Showing posts with label France. Show all posts
Showing posts with label France. Show all posts

Great War Sites Relating to Hitler

Although outside the stated scope of this website which concerns what's left of the Third Reich within Germany, I thought it might be interesting to add some photos I took whilst cycling along the Great War battlefields for my website Echoes of War:
Hitler reminisced about the places described below in his Hitler's Table Talk (609-610):
When we went into the line in 1916, to the south of Bapaume, the heat was intolerable. As we marched through the streets, there was not a house, not a tree to be seen; everything had been destroyed, and even the grass had been burnt. It was a veritable wilderness.
In the present campaign I got my greatest surprise when I revisited Arras. In the old days it was just a mound of earth. And now— —! Fields filled with blossom and waving corn, while on Vimy Ridge the scars are much as they were, shell- holes and all. I believe it is much the same in the Champagne.
The soldier has a boundless affection for the ground on which he has shed his blood. If we could arrange the transport, we should have a million people pouring into France to revisit the scenes of their former struggle.
Marching along the roads was a misery for us poor old infantrymen; again and again we were driven off the road by the bloody gunners, and again and again we had to dive into the swamps to save our skins! All the thanks we got was a torrent of curses—"Bloody So-and-Sos" was the mildest expression hurled at us.
My first impression of Ypres was—towers, so near that I could all but touch them. But the little infantryman in his hole in the ground has a very small field of vision.
I shall send our people who have been given the task of rebuilding Lübeck to Ypres before they start work. Fifty different shades of tiles, from salmon-pink, through gold to deep violet ! The new Ypres is a city out of fairyland!
A few inhabitants of Fromelles and Fournes hold childhood memories of Hitler’s return in 1940. They recall a motorcade making its way down the Aubers road and stopping, while the leader alighted to inspect an old Great War blockhouse (known to this day as the blockhaus du fuehrer):

The "Hitler bunker"
About a mile south of Fromelles towards Aubers on the the D141 is this concrete shelter where it is claimed that Hitler spent time whilst serving with the Bavarian Infanterie-Regiment List and even had a plaque stating as much only recently removed.
Hitler in fact visited another site nearby in his tour as conqueror of France on June 26, 1940
According to the sign, the bunker was in the 5th German line during the battle of Fromelles. ‘The trenches and Fromelles were his world’, one former comrade wrote in 1931, ‘what lay beyond didn’t exist for him’. At Fournes, Hitler led the way to what had once been Black Mary’s and the nearby Art-Nouveau bandstand where, on Sunday afternoons, the List Regiment’s band played excerpts from the ‘Merry Widow’ or Der Rosenkavalier. The party also visited the local German war-graves cemetery, where Hitler saluted the graves of Bavarians who fell in May 1915 and July 1916. Among them was that created after a battle that would be called Langemarck by the Germans and First Ypres by the British.
Hitler in 1940 at his former billet, and the same building today.

After the Great War and today
The total number of soldiers buried or commemorated in this cemetery is 44,234, situated north of Langemark village, about 6 kilometres north-east of Ypres. The cemetery started as a small group of graves in 1915 and was officially inaugurated on 10 July 1932. Roughly 3,000 graves are of the Student Volunteers who died in the battle of Langemark in October and November 1914 leading the cemetery to be dubbed Der Studentenfriedhof- the Student Cemetery.

Belgians hardly wanted Germans, dead or alive, on their land forcing Germany to economise. Here eight bodies lie under one stone.
The so-called Kameraden Grab ( 'Comrades Grave') where the remains of 24,917 unidentified German soldiers are interred.
Bronze statue of four mourning soldiers, by the Munich sculptor Professor Emil Krieger. Apparently it "was inspired by a photograph taken of soldiers from the Reserve Infantry Regiment 238, mourning at the grave of a comrade in 1918" shown on the right. The second soldier from the right was killed two days after the photograph was taken.

Holding a picture of Hitler and assembled Nazis standing in the same spot.

Hitler, later eulogised as an ‘Hero of Langemarck’, took only a peripheral part in the events of 9–11 November 1914 which created the ‘Langemarck Legend’ when young regiments sang “Deutschland, Deutschland über Alles” as they advanced and took the first line of enemy trenches.’
Just beside the German cemetery is the Memorial to the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers of the 34th Division next to the bunker they captured in September 1918 and used as an Advanced Dressing Station. The man put in charge was Lawrence of Arabia's brother. Apparently more men died of drowning than through artillery.

Nearby I found some remaining shells. When farmers find artillery they place it on the side of the road (or in this case, within an electricity pole) and alert the military who then collect it and eventually gather them together to detonate.
In Langemark village itself is this memorial to the 20th Light Division, shown between the wars and today, now surrounded by suburbia

Nearby on the main road from Ypres to Bruges, this most impressive Memorial at St. Julien commemorates the "18,000 Canadians on the British left [who] withstood the first German gas attacks on the 22-24 April 1915. 2,000 fell and lie buried nearby." This had been the first gas attack of the Great War. "The Brooding Soldier" is almost 11 metres high and displays the bowed head and shoulders of a Canadian soldier in the position of "rest on your arms reversed."

Hitler’s 1940 battlefield excursion was part of a grand tour of defeated France, of which an early morning visit (in the company of Albert Speer and the official Nazi sculptor Arno Breker) to the architectural monuments of Paris was the highlight. Court photographer Heinrich Hoffmann turned Hitler’s excursion into a profitable propaganda set piece. The cover of the first edition (600,000) of his Mit Hitler im Westen shows Hitler posing in front of the Eiffel Tower, while other more deceptive pictures suggest that the warlord was leading from the Front during the French campaign. Hoffmann’s book is part travelogue, part propaganda. Its subject is the resolution of unfinished business from 1918, as is made clear in a foreword by Field marshal Keitel:
On the day of the summer solstice in the wood of Compiègne, the Führer erased the disgrace of the Armistice of 9 November 1918. Again I was permitted to be at [his] side during this unique victory campaign of our Wehrmacht . . . not only to seek out the battlefields on which our soldiers have been victorious in this war, but also those on which German men fought and died in the World War of 1914–1918.
Emphasising Keitel’s point, Hitler is shown at Fromelles, Vimy Heights and other sites where the List Regiment fought:
Two of the most telling images, placed together on a page, were taken in Fournes. At the top, over the caption Im Quartier 1916, a group photograph shows Hitler and other dispatch runners seated in front of a wall. Below it, in a photo from 1940 set in front of the same wall, Hitler stands with his former sergeant major, now Reichsleiter Amann, and former dispatch runner Ernst Schmidt.
These photographs were taken at Hitler's regimental headquarters in Fournes, now serving as the town hall
Hitler's wartime sketch Shelter in Fournes (considerably touched-up for publication when he assumed power) and video of the shelter today.

In Fournes itself, the most obvious sign of the presence of Hitler's regiment in the village for a year and a half is the German military cemetery in which so many of Hitler's comrades remain buried.
Weber (344) Hitler's First War
Demarcation Stone near Kemmel
On the side of the road is this Demarcation stone surmounted by a French helmet. One can still faintly read the legend Kemmel. Granite demarcation stones can also be seen at various locations throughout the Westhoek. First erected during the 1920’s at the initiative of the Touring Club of Belgium, these 1 metre-high stones are usually crowned with a military-style-helmet and bear the inscription (in three languages): ”Here the invader was brought to a halt”. During the Second World War this inscription was often defaced by the Germans. Nineteen of these stones still remain in the Westhoek, sometimes to be found at the corner of a street and sometimes on the edge of a field.

Hitler at Kemmel during his tour
Ypres Cloth Hall and Cathedral in 1918

Panoramic image of Ypres from 1919, showing the town's destruction.

The Cloth Hall Ypres, [ca. 1918] after J. Kerr Lawson with Canadian troops passing the ruins of the Cloth Hall.

On the same road nine decades earlier, the same one Hitler was driven down.

The Menin Gate

The site of the Menin Gate after the war.

The building of the Gate and today.
The Menin Gate Memorial commemorates the missing of the Salient, and was designed by Reginald Blomfield with construction completed in 1927. It lists the names of 54,332 men of Britain and the Dominions (apart from New Zealand) who fell in the Salient and who have no known grave. The names represent the fallen of Britain, Ireland, and what were then the Dominions (apart from New Zealand which chose top have its own separate memorial) up until 16th August 1917 after which the other names are recorded at Tyne Cot CWGC.

Every evening at 20.00 the Last Post is played at the Menin Gate, with a local policeman on call to stop traffic whilst Belgian firemen preparing to perform the Last Post.

The names are inscribed on panels arranged by Regiment, and within that by rank.

The Gate in 1940 under German occupation

Hitler himself visited the site twice that year

  From Siegfried Debaeke's book Hitler in Vlaanderen

Hitler's first experience of fighting was in one of the fiercest and most critical engagements of the war, the First Battle of Ypres, when the British succeeded in stemming an all-out effort by the Germans to burst through to the Channel coast. For four days and nights the List Regiment was in the thick of the fighting with the British round Becelaere and Gheluvelt. In a letter to his old Munich landlord, the tailor Herr Popp, Hitler reported that when they were pulled out of the line and sent into rest billets at Werwick, the regiment had been reduced in four days from three thousand five hundred to six hundred men; only thirty officers were left and four companies had to be broken up.

Hitler's painting of the church at Becelaere (Becelaire) and as it appears today

Pillbox and crater along the Dammstrasse to Bayershof (White Chateau)
A British pillbox; behind is the Bayershof German Headquarters:

Bayershof (White Chateau)

This unique German site is located between the villages of Wijtschate and Voormezele. The site consists of two mine galleries, a mine shaft, a trench system and five bunkers. It is accessed via a footpath which passes through the restored network of trenches. A series of information panels give details of the events which took place here and explain what life at the front was really like. The site was restored in collaboration with the Association for Battlefield Archaeology ( It was
known to the Allies as Croonaert Wood and to the Germans 'Bayernwald' because of the Bavarian troops stationed there - Adolf Hitler served here in 1914-1915, and was awarded an Iron Cross nearby. Private Hitler, of the 16th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment, was lightly wounded here on November 15, 1914 whilst rescuing his Lieutenant. He painted "Painting from Croonaert." He returned here on June 1, 1940 as Leader of the German Reich.
Displays along the road allow one to compare the panorama then and now from the German positions.

German trenches behind; Hitler revisiting the site in 1940.
The fighting for Bayernwald was the List Regiment’s last major engagement for 1914 and one of the last German offensives of First Ypres. Two days later Falkenhayn called off the battle and this drew to an unsatisfactory (for the Germans) conclusion. Between Becalaere and the commencement of the fighting at Bayernwald, the regiment had been heavily engaged for 18 days. After Gheluvelt, the only men available to replace losses were those returning from wounds.
On 1 November alone, at Bethlehem Farm, the regiment lost 119 men killed, a ravine near Wytschaete being ‘filled with dead and wounded’. Carrying messages, across a landscape exposed to artillery fire, snipers and machine-gunners, dispatch runners were placed in a ‘most dangerous’ situation and many were lost. Hitler remained unscathed. ‘How he succeeded in getting through’, Mend wrote, ‘in spite of the incessant artillery fire, is to this day incomprehensible to me.’ He later expressed amazement at Hitler ‘still being alive and recalled, laughing: “Man, there’s no bullet with your number on it!” A grin was [Hitler’s] only answer.’
Overlooking the German positions taken by NZ troops to reach the ridge in 1919, showing Irish Farm from the Rossignol Hill 63, and with my students in 2013. The great Mine Battle of June 7 1917 here, in the sector known to the British as Messines Ridge and to the Germans as the ”Wijtschate Bogen,” quite literally made the world shake. 19 mines were detonated under the German lines, causing explosions which could be heard as far away as London. In the beginning, this British offensive was a success. This was the prelude to the ill-fated Third Battle of Ypres.

German pillboxes taken that remain on either side of the monument to the New Zealanders who took the town from the Germans.
The Messines Ridge (New Zealand) Memorial to the Missing is situated within Messines Ridge British Cemetery about five miles south of Ypres.

Messines Church
Hitler had described the outskirts of Messines whilst a soldier in a January 26, 1915 postcard to his landlord back in Munich, Joseph Popps, as "partly flat and undulating and covered with countless hedges and straight rows of trees." He went on to write that "Messines is a village of 2,400 inhabitants, or rather it was a village, for now nothing is left of it except an enormous heap of ash and rubble."

Hitler's painting of the church during the war

Standing inside the crypt where Hitler had been billeted.

Neuve Chapelle

On October 27, 1914, this village saw the first action taken by the Indian Corps which attempted to take it from the Germans. It was not until March 10, 1915 that the second attempt took place with the Indian Meerut Division assisting the 8th Division. This was to be the first time that aerial photography played a prominent role in a major battle with the entire German lines being mapped from the air. Losses sustained were immense, particularly to the Middlesex Regiment and the Cameronians, given the inadequate preliminary bombardment leaving the barbed wire in front of German positions uncut. After four days 2 kilometres were taken. 40,000 Allied troops had taken part in the battle and of these 11,200 (7,000 British, 4,200 Indian) were lost. What was left of the village was defended by the Portuguese Division of all groups during the 1918 Battles of Lys.

Indian Memorial to the Missing
This beautiful memorial is circular and has inscribed the names of many of the missing Indian soldiers on panels that are joined with regimental crests of Indian Army Units. Throughout there are Indian features and motifs, and in the foreground is a 15-metre high column surmounted by a Lotus capital, the Star of India and the Imperial Crown. On either side of the column two carved tigers guard the memorial.

Portuguese Military Cemetery

The two Portuguese divisions sent to the Western Front came under British command. They were badly beaten in the first of the German spring offensive in 1918. Besides this military cemetery there is a monument to the Portuguese Army in the French village of Couture in Flanders near the Belgian frontier. The war was not universally popular in Portugal with mobilisation failing top provide any economic boost. The military coups and other political upheavals sparked by the declaration of war continued after 1918, eventually resulting in the Salazar Dictatorship which lasted into the early 1970s. At Paris Portugal had been rewarded with a tiny piece of German East Africa along the northern Mozambique border known as the Kionga Triangle.

In his five months as a dispatch runner, Hitler had never experienced ‘such heavy fire’. His task was to bring messages from the regimental headquarters at Halpegarde through a ‘way that had literally been dug up by shells’ into the Bois du Biez. From there he had to find his way across the dangerously exposed country to the Bavarian assault battalions who were now mixed up with Prussians all the way to the British positions at Neuve Chapelle. Battlefield confusion was adding an extra dimension to the dispatch runners’ load...
Hitler seems to have thrived in this battle, going about his duties with ‘a spring in his step and unworried as always’. While he believed himself chosen by Fate for greater things, he was more than ready to give Fate a helping hand, never neglecting ‘to pick out on the map those points on the way that could be dangerous to him’. He was said to be ‘as cunning as a fox [who] knows exactly when to keep his head down. During a barrage on the position the day before one could have shown more care!’ Even so, the risks were considerable. ‘If anyone is sent out to the trenches today’, one orderly was quoted as saying, ‘he will be lucky to come back. The fire is fearsome. If I am caught today, I can only hope I do not have to suffer for too long.’ Hitler was unperturbed, strapping ‘his dispatch case on so tightly that it would take a day to get it off. He should get a decoration today. However, he has to be careful not to get his head blown off first.’ He did not win a decoration but did confirm his value. Petz stated that ‘when he needed a reliable man for an important report, [he] called for Hitler’: as well as bravery, a good dispatch runner needed ‘intelligence and sharp wits’. After Neuve Chapelle, Hitler’s virtues were ‘well known among the regimental staff’.
A monument to the slaughter is found further south along the D166 to Bethune:

Le Touret CWGC and Memorial to the Missing

Above arches within the walkways, and elsewhere are engraved regimental insignia of the units whose men are commemorated here. This huge Memorial is in the form of a loggia lined with panels listing the names of the Missing on one side, and which are open with interspaced columns on the other side. It commemorates those with no known grave who died in the area. In the centre of the memorial, between the walkways, is a grassed area "courtyard" area containing a stone column, with the dates 1914 - 1918 etched on it in Latin numerals. Inscribed above the arches in this courtyard are the names of the battles and actions fought in the area:La Bassee, Festubert 1914, Givenchy 1914/1915, Cuinchy, Neuve Chapelle, Aubers Ridge and Festubert 1915.
In 1915, after a period at Tourcoing, the List Regiment was moved up towards Neuve Chapelle, again opposite British troops. In 1916 they took part in the heavy fighting on the Somme, and in October found themselves near Bapaume. Here on 7 October Hitler was wounded in the leg, and was sent back to Germany for the first time for two years.
Bapaume Post CWGC
This cemetery is right outside Albert to the east along the D929 road and was begun in July 1916 after the village of La Boiselle was taken. Just over 150 men were buried here between then and the end of January 1917, when the cemetery was closed for wartime burials. The location of the cemetery is on the west side of Tara Hill, and another 250 or so graves were brought in after the Armistice, many being men of the 34th Tyneside Division who attacked further along the Bapaume road from here on the 1st of July 1916.
In the futile attempt to save Bapaume, the List Regiment lost 700 men. Not all could be replaced, and those who were, according to Hitler, were supplanted by men of such poor quality ‘that their arrival meant, not a reinforcement but a weakening of our fighting spirit . . . As everywhere, the poison of the hinterland began, here too, to be effective. And the younger recruit fell down completely – for he came from home.’ By this time Monash had calculated that the company strength of the German infantry on the Western Front was ‘only 410,000’. Still, there was no hint of desperation in German reporting. Ludendorff, granting an interview to a Hungarian correspondent, was ‘glad’ that his visitor had ‘gained a good impression of our troops, who’ve been in heavy fighting for months’. Ludendorff dismissed the ability of the Americans to provide ‘significant help in men and material’. ‘We were ready for the Russian steamroller [and] will be ready for America. Our will to victory remains unbroken and we will break the destructive will of the enemy.’German newspapers still maintained that the army was invincible and defeat inconceivable. A month after the ‘black day’, the Morgen- Post described the post-8 August retreat ‘a masterpiece in the history of war’. The Germans had not ‘retired with pleasure voluntarily; it would be mad to pretend so. But militarily it was the only thing to do. Even, as must surely be expected, this has to continue to the Siegfried [Hindenburg] positions and beyond, we have no need to be anxious.’

Hitler's sketch of St. Martin's Church (Sint-Martinuskerk) in Ardooie, after the Second World War and today

Hitler's wartime sketch of Sint-Michiel church in Roeselare, a few miles away, and today.

A couple of miles from Roeselare is the smallest of the four German cemeteries in Flanders at Hooglede with 8,247 burials. In 1937, a chapel was built using stones from a German pavilion at the World Exhibition in Paris. During World War II, an addition 29 German soldiers were buried at the cemetery. These soldiers were later sent to another cemetery.
Hitler in front of the church in Montbavin in 1940, which has hardly changed since

Notre Dame de Lorette

Notre Dame de Lorette is the name of a ridge, basilica, and French national cemetery northwest of Arras at the village of Ablain-Saint-Nazaire. The high point of the hump-backed ridge stands 165 metres high and - with Vimy Ridge mentioned below- utterly dominates the otherwise flat Douai plain and the town of Arras. The ground was strategically important during the First World War and was bitterly contested in a series of long and bloody engagements between the opposing French and German armies. It was the focal point of the three battles of Artoise which were as costly in French lives as the better-known Battle of Verdun. As with numerous other sites across France, Notre Dame de Lorette became a national necropolis, sacred ground containing the graves of French and Colonial fallen, as well as an ossuary, containing the bones of those whose names were not marked. In total, the cemetery and ossuary hold the remains of more than 40,000 soldiers, as well as the ashes of many concentration camp victims.

The same view 90 years ago
The Canadian National Vimy Memorial overlooking the Douai Plain from the highest point of Vimy Ridge, about ten kilometres north of Arras. Carved on the walls of the monument are the names of 11,285 Canadian soldiers who were killed in France and whose final resting place was then unknown. Standing on the monument’s wide stone terrace overlooking the broad fields and rolling hills of Northern France, one can see other places where Canadians fought and died. More than 7,000 are buried in 30 war cemeteries within a 20-kilometre radius of the Vimy Memorial. Altogether, more than 66,000 Canadian service personnel died in the First World War.
On his return to the Front, Hitler found his comrades occupying trenches in a quiet sector on the heights of Vimy. During his absence it had been involved in little fighting, but had endured climatic conditions, on a wind-swept position in that most terrible winter of the war, which were harsher than any the men had known. Hitler, by missing the worst of these months, was living up to his ‘Lucky Linzer’ nickname.
Hitler's visit in June, 1940
My first pilgrimage to Vimy and exactly ten years later

 In the Nazi film Sieg im Westen (1941),
The finale shows Hitler, as triumphator Germaniae, and his entourage strutting through Reims Cathedral. The choral music from "Lieb Vaterland magst ruhig sein" ("Dear Fatherland, Rest Assured") reaches a crescendo. The viewers can now comfortably lean back in their seats. They knew they could rely on the Wehrmacht and its supreme commander Adolf Hitler.
Hoffmann (227) The Triumph of Propaganda

The victory monument in June 1940 draped with the German war ensign and today. In1916 the Germans tried to ’bleed the French dry’ in a battle that lasted for 10 months and which brought France to the verge of collapse. Both sideslost tens of thousands of soldiers. To reduce the pressure on Verdun, a joint Anglo-French attack was launched on the Somme. Tanks were employed for the first time but the offensive was a fiasco. On the first day of the battle alone, the British lost 60,000 men, killed, wounded or missing. By the end of 1916, casualties on both sides were horrendous. 
Between them both sides lost half a million men and how many still lie buried in that charnel soil may never be known. Verdun remained in French hands. For the French it was a magnificent victory, but one that had almost shattered their army. For the Germans it was their first undeniable setback, a heavy blow to the morale of both army and people.
Howard (77) The First World War
France surrendered on 22 June in a humiliating ceremony in the very same railroad car that they had made Germany sign the armistice November 11, 1918.
From William L. Shirer's account in Berlin Diary (419–25):
On the exact spot in the little clearing in the Forest of Compiègne where at five a.m. on November 11, 1918 the armistice which ended the World War was signed, Adolf Hitler today handed his armistice terms to France. To make German revenge complete, the meeting of the German and French plenipotentiaries took place in Marshal Foch’s private car, in which Foch laid down the armistice terms to Germany twenty-two years ago. Even the same table in the rickety old wagon-lit car was used. And through the windows we saw Hitler occupying the very seat on which Foch had sat at that table when he dictated the other armistice.
The humiliation of France, of the French, was complete. And yet in the preamble to the armistice terms Hitler told the French that he had not chosen this spot at Compiègne out of revenge; merely to right an old wrong. From the demeanour of the French delegates I gathered that they did not appreciate the difference.
... The armistice negotiations began at three fifteen p.m. A warm June sun beat down on the great elm and pine trees, and cast pleasant shadows on the wooded avenues as Hitler, with the German plenipotentiaries at his side, appeared. He alighted from his car in front of the French monument to Alsace-Lorraine which stands at the end of an avenue about two hundred yards from the clearing where the armistice car waits on exactly the same spot it occupied twenty-two years ago.
The Alsace-Lorraine statue, I noted, was covered with German war flags so that you could not see its sculptured work nor read its inscription. But I had seen it some years before – the large sword representing the sword of the Allies, and its point sticking into a large, limp eagle, representing the old Empire of the Kaiser. And the inscription underneath in French saying: “TO THE HEROIC SOLDIERS OF FRANCE ... DEFENDERS OF THE COUNTRY AND OF RIGHT ... GLORIOUS LIBERATORS OF ALSACE-LORRAINE.”
I saw the Führer stop, glance at the monument, observe the Reich flags with their big Swastikas in the centre. Then he strode slowly towards us, towards the little clearing in the woods. I observed his face. It was grave, solemn, yet brimming with revenge. There was also in it, as in his springy step, a note of the triumphant conqueror, the defier of the world. There was something else, difficult to describe, in his expression, a sort of scornful, inner joy at being present at this great reversal of fate – a reversal he himself had wrought.
Now here aches the little opening in the woods. He pauses and looks slowly around.The clearing is in the form of a circle some two hundred yards in diameter and laid out like a park. Cypress trees line it all round – and behind them, the great elms and oaks of the forest. This has been one of France’s national shrines for twenty-two years. From a discreet position on the perimeter of the circle we watch...The time is now three eighteen p.m. Hitler’s personal flag is run up on a small standard in the centre of the opening. Also in the centre is a great granite block which stands some three feet above the ground. Hitler, followed by the others, walks slowly over to it, steps up, and reads the inscription engraved in great high letters on that block. It says: “HERE ON THE ELEVENTH OF NOVEMBER 1918 SUCCUMBED THE CRIMINAL PRIDE OF THE GERMAN EMPIRE ... VANQUISHED BY THE FREE PEOPLES WHICH IT TRIED TO ENSLAVE.”
Hitler reads it and Goering reads it. They all read it, standing there in the June sun and the silence. I look for the expression on Hitler’s face. I am but fifty yards from him and see him through my glasses as though he were directly in front of me. I have seen that face many times at the great moments of his life. But today! It is afire with scorn, anger, hate, revenge, triumph. He steps off the monument and contrives to make even this gesture a masterpiece of contempt. He glances back at it, contemptuous, angry – angry, you almost feel, because he cannot wipe out the awful, provoking lettering with one sweep of his Prussian boot. He glances slowly around the clearing, and now, as his eyes meet ours, you grasp the depth of his hatred. But there is triumph there too – revengeful, triumphant hate. Suddenly, as though his face were not giving quite complete expression to his feelings, he throws his whole body into harmony with his mood. He swiftly snaps his hands on his hips, arches his shoulders, plants his feet wide apart. It is a magnificent gesture of defiance, of burning contempt for this place now and all that it has stood for in the twenty-two years since it witnessed the humbling of the German Empire.
It is now three twenty-three p.m. and the Germans stride over to the armistice car. For a moment or two they stand in the sunlight outside the car, chatting. Then Hitler steps up into the car, followed by the others. We can see nicely through the car windows. Hitler takes the place occupied by Marshal Foch when the 1918 armistice terms were signed. The others spread them- selves around him. Four chairs on the opposite side of the table from Hitler remain empty. The French have not yet appeared. But we do not wait long. Exactly at three thirty p.m. they alight from a car... They too glance at the Alsace-Lorraine memorial, but it’s a swift glance. Then they walk down the avenue flanked by three German officers... The German guard of honour, drawn up at the entrance to the clearing, snaps to attention for the French as they pass, but it does not present arms.
Now we get our picture through the dusty windows of that old wagon-lit car. Hitler and the other German leaders rise as the French enter the drawing-room. Hitler gives the Nazi salute, the arm raised. Ribbentrop and Hess do the same. I cannot see M. Noël to notice whether he salutes or not. Hitler, as far as we can see through the windows, does not say a word to the French or to anybody else. He nods to General Keitel at his side. We see General Keitel adjusting his papers. Then he starts to read. He is reading the preamble to the German armistice terms. The French sit there with marble-like faces and listen intently. Hitler and Goering glance at the green table-top.
The reading of the preamble lasts but a few minutes. Hitler, we soon observe, has no intention of remaining very long, of listening to the reading of the armistice terms themselves. At three
forty-two p.m., twelve minutes after the French arrive, we see Hitler stand up, salute stiffly, and then stride out of the drawing-room, followed by Goering, Brauchitsch, Raeder, Hess, and Ribbentrop.
Hitler and his aides stride down the avenue towards the Alsace-Lorraine monument, where their cars are waiting. As they pass the guard of honour, the German band strikes up the two national anthems, Deutschland, Deutschland über Alles and the Horst Wessel song. The whole ceremony in which Hitler has reached a new pinnacle in his meteoric career and Germany avenged the 1918 defeat is over in a quarter of an hour.
CBS News' William L Shirer reports the French surrender, June 21, 1940
On September 28, 1918, Private Henry Tandey, serving near the French village of Marcoing, reportedly encountered a wounded German soldier and declines to shoot him, sparing the life of 29-year-old Lance Corporal Adolf Hitler.
As Tandey later told sources, during the final moments of that battle, as the German troops were in retreat, a wounded German soldier entered Tandey’s line of fire. "I took aim but couldn’t shoot a wounded man," Tandey remembered, "so I let him go." The German soldier nodded in thanks, and disappeared.
Though sources do not exist to prove the exact whereabouts of Adolf Hitler on that day in 1918, an intriguing link emerged to suggest that he was in fact the soldier Tandey spared. A photograph that appeared in London newspapers of Tandey carrying a wounded soldier at Ypres in 1914 was later portrayed on canvas in a painting by the Italian artist Fortunino Matania glorifying the Allied war effort. As the story goes, when British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain travelled to Germany in 1938 to engage Hitler in a last-ditch effort to avoid another war in Europe, he was taken by the führer to his new country retreat in Bavaria. There, Hitler showed Chamberlain his copy of the Matania painting, commenting, "That’s the man who nearly shot me."
CORPORAL HITLER AND THE GREAT T W AR 1914–1918 Adolf Hitler enlisted in the Bavarian Army in August 1914 as a war volunteer. Fanatically devoted to the German cause, between 1914 and 1918 Hitler served with distinction and sometimes reckless bravery, winning both classes of Iron Cross. Using memoirs, military records, regimental, divisional and official war histories as well as (wherever possible) Hitler’s own words, this book seeks to reconstruct a period in his life that has been neglected in the literature. As a front- line soldier Hitler began his ‘study’ of the black art of propaganda; and, as he himself maintained, the List Regiment provided him with his ‘university of life’. This is not only an account of the fighting, however. Some of the most profound influences on Hitler occurred on home leave or as a result of official wartime propaganda, which he devoured uncritically. His conversion from passive to pathological anti-Semitism began while he was invalided in Germany in 1916–17. Hitler is here presented less as the product of high cultural forces than as an avid reader and gullible consumer of state propaganda, which fed his prejudices. He was a ‘good soldier’ but also a ‘true believer’ in fact and practice. It is no exag- geration to say that every military decision made by Hitler between 1939 and 1945 was in some way influenced or coloured by his experiences with the List Regiment between 1914 and 1918. Without the presence of this Austrian-born Infanterist (soon to be corporal) in its ranks, the List Regiment merits no more attention than any one of the 800 or so German regiments that served on the Western Front in the Great War. Yet Hitler did serve in its ranks and that fact alone makes its story important. Between 1914 and 1918, Hitler claimed, he changed from a self-confessed ‘weak-kneed cosmo- politan’ into an anti-Semite and ardent pan-German nationalist. Again according to Hitler, he decided in the trenches that for Germany’s sake he must place what- ever dreams he held of architectural or artistic glory on hold, and instead devote his immediate post-war future to politics. As an adjunct – and there is no reason to disbelieve (in this case) his word – as a front-line soldier he began his ‘study’ of the black art of propaganda. And, as Hitler himself maintained, the List Regiment provided him with his university of life. Much, but not all, which Hitler wrote or said about himself, his past and his struggles can be taken with the proverbial grain of salt. As for the words of first-hand witnesses, these too are often contradictory and sometimes driven by motives in which truth does not always figure prominently. None more so perhaps than some of the self-styled acquaintances from his Vienna days between 1908 and 1913. In 1941 a certain Captain Karl Mayr, with whom Hitler had collaborated immediately after the war, asserted: hammer and sickle armbands. The person singled out might be Hitler, and what appear as armbands might bear insignias. Yet even assuming Hitler was parading with left-wing veterans from his old regiment, what does this prove? At that time he was working for the Reichswehr and his ‘presence’ suggests no more than a fact-finding mis- sion for his political and military masters. Almost as unthinkable as ‘Red Hitler’ is the idea that he was a passive anti-Semite, who embraced radical anti-Semitism after the Great War out of political expediency. The suggestion that the genocide of 6,000,000 Jews was initiated not by Hitler, but by someone else who was a true anti-Semite, is floated, not surprisingly perhaps, by David Irving. Thus, the real ‘criminal behind the “final solution” or the “Holocaust,” whatever it was [the] man who started it in motion [was] undoubtedly Dr. Goebbels’. Knopp is also among those who feel that evidence for ‘whether [Hitler] was already a radical anti-Semite during the Great War’ remains ‘unconvincing’. As well as Gutmann (who, Wiedemann attests, was a brave and capable officer), the regimental doctor Kohn won the highest Bavarian award for devotion to medical duties in the field, while a ferocious and much-decorated storm-troop leader, Lieutenant Kuh, an artist in civilian life, was also Jewish and credited with saying that there was nothing more beautiful than ‘the night before an assault!’ In this respect at least, Kuh was a man after Hitler’s own heart. Whether he endorsed Hitler’s brutal social-Darwinist view of war as racial hygiene is another question. Hitler, as late as 1941, was telling acolytes that a peace lasting ‘more than twenty-five years is harmful to a nation. Peoples, like individuals, sometimes need regenerating by a little bloodletting.’ For the good of the German people it was therefore necessary to have ‘a war every fifteen or twenty years’.19 Thinking of this kind had become unfashionable after the bloodbaths of the Great War, but before 1914, Class, Treitschke, Bernhardi and most social- Darwinists had argued similarly. Nor was the idea peculiarly German; in 1912 such diverse characters as Italian futurist poets and artists and Hitler professed that ‘nothing on earth would persuade us to abandon such safe positions as those on the Channel coast’. It was his absolute ‘conviction that’ Wallonia [French Belgium] and northern France are in reality German lands. The abundance of German-sounding nameplaces, the widespread customs of German origin, the forms of idiom which have persisted – all these prove, to my mind, that these territories have been systematically detached, not to say snatched, from the Germanic territories. If there are territories anywhere which we have every right to reclaim . . . it is these.22 His other territorial claims on France (indicative of the peace treaty the Nazis had in mind for that nation) were bizarre: ‘We must further not forget that the old Kingdom of Burgundy played a prominent role in German history and that it is from time immemorial German soil, which the French grabbed at the time of our weakness.’ 23 209 EPILOGUE: THE GREATEST COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF ALL TIME Werner Beumelburg concluded his 1939 appeal on a high note of logic and right- eousness, clearly intended to justify Germany’s 25-year war. Twenty-five years have passed and the same powers, which at that time strove to annihilate Germany, have again risen up in order to begin their absurd work. The generation of 1914 and the generation of 1939 stand side by side, weapons to hand determined, throughout the most extreme test of soldierly virtue, to prevent a repeat of our misfortune. Never in history has a single generation of people been allowed such an experience. No generation has so earned victory as that which did its soldierly duty for four long years on the battlefield, an undying example for all those who follow . . . That no one may rob us of victory and that our youth may prove itself on the battlefields [in] spirit and in reality, that is our prayer.24 With a war on two fronts assuaged through the Molotov–Ribbentrop pact, Beumelburg, like most Germans, greeted the New Year of 1940 optimistically. Their prayer seemed already to have been answered; Germany’s success in what became not one of 25- or 26-year but a 30-year war was not in God’s hands, but in those of the man-god that Germans were encouraged to believe was the ‘greatest commander-in-chief of all time’. The events of the last five of that 30-year war are part of another and very well-known story.25 210 NOTES 1 A UNIVERSITY OF THE TRENCHES 1 Hitler’s Table Talk, pp. 14 & 128. 2 Hitler’ s Table Talk, p. xxv. Today Beumelburg is mostly, and deservedly, forgotten. In the Third Reich, however, his novels regularly ran to editions of 30,000 to 150,000 thousand; the total production of those listed by the Phillip Reclam Verlag of Leipzig in 1939 is over a million. His interest in history and historical myth-making was not confined to the written word, for he was soon appointed to be one of three directors-general of the National Socialist Reich Radio Chamber. Beumelburg’s career in Joseph Wulf, Presse und Funk im Dritten Reich and Wulf, Die bildenden Künste im Dritten Reich. In the Weimar period Beumelburg wrote the afore-mentioned Reichsarchiv monograph Flandern (on Third Ypres), as part of the same series as his Douaumont (on Verdun). He also wrote a Dolchstoss-inspired critique of the Versailles Treaty, Deutschland im Ketten (Germany in Chains). Beumelburg, Von 1914 bis 1939, p. 8. 3 Hitler’ s Table Talk, p. 661. 4 Amman quoted by Wiedemann in Feldherr, p. 249. Trevor-Roper, ‘Mind of Adolf Hitler’, pp. xxxiii–xxxiv and Table Talk, p. 82. 5 Werner Beumelburg, Von 1914 bis 1939, p. 41. 6 Ibid., pp. 15, 41. 7 Table Talk, pp. 315, 228. Hitler cited in Hans Frank, Im Angesicht des Galgens, p. 46. 8 Where a young Frenchman had an 80 per cent chance of being conscripted, a German had, on average, one chance in two of being called up. Middle-class, often ardently patriotic German males were almost routinely exempted so that they might further professional careers or continue tertiary studies. Also exempted, ironically, were most of the industrial working class, on the grounds that these workers were probably infected by Social Democracy. Indeed, military authorities drew just 6 per cent of conscripts from the cities, where 40 per cent of the population lived. Official statistics by Bernhardi, Next War, pp. 243–44. 9 Hitler, Mein Kampf, p. 165. 10 Statistics in Solleder (ed.), Vier Jahre Westfront, pp. 382–85. 11 Some 800 infantry regiments fought in the Bavarian, Saxon, Württemburg and Prussian divisions that made up the armies of the German empire for the loss of men killed of just under two million, an average of some 2,500 per regiment. 12 Table Talk, p. 56. 211 NOTES 13 Manheim, translator’s note in Mein Kampf, pp. xi–xii. Maser offered a pre-1914 Hitler reading list of Wedeking, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Ibsen, Shakespeare, Schiller, Goethe, Dante, Hauptmann and Zola, and even Confucius and Buddha. Maser, Myth & Reality, p. 118. Kershaw, Hitler: 1889–1936, p. 41. Hamann, Hitler’s Vienna, p. 392. Speer, Au cœur, p. 177. 14 Brandmayer, Meldegänger Hitler, p. 36. The event is also reported in Toland, Hitler, p. 64. 15 According to René Mathot, Hitler had an affair with a French woman in Fournes- en-Weppes, which produced a son on 25 March 1918. Since the List Regiment and Hitler left Fournes for good in September 1916, the chronological improbability is self-evident. Was it likely that this prudish men, with his deep-seated fears of miscegenation and of women, would seek and find a sexual partner in a village from where most civilians had been evacuated in 1915? On the other hand, Lothar Machtan’s Hitler is no philandering heterosexual, but a homosexual who had an open affair with his fellow dispatch runner Ernst Schmidt (‘Schmidl’). As proof, Machtan cites the ‘protocol’ of another former comrade, Hans Mend, a ‘document’ that is only known in hearsay. In this, Mend is quoted as stating that Hitler, in 1915, spent his nights in Fournes fornicating with his ‘male whore’ (Schmidt). Mathot, Au ravin, p. 27. Maser, ‘Vater eines Sohnes’, pp. 173–202. Machtan, Geheimnis, p. 84. Hitler the ‘loner’ in Knopp and Remy (eds), Profile. Mend, Hitler im Felde, pp. 75, 114. 16 Mend, Hitler im Felde, p. 135. 17 Brandmayer, Meldegänger Hitler, p. 82. Mend, Hitler im Felde, p. 179. 18 Ibid., p. 55. 19 Fischer, Betriebsunfall, p. 180. Mend, Hitler im Felde, p. 115. Wiedemann, Feldherr, pp. 24–29. 20 Amman quoted in Wiedemann, Feldherr, p. 249. 2 1913–14: 141.NorddeutscheZeitung,31October,1November1914. 37 Mein Kampf, pp. 165. Meyer, Mit Adolf Hitler, pp. 18–20. Solleder (ed.), Vier Jahre Westfront, p. 40. 38 Kriegrfreiw. Sachse, ‘Vom Regiment “List”’, in Peter (ed.), Unsere Bayern, p. 259. 39 Mend, Hitler im Felde, pp. 27, 33. Rubenbauer, ‘Tage der Ruhe’, pp. 59, 64. Heiden, Fuehrer, p. 74. 40 Rubenhauer, ‘Schützengraben’, pp. 65–66. 41 Times, 31 October 1914. 42 Ibid., 1 November 1914. 43 Hitler quoted in Knopp, Bilanz, p. 94. Macdonald, 1914, p. 401. 44 Macdonald, 1914, p. 407. Fritz Burgdörfer, ‘Kämpfe mit den Engländer’ and Kriegsfreiw. Sachse, ‘Vom Regiment “List”’, Unsere Bayern, pp. 144, 259. 45 Macdonald, 1914, p. 407. 46 Hitler’s letter and Engelhardt’s statement in Heiden, Fuehrer, pp. 71–73. 47 Eichelsdörfer, ‘Sturm’, p. 75. 48 Iron Cross 1st and 2nd class awards from Rubenbauer, ‘Tage der Ruhe’, p. 64. 49 Eichelsdörfer, ‘Sturm’, pp. 73–75. 50 Ibid., pp. 75–76. 51 Eichelsdörfer, ‘Schicksalstag’, pp. 77–78. 52 Letter to Munich in Heiden, Fuehrer, pp. 71–72. 53 Eichelsdörfer, ‘Schicksalstag’, p. 78. 54 Münchner Neueste Nachrichten, 10 November 1914. 55 Norddeutsche Zeitung, 12 November 1914. Ypres 1914, pp. 110–11. 56 Ypres 1914, p. 111. Norddeutsche Zeitung, 15 November 1914. 57 Times, 8 November 1914. 58 Ypres 1914, pp. 127–30. Solleder, ‘Winter’, p. 79. 59 Casualty figures from Solleder (ed.), Vier Jahre Westfront, pp. 382–83. Mend, Hitler im Felde, p. 87. 60 Die Bayern im Großen Krieg, p. 145. 5 WINTER 1914–15 1 Solleder, ‘Winter’, pp. 79–80. 2 Ibid., p. 82. 3 Mend, Hitler im Felde, pp. 40–41. 4 Ibid., pp. 24–25, 44–46. 5 Ibid., pp. 46–47. 216 NOTES 6 Solleder, ‘Winter’, p. 83. Mend, Hitler im Felde, p. 47. 7 Solleder, Ibid., pp. 87–89. 8 Mend, Hitler im Felde, pp. 47–51. 9 Neisser, ‘Deutsche Militarismus’. 10 Fischer, Germany’ s Aims, pp. 155–56. 11 Pürkel and Ungern-Sternberg, Aufruf an die Kulturwelt. Not all French responses to the Aufruf were as ludicrous as Delage’s. See for example Krumeich, ‘Ernest Lavisse’, pp. 150–51. Norddeutsche Zeitung, 23, 24 October 1914. Gilbert, Great War, p. 100. Delage in Figaro, 27 October 1914. Berliner Tageblatt, 26 October 1914. 12 Berliner Tageblatt, 23 October 1914. Norddeutsche Zeitung, 20 October 1914. 13 Angell, Great Illusion, p. 325. Sombart, ‘Unsere Feinde’ and Händler und Helden. Lenger, ‘Sombart als Propagandist’, pp. 65–76. 14 Sombart, ‘Unsere Feinde’. 15 Ibid. 16 Ibid. 17 Ibid. 18 Ibid. 19 Ibid. 20 ‘Song of Hate’ in Ungern-Sternberg, ‘Deutsche Kultur’, p. 87. 21 Mend, Hitler im Felde, p. 52. Solleder and Wenzel in Solleder (ed.), Vier Jahre West- front, pp. 90–91. 22 Wenzel in Ibid., pp. 91–92. 23 Solleder, ‘Winter’, pp. 90–93. 24 Lugauer, 5 February 1940 in Joachimsthaler, Korrektur, p. 134. 25 Solleder, ‘Das neue Jahr’, pp. 97–100. 26 Mend, Hitler im Felde, pp. 54–56. 27 Hitler’ s Table Talk 1941–1944, pp. 232–33. 28 Mend, Hitler im Felde, pp. 59–60. 29 Ibid., pp. 60–61. 30 Ibid., pp. 61–62. 31 Solleder, ‘Winter’, pp. 79–80. Mend, Ibid., p. 62. Statistics in Solleder (ed.), Vier Jahre Westfront, pp. 382–83. Brandmayer, Meldegänger Hitler, p. 17. 32 Brandmayer, Ibid., p. 17. 33 Ibid., pp. 18–19. 6 NEUVE CHAPELLE 1915 1 Mason, ‘Neuve Chapelle’. 2 Clark, Donkeys, p. 72. Bavarian official history, p. 147. 3 Ibid., p. 21. 4 Clark, Donkeys, pp. 43–48. Kölnische Zeitung, 8 March 1915. 5 Daily Telegraph (Sydney), 3 August 1914. Berliner Tageblatt, 30 April 1915. 6 Clark, Donkeys, pp. 46–48. For ‘coloured Englishmen’, see Berliner Tageblatt, 25 August 1914. 7 Blake, Haig Papers, p. 84. Times, 31 October 1914. Münchner Neueste Nachrichtung, 3 November 1914. 8 Stephen Graham in Corfield, Fromelles 19/20 July 1916, p. 9. 9 Clark, Donkeys, p. 50. L/cpl. W.L. Andrews and Haig in Macdonald, 1915, pp. 83–84, 90, 112–13. 10 Clark, Donkeys, pp. 49–50. Haig in Eichelsdörfer, ‘Neuve Chapelle’, p. 106. 11 Times, 15 March 1915. 12 Eichelsdörfer, ‘Neuve Chapelle’, p. 107. 13 Clark, Donkeys, pp. 53–54. 217 NOTES 14 Ibid., pp. 55–57. 15 Macdonald, 1915, p. 114. 16 Ibid. 17 Eichelsdörfer, ‘Neuve Chapelle’, p. 107. 18 Brandmayer, pp. 19–21. 19 Eichelsdörfer, ‘Neuve Chapelle’, pp. 108–11. 20 Mend, Hitler im Felde, pp. 78–80. Eichelsdörfer, ‘Neuve Chapelle’, p. 112. 21 Mend, ibid., pp. 76–77. 22 Ibid., pp. 75–80. 23 Ibid., p. 78. 24 Ibid., pp. 77–88. 25 Eichelsdörfer, ‘Neuve Chapelle’, pp. 112–13. 26 German official history, vol. 7, p. 59 27 Ibid. 28 Bavarian official history, p. 148. Edmonds, Winter 1914–15, pp. 151–52. 7 FROMELLES 1915 1 Times, 11 June 1917. British attitudes cited in Edmonds, Aubers Ridge, Festubert, and Loos, p. 18. 2 Bavarian official history, pp. 231–32. 3 Edmonds, Aubers Ridge, Festubert, and Loos, p. 41. Times, 12, 17 May 1915. 4 Times correspondent in Argus (Melbourne), 24 July 1916. 5 Northcliffe in Steed, Personal Narrative, p. 119. Clark, Donkeys, pp. 105–106. 6 «A quoi bon tuer des Turcs? Kill Boches». Sir John French in Figaro, 2 August 1917. Repington, Personal Experiences, vol. 1, pp. 36–37. 7 Norddeutsche Zeitung, 11 May 1915. 8 Eichelsdörfer, ‘9. und 10. Mai 1915’, p. 130. 9 Solleder, ‘Die neue Stellung’, pp. 120–21. 10 Ibid., p. 121. Weiss in Solleder, ‘Die neue Stellung’, pp. 121–22. 11 Weiss, ibid., p. 122. 12 ScanzoniinSolleder,ibid.,pp.120–21;andCorfield,Don’tForgetMeCobber,p.181. 13 Weiss and Solleder, ibid., pp. 122–23. 14 Solleder, ibid., p. 125. Zuckerman, Rape of Belgium, p. 148. 15 Mend, Hitler im Felde, pp. 89–95. 16 Ibid. 17 Ibid., pp. 98–100. 18 Ibid., p. 102. 19 Ibid., pp. 102–103. 20 Solleder, ‘Die neue Stellung’, pp. 126–28. 21 Mend, Hitler im Felde, pp. 104–105. 22 Ibid., pp. 105–109. 23 Ibid., p. 109. 24 Brandmayer, Meldegänger Hitler, pp. 24–25. 25 Ibid. 26 Brandmayer, Meldegänger Hitler, pp. 26–27. 27 Meyer, Mit Adolf Hitler, p. 23. 28 Ibid. 29 Ibid., p. 26. 30 Ibid. 31 Ibid., p. 27. 32 Mend, Hitler im Felde, pp. 112–15. 33 Ibid., p. 115. Brandmayer, Meldegänger Hitler, p. 27. 218 NOTES 34 Eichelsdörfer, ‘9. und 10. Mai 1915’, pp. 131–34. 35 Ibid., pp. 135–39. 36 Solleder, ‘Nach der Schlacht’, p. 153. 37 Edmonds, Aubers Ridge, Festubert, and Loos, p. 43. German official history, p. 59. 8 NURSERY TALES OF 1915 1 Brandmayer, Meldegänger Hitler, pp. 40–42. 2 Ibid. 3 Solleder, ‘Sommer in Flandern’, pp. 162–67. 4 Ibid., pp. 167–72. 5 Statistics in Solleder (ed.), Vier Jahre Westfront, pp. 381–85. 6 Brandmayer, Meldegänger Hitler, pp. 31–32, 44, 51. 7 Mend, Hitler im Felde, pp. 128–35. 8 Ibid., pp. 136–40. 9 When Barrès’s wartime œuvre from the Echo de Paris appeared as the Chronique de la Grande Guerre in the 1920s, it needed 14 volumes totalling almost 5,000 pages. Barrès wrote four war-related articles a week over four and a half years for the Echo; about two million words in all. Barrès, Chronique. Rolland cited in Chiron, Barrès, p. 344. 10 Berliner Tageblatt, 4 May 1915. 11 Haas, ‘Der Haß’. 12 Hitler, Mein Kampf, p. 189. 13 Edmonds to Bean, AWM 38 DRL7953, item 34, 19 September 1927. Berliner Tageblatt, 4 May 1915. 14 Berliner Tageblatt, 15 March 1915. 15 Knightley, First Casualty, p. 84. Gibbs, The Hope, pp. 165–66. 16 Alleged German Outrages . . . Bryce. Times, 13 May 1915. Ponsonby, Falsehood, p. 81. 17 Zuckerman, Rape of Belgium, pp. 136–37. 18 Times, 15 May 1915. 19 Among Canadians, the story of the man crucified at Ypres in 1915 survived the war intact, with a sculpture depicting the ‘event’ being displayed in the new Canadian war memorial in 1919. The German Government protested, but British authorities produced ‘the sworn testimony of two English soldiers who claimed to have seen . . . the corpse of a Canadian soldier fastened with bayonets to a barn door’. The tale was debunked when it was learnt that the part of the line in question was never occupied by Germans, and ‘the cast was banished from the War Memorial Exhibition in Ottawa’. George Sylvester Viereck found ‘No trace of the crucified soldier [in] the files of the Canadian War Office.’ By then the damage had been done. Viereck, Germs of Hate, pp. 276–77. 20 Times, 13 May 1915. 21 Jünger, Storm of Steel, p. xii. Kramer, ‘Les “atrocities allemandes”’ and Horne, ‘Les mains coupées’, pp. 133–64. See also Kramer, ‘Greueltaten’, pp. 104–39. Times, 13 May 1915. 22 Kölnische Zeitung, 15 May 1915. 23 Nietzsche, ‘Twilight of the Idols’, in Kaufmann (ed.), Nietzsche, p. 555. Bean, Australia in the War, vol. I, pp. xlv. 24 Jesinghaus, ‘Hat Nietzsche Schuld?’. 25 Nietzsche, ‘Twilight of the Idols’; ‘The Antichrist’; ‘Nietzsche contra Wagner’ in Kaufmann (ed.), Nietzsche, pp. 541, 553–55, 654–55, 669. 26 Kaufmann, Nietzsche, p. 15. 27 Jesinghaus, ‘Hat Nietzsche Schuld?’. 28 Woltmann, Germanen und die Renaissance, talent chart p. 147. For a French critique of ‘Wolfmann [sic]’, see ‘La Théorie allemande de la guerre’, Figaro, 23 May 1915. 219 NOTES 29 The enthronement of chauvinistic and racist cultural values was present in Europe long before Hitler and the Nazis made it an article of policy. In 1915, intellectuals on both sides of the Rhine were writing of the superiority of their national art, national literature, national poetry and national philosophy, with the idea of nationality being synonymous with race. Wundt, Die Nationen. Conrad, ‘Geist der Nationen’ . 30 Conrad, ‘Geist der Nationen’. 31 Wundt, Germanen und die Renaissance, p. 144. Conrad, Ibid. 32 Ibid., p. 113. Conrad, Ibid. 9 HUGO GUTMANN AND THE GOOD 1 Brandmayer, Meldegänger Hitler, pp. 44–46. Mend, Hitler im Felde, pp. 141–42. 2 Brandmayer, ibid., p. 47. 3 Mend, Hitler im Felde, pp. 145–46. 4 Brandmayer, Meldegänger Hitler, p. 48. Mend, Hitler im Felde, p. 143. 5 Mend, ibid., pp. 146, 155–56, 168. 6 Ibid., pp. 134, 157–58. 7 Ibid., pp. 134, 157, 165. 8 Solleder in Solleder (ed.), Vier Jahre Westfront, p. 196. Mend, ibid., pp. 114–15. 9 Mend, ibid., pp. 17, 108, 112–15, 141. 10 Treitschke, History of Germany, pp. 556–57. Picht, ‘Zwischen Vaterland und Volk’, p. 747. Mend, Hitler im Felde, pp. 160–61. 11 Mend, ibid., pp. 160–61, 186–87. Table Talk, p. 119. 12 Machtan, Geheimnis, pp. 81–88. Joachimsthaler, Korrektur, p. 145. 13 Machtan, ibid. Joachimsthaler, ibid. 14 ‘Mend Protocol’ in Machtan, Geheimnis, pp. 81–88. 15 Machtan, Geheimnis, pp. 81–90. Joachimsthaler, Korrektur, p. 143. Eugene Davidson also credited Gutmann with recommending Hitler’s EK2. Davidson, Making of Hitler, p. 76. 16 Kisch, Gesammelte Werke, p. 299. 17 Mend, Hitler im Felde, p. 161. 18 Ibid., pp. 173–74. 19 Wiedemann, ‘Erhöhte Tätigkeit’ and ‘Zweite Kriegswinter’. 10 FROMELLES 1916 1 German official history, vol. 10, p. 407. Bavarian official history, pp. 289–91. 2 Wiedemann, ‘Erhöhte feindliche Tätigkeit’, pp. 211–12. 3 Ibid. 4 War Dead and War Memorials . . . V.C. Corner, Fromelles, p. 7. 5 Elliott, Fleurbaix. Melbourne, 1929. Green, ‘Fleurbaix – The Mystery Battle’. 6 Liddell-Hart, Real War, p. 242. Corfield, Fromelles. Solleder (ed.), Vier Jahre Westfront, pp. 18–42, 214–36. 7 AWM45 [21/7–27/6]. XI Corps Operation Orders (Haking), 9 and 17 July 1916. Report by XI Corps on operations between Fauquissart-Trivelet Road and Farme Delangre opposite Cordonnerie Farm. Butler’s ‘Memorandum to Kiggell’, 17 July 1916 and Plumer’s 15 July ‘Note’. AWM45 [21/7–27/6]. Butler’s Memorandum to Kiggell, 17 July 1916. Haking’s message in War Diary, 61st Division, 10–21 July 1916. Special DR, XI Corps, RHS 1146/6. Terraine, Educated Soldier, p. 204. 8 MacLaurin in Sydney Morning Herald, 26 July 1919. Headlam, Guards Division, vol. 1, pp. 106–107. Ashworth, Live and Let Live, pp. 90–91. Haking had already been responsible for a chaotic situation at Neuve Chapelle when his XI Corps (21 and 24 220 NOTES Divisions) arrived late and confused on the battlefield. Travers, Killing Ground, pp. 30–34, 110. 9 Stewart, New Zealand Division, p. 48. 10 Elliott quoted by Green, ‘Fleurbaix – The Mystery Battle’. Bean, Australia in the War, vol. III, pp. 329–447. Tagesbefehl cited in Solleder (ed.), Vier Jahre Westfront, p. 231. 11 Edmonds wrote: ‘See, for instance, the losses of the divisions at 2nd Ypres, all far heavier: – one over 15,000, one over 10,000, two over 7,000, two over 5,000.’ Edmonds to Bean, AWM38 3DRL7953, item 34, 24 April 1928. 12 Wiedemann, ‘Das Gefecht bei Fromelles am 19. und 20. Juli 1916’, in Solleder (ed.), Vier Jahre Westfront, pp. 214–15. 13 Ibid. 14 Mend, Hitler im Felde, p. 186. Brandmayer, Meldegänger Hitler, pp. 48–58. 15 Wiedemann, ‘Das Gefecht bei Fromelles’, in Solleder (ed.), Vier Jahre Westfront, p. 215. 16 Australian National Archive, service record and papers for #4840 Pte. Meyer, N. Mend, Hitler im Felde, p. 186. Meyer, Mit Adolf Hitler, inSolleder(ed.),VierJahreWestfront,p.223. 18 Times, 21, 22 July 1916. Figaro, 21 July 1916. Sydney Morning Herald, Argus, 22 July 1916. Kriegschronik, 20 July 1916. 19 Argus, Times, 24 July 1916. Solleder (ed.), Vier Jahre Westfront, p. 227. Times, Daily Mail, Argus, et al., 24 July 1916. 20 Ludendorff, Memories, vol. II, p. 710. Gibbs, Realities, p. 348. Berliner Tageblatt, 30 July, 1 August 1916. 21 Berliner Tageblatt, 1 August 1916. 22 Norddeutsche Zeitung, 3 August 1916. 23 Ibid. 11 HELL ON THE SOMME 1 Jünger, Storm of Steel, p. 110. 2 Edmonds to Bean, AWM 38 3DRL7953, item 34, 3 November 1927. 3 251 Divisions of the German Army, p. 139. 4 Wiedemann, ‘Die Sommeschlacht’, Solleder (ed.), p. 237. Hitler, Mein Kampf, p. 191. 5 British official figures cited in Bean, Australia in the War, vol. III, pp. 944–45. 6 Times, 1 July 1916. 7 Repington, Personal Experiences, vol. 1, pp. 252–53. 8 Times, 3, 4, and 5 July 1916. 9 Figaro, 4, 9 July 1916. Times, 6 July 1916. 10 Kölnische Volkszeitung, 3 July 1916. Berliner Tageblatt, 3, 5 July 1916. 11 Berliner Tageblatt, 8, 10 July 1916. 12 Northcliffe quoted in Wickham Steed, Through Thirty Years, p. 119. 13 AWM38 3DRL 7953, item 34, 1 May 1928. Berliner Tageblatt, 14 July 1916. 14 Cummings, The Press, p. 24. Bean, Anzac to Amiens, p. 237. Australia in the War, vol. IV, p. 727. Gibbs cited in Argus (Melbourne) and Sydney Morning Herald, 24 July 1916. 15 Meyer, Mit Adolf Hitler, p. 40. 16 Wiedemann, ‘Die Sommenschlacht’, Solleder (ed.), p. 238. 17 Ibid., pp. 238–39. 18 Ibid., p. 239. 19 Ibid. Feldherr, pp. 30–31. 20 Ibid., p. 241. 21 Ibid. 22 Brandmayer, Meldegänger, pp. 62–65. 221 NOTES 23 Ibid., pp. 66–68. 24 Ibid., pp. 68–69. 25 Hitler, M.K., p. 191. Maser, Legende–Mythos–Wirklichkeit, p. 615. Wiedemann, Feldherr, p. 29. 26 Brandmayer, Meldegänger, p. 69. 27 Hitler, Mein Kampf, p. 191. 28 Ibid., p. 193. 29 Kershaw, Hubris, p. 100. 30 Brandmayer, Meldegänger, p. 71. 31 Wiedemann, Feldherr, p. 30. 32 Ibid. 33 Bavarian official history, pp. 290–91. 12 251Divisions,pp.iii,139.,pp.381–85. 2 Figaro, 20 March 1917. Wiedemann, Feldherr, p. 31. 3 Meyer, Mit Adolf Hitler, p. 46. 4 Brandmayer, Meldegänger Hitler, pp. 72–73. Knopp, Bilanz. 5 Mend, Hitler im Felde, pp. 65–66. 6 Tubeuf, ‘Frühjahrschlacht bei Arras’. 7 Figaro, 17, 18 March 1917. Beaverbrook, Men and Power, p. xxxv. 8 Mermiex, Joffre, pp. 233–34. Haig in Duroselle, Guerre des Français, p. 194. 9 Münchner Neueste Nachrichten, 11 April 1917. 10 Times, 23 June, 10 April 1917. Frankfurter Zeitung, 11 April 1917. Times, 14 April 1917. 11 Kölnische Zeitung, 16 April 1917. 12 Times, 16 April 1917. Kölnische Zeitung, 17 April 1917. 13 Vossische Zeitung, 17 April 1917. 14 Times, 17 April 1917. 15 Berliner Tageblatt, 17, 18 April 1917. 16 Times, 26 April 1917. Vorwärts, 19 April 1917. 17 Times, 18 April 1917. Figaro, 2 August 1918. 18 Tubeuf, ‘Frühjahrschlacht bei Arras’ and ‘Schlacht in Flandern’, pp. 280, 292. Rupprecht in Beumelburg, Flandern 1917, p. 168. 19 251 Divisions. Bean, Australia in the War, vol. IV, p. 943. AWM38 3DRL 606, item 116, 25 June 1918. 20 Bean, Australia in the War, vol. IV, pp. 942–46. Beumelburg, Flandern 1917, p. 27. 21 Tubeuf, ‘Schlacht in Flandern’, pp. 282–84. 22 Ibid., p. 284. 23 Ibid., pp. 284–85. Bean, Australia in the War, vol. IV, p. 707. 24 Bean,Ibid.Brandmayer,MeldegängerHitler,p.79.Tubeuf,‘SchlachtinFlandern’,p.285. 25 Tubeuf, Ibid. 26 Meyer, Mit Adolf Hitler, pp. 73–74. 27 Ibid. 28 Table Talk 1941–1944, p. 94. Hitler in Joachimsthaler, Korrektur, p. 170. 29 ‘Tank fright’ in Ludendorff, Memories, vol. II, p. 490. This event is analysed and described in Williams, Anzacs, the media, pp. 159–80. See also Fuller, ‘The Tanks at Bullecourt’. Simon (2. Württemb.) Nr. 120 im Weltkrieg, p. 68. 30 251 Divisions, p. 139. Casualties in Solleder (ed.), Vier Jahre Westfront, pp. 381–85. Hitler, Mein Kampf, p. 201. Beumelburg, Flandern 1917, pp. 29–33. 31 Bavarian official history, p. 391. 32 Ibid. 33 Times, 24 September 1917. Frankfurter Zeitung, 17 September 1917. 222 NOTES 34 Times, 6 October 1917. Beumelburg, Flandern 1917, p. 124. Kölnische Zeitung, 10 October 1917. 35 Herald (Melbourne), 19 October 1917. Times, 7 November 1917, 30 October 1917. Beumelburg, Flandern 1917, pp. 151–53. 13 1918 1 Tubeuf, ‘Stellungskampf in Elsaß’, p. 287. Meyer, Mit Adolf Hitler, p. 75. Brandmayer, Meldegänger Hitler, p. 79. 2 Tubeuf, ibid. Casualties in Solleder (ed.), Vier Jahre Westfront, pp. 381–85. Table Talk 1941–1944, pp. 232–33. 3 Casualties in Solleder (ed.), Vier Jahre Westfront, pp. 381–85. 251 Divisions, p. 139. Joachimsthaler, Korrektur, p. 170. Table Talk, pp. 80–81. 4 Meyer, Mit Adolf Hitler, pp. 77–79. Brandmayer, Meldegänger Hitler, p. 77. 5 Brandmayer, ibid. 6 Ibid., pp. 81–82. 7 Ibid. 8 Meyer, Mit Adolf Hitler, pp. 82–83. 9 Asprey, German High Command, p. 381. Middlebrook, The Kaiser’s Battle, p. 52. 10 For Crown Prince Rupprecht’s opinion on the quality of reinforcements from the East, see Asprey, German High Command, p. 364. 11 Middlebrook’s figures are 38,225 officers and 607,443 men, Middlebrook, The Kaiser’ s Battle, p. 25. 12 Ludendorff in Asprey, German High Command, p. 381. 13 Figaro, 22, 23 March 1918. Berliner Tageblatt, 23, 24 and 25 March 1918. Daily Graphic, Daily News, 24 March 1918. Figaro, 26 March 1918. Wilhelm II in Berliner Tageblatt, 27 March 1918. 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Wulf, Josef, Die bildenden Künste im Dritten Reich: Eine Dokumentation (Frankfurt/ Main: Ullstein 1983). 231 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ——, Presse und Funk im Dritten Reich: Eine Dokementation (Frankfurt/Main: Ullstein 1983). Wundt, Wilhelm, Die Nationen und ihre Philosophie: Ein Kapitel zum Weltkrieg (Leipzig: A. Kröner 1915). Ypres 1914: An Official Account Published by Order of the German General Staff (London: Constable 1919). Zuckerman, Larry, The Rape of Belgium: The Untold Story of World War I (New York: New York University Press 2004). 232 Note: References in italic refer to notes Aisne (river) 43, 87, 165, 167–8 Albert 192 Albertini, Luigi 28 Allenby, Edmund Henry Hynman, 1st Austria 2, 21, 35 Austro-Serbian war A vre (river) 192 28–9, 30 Viscount 90, 91 Alsace 41, 162; List Regiment in American troops 181 178 Bachmann, Corporal (dispatch runner) 67–8, 157 Bailleu 54 Baligrand, Colonel Maximilian von 194–5 Balkan dispute 27 Bapaume 195 Barrès, Maurice 117–18, 219n29 Baumann (acquaintance of Hitler’s Munich 1913–14) 20 Bavaria 19–20 6th Bavarian Reserve Division 87, 102, 112–13, 148, 161, 189; at Fromelles 137, 147; at Third Ypres 175–6; losses 161–2; at Foudrain 183–4 Bean, C.E.W. 144, 172 Beaverbrook, Max Aitken, Baron 164 Becalaere 54; German losses at 58, 59–60; List Regiment at 57 Beer-hall putsch 18, 196 Belgium 26, 41–2, 45–6; German occupation 120–1 Berlin 19, 27 Berliner Lokal-Anzeiger (newspaper) 30 Berliner T ageblatt (newspaper) 25, 29, 32, 42, 43, 77, 78, 118, 119–20, 144, 151, 167, 183, 185, 193 Bernhardi, General Friedrich von 6, 17, 25, 53 Bethlehem Farm, near Wytschaete 63, 72 Bethmann-Hollweg, Theobold von 30 Amman, Max Ammon, Otto Ancre (river) Angell, Norman 78 Anschluss (Germany and Austria 1938) Anti-Semitism 13–14, 23, 159, 207, 208; among dispatch runners Antwerp 44 Anzacs 137–8, 141, 143 Ardennes forest 2 Armentières 185 Armistice (November 1918) Army Company Training Manual (Haking) 140 Army rations 14 Arras 98, 101, 115; battle of 165–6, 15, 16, 163, 199 6, 131 192 167–8 Artillery 50, 57, 60, 90, 91, 106, 112, 137, 152, 184 Asprey, Robert B. 53 Assassination of Franz Ferdinand, Sarajevo (1914) 17, 27, 28 Aubers 89, 92 Aubers Ridge 3, 13, 88–9; battle of 98–100, 101, 106–12; List Regiment at 101–2; preliminary bombardment 106 Australian troops 137–8, 139, 140–1, 144–5; 5th Division 147, 148 131 4 INDEX 2 233 Beumelburg, Werner 170, 210, 211n2; Delage, Yves 77 Der Aufruf an die Kulturwelt (Appeal to the Cultured World) 76–7 Derby, Lord (Edward Stanley) 150 Deutschen Tageszeitung (newspaper) 42 Dispatch runners 11, 64, 73, 74, 75, 95, 104, 114–15, 116, 117, 128, 162–3, 184; anti-Semitism among 131; at Fromelles 141; at the Somme 156 Flandern 1971 175; on Hitler 6–7; patriotic handbook 5–6 Biez Wood, Neuve Chapelle 93 Bismarck, Otto Edward Leopold von “Black Mary” 16, 115, 128, 131, 198, 224n1 Black Watch regiment 89 Blätter für die Kunst (journal) Blücher offensive 186–7 Bois de Belleau 188 Brandmayer, Balthaser 8, 39, 83–4, 93, 107, 111, 114, 116, 128, 141, 159, 163, 180, 184, 186, 214n13; as dispatch runner 114–15; Meldegänger Hitler 40; at Montdidier 185; at the Somme East Prussia 55 Eastern Front 3, 55 Echo de Paris (newspaper) 118 Edmonds, Sir James 34, 61–2, 145, 149, 152 Eichelsdörfer, Georg 67, 114 Engelhardt, Lieutenant Colonel 63, 67, 68, 69 England 41; English at Ypres 56–7; propaganda against 44–5; Sombart on the English 79–80 8th English Division 15 ‘English Octopus’ 77 English press 43 Falkenhayn, Erich von 51, 52, 53, 54, 65 Festubert–Fromelles front 98 Figaro (newspaper) 44, 150, 168 Fischer, Fritz 15, 17, 25, 76, 209 Flandern 1917 (Beumelburg) 175 Flanders 2, 9, 51; British advance 52; British in 55; trench warfare 102–4 Foch, Ferdinand 187, 189 Forèt de Ris 190 Förster-Nietzsche, Elisabeth 123 156, 157 Braunau 20 Britain 55; casualties 149; and the French 87 British Expeditionary Force (BEF) 51, 57, 87–8, 182; attack on Fromelles 98; at Fromelles British Fifth Army Broodseinde 176 Brussels 42 Bryce Report on German atrocities 121–2 Bryce, Viscount James 120 Bullecourt 166 Burgdörfer, Fritz Cambrai 194 Canadians 88, 102, 115; crucified Canadian myth 120, 121, 219n19 Carbine (German) 3 Censorship 44, 100 Chateau La Valée 130 Chemin des Dames 179, 186 Christmas truce (1914) 14, 80–1 Churchill, Winston 26, 200 Clark, Alan 86 Class, Heinrich 6, 13, 21, 125, 131; Kaiserbuch 22 Colmar 178 Comines 75, 81, 195 Fournes 104, 108; in 1940 house of “Black Mary” 198, 224n1 198, 199; 16, 115, 131, Conrad, Dr. Otto Corfield, Robin Cummings, A.J. 126 139 34, 152 Wytschaete 65; German advance into 41; German attitudes to 78, 118–19; propaganda campaign against 24; reconstruction of army 169; and the British 87 Frankfurter Zeitung (newspaper) 25, 29, 166, 167, 176 Franz Ferdinand, assassination 17, 27, 28 Daily Mail 121, 144 Dardanelles 100 66 182 23 44, 136 19 120, INDEX 234 Ditfurth, Major-General von 92, 93 Dolchstoss (‘stab-in the-back’) myth 200–1 Douai 164, 169 4, 5, Foxl (Hitler’s fox terrier) France 44; conscription 82 53; French at French Academy of Sciences 77 French, Sir John 54, 87, 88, 99, 100, 101 Fromelles 60, 87, 89, 98–113; (1916) 136–46; British attack on 98, 128–9; casualties 107, 110–11, 140–41; losses 51st Highland Division 115 Hindenburg, General Paul von 55, 167, 111–12, 138, 141; ‘Sugarloaf’ 98, 141 194 Hindenburg-line 162, 168–9 Hintze, von 194 History of the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71 22 Hitler, Adolf: adolescence 13; assigned to 2nd Bavarian Infantry Regiment 159–60; at Alsace 178; anti-Semitism 208; appearance 58, 59, 107, 117; arrival in Munich (1913) 18–19; as a dispatch runner 11, 59, 63, 95, 128–9, 163–4, 180, 203; as a supreme commander 205; awarded Iron Crosses 1st and 2nd Class 2, 8, 9, 13, 65–7, 134, 190–91, 203; battlefield recollections 62; at Becalaere 57; beliefs 12; birth 20; books on 40; ‘coarse, powerful mind’ 5; diet 39–40, 179; eccentricity 15, 74; education 7–8; enters politics 201; and Ernst Schmidt 39–40; fanaticism 2; former comrades’ memoirs 8; found unfit for Austrian military service 23, 35; at Fromelles 104–6, 107, 111, 116, 128–9, 141; generosity to comrades 15; at Gheluvelt 62; and Gutmann 132, 134–5, 191; illness 130; imperial vision 206; interests 16; journey to the 1914–18 Western Front (1940) 45–6; lack of promotion 15, 201, 204; at Laon 186; in Lille 47; lodgings at 34 Schleissheimerstrasse, Munich 20; Mein Kampf 62, 66, 196; military development 205–6; in Munich (1914) 17; in Munich (1916) 158–9; nature of 14, 15, 45, 81; at Neuve Chapelle 95–6; ‘outstanding gallantry’ at Fontaine 186; painting 21–2, 23; at Pasewalk 196; patronage to comrades 40; pet fox terrier 82; physique 14, 35, 58; political commitment 16; political fanaticism 82–3, 117, 130; promoted to corporal 63; prudery 14, 131; qualities as a soldier 13, 15, 47–8, 202; racism 131, 132; reaction to outbreak of war 32–3; reading materials 12–13, 22; return to List Regiment 162; service in List Regiment 1–3, 35, 39; sexual orientation 39, 40, 133, 180, 212n15; social-Darwinist worldview 5; Galicia 101 Gallipoli 100 gas 128, 136, 172, 195–6 Geiss, Imanuel 28 George, Stefan 22–3 Gerlach, Hellmuth von 41 German atrocities 120 German Fourth Army 54 German press 29–30, 76–7; coverage of war 34–5; ‘field-post subscriptions’ 16 Germania (newspaper) 25 Germany: advance into France 41; attitude to British Army 151; conscription 9, 36–7, 53, 170, 211n2; declaration of war against Russia (1914) 17 Gheluvelt 54, 57, 60–1; British recapture 62; List Regiment at 60–2, 63 Gibbs, Philip 120, 121, 144, 152 Grand Quartier Général (GQC) Graves, Robert 121 Grey, Sir Edward 27, 30 Gutmann, Hugo 114, 116, 131–2, 134; and Hitler 132, 134–5, 191 Haas, Ludwig 118 Hagen offensive 187 Haig, Sir Douglas 89, 93, 139, 140, 165, 170; ‘Special Order to the 1st Army’ 89–90, 92; and the Somme 148–9 Haking, General Sir Richard 139, 140; Army Company Training Manual Hale, Oron 27 Hamburger Fremdenblatt 140 (newspaper) 30 Hamman, Brigitte 22 ‘Hassgesang auf England’ (Song of Hate against England (Lissauer) Häusler, Rudolf 19, 21 79–80 Headgear.List Regiment Heiden, Konrad 67 Hepp, Ernst 20–1, 57 Hess, Rudolf 15 74 87 INDEX 235 Hitler, Adolf (Continued) territorial ambitions 209–10; at the Somme 156; tour of France (1940) 198; views on war 6; at Vimy 162; wounding at Le Barque (Somme) 14; 148, 157–8; at Wytschaete 66 Hoffmann, Heinrich 18, 31; Mit Hitler im Westen 198 Lehmann, Julius Friedrich 23 Lenin, Vladimir I 20, 22 Lichtenfels, Lieutenant General Gustav Scanzoni von 103 Liddell Hart, Basil, The Real War 139 Liège 46 Lille 44, 45, 46, 89; Hitler in 47–8; honour parade for 6th BRD 48–9; surrender of 54 Lissauer, Ernst, ‘Hassgesang auf England’ (Song of Hate against England) 79–80 List, Colonel Julius 38, 54, 60, 62 List Regiment (Sixteenth Bavarian Reserve Infantry): at the Ainse 188; at Alsace 178; at Aubers Ridge 3, 13, 101–2; at Becalaere 57; at Bapaume 195; in Belgium 46; at Bruges 171; casualties 11, 94; at Chemin des Dames 179; decline 161–77; at Douai 169; equipment 38; at Fromelles 109–10, 143, 153; at Gheluvelt 60–2, 63, 171; history 9, 18; Hitler’s service in 1–3, 35, 39; at Le Cateau 193; at Leon 186; losses 10, 11, 37, 58, 59, 63, 83, 155, 180, 195; at Menin 89; at Messines 64–5; at Montdidier 11, 184–5; name changed 74–5; at Neuve Chapelle 37, 92; origins 7; reinforcements 75; rest period (1915) 130–1; retreat 189–90; return to Fromelles (1916) 135; at the Somme 154–7, 160; at Third Ypres 172–3, 175; training 40–1, 52, 55–6; veterans after 1933 15; volunteers 9, 10; at Wytschaete 65 Lloyd George, David 164, 165 London 34 13th London Regiment 110 Lorraine 37 Louvain 46–7 Ludendorff, Erich 162, 170, 181, 182, 187, 193, 194 Ludwig III, King of Bavaria 48, 130 Lugauer, Heinrich 81 Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria 19 Lusitania 122, 123 Lys 101, 185, 192 McCay, General J.J. 141 Hüppauf, Bernd 36–7 Idealism 123–7 Imperial War Graves Commission Indian Divisions 88, 129 2nd Bavarian Infantry Regiment Intelligence section, British reports on German preparations 100 Irish Regiments 88 Iron Cross 2, 8, 9, 13, 65–7, 134, 190–1, 203 Irving, David 207 Jackl, Weiss Jagow, Gottlieb von Jesinghaus, Walter Jews 13–14, 82, 83, 131, 158 Joachimsthaler, Anton 22, 23, 133 Jünger, Ernst 122, 147 204 Kaiserbuch (Class) 22 Kaiserschlacht (battle) 181 Käseblatt 56 Keitel, Field Marshal Wilhelm Kershaw, Ian 22 Kiefhaber, Christoph von 115 Kielmannsegg, Johann Graf 205 Kindermord (murder of the innocents) Kisch, Egon Erwin 134 Kitchener, Field-Marshall Earl Knightley, Phillip 120 Knopp, Guido 207 Kölnische Volkszeitung (newspaper) 151 Kölnische Zeitung (newspaper) 88, 122, 166, 176 Kreuz-Zeitung (newspaper) Kuh, Lieutenant 208 29 La Bassée 98, 99, 101, 102, 115 Langemarck (Ypres) 51, 52, 69–70, 71 Langlois, Lieutenant Colonel Layes Brook 102 Le Barque 14 81 MacDonald, Lyn Machtan, Lothar Manheim, Ralph 66–7, 89 20, 39, 133 12 28 123, 124 138 159–60 198–9, 205 52 24, 24, 29, 54 INDEX 236 Marne 42–3, 53, 87, 119, 186; second battle of the 188–90 Maser, Werner 20, 23 Mayr, Karl 206–7 Mein Kampf (Hitler) 62, 66 Meldegänger Hitler (Brandmayer) Mend, Hans background 133; and Hitler 134; Mit Adolf Hitler im Felde 40, 132, 134 Menin 89 Messines 63, 64–5, 73–4, 103, 169 Meyer, Adolf 8, 54, 59, 108–9, 153, 163, Norddeutsche Zeitung (newspaper) 19, 28, 30, 31, 34, 70, 77, 145 ‘November criminals’ 4 Nursery-sector 116 OHL 41, 45, 53, 106, 193 OKW 205 Ostend 54 ‘Our Enemies’ (Sombart) 78 Pan-German movement 208, 209 Paris 42 Passau 20 Passchendaele 171, 176, 177 Pétain, Henri Philippe Omer 169, 181, 173, 188–9, 190, 202; memoir Michael offensive 182 143 Middlebrook, Martin Militarismus 126 militarism 76 Mit Adolf Hitler im Felde (Mend) Moltke, General Count Helmut von 53, 54 Monro, General Sir Charles Mons 87 Montdidier Mülhausen Münchner Neueste Nachrichten (newspaper) 29, 69 Munich: 34 Schleissheimerstrasse 73, 81, 96, 105–6 184 178 20; anti-Serb demonstration 17; arrival of Hitler (1913) 18–19; Catholic traditionalism 22–3; Hitler in (1914) 17; Odeonsplatz 17–18, 31 National Socialism 20, 125 National Sozialialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) 40, 201 National-Zeitung (newspaper) Nazi Party 18 28 Neillands, Robin Neuve Chapelle 51 37, 85, 86–97; Biez Wood 93; British assessment 86; British losses 92; capture of village by British 90–1; casualties 94, 95; German counter-attack 93–5; List Regiment at 92; March 1915 attack 89 New Zealand troops 137, 140–1, 194 newspapers see German press Nietzsche, Friedrich 123–5, 126 Nivelle, Robert Georges 164–5, 168, 169 Sachse, Infanteriste 37 St George offensive 185 Sarajevo (1914), assassinations Sazanov, Sergei 28 Scherff, Major General Walter 17, 27, 28 205 182 140 40 40 26, INDEX 237 187–8 Petz, Lieutenant Colonel Picht, Clemens 131 Political ideology 36–7 Ponsonby, Arthur 120 Popp, Josef 20, 199 Popp, Anna 21, 32–3 Post (newspaper) 24, 25, 29, 42 Propaganda 1, 34–5, 41–2, 117; (1915) 117–22; anti-English 77; anti-German 42; German campaign against France 24; winter 1914 76; and Ypres 56, 58 Querl, George 151, 152 ‘Race to the Sea’ 44, 50, 54 Racism 78, 220n29 Real War, The (Liddell Hart) 139 Redl, Colonel Alfred 19 Repington, Colonel Charles 101, 120, 149, 165 Richebourg 100 Roeux 169 Rubenhauer, Franz 46, 47, 63, 64, 71 Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria 48, 69–70, 91, 96, 112, 169, 170 Russia 25, 88; Baku oil workers’ strike 27; German declaration of war against (1914) 17; invasion of East Prussia 55; Sombart on 78–9 Russian Revolution (1917) 164 Scheurmann, W. 145 Schleehuber, Michel 202 Schlieffen Plan 51 Schmidt, Ernst 39–40, 62, 199 United States 164 Viktoria Luise (Kaiser’s daughter) 19 Villers-Bretonneux 183 Vimy Ridge 161, 165–6 Volk 125–6 volunteer divisions 37, 51–2, 88 Vorwärts 31 Vossische Zeitung (newspaper) 31, 167 war, as a biological necessity 6 war correspondents 34 Weiss, Alexander 102, 103 Wenzel, Josef 81 Werwick 64 Western Front 43, 50–72 Wiedemann, Friedrich 13, 15, 16, 37–8, 50, 105, 141, 142, 147, 154; military career 38; on Hitler 199, 203–4, 208; at the Somme 154–5, 157 Wilhelm II, Kaiser 18, 19, 24, 25–6, 27, 66–7, 191–2 Wolff, Theodor 32, 78 Woltmann, Ludwig 125 27th Württemburg Division 174–5 Wytschaete 63, 64, 65; French at 65; Hitler at 66, 69; List regiment at 65, 68–9 Yellow Press 43 Ypres 10, 11, 45, 47, 49; Allied plans 51; English at 56–7; First Ypres campaign 50–1, 52; losses 170; and propaganda 56; recapture by British 54; Third Ypres 169–70, 172–7 Zuckerman, Larry 104, 120–21 Schmidt Noerr, Friedrich Schuler, Alfred 23 132–3 Schwabing radicals Schwerin, Graf von Scottish troops 91 Serbia 26 22 20 shell crisis 101 Simplicissimus (magazine) Society for Racial Hygiene Solleder, Fridolin 18, 50, 74, 80, 104 Sombart, Werner, ‘Our Enemies’ 78–9 Somme 14, 32, 90, 147–60; battle of 148–9, 151–2; ‘Big Push’ 149; British bombardment 150; casualties 149, 152–3; demoralization 155–6; losses 155; second battle of Souchez 101 192–3 Spatny, Colonel Emil Streicher, Julius 143 155, 162 tactics 170–71 tanks 174, 193, 222n29 Tannenberg 55 Third Reich 7, 15 Times 28, 41, 43, 45, 54, 55, 65, 71, 85, 89, 100, 101, 121, 144, 149, 166, 167 Tournai 47 Treitschke, Heinrich von 6 trench memoirs 8 trench warfare 43–4, 57, 73, 75, 84, 100; British trenches 80; in Flanders 102–4; Fromelles 102, 109, 129–30 Trevor-Roper, H.R. 5, 209 Tubeuf, Major Anton von 15, 162, 171, 173, 175, 178, 187, 194 Turkey 26 22 23 INDEX 238 (Continued) CORPORAL HITLER AND THE GREA T W AR 1914–1918 The List Regiment John Williams ROSTÓV IN THE RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR, 1917–1920 The key to victory Brian Murphy Forthcoming titles CONSCRIPTION IN NAPOLEONIC EUROPE, 1789–1815 A revolution in military affairs Edited by Donald Stoker and Harold Blanton RAILWAYS AND THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR Harold Shukman and Felix Patrikeeff