Showing posts with label Ingolstadt. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Ingolstadt. Show all posts

More sites in Bavaria

 The planned gauforum
Augsburg was historically a militarily important city due to its strategic location. During the German re-armament before the Second World War, the Wehrmacht enlarged Augsburg's one original Kaserne (barracks) to three: Somme Kaserne (housing Wehrmacht Artillerie-Regiment 27); Arras Kaserne (housing Wehrmacht Infanterie Regiment 27) and Panzerjäger Kaserne (housing Panzerabwehr-Abteilung 27 (later Panzerjäger-Abteilung 27). Wehrmacht Panzerjäger-Abteilung 27 was later moved to Füssen.  During World War II, one subcamp of the Dachau concentration camp was located outside Augsburg, supplying approximately 1,300 forced labourers to local military-related industry, most especially the Messerschmitt AG military aircraft firm headquartered in Augsburg. This is also the hometown of Jakob Grimminger, famous for having been awarded the honour of carrying the blood-stained Blutfahne from the Munich putsch.  In 1941, Rudolf Hess without Adolf Hitler's permission secretly took off from a local airport
Looking down Augsburg's Maximiliansstraße in 1938 and today

The street in 1941, the year that Rudolf Hess flew from an aerodrome near Augsburg to the United Kingdom at 17.45 on Saturday, May 10 alone over the North Sea to Scotland to meet the Duke of Hamilton before crashing in Eaglesham in an attempt to mediate the end of the European front of World War II and join sides for the upcoming Russian Campaign.  The Reichswehr Infanterie Regiment 19 was stationed in Augsburg and became the base unit for the Wehrmacht Infanterie Regiment 40, a subsection of the Wehrmacht Infanterie Division 27 (which later became the Wehrmacht Panzerdivision 17). Elements of Wehrmacht II Battalion of Gebirgs-Jäger-Regiment 99 (especially Wehrmacht Panzerjäger Kompanie 14) was composed of parts of the Wehrmacht Infanterie Division 27. The Infanterie Regiment 40 remained in Augsburg until the end of the war, finally surrendering to the United States when in 1945, the U.S. Army occupied the heavily bombed and damaged city.  Following the war, the three Kaserne would change hands confusingly between the American and Germans, finally ending up in US hands for the duration of the Cold War. The former Wehrmacht Kaserne became the three main US barracks in Augsburg: Reese, Sheridan and FLAK. US Base FLAK had been an anti-aircraft barracks since 1936 and US Base Sheridan "united" the former infantry barracks with a smaller Kaserne for former Luftwaffe communications units.  The American military presence in the city started with the 11th Airborne Division, followed by the 24th Infantry Division, U.S. Army Seventh Corps Artillery, USASA Field Station Augsburg and finally the 66th Military Intelligence Brigade, which returned the former Kaserne to German hands in 1998. Originally the Heeresverpflegungshauptamt Südbayern and an Officers' caisson existed on or near the location of Reese-Kaserne, but was demolished by the occupying Americans. 

Propaganda during the Reichstag elections of November 12, 1933. The sign above the clock reads "Wir wollen kein Volk minderen Rechts sein." From Hakenkreuz und Zirbelnuß. Augsburg im Dritten Reich (Filser and Thieme).

After February 1944 bombing and today, showing how much has been reconstructed
The wife in front of the Augustus statue at Maximiliansplatz 
Being dismantled in 1940 for safety during the war
The turn of St. Michael from the Zeughaus
The Herkulesbrunnen then and now

The Maypole in front of St. Ulrich's and St. Afra's Abbey  May 1, 1935
The Mercury statue being returned July 31, 1947 and taken away 60 years later for refurbishment
The Weberhaus (Weavers' House) behind the Merkurbrunnen
The St.Georgs brunnen
Hitler in Augsburg
Welcoming Hitler on his March 17, 1937 visit
Adolf-Hitler-Platz, now renamed Königsplatz

 Annastrasse and Adolf Hitler Platz and the site's proposed redevelopment

Jakoberstraße after the war and now, showing the extent of the reconstruction
Looking at Jakobskirche from the Jakobertor
The Stadttheater in August, 1934
Hitler at the Stadttheater
Hitler attending a performance at its re-opening May 24, 1939

Nazi demonstration outside the Stadttheater on March 23, 1933 and a neo-Nazi demonstration at the same site on December 2, 2006. 
Hitler in front of the Stadttheater on March 19, 1937 and the building today, sporting a banner denouncing racism at another recent demonstration. It was in a speech at Augsburg on November 21 that year that Hitler made the demand for colonies when he declared: "What the world shuts its ears to today it will not be able to ignore in a year's time. What it will not listen to now it will have to think about in three years' time, and in five or six it will have to take into practical consideration. We shall voice our demand for living-room in colonies more and more loudly till the world cannot but recognize our claim."
Goldener Saal
Bürgermeister Kellner speaking in the Goldener Saal of the rathaus in 1934 during the so-called Machtergreifung
 After the war and today, showing how much has been reconstructed from so little
The rathaus after the bombing of February 25-26 1944 and today. The right shows the town in 1945 looking down Karlstraße.
The  Zeughaus (armoury)
The cathedral 
The Annakirche 
The Annakirche before and after its bombing  

Just from the train station down Prinzregentstr. is the Landratsamt (District administration office) with the reichsadler still above the door and state-protected by a mesh screen.

Also on the façade is what appears to be NS relief typical of the time for the German Workers' Front.
The building and, on the right, a vehicle registration plaque from the Landsrat during the NSDAP era.
The Augsburg tax office on Peutingerstraße laid out the tax laws in paragraph 1, sentence 1 of its Tax Adjustment Act of October 1934: " The tax laws are interpreted by Nazi ideology." Citizens were asked to list the number of "Aryan" children they had whilst those seen as living outside the community- Jehovah's Witnesses, forced labourers , Sinti and Roma, Jews were targetted. The confiscation of Jewish property was initiated from the Alltagsgeschäft but later centralised with the start of the deportations in 1941.

The Fuggerhaus on Maximilanstrasse then and now

The building after the war
The  Fuggerei - the world's oldest social housing complex still in use. 

Nazi reliefs still adorning façades

Haus Theodor Wiedemann Strasse 35 still has two Nazi reliefs; the left shows a relief representing a link between the Roman Empire and the Third Reich whilst the right shows under the claws of an eagle a tank and the navy, with above it the air force bombing and the army. The tank and lightnings are toward the east aligned. If one puts the realm eagle on a map, heading direction the north, the view is against France. The line of sight of the NSDAP Reichsadlers was modified to the right (the east).
Above the doors at Richthofen Strasse are reliefs representing the Deutschen Arbeitsfront, Hitlerjugend and the NS Frauenschaft; only the swastikas have been removed form the devices.

Huge Nazi eagle overlooking Reinöhlstrasse

Reliefs celebrating the 1936 Olympic Games at Gentnerstrasse 53 -59; note the Hitler hairstyle in the second relief. The relief found at Firnhaberstrasse 53 at the bottom-right shows a stylised representation of a Messerschmidt BF 109 - the most important fighter of the Luftwaffe.

Site of Augsburg's 'Liberation'
I hadn't heard of this 'Augsburg Liberation Movement' which helped the American 3rd Infantry Division 'liberate' the town from the Germans (apparently only after it became clear the war was days from being lost) until I came across this plaque. Google-searching the group in English found only one entry for it.
The Synagogue

The synagogue before and after the war, with the signs reading "Entry Forbidden for the General Public", but also mentioning a Jewish Service on Friday and Sunday. In 1913 the local Jewish community had the architects Lömpel and Landauer build a synagogue in the town centre which was dedicated in 1917. Described as "possibly the most significant art nouveau synagogue in Europe" it was seriously damaged during Kristallnacht but survived before finally reopening in 1985.
Nearby is the main railway station- Hitler at the Augsburger Hauptbahnhof November 21, 1937 and today, remarkably unchanged
Augsburg was also the setting for Göring's surrender to the allies. On the right is colour footage of Göring's first day as a prisoner in the town.
May 11, 1945, he was taken out of the back door of the two-storey suburban house in Augsburg to meet fifty Allied newspapermen. Gripping a pair of matching grey suede gloves, he slumped into an easy chair and mopped at his brow as the shutters clicked. After five minutes they allowed him to move into the thin shade of a willow tree. The questioning resumed. Heaping blame for the first time in public on Martin Bormann, he insisted that it must have been Bormann and not Hitler who had nominated Dönitz as the new Führer. “Hitler,” rasped Göring, “did not leave a thing in writing saying that Dönitz was to take his place!”
He publicly revealed that he had opposed Hitler’s attack on Russia. “I pointed out to him,” said Göring, “his own words in Mein Kampf concerning a two-front war. . . . But Hitler believed that by the year’s end he could bring Russia to her knees.” He revealed to the newspapermen his unhappiest moment of the war. “The greatest surprise of the war to us was the long- range fighter bomber that could take off from England, attack Berlin, and return to its home base. I realized,” he added disarmingly, “that the war was lost shortly after the invasion of France and the subsequent breakthrough.”
Asked inevitably about the Nazi extermination camps, Göring was dismissive. “I was never so close to Hitler as to have him express himself to me on this subject,” he said. He was sure that these atrocity reports were “merely propaganda. Hitler,” he concluded, recalling that trembling right hand signing the documents, “had something wrong with his brain the last time I saw him.”
Irving (691) Göring: A Biography
Ludwigstraße before the RAF and today
The Wertachbrucker Tor, before the war and after its 1998 restoration

Adolf-Hitler-Platz then and now.

The Bavarian King visiting what is now the Polizeimuseum during the First World War. During the Great War future French president Charles de Gaulle was detained there as a prisoner of war.

The entrance to the new schloss then and now
The Kreuztor, the seven-turreted guard tower which, with the Feldkirchnertor, are the only ones of the city's four principal gates that survive today, the latter as part of the castle complex.
BBC News2012-05-26


Bird's-eye-view then and now

A Nazi memorial to Dietrich Eckart, one of the important early members of the NSDAP and a participant of the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch. It was to him that Hitler had dedicated the second volume of Mein Kampf in which he is described as a martyr and is referred to in the last sentence of the book:
And among them I could also reckon that man who as no one else has devoted his life to the awakening of his, of our nation in writing, poetry, thought and finally in the deed.
Incredibly, it still remains in his hometown. Hitler was here on October 29, 1933 where he spoke at its unveiling. Eckart's 1925 unfinished essay Hitler-Eckart: Der Bolschewismus von Moses bis Lenin: Zwiegespräch zwischen Hitler und mir ( Bolshevism from Moses to Lenin: Dialogues Between Hitler and Me") was published posthumously, although it has been shown that the dialogues were an invention.
Hitler in Neumarkt
Hitler visiting the town

Nazi propaganda over Untere Marktstraße and today

March by the Reichsarbeitsdienst, looking the other way on Obere Marktstraße
Gasthaus Zum Hechten
The Gasthaus Zum Hechten at Untere Marktstraße 3; today the building appears to have been completed replaced. Not surprising given the damage the town received during the war:
The Unteres Tor during the war with Nazi fresco and as it appears today

Obere Marktstraße-Klostergasse with the church still in the background

The rathaus in 1935, after the war and as it appears today

The railway station during the Third Reich and now
The Sparkasse then and now

Adolf-Hitler-Platz then and now

 24 kilometres southeast of Bayreuth is this town, shown when its high street was Adolf-Hitler-Straße and today.

This Hitler Jugend haus, completed in 1938, is still a Youth Hostel.
The cathedral in 1936 and today 
The Willibaldsbrunnen shows a remarkably unchanged marktplatz...
 ... in large part thanks to the town's youth:  "The brave boys instantly got their hoses and connected to the water, and it was a real pleasure to see the Pimpfe and Hitler-Jungen rush to the fire" according to the Eichstätter Heimatzeitung on March 13, 1943. Already in July 1940 the party announced: "7000 Hitler Youth are under the fireman's helmet." The average age was 16 years. The training lasted for six months, and the youth learned to operate all fire equipment, "so that they can collaborate with experienced firefighters at each deployment."
The Willibaldsburg and Hofmühle appear to have survived the war unscathed.
Along the canal looking towards the Altmühl
The remains of the Eichstätt Thingstätte, built 1935

Adolf-Hitler-Platz then and now 

NS-Kreistag at the site on June 16, 1938 showing from the left NS-Kreisleiter Hausböck (Garmisch-Partenkirchen, NS-Kreisleiter Dennerl (Weilheim), Stellv. Gauleiter Nippold and Gauleiter Wagner. 
Otto Hoffmeister Haus 
Otto Hoffmeister Haus, used as a youth hostel during the Third Reich 
The Vier-Jahreszeiten-Brunnen at the former Adolf-Hitler-Platz and today


 The schloss from a 1944 postcard and the Schlosskirche after the war with an American GI surveying the looted art recovered from the Nazis, and today
The rathaus
Adolf-Hitler-Platz then and now. 

Hitler himself had, on October 11 1932, launched a speechmaking campaign comparable in magnitude to his “Flights over Germany” here where he declared
Herr von Papen was of the conviction that his emergency decree for the stimulation of the economy would bring brilliant results by November 6, and thus he scheduled the date for the Reichstag election sixty days after its dissolution. And I was of the conviction that the nation would see in these sixty days that this effort at “stimulating the economy” was the greatest feat of bungling and patchwork one can imagine. I was of the conviction that one question would be answered before even four weeks had passed, namely the question why I refused to enter this Cabinet on August 13. This will be decided on November.

It was not, however, the opponents in question who reproached me for refusing to join the Cabinet; it was the so-called “friends” in the bourgeois camp. At this point, I might ask with the same justification: how was it that you dared to invite me to join this Government?

Did you really believe that I worked for thirteen years to deliver the result of this work to the mercy of political lunacy? And it would have been lunacy had I staked everything on one horse, long aware that it was unfit for the race. Influence was one thing I would not have had in the Cabinet, but the responsibility was something they would have graciously surrendered.

I have no qualms about assuming the responsibility, and I mean the entire responsibility, but I do have qualms about assuming it in areas where I have no influence. If Fate had chosen those forces which today thirst for power to be Germany’s leadership, it would be a crime to resist. However, I do not believe that Fate could have chosen these men, because otherwise they would have made an appearance earlier. It is not possible for someone who was a silent member of the Centre Party until five months ago to then one day suddenly become the “brightly enlightened leader” to the Third Reich. I did not fight Marxism in order to erect a different class regime in its place. I have stood before millions of German workers in these thirteen years and have struggled for their support. But I did not fight to betray them now in the end.

Above all, my opponents are mistaken about my tremendous resolve. I have chosen my path, and I will adhere to it until the end. Whether or not I gain power is not as important as the fact that I carry out what I have promised. Similarly, the Party is not for sale and cannot be bought from me. Do not make the mistake of believing that I would lend out this Movement even for a second or allow others to use it for their work.
This was the hometown of Nazi politician Franz Xaver Schwarz and the "angel of death" Josef Mengele, SS officer and Auschwitz physician. The town's memorial to the victims of the concentration camp doctor Josef Mengele, composed of a display board around which single eyes (around 50 created by pupils from Dossenberger-Gymnasium) and pairs of eyes (around 25 by the 6th form art foundation course pupils from Maria-Ward-Gymnasium) are grouped. The single eyes and pairs of eyes were modelled from clay in lessons and baked after air drying. From the “clay eyes”, the foundry finished the final step of making silicon formed wax models, through the manufacturing of moulds. The memorial was unveiled on the 8th March 2005. According to Mengele's son Rolf, his father returned to the Gunzburg area toward the end of 1948 and stayed in the nearby forests until the spring of 1949. Mengele told Irene that he expected her and Rolf to follow once he had established himself in Buenos Aires. But Irene would not agree to go with him. Mengele's flight was arranged and paid for by his family through former SS contacts in the Gunzburg area. 

This was a town that had driven out its 309 resident Jews after the Nazis came to power. There was a widespread readiness to believe that the allegations against Mengele were false. And broadcasts across Germany by the overseas service of the BBC claiming that the SS had engaged in monstrous acts of carnage, were viewed as Allied victory propaganda.

 From an article by noted plagiarist Gerald L. Posner and John Ware, Chicago Tribune Magazine, May 18, 1986
 The Frauenkirche then and now