Showing posts with label Siegessäule. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Siegessäule. Show all posts

Sites in and around Tiergarten

  The Nazi party took control of the Tiergarten in 1933, causing a dramatic change of idealism. This change was not just social; in fact, Hitler had planned the complete innovation of the city of Berlin. "Welthauptstadt Germania", or World Capital Germania, was the idea the Nazis wanted to bring to fruition. The Tiergarten was to be a central location in the new city. The Charlottenburger Chaussee, today known as the Straße des 17. Juni, was to be the central line between the east and west, and was widened from 27 to 53 meters, the same width as the current street. The Berlin victory column was also moved to the Grosser Stern, where it remains to this day.  The Second World War caused significant damage to the Tiergarten and its various cultural elements. Many statues were destroyed or damaged; some of the statues still need minor repair. After the war, the Tiergarten underwent a sudden, violent change. Much of the wooded area was felled and turned to firewood due to the shortage of coal, and the now empty fields were turned into temporary farmland by order of the British occupational troops in the region; there were around 2,550 plots of land available for growing potatoes and vegetables. However, these two factors caused the once great forest to nearly disappear; only 700 trees survived out of over 200,000 that once lined the parkway, the bodies of water turned silty, every bridge was destroyed, the monuments lie on their sides, badly damaged. Plans to fill the waterways with debris from the war were also suggested, but were prevented by the head of the Berlin Central Office of Environmental Planning, Reinhold Lingner.  In 1945, almost directly after the fall of Berlin, the Soviets erected a monument for the fallen soldiers of the Red Army on the north side of the current Straße des 17. Juni. Situated less than a mile away from the Reichstag, It was built in such short notice that it sat in West Berlin, which belonged to the British, Americans and French. When the wall went up around East Berlin, the monument became inaccessible to the people for whom it was built.  According to testimony reported in the 1995 documentary film On the Desperate Edge of Now, statues of historical military figures from the park were buried by Berlin citizens in the grounds of the nearby Bellevue Palace in order to prevent their destruction by the occupying American forces. They were not recovered until 1993
 Tiergarten after the war
Soviet Memorial in Tiergarten

The Soviet War Memorial (Tiergarten) is one of several war memorials in Berlin, capital city of Germany, erected by the Soviet Union to commemorate its war dead, particularly the 80,000 soldiers of the Soviet Armed Forces who died during the Battle of Berlin in April and May 1945.  The memorial is located in the Großer Tiergarten, a large public park to the west of the city centre, on the north side of the east-west Straße des 17. Juni (17 June Street) in the Tiergarten locality.  This memorial was erected in 1945, within a few months of the capture of the city. 
Re-imagined then and now

1975, guarded by Red Army troops, and today

Soviet War Memorial Tiergarten was erected on Remembrance Day, 1945, in the hope the British would simply vacate their area and let the Soviets move their zone further into here. Ironically, it was situated at the exact point where Speer had planned his north-south/east-west axis for his planned capital. The material for the monument too came from Hitler's Chancellery, and behind lie today the bodies of 2 200 soldiers. It was discovered in 1967 that below the Nazis had constructed three motorway tunnels up to 220 metres in length.
The war memorial itself was built to honour Soviet soldiers who fell in the battles against the German army in the Second World War. It was located at the 17 June Street very close to the German parliament - the Reichstag - in what would soon become West-Germany which meant that it was beyond everyday reach for the Soviet Army. To be able to visit the memorial it was agreed that Red Army troops had free passage to the memorial on certain days of remembrance. Around the time in the early 1960ies when the Berlin Wall was erected the presence of Soviet troops on the streets of Berlin awoke much anger among the West-Berliners and Soviet military vehicles was on many occasions bombarded with stones from angry protesters. In fact, in the 1970s there was the bizarre situation where a Soviet guard of honour had had a pot-shot taken at him from a passing motorist, resulting in British soldiers guarding Soviet guards guarding this monument.
The memorial is constructed as an arch with a bronze soldier on top of it. The design actually resembles the Brandenburger Gate which is located only 100 metres away.
The inscription on the side of the memorial reads:

The area in 1945 and brief footage of the site today. Early photographs show the memorial standing in a wilderness of ruins, the Tiergarten having been destroyed by incendiary bombs and then stripped of timber for firewood during the last months of the war. Today, it is surrounded by the extensive woodlands of the reconstituted Tiergarten. Although the memorial stood in the British sector of Berlin, its construction was supported by all the Allied powers. Throughout the Cold War, Soviet honor guards from the Soviet sector (East Berlin) were sent to stand watch at the memorial. Design Aerial view of the memorial with honor guards, West Berlin, 1983  Built in a style similar to other Soviet World War II monuments once found all over the former Eastern bloc, the memorial takes the form of a curved stoa topped by a large statue of a Soviet soldier. It is set in landscaped gardens and flanked by two Red Army ML-20 152mm gun-howitzer artillery pieces and two T-34 tanks. Behind the memorial is an outdoor museum showing photographs of the memorial's construction and giving a guide to other memorials in the Berlin area. A large Cyrillic inscription is written underneath the soldier statue, which is translated as "Eternal glory to heroes who fell in battle with the German fascist invaders for the freedom and independence of the Soviet Union". The Soviets built the statue with the soldier's arm in a position to symbolize the Red Army's putting down of the Nazi German state.  The memorial was designed by architect Mikhail Gorvits with the monument of the Soviet soldier by sculptors Vladimir Tsigal and Lev Kerbel.  A legend that the memorial was built from stonework taken from the destroyed Reich Chancellery is untrue, but remains popular and persists. The memorial today  The memorial is still a site of active commemoration. On the anniversary of VE Day, (8 May), wreath-laying ceremonies are held at the memorial. It is a site of pilgrimage for war veterans from the countries of the former Soviet Union. It is also a popular tourist attraction, since it is much closer to the centre of the city than the larger Soviet war memorial at Treptower Park. The memorial is maintained by the City of Berlin. Front of the Soviet War Memorial in Tiergarten  There is a sign next to the monument explaining in English, German and Russian that this is the burial site of some 2,000 fallen Soviet soldiers. It is located in the heart of Berlin along one of the major roads with a clear sight of the Reichstag and the Brandenburg gate, both symbols of the city. Some of the marble used to build it came from the destroyed government buildings nearby, and it is built on a place which Adolf Hitler meant to devote to Welthauptstadt Germania. Besides the main inscription, the columns state names of only some dead Heroes of the Soviet Union buried here. It has earned some unflattering nicknames, such as the "Tomb of the Unknown Rapist", from the local population with references to crimes committed by Soviet occupation troops. The monument is built in the British sector of (western) Berlin; after the Berlin wall was erected in 1961, the monument was seen as a sign of communist provocation on West Berlin soil and had to be protected from West Berliners by British soldiers. In 1970 a neo-Nazi, Ekkehard Weil, shot and severely wounded one of the Soviet honour guards at the monument. In 2010, the monument was vandalized just before Victory in Europe Day celebrations with red graffiti that read "thieves, murderers, rapists", sparking a protest from the Russian embassy in Berlin that accused German authorities of not taking sufficient measures to protect the monument. The German tabloid Bild launched a Bundestag-petition to remove the Soviet tanks from the memorial site as a response to the Crimean crisis in 2014, calling them a "martial war symbol".
With the Reichstag in the background. The last two photos are looking towards the Brandenburg Gate today from the memorial, and the same view ten years after the war's end.
Students standing directly in front during our 2013 trip 
The same spot re-imagined through Photoshop 

Memorial to Homosexual Victims in Tiergarten
Paragraph 175 made homosexuality illegal in 1871; it was broadened under Nazism to allow deportation of gay men to concentration camps. 
Homosexuals, were manifestly of no racial value; between 1934 and 1938 the number prosecuted annually under Paragraph 175 of the Reich Criminal Code rose by a factor of ten to 8,000. Since criminality was viewed as hereditary, those who broke the law were also targeted as asocial. The November 1933 Law against Dangerous Habitual Criminals authorized the castration of sexual offenders. 
Ferguson (265) The War of the World
It was only completely revoked in 1994 after German reunification. In 2002, the German government formally pardoned all homosexuals convicted by the Nazis and in 2003 approved the plan for the Berlin memorial. At the memorial's unveiling in May 2009, the International Gay and Lesbian Association (ILGA) issued a statement pointing out the importance of the monument's location: "It is in the centre of the city from where decades ago the policies of extermination of homosexual people along with such groups as Jews, gypsies, Jehovah's witnesses and political dissidents, was conceived and the deadly orders were given." This central placement was an effort to end the traditional peripheralisation of the stories of gay victims of Nazi atrocities, who continued to be persecuted after the war, and who are largely left out of traditional historical accounts of the Holocaust. As Berlin mayor Klaus Wowerit, who happens to be the city's first openly gay mayor, pointed out when the memorial was first opened, the placement of this monument in the centre of Berlin was meant to form a contrast with the Nazis, who were "a society that did not abolish unjust verdicts, but partially continued to implement them; a society which did not acknowledge a group of people as victims, only because they chose another way of life."
In fact, my students and I were shocked to find NO plaque or information at all to explain what this ugly monument actually is supposed to be for; one questioned why the government had created an anti-gay monument.

Right across is the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe (Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas)
Aerial photo of the Memorial site
The Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe in Berlin was designed by architect Peter Eisenman and engineers Buro Happold and consists of a 19,000 square metre site covered with 2,711 stelae arranged in a grid pattern on a sloping field. The stelae are 7.8' long, 3' 1.5" wide and vary in height from 0.2m to 4.8m (8" to 15'9") and were designed to produce an uneasy, confusing atmosphere; a supposedly ordered system that has lost touch with human reason. A 2005 copy of the Foundation for the Memorial's official English tourist pamphlet, however, states that the design represents a radical approach to the traditional concept of a memorial, partly because Eisenman did not use any symbolism. An attached underground "Place of Information" holds the names of all known Jewish Holocaust victims, obtained from the Israeli museum Yad Vashem.
Easyjet was forced to apologise after fashion photographs shot at the Holocaust Memorial in Berlin were published in its in-flight magazine. In the pictures, models pose in designer clothes among the concrete blocks of the "Field of Stelae". The budget airline said it was unaware of the images until they appeared in the magazine, which is published by a company called INK whose relationship with Easyjet was under review.
  Men cruising men. At the Berlin Holocaust Memorial. Note the man bottom left who stripped off

Tiergartenstraße 4
The headquarters of the Gemeinnützige Stiftung für Heil- und Anstaltspflege and the site today, taken over by a graffiti- covered husk of rusted metal intended to symbolise something intentionally left vague and meaningless.
Shortly after the start of the war, Hitler signed an order, backdated to 1 September 1939, authorising the systematic killing of mentally and physically handicapped adults and children. Authorisation to direct the program was given on Hitler’s personal stationary to Philipp Bouhler, head of the Führer’s Chancellery, and Dr. Karl Brandt, Hitler’s personal physician. The code-name of this secret program, “Aktion T-4,” derived from the address of the building here on Tiergartenstrasse 4, from which the program was directed. Killings of deformed children had already started before the war. The killings, now extended to adults as well, were conducted by lethal injection or carbon monoxide gassing at several sites disguised as hospitals or nursing homes. These killings marked a further escalation of the eugenic practices that had begun with the Sterilisation Law in 1933.
As early as 1935, [Hitler] told a senior Nazi medic that 'if war should break out, he would take up the euthanasia question and implement it'. In fact, he did not even wait for the war. In July 1939 he initiated what became known as the Aktion T-4. It was, he said, 'right that the worthless lives of seriously ill mental patients should be got rid of. Here, as with the persecution of the Jews and Gypsies, the regime encountered little popular resistance and some active support. In a poll of 200 parents of mentally retarded children conducted in Saxony, 73 per cent had answered 'yes' to the question: 'Would you agree to the painless curtailment of the life of your child if experts had established that it was suffering from incurable idiocy?' Some parents actually petitioned Hitler to allow their abnormal children to be killed. Apart from the Catholic Bishop Clemens von Galen, whose sermons against the euthanasia programme in July and August 1941 led to a temporary halt in the killings, only a handful of other individuals openly challenged 'the principle that you can kill "unproductive" human beings'. Others who objected turn out, on closer inspection, merely to have disliked the procedures involved. Some wished for formal legality - a proper decree and public 'sentencing'; others (especially those living near the asylums) simply wanted the killing to be carried out less obtrusively.                

Despite the secrecy of the programme, it was impossible to conceal killing on such a scale, as relatives demanded explanations for the sudden and unexpected deaths of their loved ones. Increasing numbers of complaints and demands for criminal investigations made it necessary to inform the Reich Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of the Interior of Hitler’s secret order which led to Hitler’s decision to end the program on 24 August 1941 after more than 70,000 patients had been killed. Killings especially of handicapped children continued in secret, however, until the end of the war. Under the code-name “Aktion 14 f 13” the killing program was also extended to Jewish inmates of concentration camps in Germany. Many of the T-4 personnel were transferred to occupied Poland where they supplied the technical expertise for the systematic killing by gas of approximately three million Jews in the extermination camps set up for the “Final Solution of the Jewish Question.

 Fascist-era embassies along Tiergartenstraße
The Spanish embassy which was constructed through Speer's Office of the Inspector-General for buildings and which shows a similar style favoured by the Nazis. It reopened in 2003 after war damage was repaired and fascist symbols removed.
The embassies of Italy and Japan respectively. The Italian was the first to have been completed in the Tiergarten in 1938. It was rebuilt in the 1990s but kept its fascist symbols. According to David Irving in his book Göring: A Biography, this was the site of one of Goering's greatest humiliations,
when he saw the fabulous decoration that he coveted, the diamond-studded Collar of the Annunziata, bestowed at the Italian embassy upon his smirking rival [Ribbentrop]. He took it as a deliberate slight and raised hell at every level up to the king of Italy, being mollified only by the award, twelve months later, of the identical Collar in consolation.
The Japanese embassy on the right too maintains its symbols of fascist ideology a reminder of the man-made tsunami it had launched upon humanity beginning in 1931 which required two atomic bombs and countless allied lives and suffering to put an end to. On November 24, 1937 Hitler attended a reception here, given by the Japanese Ambassador Mushakoji in Berlin on the anniversary of the Anti-Comintern Pact.
The former Embassy of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia at Rauchstraße in 1938 and today, where it serves as the offices of the German Council on Foreign Relations ( Deutsche Gesellschaft für Auswärtige Politik, DGAP). The building was completed in 1938/39 by Werner March, the architect of Berlin’s Olympic Stadium, as the diplomatic mission for the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The property at Rauchstraße 17 was owned by the Mendelssohn-Bartholdy family until 1938. The family was forced to sell the property to the German Reich for 170,000 reichsmarks shortly before they emigrated. The property at Rauchstraße 18 was handed over to the German Reich in accordance with a 1940 expropriation resolution. Until the occupation of Yugoslavia in 1941, Ivo Andric, who would later win the Nobel Prize for Literature, was stationed in the new building as Yugoslav ambassador. Afterwards, the building was used by German Reich and party officials. After Germany’s surrender in 1945, the building was given back to the People’s Republic of Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav military mission resided in the building until 1953, when it moved to Grunewald.  Beginning in 1953, the building housed the Supreme Restitution Court of the Allied Forces in Berlin. On June 29, 1964, the court accepted the Mendelssohn-Bartholdy family’s reimbursement claim and ordered the People’s Republic of Yugoslavia to cede a co-ownership share in the building.

Berlin Victory Column (Siegessäule)

Designed by Heinrich Strack after 1864 to commemorate the Prussian victory in the Danish-Prussian war, by the time it was inaugurated on 2 September 1873 Prussia had also defeated Austria in the Austro-Prussian War and France in the Franco-Prussian War (1870/1871), giving the statue a new purpose. In 1939 the Nazis relocated the pillar to its present location at the Großer Stern (Great Star), a large intersection on the visual city axis that leads from the former Berliner Stadtschloss (Berlin City Palace) through the Brandenburg Gate to the western parts of Berlin. At the same time, the pillar was augmented by another 7.5 meters, giving it its present height of 66.89 meters. The monument survived World War II without much damage. The relocation of the monument probably saved it from destruction, as its old site in front of the Reichstag was completely destroyed in the war.
[B]y by 28 April, troops of the 3rd Shock Army, advancing from the northern districts, were in sight of the Siegessaule column in the Tiergarten. Red Army soldiers nicknamed it the `tall woman' because of the statue of winged victory on the top. The German defenders were now reduced to a strip less than five kilometres in width and fifteen in length. It ran from Alexanderplatz in the east to Charlottenburg and the Reichssportsfeld in the west, from where Artur Axmann's Hitler Youth detachments desperately defended the bridges over the Havel. Weidling's artillery commander, Colonel Wohlermann, gazed around in horror from the gun platform at the top of the vast concrete Zoo flak tower. `One had a panoramic view of the burning, smouldering and smoking great city, a scene which again and again shook one to the core.' Yet General Krebs still pandered to Hitler's belief that Wenck's army was about to arrive from the south-west.
Beevor (340) 

Before the war with the Eiserner Hindenburg in front and after. The monument fell within the French section of Berlin, given them when the British realised they were growing bankrupt from the war and required assistance.
The French perpetrated a few acts of childish spite: they mutilated a few inscriptions on the Siegessäule – or Victory Column – in the Tiergarten, which commemorated German triumph in the Franco-German War, and festooned it with French tricolours. In Schwanenwerder they found a fragment of the Tuileries Palace which had been burned down by the Paris Communards in 1871, and removed a high-minded panel that talked of the fate of nations. The Germans themselves did not waste much time on the French – they realised they were second-division conquerors.

Wehrmacht HQ (Bendler Block)
The Bendlerblock is a building complex in the Tiergarten district of Berlin, Germany, located on Stauffenbergstraße (formerly named Bendlerstraße). Erected in 1914 as the headquarters of several Imperial German Navy (Kaiserliche Marine) offices, it served the Ministry of the Reichswehr after World War I. Significantly enlarged under Nazi rule, it was used by several departments of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW) from 1938, especially the Oberkommando des Heeres and the Abwehr intelligence agency.  The building is notable as the headquarters of a resistance group of Wehrmacht officers who carried out the 20 July plot against Adolf Hitler in 1944. As the leaders of the conspiracy were summarily shot in the courtyard, the Bendlerblock also includes the Memorial to the German Resistance. Since 1993, the building complex has served as a secondary seat of the German Federal Ministry of Defence.
video video
Tour of the Bendler Block (left) and trailer for the Tom Cruise ego-project Valkyrie for which the bendlerblock provided the controversial location. The Ministry of Defence as proprietor tends to restrict access to the Bendlerblock, due to its historical significance and lingering sensitivities about Germany's role in World War II. Filming permission was first granted in 2003 to a TV studio for the filming of Stauffenberg, starring Sebastian Koch. Though awarded with the Deutscher Fernsehpreis, the film was also criticised for factual inaccuracies, e.g. by Stauffenberg's son Berthold.  The Ministry hesitated to grant permission for filming scenes of the Tom Cruise-starred movie Valkyrie about the July 20 Plot, especially a re-enactment of the execution on the original location. However, permission was eventually granted, and filming took place. (The movie was primarily photographed in and around Berlin, with some African and other scenes filmed in California.) Director Bryan Singer led the film crew in a minute of silence before filming began, in honour of those who were killed on the site in 1944.

The building in 1942 and now.  The main building on the Landwehr Canal was erected between 1911 and 1914 in a Neoclassical style as the seat of the Imperial Naval Office, until 1916 led by Grand admiral Alfred von Tirpitz. It was also the headquarters of the Imperial Admiralty Staff and the Imperial Navy Cabinet directly subordinate to Emperor Wilhelm II. After World War I, the German Weimar government had to face the regulations of the 1919 Versailles treaty, whereafter the remaining Reichswehr and Reichsmarine forces had to be greatly reduced and from that time on used the complex jointly. It also served as the seat of the first Reichswehr Minister Gustav Noske and supreme army commander Walther Reinhardt.  In Minister Noske's office, Truppenamt chief Major general Hans von Seeckt openly rejected an intervention of Reichswehr troops against paramilitary Freikorps forces during the 1920 Kapp Putsch ("Reichswehr do not fire on Reichswehr"). The German cabinet fled from Berlin. Noske was later forced to resign and succeeded by Otto Gessler. Nazi rule  On 3 February 1933, four days after his appointment by Reich President Paul von Hindenburg, Chancellor Adolf Hitler sought the support by Reichswehr commander-in-chief General Kurt von Hammerstein-Equord, unveiling his political ideology in an extended declamation. Despite the support by new Reichswehr Minister Werner von Blomberg, Hitler's appearance resulted in a grave crisis with the army command and Hammerstein-Equord's resignation in December. He was succeeded by Lieutenant general Werner von Fritsch.  From the mid-1930s onwards, large annexes were erected along Bendlerstraße according to plans designed by Wilhelm Kreis. From 1938 the enlarged "Bendlerblock" again was used by the Seekriegsleitung (Maritime Warfare Command) of the Oberkommando der Marine and the OKW Amt Abwehr. The main building served the General Army Office of the Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) under General Friedrich Fromm, succeeded by General Friedrich Olbricht in 1940, and still as seat of the commander-in-chief of the German Army (Heer)—since the Blomberg–Fritsch Affair in 1938 Colonel-general Walther von Brauchitsch, from 1941 Hitler himself.  Already in 1938, the head of the Abwehr intelligence agency under Admiral Wilhelm Canaris and Lieutenant colonel Hans Oster evolved plans for a coup d'état in the course of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia. These plans were upset by the Munich Agreement, whereby the major European powers reconciled by permitting the annexation of the "Sudetenland".

Site of Hitler's speech of February 3, 1933, on "Lebensraum in the east," the Bendler Block is best remembered as the centre of the attempt to overthrow the National Socialist regime on July 20, 1944.  
In the early 1940s, the OKH Army Office under the leadership of General Olbricht became the focus of military resistance to the Nazi regime. In October 1943, Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg was transferred to the General Army Office as chief-of-staff. It was here that he and Major general Henning von Tresckow secretly modified the Wehrmacht "Operation Valkyrie" plan for the suppression of a possible revolt into a scheme for a coup attempt upon an assassination on Hitler.  Stauffenberg's position gave him direct access to situation briefings in Hitler's Wolf's Lair headquarters in East Prussia. On July 20, 1944, he set the fuse of a bomb there and immediately returned to Berlin.  The bomb went off, but Hitler survived. As the day progressed and the news spread, the conspirators were unable to take control of Germany. The coup instantly collapsed, and Hitler dispatched various forces to round up the plotters and the plot organisers. Stauffenberg, Olbricht, Albrecht Mertz von Quirnheim, and Lieutenant Werner von Haeften were caught late in the evening and summarily executed by firing squad in the courtyard of the Bendler Block (the War Ministry building). Hitler ultimately oversaw the purge and execution (in some cases, accompanied by show trials) of some 5,000 persons he believed were implicated in the plot. All were known opponents of the Nazi regime. Many were tortured to death. Some were hanged by the neck using piano wire. Stauffenberg and the other plotters are remembered in modern Germany as heroes of the anti-Nazi resistance and today the courtyard in the centre of the Bendler Block is dedicated to the memory of the officers executed here on the night of July 20, 1944:
Memorial in the courtyard inside the former Wehrmacht HQ where Von Stauffenberg was shot after his unsuccessful plot.
In the courtyard below in the dim rays of the blackout-hooded headlights of an Army car the four officers were quickly dispatched by a firing squad. Eyewitnesses say there was much tumult and shouting, mostly by the guards, who were in a hurry because of the danger of a bombing attack – British planes had been over Berlin almost every night that summer. Stauffenberg died crying, ”Long live our sacred Germany!”
This section of the Bendlerblock around the courtyard, where Stauffenberg and the other conspirators were executed, now houses the Memorial to the German Resistance. It is also used as one of the ceremonial sites where new members of the Wachbataillon of the Bundeswehr (German military's drill unit) take their oaths.  Following German reunification, the Federal Minister of Defence's Berlin office was moved to the Bendlerblock.

 Colonel Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg's office within with the swastika motif remaining on the parquet, and the memorial to the members of the July Plot shot without.

The photo on the left was taken the day after the summary executions. You can see the mound of sand left over from construction work in front of which the the condemned men stood before being shot down. The photo on the right shows the ϟϟ and Wehrmacht. During the Battle of Berlin in the last days of World War II in late April and early May 1945, General Helmuth Weidling, commander of the Berlin Defence Area, used the Bendlerblock for his command and control, before he proceeded to General Vasily Chuikov and surrendered to the Soviet Red Army at 6:00 a.m. on May 2.
Paying tribute with my students in 2012
Zhukov's turn at the end of the war whilst nearby damage from the battle of Berlin left untouched.
The military resistance has been criticised by historians for failing to act until the war was lost and for pursuing unrealistic nationalist goals. The following selection from a Gestapo report lists Stauffenberg’s conditions for a negotiated peace allegedly transmitted to England by unnamed emissaries in May 1944. They include restoration of Germany’s 1914 borders, the retention of Austria and the Sudetenland, and continuation of the war, if necessary, in the east:

Gestapo report on Stauffenberg’s relations with foreign countries, 2 August 1944

The recent interrogation of Captain [Hermann] Kaiser produces evidence that Stauffenberg had two contacts with the English, via two go-betweens. These contacts are now being investigated in detail. On May 25, Stauffenberg had already worked out a memo for Kaiser as to matters of negotiation with the enemy:

  1. 1  Immediate abandonment of aerial warfare.
  2. 2  Abandonment of invasion plans.
  3. 3  Avoidance of further bloodshed.
  4. 4  Continuing function of defence strength in the East. Evacuation of all occupied regions in the North, West, and South.
  5. 5  Renunciation of any occupation.
  6. 6  Free government, independent, self-chosen constitution.
  7. 7  Full cooperation in the carrying out of truce conditions and in peace preparations.
  8. 8  Reich border of 1914 in the east. Retention of Austria and the Sudetenland within the Reich. Autonomy of Alsace-Lorraine.
    Acquisition of the Tyrol as far as Bozen, Meran.
  9. 9  Vigorous reconstruction with joint efforts for European reconstruction.
  10. 10  Nations to deal with own criminals.
  11. 11  Restoration of honour, self-respect, and respect for others.
At the end of June 1944, Kaiser learned from [Carl Friedrich] Goerdeler that inquiries about the clique of conspirators had been made from highest English quarters. Stauffenberg transmitted:

  1. (a)  a list of individuals who were to be participants in future negotiations with England;
  2. (b)  the wish that Austria remain with the Reich; (c)  the request that a reckoning with the war criminals should be left to the future German government.
Kaiser’s diary, which covered a period from May 9 to July 15, and which contains an abundance of clues, is being made use of at the moment.

Friedrich-Ebert-Straße[19]     Neumünster: Großflecken     Neunkirchen: Bahnhofstraße     Osnabrück: Bramstraße     Pirna: Gartenstraße     Plauen: Friedensstraße     Radeberg: Badstraße[20]     Rhede: Bahnhofstraße     Rom: Via Adolf Hitler, heute Viale delle Cave Ardeatine     Rosenheim: Innstraße     Rostock: Kopernikusstraße     Saarbrücken: Bahnhofstraße     Saarlouis: Straßenzug Deutsche Straße, Französische Straße, Lisdorfer Straße     Schöneiche bei Berlin: (Ernst-Thälmann-Straße) Brandenburgische Straße     Seligenstadt: Bahnhofstraße[21]     Siegen: Sandstraße[22]     Sofia: Evlogi-und-Hristo-Georgievi-Boulevard [23]     Speyer: Am Wasserturm     Stuttgart: Planie     Talheim: Hauptstraße (benannt am 20. April 1934)     Traunstein: Rosenheimer Straße[24]     Uelzen: Veerßer Straße     Vilbel: Frankfurter Straße     Viernheim: Rathausstraße[25]     Völklingen: Poststraße     Weinheim: Nördliche Hauptstraße[26]     Wertheim: Poststraße     Wuppertal: Friedrich-Engels-Allee     Würzburg: Theaterstraße  Adolf-Hitler-Plätze Postkarte des Adolf-Hitler-Platzes in Kutno, Polen Anbringung deutscher Straßenschilder, beispielsweise „Adolf Hitler Platz“, im damaligen Jarotschin (heute Jarocin), Polen  Im Folgenden eine Liste von Plätzen mit dieser Namensgebung.      Arnsberg: Neumarkt [27]     Augsburg: Königsplatz     Bad Mergentheim: Bahnhofsplatz[28]     Barmstedt: Marktplatz     Berlin:[29] Reichskanzlerplatz (1904–1933, 1947–1963) – Theodor-Heuss-Platz (seit 1963)     Bebra: Am Anger     Bonn:         The Tiergarten (formal German name: Großer Tiergarten), is an urban public park of Germany located in the middle of Berlin, completely in the district of same name. The park is of 210 hectares (520 acres); and among urban gardens of Germany, only the Englischer Garten of Munich (417 ha or 1,030 acres) is larger.[1] Contents 1 History 1.1 16th century 1.2 17th–18th centuries 1.3 19th century 1.4 20th century 1.4.1 Under Nazi control 1.4.2 Restoration 1.5 Today 2 Geography 3 Transport 4 Photogallery 5 See also 6 References 7 External links History This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: contradictory information as to whether it's the second- or third-largest urban park in Germany. Please help improve this section if you can. (November 2012) 16th century The beginnings of the Tiergarten can be traced back to 1527. It was founded as a hunting area for the king, and was situated to the west of the Coelln city wall, which was the sister town of Old Berlin. It also sat in the same vicinity as the Berlin Stadtschloss. In 1530 the expansion began; acres of land were purchased and the garden began to expand towards the north and west. The total area extended beyond the current Tiergarten, and the forests were perfect for hunting deer and other wild animals. The king had wild animals placed within the Tiergarten, which was fenced off from the outside to prevent the creatures from escaping, and was the main hunting ground for the electors of Brandenburg. This king’s hobby, however, began to fade away as the city of Berlin began to expand and the hunting area shrank to accommodate the growth. 17th–18th centuries Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg from 1688 until 1713, feeling the need to bring change to the hunting grounds, built many structures that are still visible today. As the King was expanding Unter den Linden, a roadway that connected the Berlin Stadtschloss and the Tiergarten, he had a swath of forest removed in order to connect his castle to the newly built Charlottenburg Palace. "Der Grosse Stern", the central square of the Tiergarten, and the "Kurfuerstenplatz", the electoral plaza, were added, with seven and eight boulevards, respectively. This is seen as the beginning of a transformation in the Tiergarten, a movement from the king’s personal hunting territory to a forest park designed for the people. Frederick II did not appreciate the hunt as his predecessors did, and in 1742 he instructed the architect Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff to tear down the fences that surrounded the territory and to turn the park into a "Lustgarten", or, loosely translated, a "pleasure garden", one that would be open to the people of Berlin. In the baroque style popular at the time he added flowerbeds, borders and espaliers in geometrical layouts, along with mazes, water basins and ornamental ponds; he also commissioned sculptures to add cultural significance. Unique to the time period, areas of congregation called "salons" were established along the many different walkways in the park. These salons were blocked off from the walking path by hedges or trees and often furnished with seating, fountains and vases, offering guests a change of pace and a place to discuss intellectual matters in private. Such freedom was common under the rule of Frederick II; there were even residents allowed to live within the Tiergarten. Refuges, Huguenots in hiding from the French, were allowed to erect tents and sell refreshments to the pedestrians walking through the park. A pheasant house was erected, which would later become the core of the Zoologischer Tiergarten, a zoo founded in 1844 that lies within the greater Tiergarten. During the year of the revolution, 1848, the park hosted another significant event, as the first assembly demanded the abolishment of the national censors. 19th century At the end of the eighteenth century, Knobeldorff’s late-baroque form had been all but replaced by ideas for a new, scenic garden ideal. The castle park Bellevue and Rousseau Island were laid out by court gardener Justus Ehrenreich Sello in the late 1700s. It was then in 1818 that the king commissioned the help of Peter Joseph Lenné, a young man who was at the time the gardener’s assistant at Sanssouci in Potsdam. His plans involved the creation of a rural "Volkspark", or peoples park, that would also serve as a sort of Prussian national park that would help lift the spirits of those who visited. However, the King Frederick William III rejected Lenné’s plan. Against the opposition of a hesitant bureaucracy, Lenné submitted a modified version of his concept. This plan was accepted and realized between 1833 and 1840. The park was modeled after English gardens, but Lenné made sure to pay attention to Knobelsdorff’s structures and layouts. By draining forests areas he allowed for more footpaths, roadways, and bridal paths to be laid down. Several features became characteristic components of the Tiergarten. Wide-open grass lawns traversed by streams and clusters of trees, lakes with small islands, countless bridges like the Löwenbrücke, and a multitude of pathways became distinguishing features of the new garden. Up until 1881, the Tiergarten was owned by the monarchy, and came under the direct control of the king. Soon after the king abolished his rights to the forest, he added the boundaries to the district of Berlin, so that the people may use and uphold it. However, until the middle of the twentieth century, the Tiergarten remained in the style that Lenné had left it in. The biggest changes came in the form of nationalistic memorials that began construction in 1849. These monuments were seen as patriotic contributions to the culture of the Tiergarten. The Siegesallee, or "Victory Avenue", could be considered the most famous addition. Built under the orders of Kaiser William II, It was lined with statues of former Prussian royal figures of varying historical importance. "Prachtboulevard", or the magnificence boulevard, was added in 1895 and became the area known as the Königsplatz, which would later become Platz der Republik. The park is covered in statues commemorating those famous to the Prussians and the activities they enjoyed doing. Animal statues are to be found throughout the park, playing the counterpart to the stone hunters that also inhabit the area. Built by famous sculptor Friedrich Drake, a statue to Queen Louise, beloved queen of the Prussians, is also to be found here alongside her husband, Friedrich Wilhelm III. Statues of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Heinrich Theodor Fontane, Wilhelm Richard Wagner and Gustav Albert Lortzing were also erected. The "Komponistendenkmal", or the Beethoven-Haydn-Mozart memorial, is another example of how the Germans wanted to respect and honor the men and women who gave them a unique culture. 20th century Under Nazi control The Nazi party took control in 1933, causing a dramatic change of idealism. This change was not just social; in fact, Hitler had planned the complete innovation of the city of Berlin. "Welthauptstadt Germania", or World Capital Germania, was the idea the Nazis wanted to bring to fruition. The Tiergarten was to be a central location in the new city. The Charlottenburger Chaussee, today known as the Straße des 17. Juni, was to be the central line between the east and west, and was widened from 27 to 53 meters, the same width as the current street. The Berlin victory column was also moved to the Grosser Stern, where it remains to this day. The Second World War caused significant damage to the Tiergarten and its various cultural elements. Many statues were destroyed or damaged; some of the statues still need minor repair. After the war, the Tiergarten underwent a sudden, violent change. Much of the wooded area was felled and turned to firewood due to the shortage of coal, and the now empty fields were turned into temporary farmland by order of the British occupational troops in the region; there were around 2,550 plots of land available for growing potatoes and vegetables. However, these two factors caused the once great forest to nearly disappear; only 700 trees survived out of over 200,000 that once lined the parkway, the bodies of water turned silty, every bridge was destroyed, the monuments lie on their sides, badly damaged. Plans to fill the waterways with debris from the war were also suggested, but were prevented by the head of the Berlin Central Office of Environmental Planning, Reinhold Lingner. In 1945, almost directly after the fall of Berlin, the Soviets erected a monument for the fallen soldiers of the Red Army on the north side of the current Straße des 17. Juni. Situated less than a mile away from the Reichstag, It was built in such short notice that it sat in West Berlin, which belonged to the British, Americans and French. When the wall went up around East Berlin, the monument became inaccessible to the people for whom it was built. According to testimony reported in the 1995 documentary film On the Desperate Edge of Now, statues of historical military figures from the park were buried by Berlin citizens in the grounds of the nearby Bellevue Palace in order to prevent their destruction by the occupying American forces. They were not recovered until 1993.[2] Restoration On June 2, 1945, the Berlin Magistrate decided they would restore the Greater Tiergarten. The first suggestions came in 1946/47. Reinhold Lingner and Georg Pniower, Professor of Garden Design at Berlin University, were the first to offer plans, but both were rejected during the division of Berlin by the Allied powers. Instead, they decided to follow the plans of the Tiergarten Director Willi Alverdes, whose plan seemed to be a more pragmatic approach; instead of rebuilding the park in a new fashion, Alverdes plans depended on the existing design of the park. He wanted to establish a tranquil, spacious park where one could relax and recover. Being called a crisis, the Tiergarten was reforested between 1949 and 1959. On March 17, 1949, the Lord Mayor Ernst Reuter planted the first tree, a linden, to signify the beginning of the restoration. West Germany took over the operation and sponsorship; about 250,000 young trees were delivered to the former capital from all over the Bundesrepublik, even being delivered via plane during the Berlin Blockade. Alverdes’ concept did away with the pre-existing baroque-styled structures in the park, claiming the style was not in keeping with the period. The combination of baroque and regional art was tossed out. Being a very natural park landscape, the Tiergarten was a very important area for rest and relaxation for the West Berliners, who were separated from their homeland by the Berlin Wall. Several buildings have been added to the area surrounding the park, many of which were constructed by foreign architects. The Kongresshalle is a prime example. It began construction in 1956 under the initiative of Eleanor Dulles as an American contribution to the Interbau, an International Architecture Exhibition employed to exhibit new social, cultural, and ecological ideas in architecture. Today The Tiergarten’s culture began to stagnate until the fall of the Berlin Wall and the GDR in 1989. After the reunification of East and West Berlin in 1990, many of the outskirts of the park changed drastically. For instance, along the streets that border the southern boundary of the park, dilapidated embassy buildings that had stood for decades were reoccupied and others were rebuilt from the ground up, such as the Nordic embassies. On the northern border the new German Chancellery was built, along with office buildings for the everyday work of the delegates. The Reichstag was refurbished with a new, glass dome that has become a popular tourist attraction. Several overgrown areas that had been used for picnics and soccer were replaced with open spaces and grassy lawns that have added to the prestige of the park. Due to its status as a garden memorial of the city of Berlin, encroachment onto the Tiergarten from businesses and residents has been illegal since 1991. A large tunnel has been built under the Tiergarten, allowing easy movement from north to south for motor vehicles, streetcars, and, more recently, subway trains. The original proposal for the tunnel was met with great opposition from environmentalists, who believed the vegetation would be damaged due to shifts in ground-water levels; in fact, the first plans for construction were denied by a court order. In the northerly neighbouring quarter of Moabit a much smaller park bears the same name, thus both are differentiated as Großer and Kleiner Tiergarten. Tiergarten has around 210 Hectares and after Tempelhofer Freiheit, it is the second biggest parkland in Berlin and the third biggest inner-city parkland in Germany. Geography The park is located on the northern and central side of Tiergarten Ortsteil and is bordered, on the northern side, by the river Spree. The little quarter Hansaviertel borders on it at the north-western side and the Zoological Garden is situated on the south-western side. The principal road is the Straße des 17. Juni which ends, in the east, at the Brandenburg Gate. Other main roads are the Altonaer Straße, Spreeweg and Hofjägerallee. In the middle of the park is the square named Großer Stern ("Great Star") with the Siegessäule (Victory column) located in its centre. In addition to the Brandenburg Gate, other notable buildings and structures located close to the park are the Soviet War Memorial, the Reichstag, the Bundestag (all in the eastern borders), the new central railway station (in the north) and, on the southeastern borders, the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, the Memorial to the Sinti and Roma victims of National Socialism and the central square of Potsdamer Platz. Transport The park is principally served by the S-Bahn at the rail stops of Berlin Tiergarten (situated at the western entrance on the Straße des 17. Juni) and Berlin Bellevue. Adolf-Hitler-Straße Der Große Tiergarten in Berlin ist eine zentral im Ortsteil Tiergarten des Bezirks Mitte gelegene Parkanlage. Mit 210 Hektar (2,1 km²) ist er, nach dem Tempelhofer Park, die zweitgrößte Berliner Parkfläche und die drittgrößte innerstädtische Parkanlage Deutschlands.[1] Einige breite Straßen durchschneiden den Park, darunter die Straße des 17. Juni; sie kreuzen sich am Großen Stern, in dessen Mitte die Siegessäule steht. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Jagdrevier und Barockpark 2 Landschaftsgarten 3 Zweiter Weltkrieg und Nachkriegszeit 4 Nach 1990 5 Literatur 6 Weblinks 7 Einzelnachweise Jagdrevier und Barockpark Siegessäule und typische Tiergarten-Laterne Ein erster Tiergarten wurde schon 1527 an anderer Stelle angelegt, nämlich in der Nähe des Berliner Schlosses, westlich der Cöllner Stadtmauer. Das kleine Gebiet wurde seit 1530 nach Westen und Norden hin durch Zukäufe erweitert, bis zu den Grenzen des heutigen Tiergartens und darüber hinaus. Man setzte Wildtiere aus und hinderte sie durch Zäune daran, auf die umliegenden Äcker zu entweichen. Das Gelände diente als Jagdrevier der Kurfürsten von Brandenburg. Als die Stadt Berlin wuchs, wurde das Jagdgebiet nach und nach verkleinert. In der Regierungszeit Friedrichs I. entstanden Strukturen, die bis heute sichtbar sind. In Verlängerung der Allee Unter den Linden wurde eine breite Schneise durch den Tiergarten geschlagen, als Verbindung zwischen dem Stadtschloss und dem zwischen 1695 und 1699 erbauten Schloss Charlottenburg. Der Große Stern mit acht und der Kurfürstenplatz mit sieben Alleen wurden angelegt. Damit begann die allmähliche Umwandlung des Wildreviers in einen zur Erholung bestimmten Waldpark. Friedrich der Große schätzte die Jagd nicht. 1742 gab er dem Architekten Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff den Auftrag, die Zäune niederreißen zu lassen und den Tiergarten zu einem Lustpark für die Bevölkerung umzugestalten. Er ließ nach dem Geschmack des Barock Blumenbeete, Rabatten und Spaliere in geometrischen Anordnungen pflanzen, Labyrinthe, Wasserbecken und Zierteiche anlegen und Skulpturen aufstellen. Entlang der Alleen entstanden sogenannte Salons, kleine, mit Hecken oder Bäumen eingefasste Plätze, die mit Sitzgelegenheiten, Brunnen und Vasen gewissermaßen möbliert waren und den Besuchern Abwechslung boten. Eine Fasanerie wurde eingerichtet – die Keimzelle des Zoologischen Gartens, der 1844 eröffnet wurde. In der Nähe durften zwei Refugiés – Flüchtlinge aus den Hugenottenkriegen oder deren Nachkommen – seit 1745 Zelte aufstellen und den Spaziergängern Erfrischungen verkaufen, woran der Straßenname In den Zelten erinnert. Am 6. März des Revolutionsjahres 1848 wurde hier in einer ersten Versammlung die Abschaffung der staatlichen Zensur gefordert. Landschaftsgarten Der Tiergarten im Jahr 1833 Knobelsdorffs spätbarocke Formen des Tiergartens wurden seit Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts allmählich abgelöst durch erste Beispiele des neuen, landschaftlichen Gartenideals: den Schlosspark Bellevue (1786–1790) und die Neue Partie mit der Rousseau-Insel, 1792 durch den Hofgärtner Justus Ehrenreich Sello angelegt. 1818 erhielt Peter Joseph Lenné, damals noch Gartengeselle in Sanssouci, den Auftrag für die Neugestaltung des Tiergartens. Er plante einen landschaftsähnlichen Volkspark, der zugleich – in Erinnerung an die Befreiungskriege – eine Art preußischer Nationalpark zur moralischen Erbauung der Besucher werden sollte. König Friedrich Wilhelm III. lehnte Lennés „Idealplanung“ allerdings ab. Gegen den Widerstand einer zögerlichen Bürokratie setzte Lenné ein verändertes Planungskonzept durch, das in den Jahren 1833 bis 1840 realisiert wurde. Es entstand ein Landschaftspark nach englischem Vorbild. Lenné nahm dabei aber auch Rücksicht auf wichtige Ordnungselemente seines Vorgängers Knobelsdorff. Feuchte Waldgebiete wurden trockengelegt, Reit-, Fahr- und Spazierwege entstanden. Charakteristische Bestandteile wurden weite Rasenflächen, von kleinen Wasserläufen durchzogen und mit Baumgruppen bestanden, Seen mit kleinen Inseln, zahlreiche Brücken – beispielsweise die Löwenbrücke – und Alleen. Wiesen und Lichtungen wurden zu großen Räumen und Sichtachsen zusammengefasst. Einzelne schmuckgärtnerische Anlagen – Luiseninsel, Rosengarten, Englischer Garten – kamen hinzu. In der Form, die Lenné ihm gegeben hatte, bestand der Park nahezu unverändert bis zur Mitte des 20. Jahrhunderts. Kleinere Veränderungen betrafen die Ausstattung mit patriotischen Denkmälern (seit 1849), darunter der Siegesallee, einem von Kaiser Wilhelm II. 1895 in Auftrag gegebenen und finanzierten Prachtboulevard, der 1901 vollendet wurde, und die Anlage des Königsplatzes (später Platz der Republik) mit der Siegessäule. Bis 1881 befand sich der Park in königlichem Besitz, danach wurde er zu Berlin eingemeindet. Tierplastiken und großformatige Jagdszenen in Bronze schmücken den Park, zahlreiche Standbilder erinnern an allerlei Berühmtheiten, etwa an Preußens beliebte Königin Luise und an ihren Mann, Friedrich Wilhelm III. (dessen Denkmal schuf 1849 der Bildhauer Friedrich Drake, die Sockelreliefs preisen allegorisch den Tiergarten); andere Skulpturen zeigen Goethe, Lessing, Fontane, Richard Wagner, Lortzing und, gemeinsam auf dem sogenannten „Komponistendenkmal“, Beethoven, Mozart und Haydn – auf Grund seiner eigenwilligen Neorokoko-Form mit dem Beinamen „Musikerofen“ belegt. Während der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus wurde auch der Tiergarten in Pläne für die Neugestaltung Berlins einbezogen. Die Charlottenburger Chaussee (heute Straße des 17. Juni) wurde als Ost-West-Achse von 27 auf 53 Meter verbreitert und teilt in dieser Form bis heute den Tiergarten. Die Siegessäule wurde auf den erheblich ausgeweiteten Großen Stern umgesetzt. Zweiter Weltkrieg und Nachkriegszeit Gemüsebeet im Großen Tiergarten nahe der Siegessäule, 1945 Landwirtschaftlicher Anbau im baumlosen Tiergarten; im Hintergrund Reichstag, Sowjetisches Ehrenmal und Brandenburger Tor, Juli 1946 Im Zweiten Weltkrieg wurde der Tiergarten durch Bomben und Granaten schwer beschädigt. Unmittelbar nach Kriegsende diente die Ost-West-Achse zeitweise als Flugpiste, auf der Siegessäule war ein Kontrollposten stationiert. In der Nachkriegszeit wurden Bäume und Sträucher aufgrund des Kohlemangels verheizt, auf den freien Flächen wurden Kartoffeln und Gemüse angebaut, eine offiziell von den britischen Besatzungstruppen genehmigte vorübergehende Nutzung: es entstanden etwa 2550 Parzellen. Von ehemals rund 200.000 Bäumen standen noch etwa 700. Die Gewässer waren verschlammt, alle Brücken zerstört, die Denkmäler umgestürzt und beschädigt. Pläne, die Teich- und Fließlandschaft des Tiergartens mit Trümmerschutt aufzufüllen, wurden durch den Leiter des Berliner Hauptamtes für Grünplanung, Reinhold Lingner, verhindert. Im Jahr 1945 wurde zu Ehren der im Zweiten Weltkrieg gefallenen Soldaten der Roten Armee auf der Nordseite der heutigen Straße des 17. Juni in der Nähe des Reichstages ein Ehrenmal errichtet. Am 2. Juli 1945 fasste der Berliner Magistrat den Beschluss zur Wiederherstellung des Großen Tiergartens. Reinhold Lingner und der Professor für Gartengestaltung an der Berliner Universität, Georg Pniower, legten 1946/1947 die ersten Entwürfe für die Neugestaltung vor. Beide Planungen wurden im Zuge der Teilung der Stadt fallen gelassen, der Wiederaufbau des Tiergartens nach vergleichsweise pragmatischen Plänen des Tiergartendirektors Wilhelm Alverdes in Anlehnung an die bis 1945 bestehende Gestalt vorgenommen. Alverdes plante einen möglichst ruhigen, weiträumigen landschaftlichen Erholungspark. Im Rahmen eines Notstandsprogramms wurde der Tiergarten zwischen 1949 und 1959 wieder aufgeforstet. Am 17. März 1949 pflanzte der Berliner Oberbürgermeister Ernst Reuter als ersten Baum eine Linde. Westdeutsche Städte übernahmen Patenschaften, aus dem ganzen Bundesgebiet kamen insgesamt 250.000 gespendete Jungbäume (während der Berlin-Blockade per Flugzeug) in die Stadt. Nach Alverdes' Konzept galten allerdings die strukturell noch vorhandenen barocken Teile als nicht mehr zeitgemäß, die typische Synthese barocker und landschaftlicher Elemente, die den Tiergarten bis dahin prägten, wurde aufgegeben. Als relativ naturnahe Parklandschaft war der Tiergarten insbesondere zwischen 1961 und 1989 ein wichtiges Naherholungsgebiet für die West-Berliner, die durch die Berliner Mauer eingeschlossen und von ihrem Umland getrennt waren. Anlässlich der 750-Jahr-Feier Berlins wurde 1987 in der Nähe der Kongresshalle, dem heutigen Haus der Kulturen der Welt, das Carillon im Tiergarten errichtet. Der 42 Meter hohe Turm ist mit seinen 68 Glocken das viertgrößte Carillon der Welt. Das Glockenspiel erklingt im Sommer an jedem Sonntag. Nach 1990 Neue Partie im Herbst An der Luiseninsel, im Hintergrund: Denkmal Friedrich Wilhelms III. Langgraswiese Seit den politischen und gesellschaftlichen Veränderungen in der DDR 1989/1990, der Deutschen Wiedervereinigung 1990 und der Bestimmung Berlins als Bundeshauptstadt 1991 haben sich einige Randgebiete des Tiergartens stark verändert: An den Straßen, die den Park nach Süden begrenzen, wurden alte Botschaftsgebäude, die Jahrzehnte als Ruinen überdauert hatten, wieder instand gesetzt und andere, wie die Nordischen Botschaften, neu errichtet. An der Nordostseite entstanden das neue Bundeskanzleramt und Bürogebäude für die Alltagsarbeit der Abgeordneten, das Reichstagsgebäude als altes und neues Parlament erhielt eine gläserne Kuppel, und statt des Wildwuchs-Areals aus den Jahren der deutschen Teilung, das für Picknicks mit oder ohne Grill und für Ballspiele genutzt wurde, erstrecken sich dort repräsentative Rasen- und Freiflächen. Seit 1991[2] ist der Große Tiergarten als Gartendenkmal des Landes Berlin in seinem gesamten Bestand (ausgenommen Großer Stern) gegen Eingriffe geschützt.[3] Das Großbauvorhaben einer Nord-Süd-Verkehrsachse mit vier Tunnelröhren für Straße und Bahnen unterhalb des Tiergartens sorgte für heftige Diskussionen. Naturschützer befürchteten Vegetationsschäden durch Absinken des Grundwasserspiegels und verlangten einen Baustopp. Der Antrag wurde durch Gerichtsbeschluss abgewiesen, gewisse Bedenken hinsichtlich der langfristigen Entwicklung bestehen weiterhin. Seit 1996 fand das Massenereignis Loveparade im Tiergarten statt, mit den Teilnehmerzahlen (1999: 1,5 Millionen) stieg ständig auch die ökologische Belastung des Parks. Nachdem das Interesse an der Loveparade nachzulassen schien, wurde die Veranstaltung im Jahr 2005 abgesagt und letztmals noch einmal im Sommer 2006 durchgeführt. Weitere Anziehungspunkte waren die Fanmeilen auf der Straße des 17. Juni während der Fußball-Weltmeisterschaft 2006 und der Fußball-Europameisterschaft 2008. Ein letztes, größeres Wiederherstellungsprogramm betrifft den östlichen Teil des Tiergartens, der, im Schatten der Mauer gelegen und durch die viel befahrene Entlastungsstraße vom Hauptteil des Parks getrennt, lange Zeit kaum genutzt und gärtnerisch vernachlässigt worden war. Seit der Inbetriebnahme des Tiergartentunnels im Frühjahr 2006 verläuft der Nord-Süd-Verkehr unterirdisch. Infolgedessen wurde der Teil der Entlastungsstraße südlich der Straße des 17. Juni zurückgebaut, lediglich die Mündung des Tiergartentunnels ragt von Süden her tief in den Park hinein. Hierdurch konnten zwei durch die Entlastungsstraße getrennte Teile des Tiergartens wieder vereinigt werden. In diesem Bereich wurden alte Wegeführungen rekonstruiert und verwilderte Flächen in Anlehnung an die historischen Pläne Lennés neu gestaltet. Indem durch in Jahrzehnte gewachsene Gehölze schnurgerade Wegesschneisen geschlagen und mehrere neue Wegführungen realisiert wurden, ging der relativ naturnahe Charakter dieses Parkteils allerdings verloren. Zwischen Brandenburger Tor und Lennéstraße entsteht das Projekt Global Stone. In der Nähe des Denkmals für die ermordeten Juden Europas wurden 2008 das Denkmal für die im Nationalsozialismus verfolgten Homosexuellen und südlich des Reichstages 2012 das Denkmal für die im Nationalsozialismus ermordeten Sinti und Roma Europas errichtet. Rundumblick von der Siegessäule Literatur Klaus von Krosigk: Der Berliner Tiergarten. Berlin-Edition, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-8148-0030-3. Folkwin Wendland, Gustav Wörner, Rose Wörner: Der Berliner Tiergarten, Vergangenheit und Zukunft. Kulturbuch-Verlag, Berlin 1986. Folkwin Wendland: Der Große Tiergarten in Berlin – Seine Geschichte und Entwicklung in fünf Jahrhunderten, Gebrüder Mann Verlag, 1993,大蒂尔加滕公园,或称蒂尔加滕公园、蒂尔加藤公园(德语:Großer Tiergarten),是位于德国首都柏林米特区下辖蒂尔加滕区的一座城市公园。公园总面积2.1平方公里(210公顷),是德国第三大、柏林第二大市内公园,小于同在柏林的滕珀尔霍夫公园[1]。几条大街从公园中穿过,其中包括六月十七日大街。这些大街交汇于公园中央的胜利纪念柱,交汇处的环路和胜利柱组成“大角星广场”。 目录 1 历史 1.1 中世纪末至18世纪末:贵族狩猎场和巴洛克公园 1.2 18世纪末至20世纪初:田园景观园林 1.3 20世纪:第二次世界大战和战后岁月 1.4 1990年后 2 译名解释 3 参考文献 4 注解 历史 “蒂尔加滕”的本意是“动物花园”,肇始于普鲁士王公贵族的狩猎场。关于“蒂尔加滕”名称的详细解释,请参看本条目另一章节。 中世纪末至18世纪末:贵族狩猎场和巴洛克公园 1761年蒂尔加滕公园售卖茶点的帐篷。 中世纪后期的1527年,克恩城以西、临近柏林皇宫的地方被开辟为最早的“蒂尔加滕”——勃兰登堡选帝侯的狩猎场。从1530年起,这片区域开始向向西北拓展,规模一度超过了今天的蒂尔加滕公园。人们在其中放养各种野生动物,并在外围用护栏圈禁,防止它们跑到外围的耕地里。随着柏林城市的发展,狩猎场的面积逐渐缩减。 弗里德里希一世主政期间(1688年-1713年)形成的园林结构一直留存至今。由菩提树下大街向西的延长线,成为贯穿蒂尔加滕的一条大道,连接着柏林皇宫和1695年到1699年间建成的夏洛滕堡宫。园中的大角星广场连接着八条大道,选帝侯广场连接着七条大道。从那时起,皇家狩猎场便开始逐渐演变成为供人休闲游乐的森林公园。 弗里德里希二世对狩猎不感兴趣。1742年,他任命建筑师格奥尔格·文策斯劳斯·冯·克诺贝尔斯多夫拆除围栏,将蒂尔加滕改造成供大众休闲的“乐园(Lustpark)”。克诺贝尔斯多夫按照巴洛克风格,在园中种植了形制整齐的花园、花坛、树墙和藤架,兴建了迷宫、水塘和观赏池,以及各色雕塑;还沿着园中大道,用灌木和树木围成数个小巧的“沙龙(Salons)”,用喷泉和花瓶装饰,并装有供游人小憩的座椅。蒂尔加滕由此成为真正意义上的公园。一个雉园也在蒂尔加滕中建成,正是日后于1844年成立的柏林动物园的雏形。 1745年,弗里德里希二世准许两个法国宗教战争难民的后代在蒂尔加滕公园附近架设帐篷,向来往的游人售卖茶点。这正是蒂尔加滕公园“在帐篷里路(In den Zelten)”名字的由来。这条小路直到2002年才因德国议会和政府区域的建设被除名。1848年3月6日,一场抗议政府审查制度的示威集会在这里举行,是1848年至1849年间欧洲革命的一部分。 18世纪末至20世纪初:田园景观园林 贝多芬-海顿-莫扎特纪念碑。 18世纪后期,随着第一批采用新式景观园林设计风格的建筑在蒂尔加滕出现,克诺贝尔斯多夫的后巴洛克筑园风格逐渐被取代。这些新建筑包括1786年至1790年建成的美景宫,以及1792年由宫廷园艺师尤斯图斯·埃伦赖希·泽洛设计建造的卢梭湖“新区(Neue Partie)”。 1818年,普鲁士园艺师、景观设计师彼得·约瑟夫·莱内受命重新设计蒂尔加滕公园。当时,他还只是波茨坦无忧宫花园的一名普通帮工。他的设计既是贴近自然景观的“人民公园(Volkspark)”,同时为了纪念1813年到1815年间反对拿破仑的解放战争,也被预想为一个兼具宣传教化功能的普鲁士国家公园。国王弗里德里希·威廉三世托付给莱内的是一个“理想规划”。但因政府拖沓的官僚作风,莱内最终只能将理想的设计理念加以修改,于1833年至1840年间完工。莱内设计的蒂尔加滕公园参照了英式景观园林风格,同时秉承前任克诺贝尔斯多夫留下的核心框架元素。潮湿的林地被抽干,代之以马路、车路和人行道。最具特点的部分是穿插着水系和树丛的大片草坪,湖泊和小岛,以及众多的桥梁(如狮子桥)和林荫大道。大片草地以及林中的空地被组合成宽敞的空间和景观。此外,还有露易丝岛、玫瑰园、英国花园等珠宝园艺(schmuckgärtnerisch)作为点缀。 在蒂尔加滕,莱内的设计风格一直保持到20世纪中叶,期间只有微小的变动。1849年,公园中开始出现一些宣扬爱国主义的营建,其中包括1895年威廉二世委托并出资建造、于1901年完工的林荫大道——胜利大道,以及矗立着胜利纪念柱的国王广场(后来的共和广场)。1881年,一直是皇家私有地产的蒂尔加滕公园被划归柏林城市公有。 蒂尔加滕公园中,既有动物雕塑和大型铜铸狩猎图,也有许多纪念名人的雕像,如在普鲁士广受爱戴的露易丝王后和她的丈夫弗里德里希·威廉三世的浮雕,由雕塑家弗里德里希·德拉克于1849年完成,是蒂尔加滕公园的象征。此外,还有为歌德、赖辛、冯塔纳、瓦格纳、洛尔青等等作家和作曲家树立的纪念碑。共和广场附近的一座“音乐家纪念碑”,汇集了贝多芬、莫扎特和海顿三位音乐家。因其本身酷似烤炉的新洛可可建筑风格,故得昵称“音乐家烤炉”。 纳粹时期,蒂尔加滕公园也被纳入建设世界之都的计划中。横亘蒂尔加滕的夏洛滕堡大道(今天的六月十七日大街)作为计划中50公里长的“东西主轴”,从原先的27米拓宽到了53米。同时,胜利纪念柱也从国王广场迁到了业已大大增扩的大角星广场,自此矗立于蒂尔加滕的中心。 20世纪:第二次世界大战和战后岁月 在胜利纪念柱附近种植蔬菜,1945年。 在没有树的蒂尔加滕耕地,远处是苏军纪念碑、国会大厦和勃兰登堡门,1946年。 在第二次世界大战飞机和手榴弹的轰炸下,蒂尔加滕公园遭到了严重破坏。战争刚结束时,横亘公园宽阔的“东西主轴”被用作临时机场,胜利纪念柱顶上设置了一个检查点。战后,由于缺乏燃料,蒂尔加滕的树木和灌木被大量砍伐,先前约20万棵树木只剩下了700余棵。经由驻柏林英军批准,人们在空出的土地上开辟出大约2550块临时耕地,种植土豆和蔬菜。公园各处水系淤塞,桥梁崩塌,雕塑和纪念碑也遭到了毁坏。一些人士曾计划用战争废墟填埋园中的池塘和水系,遭到当时柏林园林绿化总部负责人赖因霍尔德·林纳的阻止。 1945年,为纪念在二战中牺牲的苏联红军战士,紧贴六月十七大街北侧、国会大厦附近建起了一座苏军纪念碑,是柏林三处苏军纪念碑之一[2]。 1945年6月2日,柏林市政府通过重建大蒂尔加滕公园的决议。1946年至1947年间,赖因霍尔德·林纳和柏林大学园林教授格奥尔格·普尼奥韦尔提出了第一批重建方案。但由于柏林的分裂,二人的方案皆被否定。最终,蒂尔加滕区区长维利·阿尔韦德斯更加实用的方案被采用。这个方案的基础是1945年之前蒂尔加滕公园的固有形制。阿尔韦德斯计划将蒂尔加滕重建成一个尽可能安静、宽敞的园林景观休闲公园。根据一个应急方案,1949年到1959年间,蒂尔加滕被重新植树。1949年3月17日,柏林市长恩斯特·罗伊特在园中种下了象征性的第一棵椴树。西德城市纷纷赞助,甚至在柏林封锁期间,仍坚持通过空运,共向这座前首都捐赠了25万余棵树苗。按照阿尔韦德斯的构想,那些遗存的巴洛克构造不再符合时代风格,此前蒂尔加滕公园的主要形制——巴洛克和田园风格的典型组合被抛弃。取而代之的是更加亲近自然的公园风光,使蒂尔加滕公园成为战后、尤其是1961年至1989年柏林墙围困期间,西柏林人重要的休闲地。 1987年,藉柏林建城750年庆祝之机,在当时的国会大厅附近建成了一座钟琴塔,高42米,有68口钟,是世界第四大钟琴塔。在夏季,钟琴塔每周日都有定时演奏。 一幅三百六十度全景照片,拍摄地点在柏林蒂尔加滕公园中的胜利纪念柱上,俯瞰整个蒂尔加滕公园。主体绿色,从左到右共有五段街道。 从胜利纪念柱俯瞰蒂尔加滕公园全景。街道从左向右依次为:六月十七日大街(东段);Hofjägerallee;六月十七日大街(西段);Altonaerstraße;Spreeweg。 1990年后 贯穿蒂尔加滕公园的六月十七大街,尽头是勃兰登堡门,远处是柏林东部。 路易丝岛,远处是弗里德里希·威廉三世纪念像。 蒂尔加滕公园中的草地。 随着1989年至1990年间东德巨大的政治和社会变迁,1990年德国重新统一,以及1991年柏林重新成为德意志联邦共和国的首都,蒂尔加滕公园外缘的部分地区也经历了不小的变化:公园南界的道路旁,多年来沦为战争废墟的各国大使馆被整葺一新,同时还新建了北欧诸国共用的北欧大使馆。公园东北侧,新建了德国联邦总理府和其他政府办公大楼;国会大厦作为新老议会所在地,增建了一个透明的玻璃穹顶;多年来因分裂而产生的大片荒芜地区,也被重新修整开放,作为供人们郊游、烧烤、游戏的场所。 1991年[3],大蒂尔加滕公园被纳入柏林州历史园林保护工程。除大角星广场外,蒂尔加滕的其他部分受到整体保护,不能轻易改建。 修建贯穿蒂尔加滕南北方向交通隧道的计划,曾饱受争议。自然保护主义者担心地下水水位下降造成植被破坏,呼吁停止建设。虽然法院最终裁决驳回了他们的请求,但对隧道长期发展和影响的关注依然持续。2006年初,隧道贯通并投入使用。 1996年开始,一年一度规模宏大的爱的大游行在蒂尔加滕公园举行。之后几年,随着参与人数逐年增加(1999年达150万人),游行对公园的生态影响也日益严重。后来,人们对游行的兴趣逐渐减退,2005年的游行被取消;2006年夏天,举办了最后一次爱的大游行。 每到足球大赛期间,如2006年世界杯足球赛和2008年欧洲足球锦标赛,六月十七日大街会专门辟出一段供球迷聚集欢庆的球迷大道,通常是在勃兰登堡门以西至胜利纪念柱之间。 最近比较大规模的重建计划,是蒂尔加滕公园东端的一片空地。这片地区因过去处于柏林墙隔离区内,又被一条交通繁忙的道路隔断,利用甚少,且一直未被纳入分裂后公园的总体规划。2006年蒂尔加滕隧道贯通之后,南北交通从地上转入地下,这条道路的南段被拆除,只留了一个地下隧道的入口。于是原先东端荒废的那部分被重新利用,基于历史上莱内的设计,道路和区域规划一新,但以往贴近自然的风格已经不再。 勃兰登堡门和莱内路(Lennéstraße)之间,是艺术项目Global Stone。犹太人纪念碑附近,有2008年树立的纳粹时期被迫害同性恋者纪念碑。国会大厦南侧,还有2012年树立的纳粹时期欧洲被害辛提人和罗姆人纪念碑。 译名解释 “蒂尔加滕”一词,是德语复合词“Tiergarten”的音译。德文“Tier”泛指“动物”,“Garten”的含义是“花园”、“庭园”。因而“Tiergarten”这个词的本意是“动物花园”、“动物园”,在德国的一些地方也用于称呼真正圈养动物的动物园[4]。但由于柏林动物园和蒂尔加滕公园相邻,甚至可以说就是蒂尔加滕公园的一部分,所以为了加以区分,不将“Tiergarten”意译成“动物园”或者“动物花园”。德文描述今日柏林“动物园”的词是“Zoologischer Garten”,用词根“Zoo”指代“动物”。 另一个需将之加以区分的理由是,柏林城铁的“Tiergarten”和“Zoologischer Garten”虽然是相邻的两站,但命名来源却不同:“Tiergarten”站以蒂尔加滕公园命名;“Zoologischer Garten”站则以柏林动物园命名,它也是距离柏林动物园最近的地铁站。初到柏林的外地游客,即使通晓德语,若是不熟悉这两站的来历,也极易将二者混淆。 朱自清在描写柏林的时候,将“Tiergarten”称为“梯尔园”[5]。今天的“蒂尔加滕”除用于指代“蒂尔加滕公园”,还是柏林市政辖区“蒂尔加滕区”的名字;大蒂尔加滕公园亦归蒂尔加滕区管辖。出于此因,在音译时,并未如朱自清那样将表示“公园”的“Garten”分离,以使蒂尔加滕区和蒂尔加滕公园之间的关系无所隐晦。对“Tiergarten”亦有“禽兽花园”的译法,因为德国人骂人时会用“Tier”[6]。这虽然只是一种戏称,但在柏林的中国人中仍被提及。 参考文献 Klaus von Krosigk:《Der Berliner Tiergarten》,Berlin-Edition,柏林,2001,ISBN 3-8148-0030-3。 Folkwin Wendland,Gustav Wörner,Rose Wörner:《Der Berliner Tiergarten, Vergangenheit und Zukunft》,Kulturbuch-Verlag,柏林,1986。 Folkwin Wendland:《Der Große Tiergarten in Berlin - Seine Geschichte und Entwicklung in fünf Jahrhunderten》,Gebrüder Mann Verlag,1993,ISBN 9783786116318。 Susanne Twardawa:《Der Tiergarten in Berlin: das Abenteuer liegt um die Ecke》,Motzbuch,柏林,2006,ISBN 3-935790-08-2。 注解 ^ 比较: 滕珀尔霍夫公园:300多公顷,是柏林-滕珀尔霍夫机场停用后开辟的城市公园; 奥地利维也纳普拉特公园:600公顷; 德国慕尼黑英国花园:417公顷; 法国巴黎文森森林:995公顷; 法国巴黎布洛涅森林:846公顷; 英国伦敦海德公园:141公顷; 美国纽约中央公园:341公顷。 ^ 另外两处在潘科区的Schönholzer Heide以及特雷普托-库本尼克区的Treptower Park。 ^ Folkwin Wendland: Der Große Tiergarten in Berlin - Seine Geschichte und Entwicklung in fünf Jahrhunderten,272页脚注,参看参考文献。 ^ 参见德语维基条目:Tiergarten。 ^ 朱自清《柏林》,原载1934年2月1日《中學生》第32号。 ^ 博客星路悠然 Большой Тиргартен (нем. Großer Tiergarten) — парк в центре Берлина. Площадь самого большого парка Берлина составляет 210 га. Для сравнения: Гайд-парк в Лондоне занимает площадь 125 га и Центральный парк в Нью-Йорке — 335 га. Несколько больших автомагистралей проходят по парку, среди них улица 17 Июня. Они перекрещиваются на площади Большая Звезда, в середине которого находится берлинская колонна Победы. (Plieningen)     Paracelsusstraße Stuttgart     Adolf-Hitler-Straße (Möhringen)     Laustraße Stuttgart     Adolf-Hitler-Straße (Vaihingen)     Böblinger Straße/Hauptstraße Stuttgart     Adolf-Hitler-Kampfbahn (Bad Cannstatt)     Neckarstadion Tallinn, Estonia     Adolf-Hitler-Straße (1942–1944)     Narva maantee Tartu, Estonia     Adolf-Hitler-Platz (1942–1944)     Raekoja plats Valkenburg, Netherlands     Adolf Hitler-Allee (1942-1944)     Kloosterweg Vienna     Adolf-Hitler-Platz (1938–1945)     Rathausplatz Sofia, Bulgaria     Adolf Hitler blvd.     Evlogi and Hristo Georgievi Boulevard [2] Warsaw, Poland     Adolf-Hitler-Platz (1939–1944)     Piłsudski Square, formerly Plac Saski (Saxon Square, named after the Saxon Palace) 1818-1928, 1939-40, 1945-46 Zittau     Adolf-Hitler-Straße