft Jude - based on markings) in October came to the camp for the first Sudeten Germans. Anti-Semitism has been very popular at this time. On November 9, after the Kristallnacht Jewish residents 10 911 [6] were taken to the Dachau camp. The pogrom night of Reinhard Heydrich, head of the SS group, a telegram [23] written, which ordered the state police to "all the district to arrest as many Jews - especially the rich -., As the existing börtönzárkákban be placed" [24 ] May 1939 but gradually released them. The family members threatened and pressured them to migrate out of the country. The National Socialists thus partly managed to persuade the Jews that the fair value is given a much lower price in their homes, their businesses and their property values. At Christmas, many inmates whipped a gathering area. In 1939, before the outbreak of war on January 24, the painter Louis managed to escape from the camp. Common penalty had all detainees be transferred to an ice-cold night in the open air, while a few people collapsed and died. [6] On 25 January, a record of the Foreign Ministry in Berlin has been published on how to handle the estates of emigrants and the displaced persons. Austria accession to the anniversary of the few Austrian prisoners freed. A month later, Hitler's 50th birthday was a "festive amnesty" (Jubelamnestie). In the second half, however, they have twice ordered incommunicado penalty. The first years of the war, a new phase of terror began with the Second World War. [25] Between 1941 and 1942 extermination camps were built, of which one was responsible for the mass murder. The original purpose of the concentration camps was to deter the regime's enemies and exploit the prisoners' labor force. Hitler called the "coup de grace of Regulation" (Gnadentoderlass) [26] changed the situation. They began mass killing of detainees in the patient's course of action T4. From 1939 to the occupied countries they were taken people out of the camp. The defense industry was increasingly depended on the prisoner workforce. [27] In plants, which were in the SS possession, as Deutsche Erd- und Stein Werk Ebony (DEST) [28] or Deutsche Ausrüstungswerke (DAW) SS-industry factories, used convicts. The Vernichtung durch Arbeit [29] principle is consciously reported that workers dying of inhumanly hard work. The government mediated by a variety of private companies as well. Many quarries, factories and other téglaégetőben performed forced labor. The highway is used in building Reichsautobahn prisoners. Due to the increased number of external construction camps it was partly necessary. On September 27, 1940 and February 18, they were taken to other camps the detainees were. Meanwhile, they trained at the SS in Dachau Totenkopfverbände about 7,000 members. The prisoners are 2138 people in the Buchenwald, Mauthausen and 981 in 1600 was the Flossenburg concentration camp. Only 100 inmates remained in the camp at Dachau as labor [11] In January 1940, the DAW 1940 took over the camp's workshops. Locksmith workshop, the carpentry workshop and saddle maker. In late April and early May of Polish prisoners arrived at the camp. At the end of the year, the priests held the prisoners were transferred to other camps Dachau camp. [30] Then a special priestly blocks have been set up (Pfarrerblock). Egon Zill was 1940 Schutzhaftlagerführer (head of the camp Class III.), After which the commander is the second most important position. Zill founded a band in which prisoners had to play. The music is not meant fun, but with a more torturous pain. The prisoners during the day several times had to sing German songs when they went to work and came back from there. The death of hunger and exhaustion view was cynical and degrading music. Mainly it was for the prisoners is particularly burdensome for those who could not speak German. So they suffered further torture because other prisoners when they rested, they had to practice the hated songs. But executions and torture is performed for the band. The other prisoners had to listen to the cruel performances. [31] Many times they played in front of visitors. The musicians sometimes they could komponálású own music pieces. In this case, sometimes it is successfully hidden mocking work, which helped them recover from a broken personality position. Some survivors gladly remembers this satisfaction. The music was propaganda function as a way for local people could pretend that they are the prisoners well. The musicians did not have to work as hard as the others. The band consisted of Czech, Polish, Austrian and German prisoners. When Zille was moved temporarily ceased the band. The concentration camp, paradoxically, was associated with the ill-treatment against detainees entertainment of the SS. [32] Abroad presented in theaters The film was a dictator, which is referred to Hitler and the regime. While in 1941 Poland occupied territory extermination camps built - in Chelmno, in Auschwitz, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka and Majdanek [33] camp - in concentration camps is harder violence. In January, they furnished it with a pilot class in the infirmary. He registered 144 cases of tuberculosis patients were treated with homeopathic cure. The senior doctor was von Weyherns who in February 1941 biochemical chemicals tested the captives. The 26 blocks furnished it with a chapel, where from 22 January could hold mass every day. On 11 April, the priests were larger and better quality food rations, which the Vatican paid for the privilege. In September revoked the privileges as other prisoners and SS members complained about this. Because [34] The registration of deaths in early June an installed his own registrar's office in the camp. The number of people who died in Dachau until the city registrar's office said it was 3486 [35]. From October thousands of Soviet prisoners of war arrived in the camp. The Bunker yard was carried them out later, was shot in the nearby SS shooting range hebertshauseni down the victims. [36] The turning point of the war in 1942 the bus, which transported the sick Schloss Hartheimbe On January 2, the first called. "Disability consignment" (Invalidentransport) arrived in Linz next to Schloss Hartheimbe. Here killed patients in the program called Aktion 14f13. In 1941, they ordered the patient selection and disposal of old or non-working prisoners under the authority of the NSDAP leadership. The action belonged to the Nazi "euthanasia" -PROGRAMMES. In one year, the SS, 32 transport [6], a total of 3,000 prisoners were deported. On February 22, a pilot series called Unterdruck ( "negative pressure") began what Sigmund Rascher (SS-Hauptsturmführer) and Hans-Wolfgang Romberg led doctors. The sudden esésnél been tested on the human reaction and viability at high altitude and high altitude quick res rise to. Developed a low-pressure chamber between the 5-block and the adjacent barracks. [37] When the end of May the experiments were stopped and only 200 of them had 70-80 prisoners died as a result. Claus Schilling before the court in December 1945. On 23 February, Karl Schilling Claus doctors began the first attempts at anti-malarial drugs. 1100 [11] prisoners infected with the disease. Later, in the Dachau trial failed to prove 10 deaths. April 5, 1945 Schilling continued until the man attempts. In June, the department set up a biochemical experimental Block I, which Heinrich Schütz was the leader. [38] Here began a series of experiments Phlegmon names ( "Flash"), which was completed in the spring of 1943. Meanwhile, at least 17 people died. [6] On August 15 began rehearsals about people's strong cooling (Unterkühlungsversuche) Ernst Holzlöhner addition, Erich Finke Rascher physicians and management. The experiments were officially discontinued in October 1942, but Rascher arbitrarily extended until May 1943. Number of test persons were between 220 and 240th Of these, about 65-70 people have died as a result. On September 1, Martin Weiss became the new commander of the camp. Weiss received instructions to preserve the prisoner's labor force. [39] Weiss lifted the prisoners kiköttetését (Pfahlhängen) [40] and reduced the number of cases is beating detainees. More often they allowed them to stay in the lakóbarakkokban. The amount of food that the prisoners received mail, from then on no longer restricted, but not everyone is allowed. [41] For example, the Russian prisoners were forbidden to enter into contact with home. Those who receive a lot of packages, for example, were able to reach the recipients. (Italian phrase capo, or 'boss', prisoner-function), [42] to share them good work [43] Himmler on October 5, 1942, according to the command ei concentration camps set up in the German Empire had to be "Jewish-discriminatory" (judenfrei). The SS at Dachau concentration camp prisoners all Jews deported to the Auschwitz extermination camp. [44] In late November, typhus broke out in the camp. The disease has become a rapidly spreading epidemic of lice. At Christmas, the camp was the first time in the history of film presentation at the IV. block [45] This total also repeated eight times. The selection of films and lectures propaganda news bulletins presented by the German military successes. 1943 1943 from 1 January to 15 March was due to typhoid epidemic throughout the camp under quarantine. During the epidemic in the SS members not yet arrived in the prisoners. The detainees were able to relax and talk about it. Some were playing [46] or poems. The library grew, because the mail was also sent books for the detainees. This cultural activity lasted even after the quarantine, but only to a limited extent. In spring, they performed a piece written by their own color in a makeshift outdoor stage. The text was censored, and the commander of the SS and some staff were present, who liked the song. [47] from the end of April Redwitz let the prisoners play football on Sundays in the gathering area. On August 29, the Polish national dances they could as well. However, these reliefs at the same time the number of executions due to sabotage increased. Emil Mahr prisoner's confession, according 800-1000 executions took place during this period. [48] By this time, evenings and Schilling Rascher series of experiments as well. [49] On August 4, 16 prisoners have been implemented so-called "exemplary" punishment botozással before the assembled inmates. In October, Eduard Weiter was the last commander of the camp. 1944 Report Letter from an evacuated deaths in 1944, the first concentration camps in the eastern part of the empire, as toward the front and the Red Army had approached dangerously west. The prisoners were "evacuated" to other camps and deliberately strenuous journeys involving casualties were sent to inmates. On February 22, they shot 31 [6] Soviet officer in the crematorium yard. On 11 May established a brothel, where women had to work six who were taken to the Ravensbrück women's concentration camp. The brothel visit the prisoners tied to job performance. At the end of the year, the brothel was dissolved. [4] On July 6, arrived in Todestransport ( "death consignment") in Compiègne French concentration camp. During the trip in 2521 partridges 984 [6] people died. [50] On the same day Sepp Eberle managed to interrogate a radio broadcast of the SS a restaurant, from which he learned that the Allies had landed in Normandy. [51] Wilhelm Beiglböck This summer Wilhelm Beiglböck began experimenting with how seawater can be used as drinking water. [52] was [6] among the Roma 44 test persons. From autumn of the camp it became too crowded. The 50 men crammed with people you've 3-500 planned areas. Typhus epidemic broke out again in November, after a train came again evacuated prisoners. The mortality rate in October was 403, and 997 in November and December had risen to 1 915 people were killed. [53] On September 4 and 6 on a further 92 [6] Soviet officers were shot in the yard of the crematorium. The executions are not kept secret. For deterrence [54] On 17 December, the French Bishop Gabriel Piguet has secretly ordain Karl Leisner assistant pastor. An evacuation transport from Dachau in 1945 after the beginning of 1945, more and more evacuees were taken prisoner in the Dachau camp. New camp staff also arrived in January, for example, the Auschwitz doctor Hans Münch. The camp is overcrowded accelerated the spread of the disease. In January 2903, February 3991, March 3534 and April 2186 people died of typhus. [55] The crematorium was closed, and in February began mass funerals of Leitenberg cemetery. [56] Some doctors and nurses who had died of typhus, including Engelmar Unzeitig priest patients who voluntarily cared for. At the end of March, hundreds of German minister were released, but 170 remained captive pastor. [6] On April 4, Danish and Norwegian prisoners were handed over to the International Red Cross during the "white buses rescue mission." On April 9, shot by Charles Delestraint French general who was a member of the French Resistance and the German Communist Georg Elser, who tried in 1939 to commit assassination attempt against Hitler. The SS began to burn the papers and documents in early April. II. III. ARC. The SS began to burn the papers and documents in early April. In the middle of the month they get suspended for two notorious Johan Albert Meansariant and Wernicke. The bunker is closed. [4] On April 14 Himmler sent a radio Dachau Flossenburg. The whole camp was ordered to evacuate. [6] He later changed this command so that ultimately only the Germans, Russians, Poles and Jews concerned. On April 17 and 24 at several prisoners were transported in the direction of Tyrol. April 23 was the first time the labor camp. It has 2000 prisoners who were sent to another evacuation of the Upper Bavarian Mittenwald, was released on May 4. Another shipment of 25 3000 prisoners was launched Seeshauptba, the Starnberg Lake. They were released on 30 April. On the day yet been able to stop a prisoner transportation, which is designed to Staltach. The train was Jewish in 1759. The Americans stopped a death march, which had started Tegernseeig Pasing April 26, 6887 [6] prisoner, on foot, through Wolfratshausenen and Bad Tolz. This strain is already a lot of people would not stand out. Emmeringből launched on 27 April 2000 Wolfratshausenbe prisoners by train, where I had to join the great procession on foot. Night arrived in Buchenwald kitelepítővonat, that many people starved to death. A day later, Max Ulich German Major General was recalled to the camp to 212. People Grenadier Division (Volksgrenadier-Division) to avoid unnecessary loss of them. [57] Thus, on this day broke out in the Dachau uprising that led Georg Scherer and Walter Neff detainees. More prisoners at Dachau citizens and Volkssturm [58] The members also took part in it. The uprising was intended to prevent the Dachau camp definitive evacuation. The liberation in 1945 watchtower "B" SS guards shot (April 1945) The barracks a few days after the release of US April 29, 42 and 45 Infantry Division marched into the camp. Only a few remained SS man was standing against the majority of the SS guards had left the camp. [4] The camp at Dachau concentration camp was the penultimate liberated by the Americans before the arrival. Even 32 335 [11] people were living there at the time. On this day, the Americans shot down reports that Lieutenant Buechner [59] SS 560 prisoners, including the wounded were also found in the hospital. 40 people were executed in the concentration camp belonged to the crew, the others were Waffen-SS soldiers, among them Hungarians. This murder at Dachau mészárlásként famous for. The first US troops in the camp - along with the corresponding outer camps (such was the lenadsbergi [60]) - was released and only then marched into Munich. Those prisoners shipments that are actually near Munich, was released on 30 April. There was a Jewish writer Max Mannheimer, the Mühldorf camp by a resident. [61] under the jurisdiction of the US declared a quarantine camp, according to an American command as the area was still in a typhus epidemic and many people suffered from malnutrition. After the release even further in 2000 [11] people died here. The camp also worked for a time as an emergency shelter to homeless and sick prisoners. They later set up an international committee prisoners. In July, held in the US military offices, the area of the former concentration camp in German war criminals for internment at Dachau, where 30 000 [11] it was possible to accommodate people. főper it took place at Dachau (Dachau Hauptprozess) between November 15 and December 13 [11] against the other 39 members of the camp commandant Martin Weiss and staff. The 40 defendants were sentenced to 36 criminals to death. [62] The time főper made in the Dachau trials, and in which war and the Holocaust, the Shoa and discussed related crimes. [63] [64] These were concluded in 1948. Medical tests lawsuit against a doctor Nuremberg trial and Erhard Milch Secretary of State addressed. 36 May 1946 the death sentence was carried out at 28 in Landsberg prison. During the subsequent 121 procedures, about 500 defendants stood before US military courts, mostly members of the SS who worked at Dachau and side camps. In September 1948, after about three and a half years after the liberation of the area then it used refugee camps as the US military handed over to the Bavarian agencies. [11] Structural structures, camp hierarchy of the camp construction aerial view of the camp in the beginning only existed in the main camp. The railway was built in the immediate vicinity, step by step. The outbreak of war was created in the outer camps, which are mostly military establishments, or important jobs were lying near the southern part of the empire. The main camp was divided into six sectors: Prisoner area (Häftlings-Gelände) SS space (SS-Gelände) herb plantation (Kräuterplantage) hebertshauseni shooting range (Schießplatz Hebertshausen) Leitenberg cemetery (Friedhof Leitenberg) Waldfriedhof graves (Gräberanlage Waldfriedhof) The prisoner space stone base showing the barracks location of the camp gathering place for street reconstruction barakkokkal the background of the prisoner Jourhaus area was part of the largest concentration camp, had 34 barracks, as Schutzhaftlager ( "védőőrizeti camp"). An electric szögesdrótkerítést led around behind a trench dug in for the night was illuminated. The guards immediately shot down without warning he őrtornyokból who approached the fence. The Schutzhaftlager structure: [65] [66] the lakóbarakkok and residential blocks, each of which had two laundry room, two toilets and two rooms. Each room consisted of two parts: where they slept during the day and where you have stayed. Each room is designed for 52 people, so that 208 prisoners had access to a residential block. In recent years, sometimes even 1600 people crammed into them. between lakóbarakkok was the "Camp Street" (Lagerstrasse). eight guard towers have been installed, each of which usually consisted of two machines armed SS guard. the patient area (or Krankenrevier Häftlingslazarett) in the beginning it was still two barracks, and later expanded to 18 ra.Josef Heiden prisoner was Kapo here. the disinfection barracks in the morgue in the canteen munkabarakk a gathering space where prisoners had to be at the head count in order to queue every morning and evening. If someone missed a penalty as standing had a whole night or even half a day can endure. the Jourhaus, which was the only building transition between the SS and the prisoner's area. Here were some of the guard room and administrative offices. the farm building on the "Bunker", which was behind the former building. Különbüntetésre Oda took the prisoners and executions also took place there. The existence of the camp is divided into different ways of residential blocks in twelve years: Strafblöcke the criminal squad block housed those prisoners who have repeatedly been in prison or have been subject to stricter confinement. This block is a separate barbed wire fence defended. Interbrigadisten: in the German communists and anti-fascists held, who fought in the Spanish civil war against the Nationalists. Judenblock separate lakóblokkja Jews. Invalidenblock: placed in the disabled here. Prominentenblock: famous people block. Pfarrerblock the priest's block. detainees were placed in the beginning of the war, according nations, such as Poles, Czechs and Russians have separate lakóbarakkjaik. The first crematorium SS-area X-SS barracks in the Bunker area about twice the foglyokénak. Among other things, placed in the workshops, the crew and the officers' barracks flats and even the clerk's office was located here. Later, two crematorium has been built in this area. In the first crematory in the first seven years in a Munich crematorium they cremated the dead. In 1940, they built a custom, one-roomed crematorium, which had two furnaces. Before the Jourhaus the road forked, so completely separated from the prisoners Park. A special group of prisoners had to work here. It was forbidden to contact the other camp inmates, but no one else could enter this area. The crematorium was carried out near the death sentences. The X-barracks from May 1943 to April 1942 the camp administration had built a large building facing the first crematorium, called X-hut. In addition to the two rooms on several others were only dead bodies. The new crematorium had four chamber, which in February 1945 [4] was used from April 1943. Later, the cemetery en masse Leitenberg buried the dead. In the summer of 1944 due to built a four decontamination chamber Keeping the prisoners dress. In another room above the entrance was a subtitle that "Brausebad" (shower). This room csempézték white, simple shower heads and 15-imitation is running. The outer wall had two metal valves, so the American troops in gas chambers as identified in 1945 on 29 April. [67] A former prisoners reported that they were afraid when they have finished in the gas chambers, but fear not verified. [68] There have been attempts fighting gas, according to a surviving letter from the SS doctor Rascher August 9, 1942 Himmler: "Wie Sie wissen, wird wie im KL Dachau diesel Einrichtung gebaut in Linz. Nachdem die Invalidentransporte sowieso in bestimmten Kammern End, frage ich, ob nicht in diesen Kammern an den sowieso dazu bestimmten Personen die Wirkung unserer verschiedene Kampfgase erprobt werden kann. "[69]" As you know, the Dachau concentration camp in the same facilities will be constructed, as Linz. Since the disability deliveries anyway some chambers ending, asking not to be whether the ventricles various combat gases are interested in these subjects, who already is going to happen. "It is certain that Rascher performed medical experiments of this kind, which have killed too volt. It seems likely that the military had experimented with gas. A further document the prisoner Frantisek Blaha's testimony: "wurde im Jahre 1944 Die Gaskammer vollendet; ich wurde zu gerufen Rascher, um die ersten Opfer zu untersuchen. Von den acht bis neun Personen, die in der Kammer waren, waren drei noch am Leben und die anderen zu sein Schienen tot. "[70]" The gas chamber was finished in 1944. Rascher was called to examine the first victims. The eight or nine persons who were in the chamber, three still alive, the others appeared to be dead. "Frantisek Blaha, however, recanted at another time. The use of gas chambers can not prove it, but definitely not refute. However, before the end of the war many documents were destroyed. there was no substance in the subsequent studies, which suggest the use of poison gas. The Dachau camp was not a death camp. Those prisoners who were terminally ill or disabled, Hartheimbe shipped with the framework of the so-called "Operation 14f13" killed in gas chambers during the T4 euthanasia program. A total of 169 external camps outside camp [71]. The external work Außenkommandóknak was called, and they were not the same. The larger outer side camps and the prisoners slept well. These leaders and kapos (Funktionshäftlinge) were also given the magnitude of the camps. The work is sometimes sent to a person, sometimes thousands. The prisoners not only that the camp had to work, but as the SS workshops of the road building or gravel pits were forced labor. From 1939 to the military industry also laid claim to them. Especially it increased from 1942 in the number of outdoor camps, where prisoners worked about 37 000. March 1944 prisoners of war were built huge underground complex where the Nazis were able to keep the military maintain production. An external Kaufenringnél camp outside the major camps were worse főtábornál hygiene conditions and working conditions. The prisoners such as these factories worked Zeppelin-Werke, Messerschmitt, BMW-Werk II (Allach outside camp), Dornier-Werk, Agfa-Camera Werk, Firma Sachse, Firma Präzifix, Dynamit AG, Firma Magnesit, Firma Kimmel and earthmoving Flughafen München -Riem where the bomb to disarm it applied to them. The eleven outside the camp Landsberg am Lechnél worked for 30 000 prisoners. They evacuated in April 1945. Among them was the Schwabmünchen / Kaufering IV as well. The "evacuated" prisoners were dispatched by train or on foot was launched. The smaller was better than working outside of treatment, and were generally more likely to survive the ordeal of the prisoners. The SS personnel brutal excesses were rare because the connection with the public was more direct. [4] The external work locations a total of 169 in the Dachau concentration camp was the finest in the Empire. [11] The external camps for a long time to be fully explored. [4] Contemporary research for the live witnesses decline of more and more difficult. SS training Himmler's visit to the SS training camp at Dachau Concentration Camp As the empire was the first regular internálótábora, received a major role in building the future concentration camp system and the SS training of personnel. Here lived the guard troops and the SS Totenkopf troops, and after the training camps, commanded them another time. belonging to the SS military academy (SS-Junkerschule) Unterführerschule Dachau faculty is placed in the same place where a trained SS Totenkopf altisztjeit, but the SS officers training also took place here. The camp Initially, almost all in a camp in a camp established order, which was based on the normal prison rules. The Dachau camp was not the case. Wäckerle policy introduced in the first camp, the commander legal hegemony, ie, his former justice powers. Six months after that, on October 1, 1933, the new commander, Eicke tightened this first order, for example, has introduced a new physical punishment. This camp system from 1934 all the concentration camp was valid. The SS-staff hierarchy of IKL (Inspektion der Konzentrationslager) identified, which was the administrative center of the SS concentration camp. Eicke was head of the new office. Since May 1934 he was appointed a "concentration camps auditor" (Inspekteur der Konzentrationslager). Later Himmler officially confirmed this. Function prisoners (Funktionshäftlinge) SS Crematorium of divide and rule method was used to maintain order in the camp. Some prisoners were promoted to inspector in particular tasks (functional prisoners), and so did hatékonnyabbá the camp's operation. Depending on what area and what kind of job the person was appointed, they exercised a different power. They stood in the hierarchy among the inmates and staff of the SS commanders. The functional prisoners (kapos) usually were tough. Closely monitored by the order and cleanliness of the barracks. Minor offenses is penalized stiffly, as if it were not performed well enough to perform their duties, they lost their status. In this case, the peers had also fear revenge. In particular, it was feared capo for example, a more Meansarian, who was shot by US soldiers after the liberation of the camp. [72] The camp has always primarily functioned as a political camp over 12 years. Only political prisoners filled these positions, usually those who have been residents of the camp were from the beginning. In other camps, common criminals, because most serious offenses were also sentenced positions of power. Stanislav Zámečník was a prisoner function. The last prisoner function Oskar Müller, a member of the Communist Party and was later Hessian Minister of Labour. Johannes Maria Lenz priest reports that two prisoners succeeded him as an envoy sent by the US military. They were afraid that they would liquidate them before the liberation. The Americans therefore first liberated Dachau camp before they marched into Munich, the provincial capital. During the post-war procedures were also some functional prisoners to court, for example, in 1960, Karl Kapp. Prisoner Groups representing identification signals SS commander-Loritz school board has made regular use of external megkülönböztetőjelek. Each inmate uniforms rávarrtak a small triangle of fabric made what they called angle formula. Different colors shown that arrested the reason for which a detainee: Red: political prisoners in green: a criminal record blue: exile Violet: Bible Students (Jehovah's Witnesses) Pink: gay black: asocial yellow stars: Jewish The categories are flexibly used. They knew that an indication of detainees related how at a disadvantage compared to peers, and what treatment the part of the guards. For example, pink and black enhanced signal discrimination reported in the camp. Political prisoners generally had a better situation. They were also subcategories. The re-detention, szökésgyanút, tasks within the camp, with the büntetőszázadhoz debt and citizenship can glance could be recognized. In addition to the team marks every prisoner had a number, also is added to the garment. The first series of from 1 to 37 575 up. March 22, 1933 of 31 March 1940, the numbering used in this mode. The second series, which was in use until April 1945 with effect from 1 April 1940, extended from 1 to 896 161st This figure is higher than the previous one because it has mainly operated as a transit camp Dachau. Terminology moments of the liberation of internal correspondence used by the SS abbreviation of KL. A number of newspaper articles is also included. Eugen Kogon eyewitness prefer abbreviations used in KZ in public, because it's harder sound. So was the usual abbreviation KZ-because each camp was under SS control. [73] The official definition [74] Only those camps expected concentration camps, which were under the command of SS. The SS places like this arbitrarily and without supervision uralkodhatott. In other camps, which did not fall within their competence, educational camps or labor camps were Nazi terminology. [74] SS staff of the concentration camps custody of the Totenkopf SS troops were responsible for which these tasks have been set up. The SS camp inhabited by the prisoners in the camp. was set up from 16 October to 1 November 1939, the 3rd SS Panzer Division Totenkopf (SS Division Totenkopf). The first commander was Theodor Eicke and March 1942 counted about 15 000 members. Leaders of the future became aware about a dozen other armed SS divisions or corps commander. The division of tasks classified as class A total of five tasks. Because of the strict hierarchy of education and competition it has become possible to settle within the system. [75] One of the five classes of the SS guards have been added. Class I: adjutánsság was the headquarters of the highest Instancia. The commander was all SS personnel chief. In the class it happened to the censorship of mail also. II. Class: The infamous Gestapo camp's political class work fairly independently. Here you can choose were to get out into the camp and who let me free, just as the penalties and executions here undecided. [75] As the class leader is always the SS Security Service (Sicherheitsdienst Reichsführer-SS) and the Gestapo or the criminal He was a member of the police. The second class was responsible for the interrogation of prisoners also dreaded. Another task of the prisoners were able to kartotékjainak management and the newly arrived person descriptions and fingerprints can be registered. It has also been registered in which a prisoner has escaped or died. III. Division: "védőőrizeti camp" The leaders of the "védőőrizeti camp" leader was also the deputy commander of the camp [75] as well. His responsibilities included the correspondence between parent and subsidiary offices, former chief executives of the report (Rapportführer), the block leaders and command leaders who controlled the forced labor camps in the main and side. The prisoners also had over and kapos. It was operated between receiving the evaluation system, which could be higher or lower based on the hierarchy. ARC. Class administration organized the fourth class of the apparel and food supply. Here they confiscated the property of the prisoners were treated well. Class V: The fifth grade health class members were doctors and nurses. The new camp for prisoners upon entry into checked their state of health. Later, in the hospital for the delivery of the prisoners it was often equal to the death. Lethal injections, medical series of experiments and unnecessary surgeries have occurred here. The camp doctor filled out a death certificate after the killings, that has always been a natural cause of death. The direct incineration of the dead in the medical field work was carried out. It also was the SS-physician staff as well. SS Totenkopfwachsturmbann This group was a real concentration camp guard team. His job was to ensure the exterior of the camp, but they are used in the interior areas. The official executions often they were the executioners. The camp commanders Hilmar Wäckerle was the first commander. From March 1933 to June 1933 he held this position. Before that was a steward and member of the SS. The Munich public prosecutor's office kivizsgáltatott three murders, which took place on 12 April 1933 in the camp. Then, they deprived of rank. Theodor Eicke, from June 1933 until July 7, 1934 was the second commander of the camp. Before SS Oberführer, then head of the IKL. December 6, 1934, Himmler appointed SS Oberführer Alexander Reinert. First he went to leave, because until the "bad behavior" [76] previously laid off from work. Practically not been finalized as commanders. [77] Alexander Piorkowski a British internment camp in 1945, Martin Weiss in court in 1945, Heinrich Deuba, who was as SS-Oberführer, was December 10, 1934, the commander of the camp. Hans Loritz occurred on 1 April 1936. He, too, was dismissed, and later became the Sachsenhausen concentration camp commander. Hans Bernhard Alexander Piorkowski from 19 April 1940 until September 1942 were in this position. Martin Weiss from 1 September 1942 to 31 October 1943, led the camp. Then he became the commander of Majdanek extermination camp. Eduard Weiter from 1 November 1943 until 26 April 1945 was the last commander of the Dachau camp. [4] Heinrich Wicker Untersturmfuhrer handed over to the camp of US troops. [78] The Wicker was only 23 years old, led the camp even when the command staff fled. He've worked and able-making halálmeneten was present in gross external Treis-camp. The leaders of the political class: Johann Kick 1937 to September 1944 he was head of the political class. Otto followed him Kloppmann 1945 1944. The number of deaths in the offices and documents of the last research done by the International Assistance Service (ITS), about 32 009 [79] evidenced by the deaths, but as the SS did not register all events, in fact, this figure could be much higher. In his book Das war Dachau was Zámečník describes how deaths are not recorded. The number of executed between 1941 and 1942 Russian prisoners of war are not known, about 4,000 sacrifice estimated [80] 1942 is not registered as Jewish, from October 1943 to the Polish and Russian prisoner deaths. The list of outside groups and by death camps was not complete. 1181 [80], people should still be added, but the ITS are not documented. February 12, 1945 on the abolition of the crematoria, the dead were placed in the graves Leitenberg and Waldfriedhofi cemetery. They were exhumed in 1955 and 1959th According to the ITS Zámečník about 880 fewer deaths reported in people. The total recorded deaths (32 099) are missing under "special treatment" (Sonderbehandlung) executions of prisoners. delivered by the Gestapo prisoners estimated to number several hundred people. Deaths have occurred during transport: The number of persons who died in Dachau trains holder is not known. It is estimated that only during the Compiègne-i transport 891 people died in [80] in the Dachau transfers are the following deaths are not included. 1944, 2177 incapacitated Jewish prisoners were deported to Auschwitz, [80] and in November 150 [80] patients hart Mannheim detainee transported to the gas chambers. According to the ITS Zámečník Mauthausen prisoner who documented them. The so-called disability shipments at about 1000 person were taken to Majdanek [80] and 1400 prisoners from the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, [80] where they were killed. According to the Dachau camp Zámečník area of 41 566 deaths occurred, which is still not complete. The actual number of deaths may still only be estimated. Points of prisoners in a camp at Dachau memorial plaque Leopold Figl Kurt Schumacher Saefkow Anton Freiherr Alexander von Falkenhausen Franz Halder Georg Elser Martin Niemöller Gustaf Nagel total of over 200 000 [81] people were deported to the Dachau camp. Many famous people were also detained here. Among them were mayors, local politicians and parliamentarians of all opposition party. Many major publishers and writers also deported to the camp, and has known musicians, composers, lawyers were among them. Dachau was the central gathering place for religious inmates, chaplains as well. Some of the detainees are known: Politicians Alfred Maleta was interned from 1941 to 1938. Probably Figllel and Gorbachhal designed in co-founding the Austrian People's Party. Alfons Gorbach between 1938-1942 and 1944-1945 was at Dachau. Between 1961-1964, he was federal chancellor of Austria. Alfred Andersch, communist writer who in 1933 was six months in the camp. Edmond Michelet, French Catholic politician who lived between 1943 and 1945 in the camp. After the liberation became the Comité International de Dachau is a founding member. Emil Carlebach 1937, came to the camp, was transferred to Buchenwald in 1938. Ernst Heilmann, German SPD politician and lawyer. Franz Olah was between 1939 and 1945 in the camp. Later, Minister of Interior of Austria. Gábori George, Hungarian Social Democratic politician, in 1944, was the camp. Gustav Steinbrecher from June 1936 to September 1939 was at Dachau and then transferred to the Mauthausen camp, where he died on January 30, 1940. The SPD members and former Minister of the Brunswick province. Hans Beimler April 25, 1933 arrest, but on May 8, 1933, the night he escaped. Bußmann Heinrich, member of the SPD and the NSDAP political opponents. Hermann Langbein, Austrian politician and historian, was more of a concentration camp. In 1967, he received the Righteous medal. Johann Staud was in the Dachau camp in 1938, and later was taken to Flossenburg, where he died in 1939. Johannes Ziegler alias Jean Ziegler, and anti-fascist resistance. Josef Felder, Augsburg politician who Reichstag, and later became a member of the Bundestag. Anton Josef Romer and Saefkow anti-fascist resistance fighters. Kurt Schumacher for the first time from July 1935 until 1939 he lived in the Dachau camp, then was transferred to Flossenburg. back in March 1940 was 16, seriously ill and in 1943 he was released. Kurt Schuschnigg outside the camp here was the Flossenburg concentration camp prisoner and Sachsenhausen. Léon Blum, the French writer and lawyer and Socialist politician and prime minister. Leopold Figl was between 1938 and 1943, the camp's inhabitants. After the war he became chancellor of Austria. Maximilian Ronge, Austrian politician in 1938 was at Dachau. Nikolaos ZACHARIADIS, the Greek Communist Party (KKE) General Secretary from 1941 to 1945 he was imprisoned here. Oskar Müller between 1939 and 1945 were in the camp. The Comité International de Dachau was one of the founding members of the Communist faction in the Bundestag as well. Otto Thielemann, a member of the SPD and journalist, a representative of the Braunschweig parliament in July 1936 was the camp where 1938 were killed on 17 March. Rudi Arndt, Jewish and communist youth organization (KJVD) members. The Buchenwald concentration camp was killed. Yves Le Jarre, the French resistance fighting, railway, March 31, 1945, passed away. [82] Viktor Matejka was here in 1938 and later deported to the camp in Flossenburg. Writers: Carl Albert Fritz Gerlich, a German journalist and magazine Der gerade Weg ( "the straight path") was publisher of 9 March 1933 was the Dachau camp where he died on June 30, 1934. Fritz Grünbaumt, Austrian kabarettistát, poet and director May 24, 1938, was deported here. Buchenwald was temporary, but on January 14, 1941, died here. Fritz Beda-Löhner, Austrian liberal writer. From 1 April 1938 until 23 September 1938. It was here, but on December 4, 1942 at the Auschwitz concentration camp died. Heinrich Eduard Jacob, German-American writer and journalist from 1 April 1938 until 23 September 1938 was at Dachau and Buchenwald took the camp. Julius Zerfaß, 1933-1934, he was a prisoner in the camp. Switzerland escaped, and Walter Hornung in 1936 under the pseudonym released Dachau - book entitled Eine Chronik. Isaac Pfeiffer, Hungarian rabbi and poet. Musicians and composers Hermann Leopoldi, Austrian composer was in April 1938 in the Dachau camp and then to Buchenwald. The Buchenwald-Marsch composer. Herbert Zipper, Austrian composer and conductor, came to the camp in May 1938. Robert Dauber, age 23, killed her in March 1945 typhus in the camp. Soldiers: Alexander von Falkenhausen, General, a member of the SA leadership. Charles Delestraint, French general, was shot in the camp. Enzo Sereni, Italian-born, Jewish resistance, who on November 18, 1944, in the camp were shot. Franz Halder was only in 1945 in the camp. A senior officer in the Wehrmacht at the beginning of the war, all the major strategic plan, participated in the conspiracy against Hitler later. Special prisoners Georg Elser, on 8 November, 1939, assassination of Hitler perpetrator. April 9, 1945, shot and killed in the camp. Hans Litten, a lawyer, died in the Dachau camp. Martin Niemöller, a theologian and former NSDAP selection in 1941 has been to Dachau. Other prisoners: Adolf Ziegler Chairman of the realm of fine arts institute Albrecht Prinz von Bayern Bavarian Crown Prince and his family. Gati Odon, Hungarian trade union leader Gustav Nagel, vándorprédikátor who came to the camp because of his political views in 1943. Professor Karel Feierabend, the Czechoslovak Prime Minister Ladislav Feierabend's father, in 1942, he was the oldest prisoner camp (born in 1861). A week after the liberation died. Former prisoners memorial plaques and statues of Léon Blum memorial Ernst Heilmann plaque Yves expired plaque Julius Zerfaß plaque Hermann Loepoldi plaque Enzo Sereni plaque Hans Litten statue of the memorial of Christ's fear of death Chapel Evangelical Reconciliation Church Jewish memorial Russian Orthodox chapel After the war, concentration camp isolated from the public kaszárnyáit SS first used by American troops, later taken over by the Bavarian police standby. In May 1955, the camp's 10th anniversary of the liberation of the former prisoners organized an international meeting. Memorials for the first time only in the crematorium and tömegsíroknál designed. In 1960, when he had no refugee camps, nor the American camp was no need, it started the construction of the memorial today. In 1955, the administrative head of the district Dachau crematorium dismantlement decided that it caused a stir in public opinion. Finally, it was decided to create a memorial. To this goal, the Bavarian Youth Association (Jugendring), the German Confederation of Trade Unions (Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund, DGB) and Munich Mayor joined forces with Hans Jochen Vogel. In 1960 built the Todesangst-Christi (Christ's fear of death), chapel and crematorium building was furnished it in a temporary museum. Johannes Neuhäusler titular bishop consecrated a chapel in the 37th Eucharistic Congress, which has been a pilgrimage by thousands of people around the world. In 1963, Chancellor Konrad Adenauer and French President Charles de Gaulle signed the Elysée Treaty. In this document, the German government has committed itself to take care of the graves of former prisoners. May 5, 1965 inaugurated the memorial is a museum, and a library of archives [83] universe. In addition to the presentation of the exhibition in the camp life of the individual fates of the new camp arrivals trip will accompany the events. The original barracks were demolished because of the dilapidated state, the foundations of barracks 32 contours are cast out of concrete. In 1968, a memorial museum was opened in the International (Internationales Mahnmal). In 1994, the camp's territory, Russian soldiers built the Orthodox "Resurrection Memorial Chapel" (Auferstehungs-Gedächtniskapelle). Landsberg am Lech, which was the largest outdoor camp, erected in 1995, the European Holocaust Memorial Place (Europäische Holocaustgedenkstätte in Landsberg). In 2003 it created the "Bavarian Memorial Foundation" (Stiftung Bayerische Gedenkstätte), which were the property of the main camp premises, some outside the camp and voluminous archives, with the only exception of religious institutions. Dachau town, as well as several churches and civil society organizations to be part of the Foundation's life. Furnished.Fully an office which deals with the history and memories of today's sitting, then standing around here with a youth meeting place since 1998 transformed into a historical place and educational center. Dachau was a rail track between the train station and the memorial now bears the "Path of Remembrance" (Weg des Erinnerns) name. In February 2003, the show was renewed. [84] rebuilt a shed where you can see what it was like in the concentration camps at that time. In 2006, EUR 4.5 million in Bavaria where the Bavarian Memorial Foundation (Stiftung Bayerische Gedenkstatte). Of this amount, Dachau and Flossenburg memorial, as well as 150 branch offices maintained. [85] The members of the foundation council of the municipality, the Bavarian and the German federal state of representatives of the Protestant and Catholic church delegates and the Jewish community and was prisoners are representatives of the covenant. In addition, there is an Advisory Board, which maintains contact with a number of important social groups as well. For example, the Bavarian Youth Association (Jugendring), the Bavarian Sinti and Roma Association (Verband der Sinti und Roma in Bayern) and the Bavarian Federation of Trade Unions. Additional financial support comes from donations, fees for parking and faith communities, private supporters and the clubs' activities. Pieter Dietz de Loos, the Comité International de Dachau founder's son, he could not do justice to the suggestion that the visitors pay an entrance fee. [86] Over the years a number of associations, initiatives have been developed, journals and other publications have appeared. In 1980, they formed the Dachau contemporary historical research group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Erforschung der Dachauer Zeitgeschichte eV) [87] Other associations include "Würmtali Civil Initiative - Dachau Death march Remembrance her migration." (Würmtaler Bürgerinitiative - Gedenkzug Todesmarsch von Dachau) [88], as well as the "History Workshop Mühldorf" (Geschichtswerkstatt Mühldorf eV), [89] which in 2001 published a book was outside the camp. [90] since 1985, the Comité International de Dachau Dachau publishes the booklets (Dachauer Hefte). The memorial site operators to cooperate with the city of Dachau "Dachau Award for civil courage" (Dachau Preis für Zivilcourage) donation. The memorial place needs skilled employees as well. Held lecturing courses that can be held after the completion of a guided tour of the memorial field [3]. Monthly gather to exchange experiences with the performers and sometimes meet with witnesses as well. Due to the change of generations and the decline in the number of surviving eyewitnesses continuously develop the memorial at the work. The approach has changed. Previously, the emphasis was on the National Socialist regime sins, and served as the central memorial for former prisoners. Today, instead of educating young visitors is the focus. New buildings were built, a bookshop, a café, toilets. The head of Memorial, Barbara Distel 2008, at the age of 65 he retired. So successor, Gabriele Hammermann was given a chance to live yet, meet with former prisoners. The main town Hebertshausen can look back on over 1,200 years of history, a first mention is dated 783-789. Hofkammerpräsident Dr. Johann Mandl, whose family was well off in the area since the 17th century, acquired in 1625 the seat Deuten Hofen, of 1627 raised by Elector Maximilian I to closed Hofmark. 1654 nor the far country court diagram village Hebertshausen was included in the Hofmark. Schießplatz Hebertshausen 1 SS-Schießplatz Hebertshausen1 Übersicht 1. Einleitung 2. Hintergrundinformationen für den Besuch des SS-Schießplatzes bei Hebertshausen 2.1 Vorbemerkung 2.2 Behandlung sowjetischer Kriegsgefangener 2.3 Die Massenerschießungen im KZ-Dachau 2.3.1 Erschießungen im Bunkerhof 2.3.2 Erschießungen im SS-Schießplatz bei Hebertshausen - Der Ort der Erschießungen - Der Ablauf der Erschießungen - Teilnehmer an den Exekutionen seitens der SS: 2.4 Ideologischer (gewollter) Nebeneffekt der Erschießungen 2.5 Reale Reaktion der Beteiligten 2.6 Neuerer Forschungsstand über die Registrierung der russischen Kriegsgefangenen 2.6.1 Bisheriger Stand der Forschung 2.6.2 Die Bestände der Wehrmachtauskunftstelle im Archiv des Verteidigungsministeriums der Russischen Föderation in Podolsk (ZAMO) und in der Deutschen Dienststelle Berlin 2.7 Die Geschichte des SS-Schießplatzes nach dem Krieg 2.8 Mögliche Gestaltung eines Besuches mit einer Klasse Anlagen • Anlage 1 Schemazeichnung des Pistolenschießstands • Anlage 2 Bericht des Augenzeugen Josef Thora • Anlage 3 Ergebnis von Ausgrabungen • Anlage 4 Poetische Texte / Gedichte 1. Einleitung Die KZ-Gedenkstätte Dachau als Lernort für verschiedene Themen in Bezug auf den Nationalsozialismus bietet nicht nur das Gelände des ehemaligen KZ mit dem Museum als „Anschauungsmaterial“. Vielmehr befinden sich in nächste Nähe noch weitere Orte, die mit Schülern zu besuchen durch aus Sinn machen, da sie vertiefend weitere Aspekte der nationalsozialistischen Schreckensherrschaft im Allgemeinen und der SS im Besonderen 1 Gebaut ca. 1937 im Rahmen der Erweiterung des KZs und des SS-Lagers Schießplatz Hebertshausen 2 2 aufzeigen. Gemeint sind hier die „Plantage“ , auch „Kräutergarten“ genannt, und der SS- Schießplatz bei Hebertshausen. Die „Plantage“ bietet sich an als Beispiel für die Ausbeutung der Arbeitskraft der Häftlinge, der SS-Schießstand als Beispiel für die mörderische, Moral und jedwedes Recht ignorierende Menschenverachtung des NS-Staates, der hier tausende von russischen Kriegsgefangenen durch die SS erschießen ließ. Im Folgenden sollen Hintergrundinformationen und Anregungen zur Gestaltung eines wenigstens kurzen Besuches des SS-Schießplatzes angeführt werden. Lage: Die Gedenkstätte Schießplatz liegt etwa 2,5 km von der KZ-Gedenkstätte entfernt. Sie erreichen sie, wenn Sie der Alten Römerstraße entlang den Mauern der KZ-Gedenkstätte folgen bis sie in die Straße nach Hebertshausen/Freising mündet. Folgen Sie der Beschilderung und biegen Sie dann nach ca.100m links ab! Achtung: Schmale Zufahrt! Nur PKW-Parkplatz; keine Wendemöglichkeit für Busse! Diese bleiben besser auf der Hauptstraße stehen. 34 2.Hintergrundinformationen fürdenBesuchdesSS-Schießplatzes beiHebertshausen 2.1 Vorbemerkung Die Behandlung von Kriegsgefangenen ist in der „Haager Landkriegsordnung“ von 1907 und der „Genfer Konvention“ von 1929 völkerrechtlich geregelt. An diese hielt sich auch das Deutsche Reich unter den Nationalsozialisten während des Zweiten Weltkriegs, ausgenommen der Krieg gegen Russland. 2.2 Behandlung sowjetischer Kriegsgefangener Der Feldzug gegen Russland hatte nach Generaloberst Halder unter anderem die „VernichtungderbolschewistischenKommissareundderkommunistischenIntelligenz“ zum Ziel. Um dieses Ziel zu erreichen, mussten die Kriegsgefangenen aus dem Kompetenzbereich der Wehrmacht - völkerrechtswidrig - in den der SS eingegliedert werden. Die „Einsatzbefehle Nr. 8 und Nr. 9“ - sog. Kommissarbefehl - vom 17. bzw. 21 Juli 1941 von Heydrich für die Einsatzkommandos der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD zeigen die Absicht der NS-Führung deutlich auf. So heißt es im „Einsatzbefehl Nr. 8“, das Ziel sei die „politische Überprüfung aller Lagerinsassen (i.e. russische Kriegsgefangene (Anmerkung des Verfassers)) und weitere Behandlung“. Es sind unter den Kriegsgefangenen „alle bedeutenden Funktionäre des Staates und der Partei, insbesondere die Funktionäre der Kommintern, alle maßgebenden Parteifunktionäre der KPdSU ..., alle Volkskommissare ..., alle ehemaligen Polit-Kommissare in der Roten Armee, ... die führenden Persönlichkeiten des Wirtschaftslebens, die sowjetrussischen 5 2 oberhalb des KZ-Geländes (vom Parkplatz aus gesehen)wenige Meter rechts ab von der Römerstraße (= Weg zum Schießplatz) in der Straße „Am Kräutergarten“. 3 Massenexekutionen von sowjetischen Kriegsgefangenen im Konzentrationslager Dachau 1941/42, Augsburg, 2001 4 5 Deren Hauptgebäude und noch einige Reste der Gewächshäuser befinden sich etwas Grundlage der Ausführungen ist die Magisterarbeit von Chr. Riedelsheimer, Bericht zu den Gebaut ca. 1937 im Rahmen der Erweiterung des KZs und des SS-Lagers Generaloberst Halder, Kriegstagebuch, Bd. II (1.7.1941 - 26.6.1941) Schießplatz Hebertshausen 3 Intelligenzler, alle Juden , alle Personen die als Aufwiegler oder fanatische Kommunisten festgestellt werden, ausfindig zu machen.“ Der Hintergrund der Aussonderungen war die Angst, die sowjetischen Kriegsgefangenen, die auf Reichsgebiet in Lagern gefangenen gehalten wurden, könnten die deutsche Bevölkerung mit kommunistischen Gedankengut infiltrieren. Im „Einsatzbefehl Nr.9“ wird deutlich, was nach der Aussonderung geschieht. Er besagt unter anderem, dass die Exekutionen der in Kriegsgefangenenlagern auf Reichsgebiet ausgesonderten Russen „unauffällig im nächsten Konzentrationslager“ durchgeführt werden sollen. 2.3 Die Massenerschießungen im KZ-Dachau 2.3.1 Erschießungen im Bunkerhof Die Massenexekutionen begannen im August / September 1941, nachdem die „Aussonderung“ unter anderem durch die Stapostelle Regensburg in den Wochen vorher angelaufen war. Die „Aussonderung“ basierte auf dem Prinzip der Denunziation, der immer wieder durch Folter „nachgeholfen“ wurde. „Ausgesondert“ und in das KZ-Dachau verbracht wurden russische Kriegsgefangene aus den Kriegsgefangenenlagern Hammelburg in der Rhön (höhere Offiziere und Mannschaften), Nürnberg-Langwasser, Memmingen, Moosburg und aus dem Wehrkreis Stuttgart. Von dem Offizierslager wurden 1100 Offiziere nach Dachau gebracht, von den Mannschaftslagern in Hammelburg und Nürnberg-Langwasser etwa 2000 Personen. Von den in den Gefangenenlagern „Ausgesonderten“ hat keiner überlebt, der nach Dachau gebracht wurde. Ihre Namen durften nach Anweisung durch die SS-Führung im KZ Dachau nicht in die Lagerliste aufgenommen werden, sondern nur die Nummern ihrer Erkennungsmarken notiert werden. So sollte ihre Identifizierung für immer unmöglich gemacht werden. Die unregelmäßigen Transporte nach Dachau wurden von Gestapo-Männern begleitet. „Die russischen Kriegsgefangenen“, so der Leiter eines Einsatzkommandos, Paul Ohlers, „waren während des Transports mit Metall-Fesseln, je 2 Mann zusammengeschlossen ... . die Transporte fanden meistens nachts im Winter 1941 / 42 statt und dauerten durchschnittlich 6 12-18 Stunden, die Wagen waren nicht geheizt. “ Die Gefangenen wurden mit (Güter-)Waggons der Reichsbahn und zum Teil mit LKWs transportiert. Die ersten Massenerschießungen fanden im „Bunkerhof“ statt, i.e. der Hof zwischen dem Wirtschaftsgebäude und dem Arrestgebäude (= „Bunker“). Um die Erschießungen geheim zu halten, wurden die im Wirtschaftsgebäude und sonst in der Nähe arbeitenden Häftlinge in die Baracken beordert. Die Toten wurden im Krematorium des KZs, teilweise auch in München im Krematorium verbrannt. 2.3.2 Erschießungen im SS-Schießplatz bei Hebertshausen Die SS sah die Geheimhaltung der Erschießungsaktionen innerhalb des KZ-Geländes nicht wirklich gewährleistet und verlegte die Exekutionen deshalb in den Übungsschießplatz bei Hebertshausen, der ca. eineinhalb Kilometer vom Konzentrationslager entfernt liegt. Die 7 erstenErschießungenfandendortam4.September1941statt. Beendetwurdendie 6 7 Zeitgleich wurde im KZ-Dachau ein Kriegsgefangenenlager eingerichtet. Es umfasste die Blöcke 17 bis 25 (die Angaben schwanken) und sollte als „Zwischenlager“ dienen, falls die Eidesstattliche Erklärung vom 15.8.1947 Schießplatz Hebertshausen 4 Erschießungen im Schießplatz im Mai / Juni 1942. (Das bedeutet aber nicht das Ende von Exekutionen. In der Nähe des Krematoriums fanden weitere statt.) Es wurden insgesamt ca. 4000 russische Kriegsgefangene erschossen, davon die Mehrzahl im SS-Schießplatz bei Hebertshausen. Der Ort der Erschießungen Der eigentliche Ort der Massenerschießungen war der Pistolenschießstand (siehe die Skizze in der Analge 1). Er war umgebeben von einem hohen Bretterzaun, um keine Beobachtungen von den umliegenden Feldern zu ermöglichen. An seinem östlichen Rand war ein Schuppen errichtet worden, der zur Aufbewahrung der Särge diente. Diese wurden zum Transport der Leichen in das Krematorium des Lagers benutzt und von dort wieder zurück gebracht. Die 8 anfänglicheinfachenSärgewurdenspätermitZinkblech ausgekleidet,umdasAuslaufenvon Blut zu verhindern. Der Ablauf der Erschießungen • Nachdem die SS die russischen Kriegsgefangenen übernommen hatte, wurden diese mit Lastwagen zum Schießplatz gefahren. • Auf den Wällen um den Pistolenschießstand standen Wachposten der SS. Andere schirmten den gesamten Schießstand ab. • Dort wurden die Gefangenen zur östliche Schussbahn gebracht. • Es wurde ihnen befohlen sich auszuziehen. • Sie mussten sich in Reihen zu fünf Mann aufstellen. • Ihre Personalien wurden überprüft. • (Auf Grund eines Befehls Himmlers wurden kräftige Gefangene ausgewählt, um in Steinbrüchen zu arbeiten.) • Ein Dolmetscher erklärte den Gefangenen, dass sie nun erschossen werden. (Diese Mitteilung führte bei den Gefangenen zu unterschiedlichen Reaktionen. Einige zeigten praktische gar keine, „stand(en) also wie gelähmt dort, andere stäubten sich, fingen an zu weinen und zu schreien .... daß sie Gegner des Bolschewismus seien, daß 9 sieMitgliederderrussischenKircheseien.“ DasssiekeinenErfolghatten,braucht nicht betont zu werden.) • Die Gefangenen wurden dann zur westlichen Schussbahn geführt und dort an Pfähle, die extra für diesen Zweck dort in den Boden eingelassen waren, gebunden und erschossen. (Anmerkungen: 1. Für die nachfolgenden Fünfergruppen von Gefangenen hieß das also, sie stehen auf von Blut getränktem und mit Haut- und Knochenteilen übersätem Boden. 2. Üblicherweise wird bei Exekutionen auf die Brust des Opfers gezielt; hier zielten die SS-Männer aber - zumindest bei einem Teil der Opfer - auf die Köpfe, was zu 10 Recht eher von Abschlachten als von Erschießen geredet werden.) Zahl der zum Erschießen bestimmten russischen Gefangenen zu groß war oder zu viele Transport auf einmal in Dachau ankamen. 8 hergestellt. einer förmlichen „Explosion“ der Köpfe führt . (So kann hier wohl mit Fug und Diese Särge, wie auch die Handschellen wurden im KZ-Dachau durch KZ-Häftlinge 9 ausführlicher kann sein Bericht in der Anlage 2 nachgelesen werden. Vernehmungsaussagen des Augenzeugen Josef Thora vor dem Landgericht Nürnberg 1950; 10 Ausgrabungen am Schießplatz in der Anlage 3 Siehe hierzu den Bericht aus der Süddeutschen Zeitung vom 06.06.2002 über die Schießplatz Hebertshausen 5 • Waren die Gefangenen noch nicht ganz tot, wurden sie mit Gnadenschüssen von Offizieren getötet. • Ein Lagerarzt war bei den Erschießungen anwesend um den Tod festzustellen. (Es wurde aber kein Totenschein für die Erschossenen ausgestellt, sondern nur eine Sammelmeldung an den Kommandeur gemacht.) • Danach luden SS-Leute die Erschossenen auf Wagen, fuhren sie aus der Schießflucht und warfen sie „auf eine Haufen“ im Hof des Pistolenschießstands. (Für die Gefangenen, die „noch nicht an der Reihe waren“, bedeutete dies, dass sie auf dem Weg zur Erschießung an den toten Kameraden vorbei mussten.) • Anschließend legten SS-Sanitäter die Leichen in die oben erwähnten Särge und luden diese auf LKW. • Die Leichen wurden entweder im KZ-eigenen Krematorium verbrannt oder bei Kapazitätsengpässen in Münchner Krematorien. • Je Exekution wurden 30 bis 40 Menschen getötet. • Die zusätzliche „Ausrüstung“ der beteiligten SS-Männer war: Fausthandschuhe, Handtücher, Arbeitsanzüge (alles wurden, weil Blut verschmiert, dann später in der Lagerwäscherei gewaschen). • Die Kleidung der Exekutierten wurde gereinigt und aufbewahrt bzw. weiter verendet als Häftlingsbekleidung. Teilnehmer an den Exekutionen seitens der SS: • Der Kommandant oder sein Stellvertreter, der Schutzhaftlagerführer oder der Adjudant des Kommandanten als Aufsicht über die Erschießungen. • Gestapo-Beamte bzw. Wehrmachtspersonal die bzw. das die Transporte begleitete. • ein Protokollführer • ein Dolmetscher (zum Teil Angehöriger der Dachauer SS); er hatte den Befehl mitzuteilen, sich in fünfer Reihen aufzustellen und sich auszuziehen. • Vertreter des Arbeitseinsatzes, der (nach Himmlers Befehl) kräftige Gefangene für die Arbeit im Steinbruch auswählte. 2.4 Ideologischer (gewollter) Nebeneffekt der Erschießungen Die Erschießungen bedeuteten - wie oben schon angeführt - ein ungeheures Blutbad. Durch die Kopfschüsse spritzte Blut und Hirnmasse meterweit umher und die Erschossenen verloren viel Blut. Der Hintergrund für diese blutrünstige Erschießungsmethode: • Die SS-Leute sollten „abgehärtet“ und an das Schlimmste gewöhnt werden. • Sie sollten Bereitschaft entwickeln, auch härteste Befehle widerspruchslos auszuführen. • Sie sollten zusammengeschweißt werden. • Sie sollten durch Komplizenschaft an das Regime gebunden werden und damit wurde eine „Gemeinschaft“ der Täter hergestellt werden. Fazit: Die Erschießungen waren eine Erziehung der SS-Leute zur Grausamkeit. (Siehe hierzu auch Himmlers Geheimrede vor SS-Führern über die Judenvernichtung vom 4.Oktober 1943: „Von euch werden die meisten wissen, was es heißt, wenn 100 Leichen beisammen liegen, wenn 500 da liegen oder wenn 1000 daliegen und dies durchgehalten zu haben und dabei - abgesehen von menschlichen Ausnahmeschwächen - anständig geblieben zu sein, hat uns hart gemacht und ist ein niemals genanntes und niemals zu nennendes Ruhmesblatt.“ Schießplatz Hebertshausen 6 2.5 Reale Reaktion der Beteiligten • Nach den Erschießungen waren etliche SS-Leute sehr bedrückt und psychisch stark belastet. • Um die Motivation der SS-Männer zu erhöhen, hat die SS-Führung „Belohnungen“ ausgesetzt: o Sonderrationen Schnaps und Zigaretten, o Brotzeit, o dienstfrei, o Orden (Kriegsverdienstkreuz zweiter Klasse mit Schwertern), o und für besonders engagierte SS-Leute: Erholungsurlaub in Italien. 2.6 Neuerer Forschungsstand über die Registrierung der russischen Kriegsgefangenen 2.6.1 Bisheriger Stand Nach der bislang herrschenden Meinung der historischen Forschung wurde vor allem 1941/42 ein großer Teil der sowjetischen Kriegsgefangenen aus ideologisch bedingter Gleichgültigkeit gegenüber ihrem Schicksal bzw. der dezidierten Vernichtungsabsicht nicht registriert. Das habe zur Folge gehabt, dass diese Gefangenen in einem rechtsfreien Raum lebten und man daher bei ihrem Tod keinerlei Rechenschaft schuldig gewesen sei, denn in formaler Hinsicht hätten sie überhaupt nicht existiert. Dementsprechend sei der Tod vieler Rotarmisten nicht vermerkt worden; sie seien einfach in Massengräbern verscharrt worden, so dass im Gegensatz zu den Verstorbenen anderer Nationen im Nachhinein ein Nachweis über ihren Verbleib und ihre Grablage nicht möglich sei. Infolgedessen ruhe auf den sowjetischen Kriegsgräberstätten in Deutschland eine unbekannte, auf jeden Fall immens hohe Anzahl von Toten. Für den Friedhof des Stalag 326 (VI K) Senne beispielsweise nennt der Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge die Zahl von 66 186 Toten, von ihnen mehr als 65 000 unbekannt. 2..6.2. Die Bestände der Wehrmachtauskunftstelle im Archiv des Verteidigungsministeriums der Russischen Föderation in Podolsk (ZAMO) und in der Deutschen Dienststelle Berlin Tatsächlich jedoch sind bis auf wenige Ausnahmen sämtliche sowjetischen Kriegsgefangenen, zumindest soweit sie ins Deutsche Reich gebracht wurden, mit allen ihren persönlichen und militärischen Daten (Orte des Arbeitseinsatzes, Krankheiten und Lazarettaufenthalte, Impfungen, Fluchten, Bestrafungen u. ä.) in den Lagern auf sog. Personalkarten registriert und in Form von Zugangslisten an die Wehrmachtauskunftstelle (WASt) in Berlin gemeldet worden. Im Todesfall gingen diese Personalkarten zusammen mit anderen Unterlagen (z. B. Erkennungsmarken, Sterbefallnachweise, Abgangslisten usw.) nach Berlin, so daß die WASt jederzeit einen Überblick über sämtliche verstorbenen Kriegsgefangenen besaß, auch über die an die SS ausgelieferten Personen, die in Dachau ermordet wurden.. Diese Unterlagen sowie weitere die Gefangenen betreffende Bestände wurden 1943 nach Meiningen ausgelagert und 1945 den sowjetischen Truppen übergeben; seither galten sie als verschollen. Es ist dem Historiker Dr. Reinhard Otto und Rolf Keller (Niedersächs. Landeszentrale für politische Bildung) gelungen, diese Karteiunterlagen aufzufinden; einige Fragmente liegen in der Deutschen Dienststelle in Berlin, der Nachfolgerin der WASt, der weitaus größte Teil aber im Archiv des Verteidigungsministeriums der Russischen Föderation in Podolsk (ZAMO); dieses wurde von den beiden Historikern bei mehreren Besuchen einer ersten Sichtung unterzogen. Dabei stellte sich das Folgende heraus: * Die Personalkarten der im Reich verstorbenen sowjetischen Soldaten (ca. 370.000) liegen offensichtlich vollständig in diesem Archiv, dazu weitere Karteiunterlagen betr. Schießplatz Hebertshausen 7 Lazarettaufenthalte, Listen über Transporte in die bzw. aus den Kriegsgefangenenlager(n) sowie von Verstorbenen. Hinzu kommt eine gesonderte Kartei von 80.000 Offizieren. Über die Personalkarten sind auch umfangreiche Überstellungen in die verschiedenen Konzentrationslager nachweisbar. Die Karteiunterlagen erlauben in jedem Fall einen genauen Nachweis über den Verbleib eines jeden Gefangenen. * Diese Unterlagen wurden nach dem Krieg aus ihrer ursprünglichen Ordnung gerissen und völlig willkürlich zu neuen, jeweils etwa 100 Karteikarten umfassenden Aktenbänden zusammengebunden. Eine Ordnung etwa nach Lagern oder nach dem Alphabet besteht nicht; die Offizierskartei ist nach dem russischen Alphabet neu geordnet worden. * Der Zugriff von russischer Seite ist über eine nach dem Krieg erstellte Kartothek ausschließlich personenbezogen möglich, so daß sich eine Suche etwa nach Verstorbenen, die auf einem bestimmten Friedhof liegen, undurchführbar ist. Eine Übersicht über den Verbleib von Verstorbenen läßt sich nur erstellen, wenn der gesamte Bestand systematisch erschlossen wird. Da auf russischer Seite - wie im übrigen auch auf der deutschen - keinerlei Kenntnis der Wehrmachtbürokratie vorhanden ist, konnten Anfragen von Angehörigen sowjetischer vermißter Soldaten - monatlich gehen etwa 7000 Anfragen in Podolsk ein - deswegen in den meisten Fällen bisher nur unzureichend beantwortet werden. Die geplante Erschließung der Bestände Nach jahrelangen Verhandlungen sind die russische und deutsche Regierung in diesem Jahr übereingekommen, die Unterlagen über die sowjetischen Kriegsgefangenen in Berlin und Podolsk systematisch zu erschließen, auf EDV-Anlagen zu speichern und Angehörigen und Historikern zugänglich zu machen. Dabei werden in einem Pilotprojekt zuerst die Daten der 80.000 Offiziere ausgewertet, weil hier der Bestand besser geordnet und leichter zugänglich ist. Von deutscher Seite ist das Kulturministerium federführend. Dr. Reinhard Otto und Rolf Keller werden von den Kultusministerien von Nordrhein-Westfalen und Niedersachsen für die wissenschaftliche Begleitung der Arbeit freigestellt. Damit werden in absehbarer Zeit die Namen und Schicksale der über 1.000 auf dem ehemaligen Schießplatz Hebertshausen ermordeten sowjetischen Offiziere bekannt sein. 2.7 Die Geschichte des SS-Schießplatzes nach dem Krieg Das über 8 ha. große Gelände wurde nach dem Krieg von den amerikanischen Truppen in Besitz genommen und weiter als Schießübungsplatz benutzt. In den fünfziger Jahren wurde das Gelände an den Freistaat Bayern abgegeben und vom Finanzministerium verwaltet. Dessen Absicht war es anscheinend, den Gedenkort und damit auch die Geschehnisse an diesem Ort in Vergessenheit geraten zu lassen. Denn man ließ im Laufe der Jahrzehnte den Platz dermaßen verwildern, daß er schließlich als "Wildbienenbiotop" unter Naturschutz gestellt werden konnte. Im ehemaligen Wachhaus der SS wurden von der Stadt Dachau obdachlose Männer einquartiert, die bis vor kurzem dort wohnten und die Schießbahnen als Auslauf für ihre Hunde betrachteten. 1964 wurde vor den Kugelfängen ein Gedenkstein des Künstlers Will Elfers aufgestellt, den die Lagergemeinschaft Dachau gestiftet hatte. Er wurde vom Finanzministerium nach kurzer Zeit von dort entfernt und am Eingangstor zum Schießplatz aufgestellt. Alle Hinweistafeln zum Gelände ließ man beseitigen und die Schießbunker verfallen. Bereits 1966 wandte sich die sowjetische Botschaft mit einem offiziellen Schreiben an das Auswärtige Amt und beklagte vergeblich die Verwahrlosung des ehemaligen Schießplatzes. Das Gedenken an das Geschehen wurde in der Zeit des Kalten Krieges vor allem von kleinen kommunistischen Gruppen wachgehalten. In den achtziger Jahren kamen dann viele Gruppen aus der Friedensbewegung dazu, die den "Friedensweg Dachau- Hebertshausen" bildeten. Schießplatz Hebertshausen 8 Aber erst 1997 gelang es einer Gruppe engagierter Bürger, diese Politik des Vergessens und Verdrängens von Seiten der staatlichen Stellen aufzuhalten. Das Finanzministerium reagierte schließlich auf den Druck und das Gelände wurde an das Kultusministerium übertragen, welches es in die Obhut der Landeszentrale für politische Bildungsarbeit gegeben hat. Als erste Maßnahme wurde der Schießbunker vor dem drohenden Einsturz bewahrt, indem die Betondecken mit einer aufwendigen Stahlkonstruktion abgestützt wurden. Der Wildwuchs von Bäumen und Sträuchern um den Kugelfang wurde zurückgeschnitten und vor allem wurde der 4 Tonnen schwere Gedenkstein wieder an seinen ursprünglichen Aufstellungsort zurückversetzt. Damit war ein deutliches Zeichen gesetzt, daß die staatliche Politik in Bezug auf den Gedenkort ehemaliger Schießplatz Hebertshausen sich verändert hat. Inzwischen sind sogar einige Hinweistafeln auf dem Gelände aufgestellt worden, die den Besucher in mehreren Sprachen informieren. Die Generalkonsulate von Rußland und der Ukraine in München haben den ehemaligen Schießplatz Hebertshausen inzwischen als Gedenkort für ihre gefallenen Soldaten angenommen und veranstalten die jährlichen Gedenkfeiern am 23.Februar zum Tag der Soldaten an diesem Platz. Aber es wird wohl noch einige Zeit dauern, bis der ehemalige Schießplatz Hebertshausen von der benachbarten Gemeinde dieses Namens in gleicher Weise in ihre Geschichte aufgenommen wird, wie es in Dachau nach vielen Mühen gelungen ist. 2.8 Mögliche Gestaltung eines Besuchs der Schießstätte mit einer Klasse Für diesen Besuch sollte etwa eine halbe Stunde eingeplant werden. 1. Vorinformationen über die Behandlung von russischen Kriegsgefangenen im 3. Reich (siehe Punkte 2.1 und 2.2) im Unterricht mit ersten Hinweisen auf das Geschehen in Dachau 2. Als Einstimmung (nicht nur des Besuchs der Schießstätte) eignet sich der Text von Helmut Heißenbüttel „Endlösung“ (siehe Anlage 4,I). Er sollte im Untrricht besprochen zunächst aber laut von Schülern vorgetragen werden. (Hinweis an diese, ihn eher wie ein Gedicht als einen Prosatext lesen.) Auch das Gedicht von Horst Bienek „Sagen Schweigen Sagen“ kann als einstieg verwendet werden, wenn man mit der Frage des Warum eines Gedenkstätten Besuches beginnen will. 3. Im Rahmen des Besuchs der KZ-Gedenkstätte knappe Information der Schüler im Bunkerhof (s.a. Hinweistafeln dort) über den Beginn der Erschießungen (siehe 2.3.1) 4. Fahrt zur Gedenkstätte „Schießplatz Herbertshausen“ Lage:Die Gedenkstätte Schießplatz liegt etwa 2,5 km von der KZ-Gedenkstätte entfernt. Sie erreichen sie, wenn Sie der Alten Römerstraße entlang den Mauern der KZ-Gedenkstätte folgen, bis sie in die Straße nach Hebertshausen/Freising mündet. Folgen Sie der Beschilderung und biegen Sie dann nach ca.100m links ab! Achtung: Schmale Zufahrt! Nur PKW-Parkplatz; keine Wendemöglichkeit für Busse! Diese bleiben besser auf der Hauptstraße stehen. 5. Weg zur Informationstafel. Kurze Information Über das Gelände und Hinweis auf den eigentlichen Ort der Erschießungen (siehe 2.3.2 Anfang) 6. Gang zum Pistolenschießstand Information über das Gelände (siehe Skizze Anhang 1) 7. Vorlesen des Augenzeugenberichts (siehe Anlage 2) (gegebenenfalls durch einen Schüler) und Ergänzung von Informationen durch den Lehrer (siehe 2.3.2: Ablauf der Erschießungen / Teilnehmer an den Exkursionen seitens der SS und Anlage 3 Grabungsergebnisse) 8. Als Abschluss kann eine Gedenkminute eingelegt werden, die mit dem Vortrag des Brecht Gedichts (siehe Anlage 4,IV) beendet wird. Schießplatz Hebertshausen 9 9. Nach dem Besuch bietet sich die Besprechung der Informationen der Punkte 2.4 und 2.5 im Unterricht an, da sie über das Thema Schießstätte hinaus Einblick in die Mentalität und das Menschenbild der SS gewähren. Ergänzender Hinweis: Für diesen Zusammenhang bietet sich einen Verknüpfung mit den Arbeitsblättern zum Museumsbesuch an: „Die SS und die Lagerordnung“ 10. Die Reaktion der Bevölkerung nach dem Zusammenbruch des Dritten Reiches in Bezug auf das grausame Geschehen kann an Hand des Gedichts von Reinhart Döhl „bewältigte vergangenheit“ thematisiert werden. G-R Penn/P.Abtmeier Schießplatz Hebertshausen 10 Anlagen Anlage 1 Schemazeichnung des Pistolenschießstands Kugelfang Pfähle zum Anbinden der Häftlinge Anlage 2 Bericht des Augenzeugen Josef Thora Über den Hergang der Morde in Dachau berichtet der Augenzeuge Josef Thora bei seiner Vernehmung vor dem Landgericht Nürnberg im Jahre 1950. Er hatte sich als Dolmetscher des Kriegsgefangenenlagers Moosburg freiwillig als Begleiter eines Transportes mit „Ausgesonderten“ gemeldet, um zu erfahren, was mit ihnen in Dachau geschah. Er schildert seine Erlebnisse so: „In eine der Schießfluchten (des Schießplatzes Hebertshausen) fuhren die LKW mit den russischen Kriegsgefangenen rückwärts hinein. Die Kriegsgefangenen mußten aus den LKWs herausspringen und sich in der Flucht in der Reihe von 5 Personen aufstellen. Darauf wurde die Anordnung gegeben, daß sich alle Kriegsgefangenen nackt ausziehen mußten. Auf den Wällen standen einige SS-Soldaten mit bereitgestelltem Maschinengewehr. Die russischen Kriegsgefangenen merkten in dem Zeitpunkt, wo sie sich entkleiden mußten, was mit ihnen geschehen sollte. Die Reaktion darauf war bei ihnen sehr verschieden. Eine Anzahl führte den Befehl schweigend aus und stand wie gelähmt dort, andere sträubten sich, fingen an zu weinen und zu schreien, riefen vor allem nach mir als dem Dolmetscher. Ich sollte den SS- Leuten verdeutschen, daß sie Gegner des Bolschewismus seien, daß sie Mitglieder der russischen Kirche seien. Zum Beweis dafür zeigten sie mir das auf ihrer Brust Erdwälle Sarglager Schießplatz Hebertshausen 11 hängende russische Kreuz. Da ich natürlich nichts ausrichten konnte, entfernte ich mich in eine andere Ecke des Schießplatzes. Nach kurzer Zeit begann die Exekution der Kriegsgefangenen. Eine Gruppe von 5 SS-Leuten faßte je einen Kriegsgefangenen bei der Hand und führte diesen im Laufschritt aus der einen Schießflucht in die andere hinein, um sie an die im vorderen Teil der Schießflucht befindlichen etwa 1 m hohen Holzpflöcke anzubinden. Hierfür waren offenbar eigene Vorrichtungen getroffen, denn das ging sehr schnell. Darauf entfernten sich die SS- Leute und es stellte sich in einer Entfernung von etwa 15 m eine Gruppe von meines Wissens 20 bewaffneten SS-Leuten auf. Auf ein Kommando feuerte jeder dieser SS-Leute einen Schuß ab. Ein großer Teil der 5 Gefangenen sank sofort, aber langsam zu Boden. Wenn noch einer stehenblieb, lief der Leiter des Kommandos nach vorne und gab dem betreffenden Gefangenen einen Genickschuß. Dann trat das Exekutionskommando beiseite und es fuhr eine weitere Gruppe von SS-Leuten zu den erschossenen Gefangenen, um diese auf einen Rollwagen zu verladen. Man fuhr dann die Leichen aus der Schießflucht heraus und warf sie auf einen Haufen.“ Anlage 3 Ergebnis von Ausgrabungen [Bei Ausgrabungen] Zutage gefördert wurden „165 bis zu handtellergroße Reste von menschlichen Schädeln und Kieferfragmente mit Zähnen“ [Der Grabungsleiter] David vermutet, dass sich die dreifache Anzahl von menschlichen Schädelteilen noch im Boden befindet. Die Funde schockierten und überraschten die Archäologen gleichzeitig. Denn bei „normalen“ Exekutionen wird üblicherweise auf die Brust gezielt. Doch auch der Kopf wäre mit den damals verwendeten Hochgeschwindigkeitsgeschossen nur durchschlagen worden, nicht aber zersplittert. Eine Untersuchung in der Anthropologischen Staatssammlung in München durch Olav Röhrer-Ertl zeigte dann, „dass zumindest bei einem Teil der Erschießungen mit nochmals gesteigerter Grausamkeit vorgegangen wurde“. David schreibt: „Die Schädelreste stammen demnach ausschließlich von Exekutionen, bei denen von mehreren Schützen gleichzeitig gezielt auf den Kopf ... der Opfer geschossen wurde. Durch die infolge des gleichzeitigen Eintritts mehrerer Projektile im Gehirn sich überlagernden Druckwellen erfolgte ein regelrechtes Zerplatzen des Schädels. Schädelteile mit anhaftendem Gewebe wurden dabei vom Kopf abgerissen und fortgeschleudert.“ Diese Brutalität gleiche einer „Enthauptung“. Die auf diese Weise Getöteten verloren durch die Öffnung der Halsarterien in kürzester Zeit jeweils mehrere Liter Blut. Dies erklärt auch, warum beteiligten SS-Männern besondere Arbeitsanzüge, Schürzen und Handschuhe zur Verfügung standen. Einige 100 Angehörige der Roten Armee wurden nach David bei diesen „regelrechten Blutbädern“ hingerichtet. Süddeutsche Zeitung, 06.07.02 Schießplatz Hebertshausen 12 Anlage 4 Poetische Texte / Gedichte I HELMUT HEISSENBÜTTEL Endlösung die haben sich das einfach mal so ausgedacht wer hat sich das einfach mal so ausgedacht das ist denen einfach mal eingefallen wem ist das einfach mal eingefallen irgendeinem von denen ist das einfach mal eingefallen irgendeiner von denen hat sich das einfach mal ausgedacht das hat sich einfach irgendeiner von denen einfach mal ausgedacht oder vielleicht haben mehrere von denen sich das zugleich ausgedacht vielleicht ist das mehreren von denen zusammen eingefallen und wie haben die das dann gemacht was ihnen da eingefallen ist wenn man überhaupt was machen will muß man für was sein und nicht bloß was was man sich so ausdenkt sondern schon was wofür man auch sein kann oder wenigstens was wofür viele Lust haben zu sein oder wenigstens was wofür man sich vorstellt daß viele Lust haben dafür zu sein und das haben die sich einfach mal so ausgedacht das haben die sich ausgedacht und da sind sie drauf gekommen als sie was anfangen wollten zu machen aber auf was sie dann gekommen sind das war nicht was wofür man sein kann sondern wogegen man sein kann oder noch besser was wozu man die meisten rumkriegen kann dagegen zu sein denn wenn man die meisten rumkriegen kann gegen was zu sein braucht man nicht mehr so genau mit dem zu sein wofür man sein kann und daß man damit nicht mehr so genau sein braucht hat seine Vorteile denn wenn die meisten sich nur austoben können ist es ihnen meistens ganz egal wofür sie sind und da sind die drauf gekommen als sie angefangen hatten sich einfach sowas auszudenken da sind die draufgekommen daß das wogegen man ist auch was sein muß was man sehn anfassen beschimpfen erniedrigen anspucken einsperren niederschlagen vernichten kann denn was man nicht sehn anfassen beschimpfen erniedrigen anspucken einsperren niederschlagen vernichten kann kann man nur sagen und was man nur sagen kann das kann sich verändern und man weiß nie genau wohin sich das noch wenden wird was man auch dagegen sagen kann und da sind die draufgekommen und haben das getan da sind die draufgekommen und haben das getan und als sie das getan hatten da haben sie versucht die meisten rumzukriegen und als sie die meisten rumgekriegt hatten mitzumachen da kamen sie drauf daß das wogegen man ist solange es noch da ist auch noch veränderbar bleibt und daß erst das was weg ist unveränderbar wird und so zwangen sie die die sie rumgekriegt hatten mitzumachen das wogegen zu sein sie rumgekriegt worden waren zu vernichten es anzusehen wie Malariafliegen oder Franzosenkraut oder Kartoffelkäfer die man ausrotten muß und als sie das geschafft hatten nannten sie die die sie dazu rumgekriegt hatten das zu tun Mörder und machten die selber zu Malariafliegen und Franzosenkraut und Kartoffelkäfern und hielten sie bei der Stange bei der sie die halten wollten ohne für oder gegen was zu sein sondern einfach nur so um sie bei der Stange zu halten auf alle Zeit Schießplatz Hebertshausen 13 und das ist denen einfach mal so eingefallen als sie drauf kamen daß man sowas alles machen kann das ist denen einfach mal so eingefallen als sie was machen wollten und da sind sie drauf gekommen daß man welche einfach nur dazu rumkriegen muß erst für und dann gegen was zu sein und dann immer weiter his sie nicht mehr raus können und nun im Kreis rennen bis in alle Ewigkeit das heißt his keiner mehr übrig ist denn das wird wohl nicht bis in alle Ewigkeit dauern aber wozu haben die sich das denn ausgedacht oder haben sie sich gar nichts dabei gedacht außer daß sie was tun wollten weil es ihnen vielleicht zu langweilig war so wie es war ehe ihnen das eingefallen ist und sie drauf gekommen sind ja natürlich haben sies nur so weit getrieben damit sie sich schließlich selber reinstürzen und sich und alles zuende bringen können denn solche sind immer solche dies zuende bringen wollen aber sie wollen nicht allein weg sondern alle mit also solche sind das denen sowas einfach so einfällt II REINHARD DÖHL bewältigte vergangenheit wahrscheinliche rede man hatte mit hand anzulegen man hatte zuzusehen man hatte zu gehorchen man hatte zu schweigen man hatte wirklich nichts damit zu tun man konnte nichts dagegen machen man war befehlsempfänger man hatte frau und kind man mußte rücksicht nehmen man hätte kopf und kragen riskiert man wäre in teufels küche gekommen man hätte dem tod ins auge gesehen man wäre über die klinge gesprungen mögliche rede man hätte etwas dagegen tun können man hätte den befehl verweigern können man hätte auf frau und kind pfeifen können man hätte alle rücksichten fallen lassen können man hätte nicht mit hand anlegen dürfen man hätte nicht zusehen dürfen man hätte nicht schweigen dürfen man hätte nicht gehorchen dürfen Schießplatz Hebertshausen 14 man hätte nichts damit zu tun haben müssen man wäre in teufels küche gekommen man hätte kopf und kragen riskiert man hätte dem tod ins auge gesehen man wäre über die klinge gesprungen üble nachrede man war in teufels küche man hat um kopf und kragen gebracht man hat dem tod ins auge gesehen man hat über die klinge springen lassen man hat mit hand angelegt man hat zugesehen man hat geschwiegen man hat gehorcht man hat nichts dagegen getan man war gehaltsempfänger man hat nicht an frauen und kinder gedacht man hat keine rücksicht genommen man hat mitgemacht III HORST BIENEK Sagen Schweigen Sagen Wenn wir alles gesagt haben werden wird immer noch etwas zu sagen sein wenn noch etwas zu sagen ist werden wir nicht aufhören dürfen zu sagen was zu sagen ist wenn wir anfangen werden zu schweigen werden andere über uns sagen was zu sagen ist so wird nicht aufhören das Sagen und das Sagen über das Sagen Ohne das Sagen gibt es nichts wenn ich nicht das was geschehen ist sage erzähle oder beschreibe ist das Geschehen überhaupt nicht geschehen das Sagen wird fortgesetzt Stück für Stück besser: Bruchstück für Bruchstück Schießplatz Hebertshausen 15 Niemals wird es das Ganze sein niemals also wird alles gesagt sein IV BERTOLT BRECHT Epilog Ihr aber lernet, wie man sieht statt stiert Und handelt, statt zu reden noch und noch. So was hätt einmal fast die Welt regiert! Die Völker wurden seiner Herr, jedoch Daß keiner uns zu früh da triumphiert Der Schoß ist fruchtbar noch, aus dem das kroch. Aus: Der Tod ist ein Meister aus Deutschland Deportation und Vernichtung in poetischen Zeugnissen Herausgegeben von Bernd Jentzsch Kindler Verlag München, 1979 The Barons of Mandl remained until the sale to the counts of Spreti in 1834 in possession of interpreting Hofener castle. The counts of Spreti had Hofmark (since 1820 patrimonial) Unterweilenbach held already since 1771, who had also heard of about 1679 to 1738 the Mandl family. Therefore, the subsidiary church Nativity of Mary in Unterweilenbach harbors the epitaphs of Count Hieronymus von Spreti (1695-1772) and his wife Maria Caroline Charlotte of Spreti, born of Ingenheim (1704-1749), former favorite of the Elector and Emperor Karl Albrecht of Bavaria , with whom she also had a son who founded the noble family of Count von Holnstein aus Bayern. [2] in the course of administrative reform in Bavaria originated with the municipality edict of 1818 the church today, to 1848 the town was however a Patrimonialgemeinde. In 1971 the municipality was incorporated Ampermoching to Hebertshausen. In early November 2011, (v 5-1. Century. Chr.) In the course of the development work for the development area "Ampermoching East IV" remains of a Celtic settlement from the Latènezeit discovered. Primarily, it is post footprints of at least three wooden houses and some typical contemporary pottery shards. The discovered building footprints, according to the reference can be in the 3rd or 2nd century BC. Chr. Dated. [3] [4] shooting plaques for 4 of the many victims from the beginning of September 1941 and in the following year were on the former SS shooting range Hebertshausen (in the municipality Dachau) as a result of the Commissioner command approximately 4,000 Soviet prisoners of war [5] - mainly officers, communist functionaries and Jews - murdered by the SS by extermination Pelotone. Today a memorial reminds of this crime.