Showing posts with label Darmstadt. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Darmstadt. Show all posts

Remaining Nazi Sites in Hessen


 Adolf-Hitler-Platz then and now.   During the war, Wiesbaden was largely spared by allied bombing raids. But between August 1940 and March 1945, Wiesbaden was attacked by allied bombers on 66 days. In the attacks, about 18% of the city's homes were destroyed. During the war, more than 25% of the city's buildings were damaged or worse and 1,700 people were killed. Wiesbaden was captured by U.S. Army forces on March 28, 1945. The U.S. 317th Infantry Regiment attacked in assault boats across the Rhine from Mainz while the 319th Infantry attacked across the Main River near Hochheim am Main. The attack started at 0100 and by early afternoon the two forces of the 80th U.S.Infantry Division had linked up with the loss of only three dead and three missing. The Americans captured 900 German soldiers and a warehouse full of 4,000 cases of champagne. After the war's end, American pop artist Elvis Presley was stationed in Friedberg and often visited Wiesbaden.
 Wiesbaden (German pronunciation: [ˈviːsˌbaːdn̩] ( listen)) is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse. It has about 273,000 inhabitants, plus approximately 19,000[2] United States citizens (mostly associated with the United States Army).  The city, together with nearby Frankfurt am Main, Darmstadt and Mainz, is part of the Frankfurt Rhine Main Region, a metropolitan area with a combined population of about 5.8 million people.  Wiesbaden is one of the oldest spa towns in Europe. Its name translates to "meadow baths," making reference to the hot springs. It is internationally famous for its architecture, climate (also called the "Nice of the North"), and its hot springs.[3] At one time, Wiesbaden boasted 26 hot springs. Fourteen of the springs are still flowing today.[4]  In 1970, the town hosted the tenth Hessentag state festival.  Contents      1 Geographical Setting         1.1 Climate     2 History         2.1 Classical antiquity         2.2 Middle ages         2.3 Modern era         2.4 Weimar Republic and Third Reich (1919 to 1945)         2.5 World War II         2.6 Cold War and contemporary history     3 Bathing and gambling     4 Demographics     5 Main sights         5.1 The Palace Square         5.2 Kurhaus and Theater         5.3 St. Bonifatius         5.4 St. Elizabeth's Church         5.5 Other sights     6 Boroughs of Wiesbaden         6.1 Inner boroughs         6.2 Suburban boroughs     7 Historical population     8 Mayors     9 Transport         9.1 Roads         9.2 Rail         9.3 Public transport         9.4 Airports         9.5 Port     10 Military     11 Economy     12 Events         12.1 International May Festival         12.2 Rheingau Wine Festival         12.3 Shooting Star Market         12.4 Rheingau Musik Festival     13 Sport     14 Twin towns – Sister cities     15 Coat of arms     16 Notable residents     17 Famous visitors     18 Rivalry with Mainz     19 Fictional references     20 References     21 External links  Geographical Setting Satellite view of Wiesbaden (north of Rhine river) and Mainz  Wiesbaden is situated on the right (northern) bank of the Rhine River, below the confluence of the Main, where the Rhine's main direction changes from north to west. The city is across the Rhine from Mainz, the capital of the federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Frankfurt am Main is located about 38 kilometres (23.6 mi) east. To the north of the city are the Taunus Mountains, which trend in a northeasterly direction.  The city center, the Stadtmitte, is located in the north-easternmost part of the Upper Rhine Valley at the spurs of the Taunus mountains, about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from the Rhine. The landscape is formed by a wide lowland between the Taunus heights in the north, the Bierstadter Höhe and the Hainerberg in the east, the Mosbacher Mountain in the south, and the Schiersteiner Mountain in the west, an offshoot of the Taunus range. The downtown is drained only by the narrow valley of the Salzbach, a tributary of the Rhine, on the eastern flanks of the Mosbacher Mountain. The city's main railway line and the Mainz road (Mainzer Straße) follow this valley. Several other streams drain into the Salzbach within the city center: the Wellritzbach, the Kesselbach, the Schwarzbach, the Dambach, and the Tennelbach, as well as the outflow of many thermal and mineral springs in the Kurhaus (spa) district. Above the city center, the Salzbach is better known as the Rambach. View of Wiesbaden from the Topographia Hassiae by Matthäus Merian in 1655.  The highest point of the Wiesbaden municipality is located northwest of the city center near the summit of the Hohe Wurzel, with an elevation of 608 metres (1,995 ft) above sea level. The lowest point is the harbour entrance of Schierstein at 83 metres (272 ft) above sea level. The central square (the Schlossplatz, or palace square) is at an elevation of 115 metres (377 ft).  Wiesbaden covers an area of 204 km2 (79 sq mi). It is 17.6 kilometres (10.9 mi) from north to south and 19.7 kilometres (12.2 mi) from west to east. In the north are vast forest areas, which cover 27.4% of the urban area. In the west and east are vineyards and agricultural land, which cover 31.1% of the area. Of the municipality's 79 kilometres (49.1 mi)-long border, the Rhine makes up 10.3 kilometres (6.4 mi). Climate  Wiesbaden has a temperate-oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb) with relatively cold winters and warm summers. Its average annual temperature is 9.8 °C (49.6 °F), with monthly mean temperatures ranging from 1.0 °C (33.8 °F) in January to 18.6 °C (65.5 °F) in July. [hide]Climate data for Wiesbaden Month  Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  May  Jun  Jul  Aug  Sep  Oct  Nov  Dec  Year Average high °C (°F)  4 (39)  6 (43)  11 (52)  15 (59)  20 (68)  23 (73)  25 (77)  25 (77)  20 (68)  14 (57)  8 (46)  5 (41)  14.7 (58.3) Daily mean °C (°F)  1.0 (33.8)  2.2 (36)  5.5 (41.9)  9.4 (48.9)  13.8 (56.8)  17.0 (62.6)  18.6 (65.5)  18.0 (64.4)  14.6 (58.3)  10.0 (50)  4.9 (40.8)  2.1 (35.8)  9.76 (49.57) Average low °C (°F)  −1 (30)  −1 (30)  2 (36)  5 (41)  9 (48)  12 (54)  14 (57)  14 (57)  11 (52)  7 (45)  3 (37)  1 (34)  6.3 (43.3) Average precipitation mm (inches)  48 (1.89)  41 (1.61)  46 (1.81)  41 (1.61)  55 (2.17)  68 (2.68)  66 (2.6)  63 (2.48)  49 (1.93)  49 (1.93)  57 (2.24)  55 (2.17)  638 (25.12) Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)  10  8  8  9  10  10  10  10  8  8  10  10  111 Source:[5] History The Heidenmauer ("Heathen Wall") of Aquae Mattiacorum[6] Classical antiquity  While evidence of settlement at present-day Wiesbaden dates back to the Neolithic era, historical records document continuous occupancy after the erection of a Roman fort in 6 AD which housed an auxiliary cavalry unit. The thermal springs of Wiesbaden are first mentioned in Pliny the Elder's Naturalis Historia. They were famous for their recreation pools for Roman army horses and possibly as the source of a mineral used for red hair dye (which was very fashionable around the turn of BC/AD among women in Rome).[7]  The Roman settlement is first mentioned using the name Aquae Mattiacorum (Latin for "Waters of the Mattiaci") in 121. The Mattiaci were a Germanic tribe, possibly a branch of the neighboring Chatti, who lived in the vicinity at that time. The town also appears as Mattiacum in Ptolemy's Geographia (2.10). The line of Roman frontier fortifications, the Limes Germanicus, was constructed in the Taunus not far north of Wiesbaden.  The capital of the province of Germania Superior, Mogontiacum (present-day Mainz), base of 2 (at times 3) Roman legions, was just over the Rhine and connected by a bridge at the present-day borough of Mainz-Kastel (Roman "castellum"), a strongly fortified bridgehead.  The Alamanni, a coalition of Germanic tribes from beyond the Limes, captured the fort c. 260. Later, in the 370s, when the Romans and Alamanni were allied, the Alemanni gained control of the Wiesbaden area and were in charge of its defense against other Germanic tribes. Middle ages  After the Franks under Clovis I defeated the Alamanni in the Battle of Tolbiac in 496, the Franks eventually displaced the Alamanni in the Wiesbaden area over the course of the 6th century. In the 8th century, Wiesbaden became the site of a royal palace of the Frankish kingdom. The first documented use of the name Wiesbaden is by Einhard, the biographer of Charlemagne, whose writings mention "Wisabada" sometime between 828 and 830.  When the Frankish Carolingian Empire broke up in 888, Wiesbaden was in the eastern half, called East Francia (which would evolve into the Holy Roman Empire). The town was part of Franconia, the heartland of East Francia. In the 1170s, the Counts of Nassau, Walram I, received the area around Wiesbaden as a fiefdom. When Franconia fragmented in the early 13th century, Nassau emerged as an independent state as part of the Holy Roman Empire.  In 1232 Wiesbaden became a reichsstadt, an imperial city, of the Holy Roman Empire. However, in 1242, during the war of Emperor Frederick II against the Pope, the Archbishop of Mainz, Siegfried III, ordered the city's destruction.  Wiesbaden returned to the control of the House of Nassau in 1270 under Count Walram II of Nassau-Weilburg. However, Wiesbaden and the castle at Sonnenberg were again destroyed in 1283 in conflict with Eppstein.  Walram's son and successor Adolf would later became King of Germany from 1292 until 1298. In 1329, under Adolf's son Gerlach I of Nassau-Weilburg the House of Nassau and thereby, Wiesbaden, received the right of coinage from Holy Roman Emperor Louis the Bavarian.  In 1355, the County of Nassau-Weilburg was divided among the sons of Gerlach. The County of Nassau's holdings would be subdivided many times among heirs, with the parts being brought together again whenever a line died out. Wiesbaden became the seat of the County of Nassau-Wiesbaden under Count Adolf I (1307–1370), eldest son of Gerlach. It would eventually fell back to Nassau-Weilburg in 1605. Modern era  Due to its participation in the uprisings of the German Peasants' War of 1525, Wiesbaden lost all its privileges for over forty years. During this time, Wiesbaden became Protestant with the nomination of Wolf Denthener as first Lutheran pastor on January 1, 1543. The same day, the first Latin school was opened, preparing pupils for the gymnasium in Idstein. In 1566 the privileges of the city were restored.  The oldest remaining building of Wiesbaden, the old city hall, was built in 1609 and 1610. No older buildings are preserved due to two fires in 1547 and 1561. In 1648, at the end of the devastating 30 years war, chronicles tell that Wiesbaden had barely 40 residents left. In 1659, the Countship of Nassau-Weilburg was divided again. Wiesbaden became part of the Countship of Nassau-Usingen. In 1744, the seat of Nassau-Usingen was moved to Biebrich. In 1771, the Count of Nassau-Usingen granted a concession for gambling in Wiesbaden. In 1810, the Wiesbaden Casino (German: Spielbank) was opened in the old Kurhaus. Gambling was later outlawed by Prussian authorities in 1872.  As a result of Napoleon's victory over Austria in the Battle of Austerlitz the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved in 1805. On July 12, 1806, 16 states in present-day Germany, including the remaining Countships of Nassau-Usingen and Nassau-Weilburg, formally left the Holy Roman Empire and joined together in the Confederation of the Rhine. Napoleon was its "protector." Under pressure from Napoleon, both countships merged to form the Duchy of Nassau on August 30, 1806. Memorial for Nassauers fallen at the Battle of Waterloo  At the 1815 Congress of Vienna, the Duchy of Nassau joined the German Confederation. The capital of Nassau was moved from Weilburg to Wiesbaden, and the city became the ducal residence. Building activity started in order to give the city a magnificent appearance. Most of the historical center of Wiesbaden dates back to this time. Marktkirche, designed by Carl Boos. Its neo-Gothic steeple dominates the Historical Pentagon.  In the Revolutions of 1848, 30,000 citizens of Nassau assembled in Wiesbaden on March 4. They demanded a constitution from the Duke, which they received.  In the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Nassau took Austria's side. This decision led to the end of the duchy. After the Austrian defeat Nassau was annexed by Prussia and became part of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau. The deposed duke Adolph of Nassau in 1890 became the Grand Duke of Luxembourg (see House of Nassau). This turned out to be a fortunate change for the city as it then became an international spa town. A rise in construction commenced after the aristocracy followed the lead of the Hohenzollern emperors who began annual trips to Wiesbaden.[8] The period around the turn of the 20th century is regarded as the heyday of the city. Kaiser Wilhelm II visited the city regularly in summer, such that it became an unofficial "summer residence". The city was also popular among the Russian nobility. In the wake of the imperial court, numerous nobles, artists and wealthy businessmen increasingly settled in the city. Many wealthy persons chose Wiesbaden as their retirement seat, as it offered leisure and medical treatment alike. In the latter part of the 19th century, Wiesbaden became the German city with the most millionaires.[9]  In 1894, the present Hessian State Theater, designed by the Vienna architects Fellner and Helmer, was built on behalf of Kaiser Wilhelm II. Weimar Republic and Third Reich (1919 to 1945)  After World War I, Wiesbaden fell under the Allied occupation of the Rhineland and was occupied by the French army in 1918. In 1921, the Wiesbaden Agreement on German reparations to France was signed in the city. In 1925, Wiesbaden became the headquarters of the British Rhine Army until the withdrawal of occupying forces from the Rhineland in 1930.  In 1929, an airport was constructed in Erbenheim on the site of a horse-racing track. In 1936, Fighter Squadron 53 of the Luftwaffe was stationed here.  In the Kristallnacht pogrom on November 10, 1938, Wiesbaden's large synagogue on Michelsberg was destroyed. The synagogue had been designed by Phillip Hoffmann and built in 1869. Another synagogue in Wiesbaden-Bierstadt was also destroyed. When the Nazis came to power in Germany, there were 2,700 Jews living in Wiesbaden. By June 1942 nearly all of them had been deported to the death camps in Poland.[10]  General Ludwig Beck from Wiesbaden was one of the planners of the July 20, 1944 assassination attempt of Adolf Hitler. Beck was designated by his fellow conspirators to be future Head of State (Regent) after elimination of Hitler. The plot failed, however, and Beck was forced to commit suicide. Today, the city annually awards the Ludwig Beck prize for civil courage in his honor.  Lutheran pastor and theologian Martin Niemöller, founder of the Confessing Church resistance movement against the Nazis, is an Honorary Citizen of Wiesbaden. He presented his last sermon before his arrest in Wiesbaden's Market Church. World War II  In World War II, Wiesbaden was the Headquarters for Germany’s Wehrkreis XII. This military district included the Eifel, part of Hesse, the Palatinate, and the Saarland. After the Battle of France, this Wehrkreis was extended to include Lorraine, including Nancy, and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. The commander was General der Infanterie Walther Schroth.  Wehrkreis XII was made up of three subordinate regions: Bereich Hauptsitze Koblenz, Mannheim and Metz.      Bereich Hauptsitz Koblenz was the headquarters for 12 Unterregion-Hauptsitze, namely Trier I, Trier II, Koblenz, Neuwied, Kreuznach, Wiesbaden, Limburg an der Lahn, Lahn, Mainz, Worms, Darmstadt and Luxembourg.      Bereich Hauptsitz Mannheim was the headquarters for 10 Unterregion-Hauptsitze, namely Saarlautern, Saarbrücken, St. Wendel, Zweibrücken, Kaiserslautern, Neustadt an der Weinstraße, Ludwigshafen (Rhein), Mannheim I, Mannheim II and Heidelberg.      Bereich Hauptsitz Metz was the headquarters for Unterregion-Hauptsitze Metz, Diedenhofen (Thionville) and Saint-Avold.  During the war, Wiesbaden was largely spared by allied bombing raids. But between August 1940 and March 1945, Wiesbaden was attacked by allied bombers on 66 days. In the attacks, about 18% of the city's homes were destroyed. During the war, more than 25% of the city's buildings were damaged or worse and 1,700 people were killed.[11]  Wiesbaden was captured by U.S. Army forces on March 28, 1945. The U.S. 317th Infantry Regiment attacked in assault boats across the Rhine from Mainz while the 319th Infantry attacked across the Main River near Hochheim am Main. The attack started at 0100 and by early afternoon the two forces of the 80th U.S.Infantry Division had linked up with the loss of only three dead and three missing. The Americans captured 900 German soldiers and a warehouse full of 4,000 cases of champagne.[12]  After the war's end, American pop artist Elvis Presley was stationed in Friedberg and often visited Wiesbaden.[11] Cold War and contemporary history  After World War II, the state of Hesse was established (see Greater Hesse), and Wiesbaden became its capital, though nearby Frankfurt am Main is much larger and contains many Hessian government offices. Wiesbaden however suffered much less than Frankfurt from air bombing. There is a persistent rumour that the U.S. Army Air Force spared the town with the intention of turning it into a postwar HQ, but USAAF sources claim this to be a myth, arguing that Wiesbaden's economic and strategic importance simply did not justify more bombing.[citation needed] Wiesbaden was host to the Headquarters, U.S. Air Forces, Europe based at the former Lindsey Air Station from 1953 to 1973.  American armed forces have been present in Wiesbaden since World War II. The U.S. 1st Armored Division was headquartered at the Wiesbaden Army Airfield, just off the Autobahn toward Frankfurt, until the Division completed relocation to Fort Bliss, Texas in 2011. Wiesbaden is now home to the U.S. Army Europe Headquarters and Mission Command Center.[13] Bathing and gambling  Wiesbaden has long been famous for its thermal springs and spa. Use of the thermal springs was first documented by the Romans. The business of spring bathing became important for Wiesbaden near the end of the Middle Ages. By 1370, sixteen bath houses were in operation. By 1800, the city had 2,239 inhabitants and twenty-three bath houses. By 1900, Wiesbaden, with a population of 86,100, hosted 126,000 visitors annually. Famous visitors to the springs included Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Richard Wagner, and Johannes Brahms. In those years there were more millionaires living in Wiesbaden than in any other city in Germany.  Gambling followed bathing en suite and in the 19th century Wiesbaden was famous for both. Its casino ("Spielbank") rivalled those of Bad Homburg, Baden-Baden and Monaco. In 1872, the Prussian-dominated Imperial government closed down all German gambling houses. The Wiesbaden casino was reopened in 1949. Demographics Rank  Nationality  Population (2013) 1   Turkey  9,849 2   Poland  4,293 3   Italy  3,937 4   Greece  2,709 5   Serbia (incl. Montenegro)  1,902 6   Romania  1,739 7   Morocco  1,668 8   Bulgaria  1,446 Main sights Panorama of Wiesbaden from the Neroberg The Palace Square Former Ducal Palace  The Schloßplatz ("palace square") is situated in the center of the city, surrounded by several outstanding buildings. The ducal palace was begun under William, Duke of Nassau. Its foundations were laid in 1837 and it was completed in November 1841 (two years after William's death). For the twenty-six remaining years of ducal authority it was the residence of the ruling family. It later served as a secondary residence for the King of Prussia 1866 to 1918. It was later used as a headquarters for French and British occupying forces after World War I, then as a museum. Since 1945, the building has served as Landtag (parliamentary building) for the federal state of Hesse. The site of the palace had been that of a castle, probably from the early Middle Ages, around which the city had developed. While nothing is known of the former castle, remains of it were uncovered during excavations after World War II. New Town Hall, picture taken 1893 Old Town Hall  The new town hall was built in 1887. Engraved in the paving in front of the town hall are the heraldic eagle of the Holy Roman Empire, the lion of Nassau, and the fleur-de-lis of Wiesbaden. The old town hall, built in 1610, is the oldest preserved building in the city center and now is used as a civil registry office.  The Protestant Marktkirche ("market church") was built from 1852 to 1862 in a neo-Gothic style. Its western steeple is 92 m (302 ft) in height, making the church the highest building in the city. Kurhaus and Theater Kurhaus with Fontain on the Bowling Green Main article: Kurhaus, Wiesbaden Main article: Hessisches Staatstheater Wiesbaden Main article: Bowling Green, Wiesbaden  The monumental Neo-Classical Kurhaus ("spa house") was built at the request of Kaiser Wilhelm II between 1904 and 1907. Its famous Spielbank (casino) is again in operation.  In front of the Kurhaus is a lawn known as the Bowling Green. To one side of the Bowling Green is the Kurhaus Kolonnade. Built in 1827, the 129 meter structure is the longest hall in Europe supported by pillars. To the other side is the Theater Kolonnade, built in 1839. It is adjacent to the Hessisches Staatstheater Wiesbaden, built between 1892 and 1894. St. Bonifatius Main article: St. Bonifatius, Wiesbaden  St. Bonifatius, the first church for the Catholic community after the Reformation, was built from 1845 until 1849 by Philipp Hoffmann in Gothic Revival style and dedicated to Saint Boniface. St. Elizabeth's Church  The Russian Orthodox Church of Saint Elizabeth was built on the Neroberg from 1847 to 1855 by Duke Adolf of Nassau on the occasion of the early death of his wife Elizabeth Mikhailovna, who died in childbirth. The architect was Philipp Hoffmann.      Biebrich Palace      City Palace      Nerobergbahn funicular      St. Elizabeth's Church on the Neroberg      St. Bonifatius      Marktkirche  Other sights A pond and fountain in the Warmer Damm  Another building from the regency of Duke Wilhelm is the Luisenplatz, a square named for the Duke's first wife. It is surrounded by Neoclassicist buildings, and in the middle of the square is the Waterloo Obelisk, commemorating the Nassauers who died in the wars against Napoleon. Apart from the palace in the center, the ducal family had a large palace on the banks of the Rhine, known as Schloss Biebrich. This baroque building was erected in the first half of the 18th century.  North of the city is the Neroberg. From the top of this hill it is possible to view a panorama of the city. The Nerobergbahn funicular railway connects the city with the hill.  One of the three Hessian state museums, Museum Wiesbaden is located in Wiesbaden. Another church is the Lutherkirche.  The Warme Damm is a 4.5 hectare park on the east side of Wilhelmstrasse and south of the State theater and Kurhaus which features a lake, a fountain, various statues, and large grassy areas. The park was created in 1859–1860 and is named after the medieval fortifications around a pond into which the warm waters of the town's 26 warm springs flowed.[14] Boroughs of Wiesbaden  The city of Wiesbaden is divided into 26 boroughs: five in the central city and 21 suburban districts. The 21 suburban districts were incorporated in four phases from 1926 to 1977. The former right Mainz suburbs Amöneburg, Kastel and Kostheim have belonged to Wiesbaden since 1945. Boroughs of Wiesbaden Inner boroughs Borough  Area  Population  Density  Purchasing power per inh.  Map Mitte[15]  1.53 km²  20,797  13,593  19,707 €  Wiesbaden Karte Mitte.PNG Nordost[16]  19.44 km²  22,621  1,163  21,709 €  Wiesbaden Karte Nordost.PNG Rheingauviertel[17]  2.47 km²  19,802  8,017  17,461 €  Wiesbaden Karte Rheingauviertel.PNG Südost[18]  6.62 km²  18,835  2,845  24,370 €  Wiesbaden Karte Südost.PNG Westend[19]  0.67 km²  16,528  24,669  19,047 €  Wiesbaden Karte Westend.PNG Suburban boroughs Borough  Area  Population  Density  Purchasing power per inh.  Incorporated since  Map Auringen[20]  3.12 km²  3,399  1,079  22,114 €  January 1, 1977  Wiesbaden Karte Auringen.PNG Biebrich[21]  12.99 km²  36,896  2,840  18,779 €  October 28, 1926  Wiesbaden Karte Biebrich.PNG Bierstadt[22]  9.22 km²  12,109  1,313  22,807 €  April 1, 1928  Wiesbaden Karte Bierstadt.PNG Breckenheim[23]  6.53 km²  3,375  517  22,074 €  January 1, 1977  Wiesbaden Karte Breckenheim.PNG Delkenheim[24]  7.43 km²  4,938  665  20,908 €  January 1, 1977  Wiesbaden Karte Delkenheim.PNG Dotzheim[25]  18.27 km²  26,234  1,436  18,793 €  April 1, 1928  Wiesbaden Karte Dotzheim.PNG Erbenheim[26]  11.27 km²  9,258  821  19,357 €  April 1, 1928  Wiesbaden Karte Erbenheim.PNG Frauenstein[27]  10.65 km²  2,359  222  19,365 €  April 1, 1928  Wiesbaden Karte Frauenstein.PNG Heßloch[28]  1.54 km²  695  451  24,525 €  April 1, 1928  Wiesbaden Karte Heßloch.PNG Igstadt[29]  7.26 km²  2,090  288  21,869 €  April 1, 1928  Wiesbaden Karte Igstadt.PNG Klarenthal[30]  6.13 km²  10,280  1,677  18,103 €  September 1, 1964  Wiesbaden Karte Klarenthal.PNG Kloppenheim[31]  5.39 km²  2,301  427  21,592 €  April 1, 1928  Wiesbaden Karte Kloppenheim.PNG Mainz-Amöneburg[32]  3.71 km²  1,444  389  17,267 €  July 25, 1945  Wiesbaden Karte Amöneburg.PNG Mainz-Kastel[33]  9.51 km²  12,021  1,264  19,874 €  July 25, 1945  Wiesbaden Karte Kastel.PNG Mainz-Kostheim[34]  9.53 km²  13,935  1,462  18,623 €  July 25, 1945  Wiesbaden Karte Kostheim.PNG Medenbach[35]  4.74 km²  2,501  560  21,170 €  January 1, 1977  Wiesbaden Karte Medenbach.PNG Naurod[36]  10.99 km²  4,414  402  21,865 €  January 1, 1977  Wiesbaden Karte Naurod.PNG Nordenstadt[37]  7.73 km²  7,896  1,021  21,503 €  January 1, 1977  Wiesbaden Karte Nordenstadt.PNG Rambach[38]  9.92 km²  2,175  219  24,902 €  April 1, 1928  Wiesbaden Karte Rambach.PNG Schierstein[39]  9.43 km²  10,129  1,074  19,938 €  October 28, 1926  Wiesbaden Karte Schierstein.PNG Sonnenberg[40]  8.34 km²  7,972  956  27,701 €  October 28, 1926  Wiesbaden Karte Sonnenberg.PNG Historical population Population of Wiesbaden, 1521 to present Year  Population 1521  192 1629  915 1699  730 1722  1.329 1800  2.239 1 December 1840  11.648 3 December 1861  20.800 3 December 1864  26.600 3 December 1867  30.100 1 December 1871  35.500 1 December 1875  43.700 1 December 1880  50.238 1 December 1885  55.454 Year  Population 1 December 1890  64.670 2 December 1895  74.133 1 December 1900  86.111 1 December 1905  100.953 1 December 1910  109.002 1 December 1916  90.310 5 December 1917  86.555 8 October 1919  97.566 16 June 1925  102.737 16 June 1933  159.755 17 March 1939  170.354 31 December 1945  172.083 29 October 1946  188.370 Year  Population 13 September 1950  220.741 25 September 1956  244.994 6 June 1961  253.280 31 December 1965  260.331 27 March 1970  250.122 31 December 1975  250.592 31 December 1980  274.464 31 December 1985  266.623 25 March 1987  251.871 31 December 1990  260.301 31 December 1995  267.122 31 December 2000  270.109 30 September 2005  274.865 Year  Population 31 December 2006  275.562 31 December 2007  275.849 31 December 2008  276.742 31 December 2009  277.493 31 December 2010  275.976 Mayors      1849–1868: Heinrich Fischer     1868–1882: Wilhelm Lanz     1882–1883: Christian Schlichter     1883–1913: Carl Bernhard von Ibell     1913–1919: Karl Glässing     1919–1929: Fritz Travers     1930–1933: Georg Krücke     1933–1937: Alfred Schulte     1937–1945: Erich Mix     1945–1946: Georg Krücke     1946–1953: Hans Heinrich Redlhammer     1951–1954: Georg Kluge     1954–1960: Erich Mix     1960–1968: Georg Buch     1968–1980: Rudi Schmitt     1980–1982: Georg-Berndt Oschatz     1982–1985: Hans-Joachim Jentsch     1985–1997: Achim Exner     1997–2007: Hildebrand Diehl     2007–2013: Helmut Müller     2013– Sven Gerich  The information up to 2007 was retrieved from Die Wiesbadener Oberbürgermeister seit dem Bau des neuen Rathauses (1886) (The Wiesbaden Mayors since the construction of the new town mayor hall (1886) )[41] Transport Map of Wiesbaden with Autobahns, federal roads and main streets. Roads  Wiesbaden is well connected to the German motorway (Autobahn) system. The Wiesbadener Kreuz is an Autobahn interchange eastwards the city where the Bundesautobahn 3 (A 3), Cologne to Würzburg, and the Bundesautobahn 66 (A 66), Rheingau to Fulda, meet. With approximately 190,000 cars daily it is one of the most heavily used interchange in Germany. The Bundesautobahn 66 (A 66) connects Wiesbaden with Frankfurt. The Bundesautobahn 643 (A 643) is mainly a commuter motorway which starts in the south of the city centre, runs through the southern part of Wiesbaden crosses the Rhine river via the Schierstein Bridge and connect in the northwestern part of Mainz to the A60. The Bundesautobahn 671 (A 671) is a very short motorway in the southeastern part of Wiesbaden which primarily serves as a fast connection between the city centre and tshe Bundesautobahn 60 to serve the cities like Rüsselsheim, Darmstadt and the Rhine-Neckar region (Mannheim, Ludwigshafen and Heidelberg).  The downtown area is bordered on the north side by Taunusstrasse, which has once featured many antique stores.[42] The east side is constrained by Wilhelmstrasse, created by Christian Zais. This 1,000 meter-long street is named after Archduke Wilhelm, not Emperor Wilhelm II, as many mistakenly believe.[43]  The streets of central Wiesbaden are regularly congested with cars during rush hour. Besides some areas, especially the Ringroad and not directly in the centre, and the southern arterial roads like the Mainzer Straße, Biebricher Allee and Schiersteiner Straße. Rail Wiesbaden main station, built between 1904 and 1906.  Wiesbaden's main railway station and several minor railway stops connect the town with Frankfurt, Darmstadt, Mainz, Limburg and Koblenz via Rüdesheim. Wiesbaden Hauptbahnhof is connected to the Cologne-Frankfurt high-speed rail line by a 13-kilometer branch line. Hamburg, München, Leipzig, Dresden, Stuttgart, Mannheim and Hanover are connected directly to Wiesbaden via long distance service of the Deutsche Bahn. More services to locations outside the immediate area connect through Mainz or Frankfurt Airport or Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof. Regional trains and bus services are coordinated by the Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund. Public transport A Bus at Schierstein harbor      S-Bahn  Wiesbaden is connected to the Frankfurt S-Bahn network and served by three lines (S1, S8 and S9) which connect Wiesbaden with the densely populated Rhine Main Region. All routes have an at least 30 minute service during the day, in the rush hour partially every 15 minutes schedule. It provides access to nearby cities such as Mainz, Rüsselsheim, Frankfurt, Hanau and Offenbach am Main and smaller towns that are on the way.      Bus  The city's public transportation service ESWE Verkehr connects all city districts to downtown by 45 bus lines in the daytime and 9 bus lines in the night. Five more bus lines, operated by the public transportation service of the city of Mainz, connects Wiesbaden's districts Kastel and Kostheim to Mainz downtown. Airports Aerial view of Frankfurt Airport      Frankfurt Airport  The city can easily be accessed from around the world via Frankfurt Airport (Flughafen Frankfurt am Main) which is located 15 km (8 mi) east of Wiesbaden. The airport has four runways and serves 265 non-stop destinations. Run by transport company Fraport it ranks among the world's 10 busiest airports by passenger traffic and is the second busiest airport by cargo traffic in Europe. The airport also serves as a hub for Condor and as the main hub for German flag carrier Lufthansa. Depending on whether total passengers or flights are used, it ranks second or third busiest in Europe alongside London Heathrow Airport and Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport. Passenger traffic at Frankfurt Airport in 2011 was 56.5 million.  The airport can be reached by car or train and has two railway stations, one for regional and one for long-distance traffic. The S-Bahn lines S8 and S9 (direction Offenbach Ost or Hanau Hbf) departing at the regional train station take 30 minutes from the airport to Wiesbaden Central Station, the ICE trains departing at the long-distance railway station take also 30 minutes to the central station.      Frankfurt Hahn Airport  Despite the name, Frankfurt Hahn Airport (Flughafen Frankfurt-Hahn) is not located anywhere near Frankfurt but is instead situated approximately 100 km (62 mi) from the city in Lautzenhausen (Rhineland-Palatinate). Hahn Airport is a major base for Low-cost carrier Ryanair. This airport can be reached by car or bus. The nearest train station is in Traben-Trarbach, it is ca. 17 km (11 mi) from the airport, on foot. The roads are not lit. Port  There are small container port operations nearby on the Rhine and Main rivers. Military  Lucius D. Clay Kaserne (Formerly Wiesbaden Army Airfield or WAAF) is located adjacent to Wiesbaden-Erbenheim and is home to the US Army in Europe (USAREUR) headquarters, the 5th Signal Command and the 66th Military Intelligence Brigade. Construction of a new computer center and access point have still to be completed. The airfield was one of the points of origin for flights to Berlin in support of Operation Vittles (the Berlin airlift) during the Soviet blockade of Berlin. General Clay, the commander of the US occupation zone in Germany, was the architect of the airlift. Economy  Wiesbaden hosts a number of international companies, which have their German or European headquarters here, for example, Abbott, CSC, Ferrari, Federal-Mogul, Melbourne IT, Norwegian Cruise Line and SCA. Several German companies also have their headquarters in Wiesbaden, including SGL Carbon, Dyckerhoff, Kion and DBV-Winterthur and R + V Versicherung. Wiesbaden is also home to the "Industriepark Kalle-Albert", an industrial park in the southern quarter of Biebrich. It is one of the largest in Germany with over 80 companies from the pharmaceutical and chemical industry, including Agfa-Gevaert, Clariant, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation and Shin-Etsu Chemical. The park was founded by chemical company Hoechst AG in 1997.  In addition, a large number of Hessian ministries are located in Wiesbaden.  At approximately €77,500, Wiesbaden has the second largest gross domestic product per inhabitant in Hesse, after Frankfurt, making it one of the richest cities in Germany.[44] The purchasing power per inhabitant is €22,500.[45] Events International May Festival Main article: Internationale Maifestspiele Wiesbaden  The International May Festival is an annual arts festival presented by the Hessisches Staatstheater Wiesbaden every May. Established in 1896, it is one of the most distinguished international theatre and music festivals in the world. The festival features performances of plays, musicals, operas, and ballets. Concerts from a wide array of music are featured, as are artistic circus acts and modern dance presentations. Lectures, recitals, cabaret performances, and readings are also featured.[46] Rheingau Wine Festival  The wines and sparkling wines of the close Rheingau are presented annually at the ten-day festival in August, Rheingauer Weinwoche (Rheingau Wine Week) around the Wiesbaden City Hall, on the Schlossplatz (Palace Square), the square Dern’sches Gelände and in the pedestrian area. At 118 booths, Rheingau and Wiesbaden vintners offer their wine and sparkling wine and invite to discover the already well known and favored, but also new vintages. Every year thousands of visitors use this opportunity to get acquainted with Rheingau Riesling wines and all their various facets and flavors. Regional specialities compatible with the wines are offered as well. A diversified musical program entertains the wine festival guests. Initiated more than 30 years ago by the Rheingau vintners, this wine festival has a long tradition. Shooting Star Market  Wiesbaden’s Sternschnuppenmarkt is located at the central Schlossplatz and the neighbouring streets of the parliamentary building, old town hall and market church. The Sternschnuppenmarkt takes place from the end of November until December 23 every year and is open from Monday until Thursday 10:30 – 9:00 pm, Friday and Saturday 10:30 – 9:30 pm, and Sunday 12:00 – 9:00 pm.  The market is related to the city arms of Wiesbaden: the colours blue and gold and the three lilies are characteristic. Four gates and an illuminated floral roof symbolizing Fleur-de-lis, consisting of twelve over ten metre high and twelve metre wide luminous lilies, emboss the Sternschnuppenmarkt.  Over 110 booths are decorated in oriental style, coloured blue and gold, offering Christmas style goods, arts and crafts as well as nostalgic carousels and a toy train. A Christmas tree more than 28 metres tall is decorated with 1000 blue and golden ties, 2500 electric bulbs and 30 flash bulbs. The nativity scene displays life-sized wooden figures. Rheingau Musik Festival  From the beginning in 1988 the Rheingau Musik Festival has staged summer concerts in the Marktkirche and in the concert hall of the Kurhaus now named Friedrich-von-Thiersch-Saal. Wiesbaden pedestrian zone 2005. Sport  Since 2007 Wiesbaden has been home to SV Wehen Wiesbaden, an association football team that formerly played in nearby Taunusstein. Twin towns – Sister cities  Wiesbaden maintains official partnerships with 14 cities.[47] Town twinnings between Wiesbaden and other cities began with Klagenfurt in 1930, one of the first town-twinnings in Germany.      1930 Klagenfurt, Austria     1953 Montreux, Switzerland[48]     1964 Berlin-Kreuzberg, Germany (twinning with the borough of Biebrich) since 2001 Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg     1969 Ghent, Belgium[49]     1975 Fondettes, France     1977 Ljubljana, Slovenia[50]     1981 Kfar Saba, Israel         1981 Donostia-San Sebastian, Spain     1987 Wrocław, Poland     1989 Tunbridge Wells, United Kingdom     1990 Görlitz, Germany     1990 Ocotal, Nicaragua     2009 Glarus, Switzerland (twinning with the borough of Biebrich)     2012 Fatih (Istanbul), Turkey  Coat of arms  Wiesbaden's coat of arms features fleurs-de-lys, stylized representations of the city's heraldic symbol, the lily. The blazon is: "Azure, two and one fleurs-de-lys Or". Notable residents  Notable people born in Wiesbaden include:      American pornographic actress Shy Love     Sarah Colonna, Comedian     Painter Maria Vasilievna Yakunchikova-Weber     American tennis star John McEnroe (who was born on a U.S. military base at Wiesbaden)     F1 driver Nico Rosberg     German film director Volker Schlöndorff     German product designer Dieter Rams, former head of design for Braun     Founder of Anheuser-Busch, Adolphus Busch at the year he was born his birthplace belonged to the city of Mainz not Wiesbaden (born in Mainz-Kastel)     Peter Hanenberger an automotive specialist for General Motors and previous chairman for Australian car giant, Holden     Günther Lütjens, Admiral and commander of the World War II naval Operation Rheinübung, aboard the battleship Bismarck     Henry Schwarzschild, founder of NCADP, LCDC, and head of ACLU's Capital Punishment project in America     Melody Perkins, an actress who played in Power Rangers in Space, and in Power Rangers: Lost Galaxy as the new pink ranger to replace Valerie Vernon     Michael Kessler, the German comedian     Rudolf von Ribbentrop (born 1921) Captain in the Waffen-SS, recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross for bravery, son of German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop     Kiki Vandeweghe, Two-time NBA All-Star player, later a general manager and coach  Others who have resided in Wiesbaden include:      Richard Wagner settled in Biebrich (now part of Wiesbaden) in 1861, after the political ban against him in Germany was lifted. It was there that he began work on Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg.     Max Reger studied in Wiesbaden.     Priscilla Presley (Beaulieu at the time) lived in Wiesbaden with her parents (her father was an Air Force Officer stationed here). It was here that she met Elvis Presley – she was 14 years old at the time, Elvis was 24.     Reese Witherspoon lived in Wiesbaden with her parents (her father worked for the U.S. military here).     Peter Carl Fabergé, fled Russia to Germany, settled first in Bad Homburg and then in Wiesbaden.     Mickey Rourke resides in Wiesbaden at least part-time with his Russian-born girlfriend Anastassija Makarenko.     Debby Ryan, American actress, lived in Wiesbaden for three years (her father was in the military)     Schoolboy Q, American rapper, was born in Wiesbaden (parents were in the military).     Alexej von Jawlensky, a Russian Expressionist painter, lived there from 1922 until his death in 1941.  Famous visitors      In the 19th century, visitors to the Wiesbaden's famous hot springs included Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Johannes Brahms. Brahms' Symphony No. 3 (Op. 90) was composed in Wiesbaden in the summer of 1883.      Russian author Fyodor Dostoyevsky, who suffered from an acute gambling compulsion, allegedly lost his travelling money in Wiesbaden's Spielbank casino in 1865. The experience became the inspiration of his 1866 novel The Gambler (Russian Игрок), set in the fictitious place "Roulettenburg". Some historians have disputed this account, saying that Bad Homburg was the location for Dostoyevsky's real-life misfortune.      Wiesbaden's Bowling Green has been very popular in recent years since various open-air concerts have been held there by artists like Elton John (2009 & 2011), Rod Stewart (2009), Eric Clapton (2008), R.E.M. (2003), Sting (2001), Bryan Adams (2000), Simply Red (1999), José Carreras (1992) and Luciano Pavarotti (1993). Lionel Richie and Plácido Domingo (2nd time in Wiesbaden) have also performed there.  Rivalry with Mainz  Mainz, on the opposite side of the Rhine river, is Wiesbaden's archrival – the two cities are the capitals of their respective Bundesländer, and citizens of both cities jokingly refer to those on the other one as "living on the wrong side of the river". Fictional references      In his short story The Horror of the Heights (1913), Sir Arthur Conan Doyle refers to the Wiesbaden-Homburg Triangle as a region in which aircraft mysteriously vanish.     In the 1983 American television movie The Day After, Wiesbaden was the first city to be destroyed by a nuclear weapon during the escalating war between NATO and Warsaw Pact forces that eventually leads to a full-scale nuclear exchange between the United States and the Soviet Union.     The historical novel series Romanike (2006–2014) by Codex Regius features Wiesbaden in the Roman age, or Aquae Mattiacorum, as one of its main locations.
The former Hotel Rose, shown in the period postcard with the swastika flying above, is now the seat of the government of the State of Hesse.
Ви́сба́ден (нем. Wiesbaden (произношение (инф.)), лат. Aquae Mattiacae, Aquae Mattiacorum) — город в Германии, столица федеральной земли Гессен.  По состоянию на 31 декабря 2011 года население составляло 278 919 человек.  Висбаден — второй по величине город Гессена после Франкфурта.  Название Wiesbaden буквально означает «луговые ванны». Один из старейших курортов Европы, в нём находятся 26 горячих и несколько холодных термальных источников. С 1905 года, когда его население достигло 100 тысяч, стал считаться крупным городом.  Содержание      1 География     2 История     3 Население     4 Политика     5 Экономика     6 Транспорт     7 Культура, наука и образование     8 Достопримечательности         8.1 Храм Святой Елизаветы     9 Знаменитые люди, связанные с городом     10 Города-побратимы     11 В астрономии     12 Литература     13 Ссылки  География  Висбаден находится на правом (восточном) берегу Рейна при впадении Майна в Рейн. На другом берегу Рейна находится город Майнц. Висбаден и Майнц исторически были городами-соперниками. Майнц известен как католический центр с консервативными порядками. Висбаден был демократическим городом-курортом с преобладанием протестантов. История Мемориал жителям Гессен-Нассау, павшим в битве при Ватерлоо  Ранние поселения на территории Висбадена относятся к эпохе неолита. Горячие источники известны со времен Римской империи — первое известное упоминание относится к 77 году н. э. в «Естественной истории» Плиния Старшего. Место называлось тогда «Aquae Mattiacorum» (рус. Источники Маттиаков) по имени проживавшего в этих местах дружественного римлянам хаттского племени.  В 260 году крепость заняли алеманны. В 370 году римляне и алеманны объединились, за алеманнами было закреплено право на Висбаден, и они должны были участвовать в защите Римской империи от других германских племён. В 496 году алеманны были покорены Хлодвигом и присоединены к Франкскому государству. В VIII веке франки построили Королевский Двор («Königshof», «curtis regia»). Между 828 и 830 годами Эйнхард упоминает название «Висбада». Это было первое историческое упоминание Висбадена под современным названием.  В 1170-е Нассау приобрели Висбаден во владение и правили городом до 1242 года, пока архиепископ Майнцский не занял город и не сжёг его. Висбаден снова стал частью земель Нассау в 1270 году. В 1329 дом Нассау и Висбаден получили право чеканить монету от имени короля Людовика IV Баварского. Из-за участия в Крестьянской Войне Висбаден утратил все привилегии в 1525 году на сорок лет. За это время город стал протестантским центром, первым лютеранским пастором с 1 января 1543 года был Вольф Дентенер. В 1566 году городу вернули привилегии. Самое старое здание города — ратуша, которая строилась с 1609 по 1610 год. Пожары города 1547 и 1561 годов привели к разрушению старых зданий[источник не указан 773 дня].  В 1815 году столица Нассау была перенесена в Висбаден, и в городе возникла резиденция герцога. С этого времени город стал активно обстраиваться и приобретать величественный вид. В 1866 году во время Австро-прусской войны Нассау приняло сторону Австрии. Поражение Австрии в войне привело к ликвидации герцогства и аннексии Нассау прусскими войсками. Возникла прусская провинция Гессен-Нассау.  После Второй мировой войны по инициативе США была организована земля Гессен и Висбаден стал столицей. Американские войска присутствуют в Висбадене до сих пор, несколько дивизий дислоцированы при выезде из города в сторону Франкфурта. Кроме того, здесь располагается Федеральное ведомство уголовной полиции Германии. Население Статистика численности населения Год  Численность 1521  192 1629  915 1699  730 1722  1329 1800  2239 1 декабря 1840  11 648 3 декабря 1861  20 800 3 декабря 1864  26 600 3 декабря 1867  30 100 1 декабря 1871  35 500 1 декабря 1875  43 700 1 декабря 1880  50 238 1 декабря 1885  55 454   Год  Численность 1 декабря 1890  64 670 2 декабря 1895  74 133 1 декабря 1900  86 111 1 декабря 1905  100 953 1 декабря 1910  109 002 1 декабря 1916  90 310 5 декабря 1917  86 555 8 октября 1919  97 566 16 июня 1925  102 737 16 июня 1933  159 755 17 мая 1939  170 354 31 декабря 1945  172 083 29 октября 1946  188 370   Год  Численность 13 сентября 1950  220 741 25 сентября 1956  244 994 6 июня 1961  253 280 31 декабря 1965  260 331 27 мая 1970  250 122 31 декабря 1975  250 592 31 декабря 1980  274 464 31 декабря 1985  266 623 25 мая 1987  251 871 31 декабря 1990  260 301 31 декабря 1995  267 122 31 декабря 2000  270 109 30 сентября 2005  274 865 Политика  Мэры с 1849 года по настоящее:      1849—1868: Генрих Фишер, бургомистр     1868—1882: Вильгельм Ланц, бургомистр     1882—1883: Кристиан Шлихтер, бургомистр     1883—1913: Карл Бернхард фон Ибелл     1913—1919: Карл Глэссинг     1919—1929: Фриц Траверс (ГНП, мэр с 1919 по 1923)     1930—1933: Георг Крюкке (ГНП)     1933—1937: Альфред Шульте (НСДАП)     1937—1945: Эрих Микс (НСДАП)     1945—1946: Георг Крюкке (СвДП)         1946—1953: Ганс Генрих Редлхаммер (ХДС)     1954—1960: Эрих Микс (СвДП)     1960—1968: Георг Бух (СДПГ)     1968—1980: Руди Шмидт (СДПГ)     1980—1982: Георг-Берндт Ошатц (ХДС)     1982—1985: Ганс-Йохим Йенч (ХДС)     1985—1997: Ахим Экснер (СДПГ)     1997—2007: Хильдебранд Диль (ХДС)     2007: Хельмут Мюллер (ХДС)  Экономика Вокзал Транспорт      Висбаден находится примерно в 20 км от аэропорта Франкфурта, имеет несколько небольших железнодорожных станций и одну основную станцию Хауптбанхоф (нем. Hauptbahnhof), которая соединяет Франкфурт, Дармштадт, Майнц, Лимбург и Кобленц.     На берегах Рейна и Майна находится несколько портов.  Культура, наука и образование      Университет прикладных наук Висбадена (de:Hochschule RheinMain) (нем. Hochschule RheinMain).     Висбаденская обсерватория  Начиная с 2001 года проходит кинофестиваль «Go East», цель которого начать подлинный культурный диалог и обмен Запада и Востока. Достопримечательности Стилевые проблемы  Стиль этого раздела неэнциклопедичен или нарушает нормы русского языка. Следует исправить раздел согласно стилистическим правилам Википедии.   Пешеходный центр Висбадена Неробергский фуникулёр Дворец Бибрих      Дворцовая площадь (нем. Schlossplatz), на которой находятся герцогский дворец, построенный Вильгельмом, герцогом Нассау в 1840 году и Новая ратуша (1887 год). Старая ратуша, построенная в 1610 году, является самым старым зданием города.      Церковь Маркткирхе (нем. Marktkirche), построенная в 1852—1862 годах в неоготическом стиле. Её западная башня высотой 92 метра делает церковь самым высоким зданием в городе.      Музей Висбадена (нем. Museum Wiesbaden), один из трёх музеев Гессена, помимо музеев в Касселе и Дармштадте, включающий выставку современного искусства, коллекции картин различных художников и коллекции древностей герцогства Нассау.      Гора Нероберг (нем. Neroberg), расположенная на севере Висбадена, с которой открывается панорама города.      Казино Висбадена, одно из самых знаменитых зданий Висбадена, в котором побывали Рихард Вагнер, Отто фон Бисмарк и Элвис Пресли. Фёдор Михайлович Достоевский во время путешествия в Висбаден в 1865 год, проиграл там все свои сбережения. Позже он описал это в романе Игрок, темой которого стала всепоглощающая страсть к азартным играм. Теперь один из залов казино назван в его честь.  Храм Святой Елизаветы      Русский храм святой Елизаветы («Греческая капелла») сооружён в 1848—1855 годах, на горе Нероберг в память о безвременно ушедшей из жизни герцогине Нассау, российской Великой Княгине Елизавете Михайловне. Проект храма осуществил архитектор из Нассау Филипп Гофман. В свой проект Гофман перенёс впечатления от строившегося в центре Москвы Храма Христа Спасителя. С точки зрения истории искусства, храм относится к памятникам романтического стиля архитектуры Нассау, однако его церковное предназначение, в соединении с традициями русской православной архитектуры, придаёт ему совершенно специфический характер. В северной части храма находится часовня, в которой стоит саркофаг из каррарского мрамора. На саркофаге — лежащая фигура Великой Княгини Елизаветы. Внутри храм облицован несколькими видами драгоценного мрамора: чёрный — египетский, белый — каррерский, серый мрамор из Швеции, красно-коричневый из Германии, мрамор цвета слоновой кости с острова Родос. Свод храма украшен фресками работы Якоби. Все иконы на иконостасе были исполнены профессором Императорской академии искусств в Санкт-Петербурге Карлом фон Неффом. Нефф расписывал Храм Христа Спасителя в Москве, Исаакиевский собор в Санкт-Петербурге. В 1896 году русский царь Николай II, посетивший Висбаден вместе с членами Императорского Двора, выкупил храм св. Елисаветы вместе с участком земли и леса (включая кладбище) на собственные деньги. Таким образом, храм св. Елисаветы в Висбадене сегодня принадлежит Русской православной церкви заграницей (РПЦЗ), в частности, Берлинской и Германской Епархии.  «Греческая капелла» Русская православная церковь в Висбадене (2006 год) Знаменитые люди, связанные с городом      Отто фон Бисмарк, государственный деятель, первый канцлер Германской империи.     Рихард Вагнер, оперный композитор, режиссёр, драматург.     Фёдор Михайлович Достоевский, русский писатель и мыслитель.     Князь Петр Андреевич Вяземский, русский поэт и государственный деятель, неоднократно бывал в городе.     Мария Васильевна Якунчикова, русская художница.     Наталья Александровна Пушкина-Дубельт, графиня Меренберг, дочь Александра Сергеевича Пушкина, морганатическая супруга принца Николая-Вильгельма Нассауского.     Алексей Явленский, русский художник, жил в Висбадене с 1921 года до своей смерти в 1941 году.     Макинрой, Джон Патрик мл., американский теннисист, бывшая первая ракетка мира.     Дитер Рамс, дизайнер, один из главных дизайнеров компании Braun.     Нико Росберг, пилот автогоночной серии Формула-1 в составе команд WilliamsF1 и Mercedes GP.     Александер Рюстов (1885—1963) — немецкий экономист и социолог.     Фолькер Шлёндорф, кинорежиссёр, один из деятелей нового немецкого кино.     Адольфус Буш, основатель пивоваренной компании Anheuser-Busch.     Присцилла Булье Пресли, американская актриса, единственная жена Элвиса Пресли.     Элвис Пресли, американский певец и актёр.     Джон Фицджеральд Кеннеди, 35-й президент США, посетил Висбаден в июне 1963 года.     Джимми Картер — 39-й президент США, посетил Висбаден в июле 1978 года.     Его Святейшество Далай-лама XIV, посетил Висбаден 28 мая 2003 года.     Джордж Буш и Лора Буш посетили Висбаден 23 февраля 2005 года.     В Висбадене захоронен Манфред фон Рихтгофен, лётчик-истребитель по прозвищу «Красный Барон».     Никита St1m Легостев — рэп-музыкант из России. Добился славы благодаря Хип-хоп баттлам. Экс-участник группы Вистанция, которая была образована в Висбадене.     Юзефович Я.Д. — генерал-лейтенант. Участник белого движения в России.     Носсрат Пезешкиан (1933-2010) — психотерапевт, автор метода Позитивной психотерапии.  Города-побратимы      Германия Гёрлиц, Германия     Австрия Клагенфурт, Австрия     Словения Любляна, Словения     Швейцария Монтрё, Швейцария     Великобритания Табридж, Великобритания     Испания Сан-Себастьян, Испания         Армения Степанаван, Армения     Израиль Кфар-Сава, Израиль     Бельгия Гент, Бельгия     Польша Вроцлав, Польша     Никарагуа Окоталь, Никарагуа     Швейцария Гларус, Швейцария  В астрономии  В честь Висбадена названы 2 астероида (717) Визибада (англ.)русск., открытый в 1911 году и (765) Маттиака (англ.)русск.. Оба астероида открыты немецким астрономом Францем Кайзером, уроженцем города. Литература      Дубовицкий Н. А. Русский некрополь в Висбадене / Сост. Николай Дубовицкий.. — СПб.: Алетейя, 2010. — 236 с. — 1 000 экз. — ISBN 978-5-91419-291-1. (обл.)  Ссылки commons:  Висбаден на Викискладе?      Официальная страница Висбадена     Фотографии Висбадена     Несколько видеозарисовок о жизни города     Панорама Висбадена     Искусство в Висбадене     Клип St1m «Друзья», снятый в Висбадене     Архитектурные достопримечательности Висбадена. Традиции культуры и истории. Праздничные мероприятия. 
The Hotel Nassauer Hof flying the Nazi flag and today, noticeably reduced
威斯巴登(德语:Wiesbaden)是德国中部黑森州的州府,法兰克福之后该州的第二大城市。它同时还是欧洲最老的疗养地之一,有着26个温泉和1个冷泉。  威斯巴登黑森州的新的总中心之一,其地位与法兰克福、美因兹、达姆施塔特、美因河畔奥芬巴赫和哈瑙相当,是莱茵-美因-区的核心城市。  威斯巴登市的人口在1906年突破10万大关,从此成为大城市。  目录      1 地理         1.1 概述         1.2 气候         1.3 城市发展背景         1.4 外围地区         1.5 宗教         1.6 人口增长         1.7 合作伙伴城市     2 经济与基础建设         2.1 葡萄酒和香槟     3 旅游名胜         3.1 旅游路线     4 圖片     5 名人         5.1 威斯巴登市名人录         5.2 其它有影响的人物     6 参考文献     7 外部连接  地理 概述  威斯巴登,莱茵高里最大的城市,坐落在莱茵河右岸,正对着莱茵兰-普法尔茨州的首府美因兹,并与之构成一个双子中心(德语作:Doppelzentrum)。其地理位置为北纬50° 05'东经08° 15'。  市中心的宫殿广场处高度为115米,而城市的最高点是608米高的Rheinhöhenweg,最低点在海港入口处,海拔83米。  该市占地204平方公里,从南到北17.6公里、从东到西19.7公里。城市的北部是一片无尽延绵的林区(占城市总面积27.4%),西部是葡萄园,东部为农业区,共占用面积31.1%。79公里的城市边界中10.3公里与莱茵河接壤。  莱茵高向东西拓展,覆盖整个城市区域。威斯巴登也因此被称为莱茵高之门。 气候  多得威斯巴登南部的自然保护区,该市气候十分宜人:年平均温度约9.5摄氏度,年降水量为每平方米622升,日照平均长度为大概1565小时。因此威斯巴登是德国最热的城市之一。此外,又由于地处低谷和众多高楼,市中心的空气流动相当受限制。 城市发展背景  威斯巴登当今的形象由三个部分勾勒出来:其中之一是难以数计的市中心建筑。这些建筑几乎全部在60年内(约介乎1850年和1914年第一次世界大战之间)建好的。城市的规划主要由两位建筑师负责:19世纪初由Christian Zais承担,Felix August Helfgott Genzmer后接手直至世界大战爆发。其二,在这段时间内,除了宫廷仆役外,大量的富人涌入威斯巴登,以此映照出他们的形象和身价。最后,威斯巴登的市中心在第二次世界大战中幸免于难。  这样的结果是,威斯巴登市中心显得十分整齐一致。其间的建筑物几乎全部归于古典主义、历史主义和青春主义风格。19世纪末,大面积的住宅区采用了华丽的外观和林荫道点缀。作为一个世界疗养城市,威斯巴登蜚声国际,亦由此在市中心建起了林林总总的具有代表性的开放式建筑物,如威斯巴登疗养院、疗养公园、黑森州州剧院,市集教堂(Marktkirche)。其中市集教堂是由Carl Boos,从1853年至1862年作为Nassauer州大教堂而建立的。因此,如今威斯巴登被誉为历史主义建筑风格的模范。 外围地区  市中心外围有一些以前的自治城市和地区。威斯巴登-Biebrich和威斯巴登-Bierstadt有城市的特征。然而市中心东部郊区却保留了村庄的特征。(Naurod,威斯巴登-Auringen,Breckenheim,Hessloch,Igstadt,威斯巴登-Nordenstadt,Erbenheim,Delkenheim)。  值得注意的是,威斯巴登市中心几乎没有任何工商业。唯一例外的是美因兹大街(Mainzer Straße)附近。这里有美因兹75号高楼,梅塞德斯-奔驰-Händler Taunus-Auto,大量的餐馆和快餐店和若干电子商店。  主要的工业区在城市南部莱茵河畔。此外在东部郊区还有一些零星的小工业区。这些地区的发展优势在于贯穿而过的联邦66号高速公路。  市中心附近更多的区域被用作美军驻扎基地。  以前的Camp Lindsey地区如今变成了德国联邦犯罪警察局在威斯巴登三个驻点之一。这里还有国民高等学校和许许多多的政府机构,如居民登记局等。 宗教  威斯巴登最初属于美因兹主教教区。1543年那时的nassauische Herrscherhaus引导了一次宗教改革。影响最大的是路德会;然而自18世纪始也出现了新教教徒。1817年在Nassau公国里实现了路德教徒和新教徒的联合教堂 (福音派)(Unierte Kirchen)。  18世纪在威斯巴登又复出现零星的天主教社团成员。自1791年他们又可以威斯巴登公开地进行礼拜并于1801年拥有了自己的会堂(Bethaus),后来还自己重新修建了自己的教堂。这些信奉者隶属于1827年新成立的林堡主教教区。 人口增长  以下表格列数了按地区划分的居住人口。给出数据基于市政管理局或统计局的人口统计结果。  居住人口总数轨迹表明,工业革命时代至第二次世界大战期间,该地区有很高的人口增长比例。从1800年至1939年居民人口从2239增长至19万1955。这得益于莱茵河和近鲁尔区良好的经济情况。第二次世界大战后,威斯巴登人口增长主要归于东部市郊的并入,和外来劳动力、外国人的移民。据2002统计,约有17.5%的住户持有非德国护照,明显低于法兰克福(26.4%)和美因河畔奥芬巴赫(31.2%)的比例。当然这个数字也表明了,威斯巴登自1980年(11.3%的外国住户)以来外来人口有了近55%的增长。 合作伙伴城市  威斯巴登与以下城市为合作伙伴城市:      克拉根福 / 奥地利(自1930年)     Montreux / 瑞士(自1953年)     de:Bezirk Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg / 柏林(柏林-Kreuzberg自1964年)     根特 / 比利时(自1969年)     Fondettes / 法国(自1975年)     卢布尔雅那 / 斯洛文尼亚(自1977年)     Kfar Saba / 以色列(自1981年)     圣塞瓦斯提安 / 西班牙(自1981年)     弗罗茨瓦夫 / 波兰(自1987年)     Tunbridge Wells / 英国(自1989年)     格尔利茨 / Freistaat Sachsen(自1990年)     Ocotal / 尼加拉瓜(自1990年)      被驱逐的德国人(Heimatvertriebene)的支援城市,卡罗维发利(自1953年)  经济与基础建设 葡萄酒和香槟  威斯巴登坐落在葡萄酒生产地莱茵高。每逢莱茵高葡萄酒周,旧市政厅旁的宫殿广场(Schloßplatz)就会变成“世界上最大的酒吧”,正如葡萄酒周的口号所说的那样。  在威斯巴登,葡萄酒和香槟极大地影响着人们的文化生活和尤其是美食生活。这种独特的文化生活把威斯巴登和别的大城市区别开来。 旅游名胜  散步于威斯巴登四周有许多旅游名胜。当地旅游业,和这个集疗养、议会、州府功能于一身城市融为一体,为经济的发展提供了一个不可忽视的推动力。每年约有96万2000人次在此留宿。与此相比,各大旅游城市留宿人次为:柏林1133万、法兰克福393万、不来梅104万、海德堡83万。  这里有67所宾馆和旅舍,共提供约6200个床位。这里的青年旅舍坐落在Elsässer Platz,是德国最大的青年旅舍之一,共有220个床位。此外还有三个露营点,每年接待旅客约6400人、留宿11800人次。 旅游路线      从名为Bäderstraße Taunus的大街开始。这条大街途径Bad Schwalbach和Schlangenbad最终通往拉恩河畔巴特埃姆斯(Bad Ems an der Lahn)。      de:莱茵高er Riesling-Route从Flörsheim am Main贯穿Hochheim am Main,经过南部城区最后通往莱茵高。      de:Deutsche Fachwerkstraße蜿蜒穿过西部城区:从Hochheim经Eppstein、Idstein通往拉恩河畔林堡(Limburg an der Lahn)。      莱茵徒步行,威斯巴登新的通往波恩的步行路线,沿途经过莱茵河中部右岸全部的古堡。  事实上,“巴登”在德语中就是温泉的意思。至今其市中心的老温泉仍保留着古罗马时代的建筑和洗浴风格,包括男女同浴。 圖片      威斯巴登步行区      化工廠      市內的一個公園      市內噴泉  名人 威斯巴登市名人录      1823年,5月6日,Wilhelm Heinrich Riehl,自1883年von Riehl,† 16日11月1897年于慕尼黑,新闻工作者,小说家。     1829年,Adolf Seel,画家。     1833年,19日12月,Wilhelm Dilthey,† 1。10月1911 in Seis bei Bozen,哲学家、心理学家、教育学家。     1845年,11月14日,Ernst Perabo,† 10月29日1920年,作曲家、钢琴师。     1849年,3月16日,Karl Brugmann,† 29。6月1919年于莱比锡,语言研究学者、印地-日尔曼学家("Grundriß vergleichender Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen")     1874年,Ludwig Hohlwein,† 15。9月1946年,Plakatkünstler(Neuen Sachlichkeit)     1875年,3月22日,Hans Grimm,民族主义作家、政治评论家。     1880年,6月29日,Ludwig Beck,† 1944年7月20日射杀于柏林, 军事家。     1882年,6月2日,Rudolf Bingel,† 1945 in Landsberg (Warthe),während der NS-Zeit Vorsitzender des Vorstandes der Siemens-Schuckertwerke     1885年,4月8日,Alexander Rüstow,† 30。6月1963 in Heidelberg,哲学家,社会学家和经济学家     1892年,9月4日,Helmuth Plessner,† 12。6月1985 in Göttingen,Philosoph und Soziologe,Hauptvertreter der Philosophischen Anthropologie     1906年,8月10日,Dr。Wilhelm Kempf,† 9。10月1982 in威斯巴登,Bischof von Limburg 1949-81     1907年,7月28日,Dolf Sternberger,† 1989年7月27日于法兰克福,政治学者和新闻工作者     1921年,3月25日,Simone Signoret,女演员     1927年,3月1日,Rudi Arndt,政治家     1928年,3月12日,Paul Kuhn,乐队领军人物、歌手("Es gibt kein Bier auf Hawaii","Der Mann am Klavier")     1929年,1月20日,Jo Miard,eigtl。Karl-Heinz Müller,† 3日11月1982年in Heppenheim,Bildhauer     1929年,6月8日,Grete Wurm,† 2002年3月28日于斯图加特,女演员     1936年,2月22日,Karin Dor,bürgerlich Kätherose Derr,女演员     1936年,11月22日,Hans Zender,指挥、作曲家     1938年或1939年,Katharina Thiersch,Denkmalpflege     1939年,3月31日,Volker Schlöndorff,导演     1942年,12月12日,Hannelore Rönsch,Bundesministerin für Familie und Senioren 1991年-1994年     1944年,7月7日,Jürgen Grabowski,足球运动员,1974年世界杯冠军     1946年,12月4日,Pierre Even,卢森堡作曲家     1951年,11月16日,Bernd Lehmann,测地学者和Fachhochschule Trier 测量技术教授     1953年,3月6日,Wolfgang Grams,RAF-Terrorist     1955年,11月18日,Sandro R. Müller,Organist     1956年,Birgit Hogefeld,RAF-Terroristin     1957年,5月13日,Andrea Klump,mutmaßliche RAF-Terroristin     1959年,2月26日,John McEnroe,美国乒乓球手     1960年,2月25日,Stefan Blöcher,deutscher Feldhockeyspieler     1960年,8月25日,Sami Kalifa,歌手,流行乐团Wind成员("Für alle")     1962年,11月3日,Dirk Kurbjuweit,新闻记者、作家  其它有影响的人物      Christian Zais(* 1770年于Cannstatt; † 1820年于威斯巴登)古典主义建筑师、城市规划者。     Carl Remigius Fresenius,* 1818年于法兰克福,† 1892年于威斯巴登,化学家,1848年建立了Fresenius学院。     Konrad Duden,* 1829年于Wesel,† 1911年于威斯巴登的Sonnenberg,语言学者,其作品杜登给德语正字法打下了坚实的基础。     Otto Henkell,* 1869年,† 1929年于威斯巴登,香槟生产商,其产业Henkell & Co享誉国际。     Alexej von Jawlensky,* 1864年于Torschok(俄罗斯),† 1941年于威斯巴登,表达主义画家     Bernard von Brentano * 1901年于美因河畔奥芬巴赫,† 1964年于威斯巴登,作家、填词人、戏剧作家、小说家     Eddie Constantine * 1917年于美国洛杉矶,† 1993年于威斯巴登,电影演员     Kaspar Kögler * 1838年于Molsberg,† 1923年于威斯巴登,画家,作家     Martin Niemöller * 1892年于Lippstadt,† 1984年于威斯巴登,有影响力的神学者     Ernst Litfaß * 1816年于柏林,† 27。12月1874年于威斯巴登,Verleger und Erfinder der 1854 erstmals eingesetzten Litfaßsäule     Felix Genzmer * 1856年于Labes/Pommern,† 1929年于柏林,von 1881年至1903年威斯巴登市规划人     Helmut Schön * 1915年于Dresden,† 1996年于威斯巴登,足球运动员、教练     Heinz Schenk,* 1924年于美因兹,演员、Showmaster("Zum Blauen Bock")     Klaus C。Plönzke,* 1936于Schwedt/Oder,IT企业家,CSC Ploenzke AG创办人,曾获颁予联邦十字勋章  参考文献      Erich Keyser(Hrsg.):Hessisches Städtebuch; Band IV 1。Teilband。aus:"Deutsches Städtebuch。Handbuch städtischer Geschichte" - Im Auftrage der Arbeitsgemeinschaft der historischen Kommissionen und mit Unterstützung des Deutschen Städtetages,des Deutschen Städtebundes und des Deutschen Gemeindetages,斯图加特,1957年     NN:Baedeker Stadtführer,Wiesbaden,Rheingau。Karl Baedeker Verlag。Ostfildern-Kemnat。12月2001。ISBN 3-87954-076-4     Thomas Weichel:Wiesbaden im Bombenkrieg 1941-1945。Wartberg出版社。2004年10月,ISBN 3-8313-1408-X     Thomas Weichel:Die Bürger von Wiesbaden。Oldenbourg。2001年4月。ISBN 3-486-56126-X     Christian Schnee:Was war los in Wiesbaden 1950-2000。Sutton出版社。2001年9月。ISBN 3-89702-355-5     Sibilla Friedrich-Pauly:Wiesbaden。Eine kleine Stadtgeschichte。Sutton出版社。2003年12月。ISBN 3-89702-579-5     Fritz Mielert:Wiesbaden. Berühmte Städte,Bäder,Landschaften Bd.1。Verlag Wilhelm Ruhfus。多特蒙德,1926年。  外部连接      城市官方网站     城市官方网站在中国     城市地图     城市非官方网站     威斯巴登市现时直击     威斯巴登现代艺术
The rathaus in 1933 also with swastika flag and today
The final resting site of Baron Manfred von Richthofen, aka 'The Red Baron', the most feared and celebrated pilot of the German air force in World War I, within the south cemetery in Wiesbaden. Killed on April 21 1918 in aerial combat, he was buried with military honours by the British. Later his remains were transferred first to Fricourt, then to the Invalidenfriedhof Cemetery in Berlin where the Nazi regime held a further grandiose memorial ceremony over this grave, erecting a massive new tombstone with the single word: "Richthofen", and finally to a family plot here in Wiesbaden.
Το Βίζμπαντεν (Wiesbaden) είναι πόλη της Γερμανίας και η σύγχρονη πρωτεύουσα του κρατιδίου της Έσσης (Hessen). Ο πληθυσμός της πόλης ανέρχεται περίπου στους 274.000 κατοίκους. Η πόλη είναι μέρος της μητροπολιτικής περιοχής Φρανκφούρτης (Frankfurt Rhein-Main).  Οι πρωτεύουσες των δύο όμορων κρατιδίων της Έσσης και της Ρηνανίας-Παλατινάτου, Βίζμπαντεν και Μάιντς αντίστοιχα, βρίσκονται στις δύο πλευρές του ποταμού Ρήνου και συνδέονται με γέφυρα.  Πίνακας περιεχομένων      1 Ιστορία     2 Αξιοθέατα     3 Παραπομπές     4 Εξωτερικοί σύνδεσμοι  Ιστορία  Το Βίζμπαντεν είναι διάσημο για τις θερμές πηγές και τα λουτρά (spa) του. Οι θερμές πηγές χρησιμοποιήθηκαν αρχικά από τους Ρωμαίους. Οι Ρωμαίοι την εκτιμούσαν πολύ ως λουτρόπολη και εκμεταλλεύτηκαν τις θεραπευτικές ιδιότητες του νερού της, ενώ η πόλη αναπτύχθηκε από ένα μικρό οικισμό γνωστό ως Aquae Mattiacorum, από το όνομα του γερμανικού φύλου Μάτιακς. Το 1370 δεκαέξι σπίτια λουτρών ήταν σε λειτουργία. Το 1774 η οικογένεια Νάσσαου-Ούζινγκεν επέλεξε το Βίζμπαντεν ως κατοικία της. Αυτό, καθώς και η μετέπειτα γρήγορη ανάπτυξη της πόλης ως λουτρόπολη-θέρετρο το 19ο αιώνα, έθεσε τα θεμέλια για τη μακρόχρονη ευημερία. Το 1800 υπήρχαν 2.239 κάτοικοι και είκοσι τρία σπίτια λουτρών. Μεταξύ των επισκεπτών των πηγών ήταν ο Γκαίτε, ο Φιοντόρ Ντοστογιέφσκι, ο Ρίχαρντ Βάγκνερ, και ο Γιοχάνες Μπραμς. Το 1900 υπήρχαν 86.100 κάτοικοι και 126.000 επισκέπτες. Εκείνη την εποχή ζούσαν στο Βίζμπαντεν περισσότεροι εκατομμυριούχοι από ότι σε οποιαδήποτε άλλη πόλη της Γερμανίας. Σήμερα η πόλη ακόμη κυριαρχείται από μεγάλης κλίμακας έργα, που έχουν γίνει στο πνεύμα και το στιλ του κλασικισμού και του ιστορικισμού, ενώ τα περισσότερα κτίρια της πόλης χρονολογούνται μεταξύ 1850 και 1910. Αξιοθέατα      Το Στάτσλος (αστικό ανάκτορο) χτίστηκε μεταξύ 1837-1841 ως χειμερινό ανάκτορο των ηγεμόνων του οίκου Νάσσαου, ενώ από το 1946 είναι η έδρα του κοινοβουλίου του κρατιδίου της Έσσης.     Στο Σλόσπλατς η νεογοτθική Μάρκτκιρχε (Εκκλησία της Αγοράς), χτισμένη στα 1853-1862, υψώνεται πάνω απ' όλα τ' άλλα κτίρια της πόλης σε ύψος 97 μέτρων. Μπροστά από την εκκλησία βρίσκεται το άγαλμα του Γουλιέλμου Α' φον Οράνιεν-Νάσσαου.     Το παλαιότερο κτίριο στην πόλη είναι το Άλτες Ράτχαους (παλιό δημαρχείο), που χρονολογείται από το 1610.     Το Κούρχαους (Λουτρά), κτίσμα των αρχών του 20ου αιώνα με τη μεγάλη πρόσοψη και το προστώο, είναι έργο του Φρίντριχ Τιρς. Στο εσωτερικό του φιλοξενείται το καζίνο της πόλης. Εκεί ο Φιοντόρ Ντοστογιέφσκι και ο Ρίχαρντ Βάγκνερ δοκίμαζαν την τύχη τους. Μάλιστα έμεινε ιστορικό, γιατί ο Ντοστογιέφσκι έχασε εκεί όλα τα χρήματά που είχε μαζί του για το ταξίδι του, πράγμα που στάθηκε αφορμή για την συγγραφή του διάσημου μυθιστορήματός του Ο παίκτης.     Δίπλα στο Κούρχαους βρίσκεται η ελκυστική Κούρχαουσκολοναντε (Κιονοστοιχία των Λουτρών). Ανεγέρθηκε το 1826-27 και είναι με 129 μέτρα η μακρύτερη κιονοστοιχία της Ευρώπης.     Στη Βίλχελμστρασε και παραπλεύρως του Κούρχαους βρίσκεται το επιβλητικό Έσισες Στάατστεατερ (κρατικό θέατρο). Χτίστηκε στα 1892-1894 για τον Κάιζερ Γουλιέλμο Β', σε σχέδια των θεατρικών αρχιτεκτόνων Φέλντερ και Χέλερ.     Στα νότια του κέντρου της πόλης βρίσκεται το Σλος Μπίμπριχ, όπου κατοικούσαν οι δούκες Φον Νάσσαου-Ούζινγκεν μέχρι τις αρχές του 19ου αιώνα, όταν μετακόμισαν στο νεόκτιστο παλάτι στο κέντρο της πόλης, διατηρώντας το πρώτο ως θερινό τους ανάκτορο. Το Σλος Μπίμπριχ χτίστηκε σταδιακά το 18ο αιώνα. Το βόρειο οίκημα χτίστηκε πρώτο το 1700 και εννιά χρόνια αργότερα ακολούθησε το νότιο οίκημα. Οι πτέρυγες που ενώνουν τα δύο οικήματα και η κεντρική ροτόντα προστέθηκαν κατά τη διάρκεια των πρώτων δεκαετιών του 18ου αιώνα. Στο τέλος προστέθηκαν οι δύο εξωτερικές πτέρυγες στα 1734-1744, διαμορφώνοντας ένα σχήμα πετάλου. Το εσωτερικό είναι πλούσια επιπλωμένο, κυρίως σε μπαρόκ-ροκοκό ρυθμό.     Στα βόρεια προάστια της πόλης υπάρχει ένας μεγάλος λόφος, ο Νέρομπεργκ (Neroberg), του οποίου η κορυφή είναι προσβάσιμη μεταξύ άλλων με ένα ιδιότυπο για την σημερινή εποχή τελεφερίκ εδάφους (ουσιαστικά τρενάκι) με υδάτινο έρμα (Nerobergbahn). Κοντά στην κορυφή υπάρχει η γνωστή "Ρωσο-Ορθόδοξη Εκκλησία της Αγίας Ελισάβετ" με τους χρυσούς ρωσικού τύπου τρούλους της, γνωστή επίσης ως Γκρίχισε Καπέλε (ελληνικό παρεκκλήσι), χωρίς εντούτοις οποιαδήποτε σχέση με την Ελλάδα. Χτισμένο στα 1847-1855 από τον Φίλιπ Χόφμαν, χρησιμοποιήθηκε ως μαυσωλείο της πριγκίπισσας Ελίζαμπετ φον Νάσσαου, ανιψιάς των τσάρων της Ρωσίας Αλεξάνδρου Α' και Νικολάου Α' και συζύγου του Αδόλφου φον Νάσσαου, η οποία πέθανε 19 ετών μαζί με το νεογέννητο μωρό της λίγο μετά τον τοκετό.[1].      Κάστρο Biebrich, τα ανάκτορα της μοναρχίας Νάσσαου      Τελεφερίκ Nerobergbahn  Πανοραμική άποψη του Βίζμπαντεν Παραπομπές      Γερμανία, σελ. 358, Dorling Kindersley (2001)  Εξωτερικοί σύνδεσμοι Wiktionary logo Το Βικιλεξικό έχει λήμμα που έχει σχέση με το λήμμα: Βίζμπαντεν Commons logo Τα Wikimedia Commons έχουν πολυμέσα σχετικά με το θέμα Βίζμπαντεν      Επίσημη ιστοσελίδα 
Wilhelmstraße then and now; not only the flags have changed.
 Marburg's marktplatz has changed considerably since the war, not least its name during the Third Reich
Marburg was the site of Vice-Chancellor Papen's speech at the University of Marburg in June 1934, said to be the last speech made publicly, and on a high level, in Germany against Nazism. The man who had been so instrumental in the destruction of the Weimar Republic expressed the frustrations and disappointments of many conservatives about developments since Hitler’s rise to power. The Nazi storm-troopers (SA) had grown into an organization with several million members. Many of the SA rank and file called for a “second revolution,” a euphemism for the distribution of offices and spoils to Nazi Party members. Radicals in the SA, conditioned by the years of struggle for power to oppose the “establishment,” had long been critical of Hitler’s policy of cooperation with the elites. In Papen’s Marburg speech conservatives struck back. Papen’s speech represents an attack on the socially radical aspects of National Socialism, not on Hitler or the idea of National Socialism. Papen was critical of excessive thought-control, anti-religious forces in the Nazi Party, the lack of deference for established law and traditional hierarchies, and the subordination of the state to the party. Once the left had been suppressed and an authoritarian system restored, conservatives saw no further need for mass mobilization or social change. The dynamic that the conservative elites had helped to unleash by bringing Hitler to power now threatened to engulf them as well. On the other hand, they certainly appreciated and supported the goals and accomplishments of the Nazi regime, especially the re-establishment of a unified national community. It was this unity and stability that seemed threatened by the radicalism and lawlessness embodied in the SA.
Papen’s Marburg speech probably helped convince Hitler to move against the SA in the so-called “night of long knives” on 30 June 1934. Hitler had no sympathy for cautious conservatism but was pragmatic enough to realize that he had to retain conservative support for his regime. Many conservatives, possibly including Papen, still viewed the Nazi government as a transitional stage to the restoration of the monarchy. Hitler was particularly anxious to maintain the goodwill of the military leadership, who distrusted the ambitions of SA leader Ernst Roehm. Although there is no evidence that Roehm had any immediate plans to launch a putsch, he was known to covet the position of Minister of War for himself. By purging Roehm and about 100 of his closest associates, Hitler assured himself of continued military and conservative support. This would prove particularly useful when President Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934, giving Hitler the opportunity to become head of state as well as government.

Hessian State Archives

The Eagle remains sans swastika, but the ceiling maintains them
Above the door the small bust replaces the one of Hitler's during the Third Reich whilst outside one can find another eagle defaced on the Hausecke der ehemaligen Jägerkaserne in Marburg.

Frankfurt am Main 
Hitler being driven down Braubachstrasse March 31, 1938.

Adolf-Hitler-Bridge in 1936 and a view of the bridges over the river Main, from the Main tower.
On April 7 1932, Hitler made a campaign speech here in the Festhalle and stressed his financial independence in the following remark: 
It may be that I am the only politician who is not employed by his party. I have placed my salary as senior executive officer in Brunswick at the disposal of the Brunswick State Bank to be distributed among disqualified unemployed.
 Hitler speaking  at the Festhalle March 16, 1936 and the venue today. On this occasion Hitler came to speak of the introduction of the swastika as the national flag of Germany and maintained that he had "abolished these sixteen or seventeen flags of the Länder and placed a single flag in their stead with the aim of giving Germany what all nations of the world call their own" before going on to argue:
All of the rules of law are subject to the natural right to live and the freedom of that right to live God-given to man. The peoples are more eternal than bad treaties can be. The peoples live longer than unreasonable regulations or extortionate measures can possibly survive. Once and for all a line must be drawn between that past, the present and the future. [—]
I would be prepared at any time to reach a settlement with the French Government. We call upon the two peoples. I will submit to the German Volk the question:
“German Volk, do you want the hatchet to finally be buried between ourselves and France, and peace and understanding to be brought about? If this is what you want, say yes.”87 And then one should address this same question to the French people on the other side. And there is no doubt in my mind that it equally desires understanding, and it equally desires reconciliation. I will then further ask the German Volk, “Do you want us to oppress the French people or accord it lesser rights?” And it will reply, “No, that is not what we want!”
Then they should pose the same question to the population over there, whether it wants the German Volk to have fewer rights in its own four walls than any other people. And it is my conviction that the French people will say, “No, that is not what we want!”
I am expecting your decision, and I know it will confirm that I am right! I will accept your decision as the voice of the Volk, which is the voice of God. Enter into this 29th of March with the deep-felt, sacred conviction that you are to submit an historic ballot for which each and every one of us will one day be examined and judged. I have now done my duty for three-and-a-half years. German Volk, now is the time for you to do yours!
His last speech here was March 31, 1938 soon after the annexation of Austria in which he continued to describe the history of the development of the concept of a Greater Germany. This idea had first been evident in the parliament of 1848, which had convened in the Frankfurt Paulskirche. Bismarck had expanded upon the idea, and up to the year 1918, the thought had been nurtured. Hitler then continued with the obligatory “party narrative.” At its conclusion, Hitler proclaimed:
I have been in power for five years. And in this time period I have torn page upon page from the book of the disgraceful Treaty of Versailles. I have done so not in defiance of law, but rather as a man who preserves law and order, a man who is not in breach of contract, but rather as a man who refuses to acknowledge a shameful Diktat as a holy contract!
After a detailed rendition of the events in Austria, Hitler ended his speech on the following note:
I have taken great risks for our Volk. In my youth, I knew nothing but the German Volk. In the Great War, I fought for it, and afterwards I went on a pilgrimage throughout Germany, always filled by the only desire to bring about the resurrection of this Volk. The story of my life lies like an open book before every one of my Volksgenossen. I have done my duty! Now German Volk do yours!
Later that year on the night of November 8 to 9, during the November pogroms hundreds of Frankfurt's Jewish citizens were driven across the city centre in the Festhalle and some seriously ill-treated. The noted Frankfurt Opera singer Hans Erl was forced to sing "In Diesen Heilgen Hallen". From here, the first mass transports went into the concentration camps. The Festhalle is thus of considerable importance for the Holocaust. Since 1991, a plaque points in the rotunda of the Festhalle in it. The Frankfurt physician and survivor of Dr. Max Kirschner describes the deportation in his memoirs:
in severe cold, we were taken in trucks to Frankfurt to the Festhalle, where we arrived at eleven at night. A howling mob received us at the entrance to the Festhalle—abusive shouts, stone-throwing, in short the atmosphere of a pogrom. On the double we went into the hall. . .Right opposite the entrance a dead man lay on the floor. He seemed to have succumbed to a heart attack. ..When we arrived the sentry squad was apparently already tired of tormenting people. . . Only now and then did they pull out one or the other who appeared to them suited as object of their sadistic pleasure. . . in groups we were driven in busses to the South Station in Frankfurt and there, all the while on the double, we had to run the gauntlet through a howling, stone-throwing crowd. . .We were put on an unheated special train there. . . and after the train was filled, it started moving into the night toward an unknown goal under the guard of the gendarmerie. On the way the order was given: "Remove your coats!"—so that we would be better exposed to the cold. . . . Soon we realized the direction, when, without stopping, we passed Erfurt and Eisenachat express-trainspeed. We were terrified, and the concentration camp of Weimar-Buchenwald, the most notorious of all,appeared before us...
The Neue Synagoge at Börneplatz before and during Reichskristallnacht, and the site today.
  During the Second World War, the hall was used for the storage of uniforms of the armed forces. On 18 December 1940, inflamed the textiles and the Festhalle has been through the resultant severe fire severely damaged. Whether it is how the Nazis claimed to act of arson, is still unclear. A bomb attack damaged the Frankfurt Festhalle a second time after the Second World War they should be demolished for the most part, but the citizens of Frankfurt and Mayor Walter Kolb could prevent this. It was initially prepared makeshift again.
The Alte Nikolaikirche at the Römerberg bedecked with swastika in March 1938 and today. 

Tax office built in 1935 with main entrance still enclosed within Nazi iconography.
Part of an air raid shelter built during the Second World War.
Left: Commemorating the site of the May 10 book burning in Frankfurt
Right: The Opera House (Alte Oper) inaugurated in 1880 where many important works have premièred including Carl Orff's Carmina Burana in 1937.
The Römer

Heinz Woelcke's 1933 painting of the book-burning on the Römerberg  

The swastika being hoisted in March 1933 from the rathaus

Hitler speaking from the balcony March 31, 1938 after the anschluss with Austria. Hitler at this time had declared
I am happy that today I am able to enter this city as the man who has realized a yearning which once found its most profound expression in this location. Above all, I am happy that—for the first time in my life—I am able to stand in this magnificent hall. The cause for which our ancestors struggled and shed their blood ninety years ago may now be regarded as accomplished. I am firmly convinced and confident that this cause—the new Greater German Reich—will remain in existence for all time to come, for it is supported by the German Volk itself and founded upon the eternal yearning of the German Volk to possess one Reich.
Inside the Kaisersaal within
What was left after the war.
The Synagogue
The Boerneplatz synagogue in flames during Kristallnacht on November 10, 1938. The Westend synagogue on Freiherr-vom-Stein-Strasse shown right is the only synagogue in the city to have survived the Reichskristallnacht.
I.G.Farben Building

The I.G. Farben building (or the Poelzig Complex ) was built from 1928 to 1930 as the corporate headquarters of the conglomerate and upon its completion was Europe's largest office building until the 1950s.
I. G. Farben also manufactured nerve gas that was used in poison gas experiments on Auschwitz prisoners. These experiments, conducted in secret laboratories at I. G. Farben factories, were used to determine how fast nerve gas would kill Allied soldiers. The helpless victims of these experiments died instantly. According to British intelligence, Ambros and other I. G. Farben officials "justified the experiments not only on the grounds that the inmates of concentration camps would have been killed anyway by the Nazis, but also . . . that the experiments had a humanitarian aspect in that the lives of countless German workers were saved."
Linda Hunt (76) Secret Agenda
Hitler speaking 4 June 1939 at Friedrichsplatz with the old Staatstheater in the background, and its current incarnation since 1959.
Hitler on Königstraße, three months before the invasion of Poland, and today.

Königsstraße from Königsplatz then and now

Königsplatz during the Third Reich and today
The Adolf-Hitler-Haus at Wilhelmshöher Allee 7 now is the site of a music shop. On February 11 1933 Hitler flew to Kassel for a speech celebrating the inauguration of the Adolf Hitler Haus in which he declared "The age of international solidarity is over. The national solidarity of the German Volk will take its place!"

Eckhaus at Königsstraße 2 surrounded by swastikas and today

The corner of Steinweg and Oberste Gasse then and now

Looking directly at the Elisabethhospital through the Zwehrenturm archway

The Louis Spohr memorial then and now

Karlskirche, a Protestant church built by Paul du Ry in 1710 for the local Hugenot community, after the war and its reconstruction
St. Martin's church after the war and today

Garnisonkirche then and now. Given the 1 million DM spent towards the reconstruction of Martinskirche, it remains in a ruined state.
The rathaus has been extensively rebuilt
It was not until 1960 that the Zwehrener Turm was finally rebuilt after the war
The hauptbahnhof then and now

Untere Königsstrasse after the war and today

The Orangerieschloß in 1943 and today, largely rebuilt by 1981

Friedrichsplatz then and now. The White Palace was blown up November 1948; today's facades are a modern replica with only the balcony enjoying the original section with the ornate grid.
The Staatstheater has been completely rebuilt, offering support to Lonely Planet's assertion that
The term ‘architectural crimes’ could well have been coined to describe the reconstruction of Kassel, nestled on the Fulda River, 11⁄2 hours north of Frankfurt. The label still fits some parts of town, but Kassel has gradually reinvented its cityscape over the past few years, and it also has some wonderful parkland.

The Fuldabrücke before the war and today, rebuilt by 1952.

1944 postcard on the left showing Adolf-Hitler-Platz, Hauptman-Göring-Straße and Horst-Wessel-Straße.

The main railway station at the end of Adolf-Hitler-Straße, now bahnhofstraße

The  Rolandsbrunnen at the turn of the century and today

Swastikas along Hochschulstraße during the Third Reich and today
The Ludwigsmonument at Adolf-Hitler-Platz and now
Adolf-Hitler-Platz in a 1940 postcard, extensively bombed in 1944, and today, Luisenplatz
The Technische Universität Darmstadt einst und jetzt
Eagle above the rear main entry to the Robert-Piloty building, department of Computer Science, Technical University of Darmstadt. On the night of September 11 September 12, 1944 eighty per cent of the city, including many of the university's buildings were destroyed during a bomb attack. So far to date Darmstadt is the only German city that has given a synagogue to its Jewish community as a gesture of reconciliation.
 Meeting on the 100-year anniversary of the TH Darmstadt in May 1936 in the Städtischen Festhalle
A reichsadler also remains on the façade of the Psychologiegebäude, here shown then and now
This was the site of the headquarters of the Gestapo in Darmstadt at what is now Wilhelm-Glässingstraße 21-23. 

The Volkshalle then and now
 Hitler at the Volkshalle in June 17, 1932. The year before he spoke on the anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch to 8,000 in the audience; in 1932 this had increased to 15,000 people.  The photograph on the right shows Gregor Strasser, organisation and propaganda leader of the NSDAP and MdR for the NSDAP, three days earlier.
The swastika adorning on April 16, 1933 the Universität, one of the oldest institutions of higher educations in the German-speaking world, founded in 1607.

Bad Wildungen
Adolf-Hitler-Strasse then and now with the Fachwerkhäuser in the background

Offenbach am Main 
Reichsadler remaining over the entrance of the former bunker on Friedhofstrasse

The rathaus in 1935 and today
Hitlerjugend marching in front of the Reichskrone topped with the Nazi eagle in 1940 and what's left today
Hitlerjugend in front of the Schützenhaus, renamed the Haus der deutschen Jugend in 1937 and Generalleutnant Peter Weyer swearing in recruits the following year.
The Schlösschen on the Marktplatz during a Nazi-sponsored festival and today

 St. Wenzel church after the 1945 bombing and today

 View from the Marktplatz towards Kirchgassse  in 1938 on the town's 650th anniversary 
The Amtshaus: "Das Lämmchen
The Rathaus
The Burgtor

The church from Spitalgasse (left) and Gutegasse (right)
The Alte Fachwerkhäuser on Friedrich Ebert Straße.
 By the East Gate in Schloßgasse
View from Schloßberg towards the clock tower

Fliegerdenkmal, Wasserkuppe
1923 memorial to the fallen airmen of the First World War

The Niederwalddenkmal
The Niederwalddenkmal is a monument located in the Niederwald Landscape park, near Rüdesheim am Rhein in Hesse, constructed to commemorate the foundation of the German Empire after the end of Franco-Prussian War. The first stone was laid on September 16, 1871, by Wilhelm I. The sculptor was Johannes Schilling, and the architect was Karl Weisbach. The total cost of the work is estimated at one million gold marks. It was inaugurated on September 28, 1883. The 125 ft tall monument represents the union of all Germans.
Hitler spoke here on August 28, 1933.  Hitler mentions seeing this monument on his way to the front at the start of the Great War in Mein Kampf:
 Finally, the day came when we left Munich in order to  start fulfilling our duty. Now for the first time I saw the  Rhine as we were riding towards the west along its quiet  waters, the German river of all rivers, in order to protect it  against the greed of the old enemy. When through the delicate veil of the dawn's mist the mild rays of the early sun  set the Niederwalddenkmal shimmering before our eyes,  the 'Watch on the Rhine' roared up to the morning sky  from the interminably long transport train and I had a feeling as though my chest would burst.
 As early as the Paleolithic period, the Central Hessian region was inhabited. Due to the favorable climate of the location, people lived there about 50,000 years ago during the last glacial period, as burial sites show from this era. Finds of paleolitical tools in southern Hesse in Rüsselsheim suggest Pleistocene hunters about 13,000 years ago. The Züschen tomb (German: Steinkammergrab von Züschen, sometimes also Lohne-Züschen) is a prehistoric burial monument, located between Lohne and Züschen, near Fritzlar, Hesse, Germany. Classified as a gallery grave or a Hessian-Westphalian stone cist (hessisch-westfälische Steinkiste), it is one of the most important megalithic monuments in Central Europe. Dating to the late 4th millennium BC (and possibly remaining in use until the early 3rd), it belongs to the Late Neolithic Wartberg culture.  An early Celtic presence in what is now Hesse is indicated by a mid 5th century BC La Tène style burial uncovered at Glauberg. The region was later settled by the Germanic Chatti tribe in ca. the 1st century BC, and the name Hesse is a continuation of that tribal name.  The Ancient Romans had a military camp in Dorlar, and in Waldgirmes directly on the eastern outskirts of Wetzlar was a civil settlement under construction. Presumably, the provincial government for the occupied territories of the right bank of Germania was planned at this location. It is likely that the governor of Germania, at least temporarily, had resided here. The settlement appears to have been abandoned by the Romans after the devastating Battle of the Teutoburg Forest failed in the year 9 AD. The Chatti were also involved in the Revolt of the Batavi in the year 69 AD.  In the early Middle Ages, a Frankish gau comprising an area around Fritzlar and Kassel and a Saxon one further north were known as Hessengau. In the 9th century the Saxon Hessengau also came under the rule of the Franconians. In the 12th century it was passed to Thuringia.  In the War of the Thuringian Succession (1247–64), Hesse gained its independence and became a Landgraviate within the Holy Roman Empire. It shortly rose to primary importance under Landgrave Philip the Magnanimous, who was one of the leaders of German Protestantism. After Philip's death in 1567, the territory was divided up among his four sons from his first marriage (Philip was a bigamist) into four lines: Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel), Hesse-Darmstadt, Hesse-Rheinfels and the also previously existing Hesse-Marburg. As the latter two lines died out quite soon (1583 and 1605, respectively), Hesse-Kassel and Hesse-Darmstadt were the two core states within the Hessian lands. Several collateral lines split off during the centuries, such as in 1622, when Hesse-Homburg split off from Hesse-Darmstadt. In the late 16th century, Kassel adopted Calvinism, while Darmstadt remained Lutheran and subsequently the two lines often found themselves on different sides of a conflict, most notably in the disputes over Hesse-Marburg and in the Thirty Years' War, when Darmstadt fought on the side of the Emperor, while Kassel sided with Sweden and France.  The Landgrave Frederick II (1720–1785) ruled as a benevolent despot, 1760-1785. He combined Enlightenment ideas with Christian values, cameralist plans for central control of the economy, and a militaristic approach toward diplomacy.[4] He funded the depleted treasury of the poor nation by renting out 19,000 soldiers in complete military formations to Great Britain to fight in North America during the American Revolutionary War, 1776-1783. These soldiers, commonly known as Hessians, fought under the British flag. The British used the Hessians in several conflicts, including in the Irish Rebellion of 1798. For further revenue the soldiers were rented out elsewhere as well. Most were conscripted, with their pay going to the Landgrave. Arms of Hesse-Kassel (1815–1866) 19th century  Hesse-Kassel was elevated to the status of an Electorate in 1803, but this remained without effect as the Holy Roman Empire was disbanded in 1806. The territory was annexed by the Kingdom of Westphalia in 1806, but restored to the Elector in 1813. While other Electors had gained other titles, becoming either Kings or Grand Dukes, the Elector of Hesse-Kassel alone retained the anachronistic title. The name survived in the term Kurhessen, denoting the region around Kassel. In 1866, it was annexed by Prussia, together with the Free City of Frankfurt, Hesse-Homburg and the duchy of Nassau, which established the province of Hesse-Nassau. Arms of Grand Duchy of Hesse  Hesse-Darmstadt was elevated to the status of a Grand Duchy in 1806, becoming the Grand Duchy of Hesse. In the War of 1866, it fought on the side of Austria against Prussia, but retained its autonomy in defeat. This is because a greater part of the country was situated south of the Main river and Prussia did not dare to expand beyond the Main line, as this might have provoked France. However, the parts of Hesse-Darmstadt north of the Main river (the region around the town of Gießen, commonly called Oberhessen) were incorporated in the Norddeutscher Bund, a tight federation of German states, established by Prussia in 1867. In 1871, after France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, the rest of the Grand Duchy joined the German Empire. Around the turn of the twentieth century, Darmstadt was one of the centres of the Jugendstil. Until 1907, the Grand Duchy of Hesse used the Hessian red and white lion as its coat-of-arms. 20th century  The revolution of 1918 transformed Hesse-Darmstadt from a monarchy to a republic, which officially renamed itself "Volksstaat Hessen" (People's State of Hesse). The parts of Hesse-Darmstadt on the western banks of the Rhine (province Rheinhessen) were occupied by French troops until 1930 under the terms of the Versailles peace treaty that officially ended WWI in 1919.  After World War II the Hessian territory left of the Rhine was again occupied by France, whereas the rest of the region was part of the US occupation zone. The French separated their part of Hesse from the rest of the region and incorporated it into the newly founded state of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz). The United States, on the other side, proclaimed the state of Greater Hesse (Groß-Hessen) on 19 September 1945, out of Hesse-Darmstadt and most of the former Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau. On December 4, 1946 Groß-Hessen was officially renamed Hessen.[5] Geography See also: List of places in Hesse and List of mountains of Hesse The most important rivers, mountains, and cities of Hesse  Situated in west-central Germany, Hesse state borders the German states of (starting in the north and proceeding clockwise) Lower Saxony, Thuringia, Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg, Rhineland-Palatinate and North Rhine-Westphalia.  The principal cities of Hesse include Frankfurt am Main, Wiesbaden, Darmstadt, Offenbach, Hanau, Gießen, Wetzlar, and Limburg in the greater Rhine Main Area, Fulda in the east, and Kassel and Marburg an der Lahn in the north.  The most important rivers in Hesse are the Fulda and Eder rivers in the north, the Lahn in the central part of Hesse, and the Main and Rhine in the south. The countryside is hilly and there are numerous mountain ranges, including the Rhön, the Westerwald, the Taunus, the Vogelsberg, the Knüll and the Spessart.  Most of the population of Hesse is in the southern part of Hesse in the Rhine Main Area. The Rhine borders Hesse on the southwest without running through the state, only one old arm – the so-called Alt-Rhein – runs through Hesse. The mountain range between the Main and the Neckar river is called the Odenwald. The plain in between the rivers Main, Rhine and Neckar, and the Odenwald mountains is called the Ried.  Hesse is the greenest state in Germany.[6] Forest covers 42% of the state.[6] Administration of the State of Hesse  The state is divided into three administrative regions (Regierungsbezirke), Kassel in the north and east, Gießen in the centre, and Darmstadt in the south, the latter being the most populous region covering much of the Rhine-Main agglomeration. The administrative regions have no legislature of their own but are executive agencies of the state government.  Map of Hesse with districts (with numbers).svg Wiesbaden Frankfurt am Main Kassel Offenbach am Main  Hesse is divided into 21 districts (Kreise) and 5 independent cities, each with their own local governments. They are, shown with abbreviations as used on vehicle number plates:      Bergstraße (Heppenheim) (HP)     Darmstadt-Dieburg (Darmstadt) (DA, DI)     Groß-Gerau (Groß-Gerau) (GG)     Hochtaunuskreis (Bad Homburg) (HG, USI)     Main-Kinzig-Kreis (Gelnhausen) (MKK, GN, HU, SLÜ)     Main-Taunus-Kreis (Hofheim am Taunus) (MTK)     Odenwaldkreis (Erbach) (ERB)     Offenbach (Dietzenbach) (OF)     Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis (Bad Schwalbach) (RÜD,SWA)     Wetteraukreis (Friedberg) (FB, BÜD)     Gießen (Gießen) (GI)     Lahn-Dill-Kreis (Wetzlar) (LDK)     Limburg-Weilburg (Limburg) (LM, WEL)     Marburg-Biedenkopf (Marburg) (MR, BID)     Vogelsbergkreis (Lauterbach) (VB)     Fulda (Fulda) (FD)     Hersfeld-Rotenburg (Bad Hersfeld) (HEF, ROF)     Kassel (Kassel) (KS, HOG,WOH)     Schwalm-Eder-Kreis (Homberg (Efze)) (HR)     Werra-Meißner-Kreis (Eschwege) (ESW, WIZ)     Waldeck-Frankenberg (Korbach) (KB, FKB, WA)  Independent cities:      Darmstadt (DA)     Frankfurt am Main (F)     Kassel (KS)     Offenbach am Main (OF)     Wiesbaden (WI)  Rhenish Hesse  Rhenish Hesse (German: Rheinhessen) refers to the part of the former Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt located west of the Rhine river and now part of Rhineland-Palatinate. It is a hilly countryside largely devoted to vineyards; therefore, it is also called the "land of the thousand hills." Its larger towns include Mainz, Worms, Bingen, Alzey, Nieder-Olm and Ingelheim. Many inhabitants commute to work in Mainz, Wiesbaden, or Frankfurt. Administration of Rhenish Hesse  Rhenish Hesse contains a number of municipalities and has no specific overall government. It was previously part of the government area of Rheinhessen-Pfalz. However, the state of Rhineland-Palatinate no longer uses this area for administrative purposes. Politics Main article: Politics of Hesse  The Politics of Hesse takes place within a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, where the Federal Government of Germany exercises sovereign rights with certain powers reserved to the states of Germany including Hesse. The state has a multi-party system where the two main parties were long the center-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) and the leftist Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). However, this changed in 2009, when support for the SPD collapsed after a political crisis in 2008. There are now five parties in the Hesse Landtag. Most recent state election  [needs update] Although the government under Minister-President, Roland Koch (CDU), lost their majority in the state diet Landtag of Hesse following the 2008 Landtag election, their rival parties were unable to form a government. A snap election was held in 2009, which enabled the CDU again to form a government with the FDP. In May 2010, Koch announced his resignation from the post of Minister-President as well as his retirement from politics. His successor is Volker Bouffier. Saarland is the result of a regulation of the treaty of Versailles and was created in 1919. Prior to this creation, there never existed a comparable administrative unit or a feeling of togetherness.  The region of the Saarland was settled by the Celtic tribes of Treveri and Mediomatrici. The most impressive relic of their time is the remains of a fortress of refuge at Otzenhausen in the north of the Saarland. In the 1st century BC, the Roman Empire made the region part of its province of Belgica. The Celtic population mixed with the Roman immigrants. The region gained wealth, which can still be seen in the remains of Roman villas and villages.  Roman rule ended in the 5th century, when the Franks conquered the territory. For the next 1,300 years the region shared the history of the Kingdom of the Franks, the Carolingian Empire and of the Holy Roman Empire. The region of the Saarland was divided into several small territories, some of which were ruled by sovereigns of adjoining regions. Most important of the local rulers were the counts of Nassau-Saarbrücken. Within the Holy Roman Empire these territories gained a wide range of independence, threatened, however, by the French kings, who sought, from the 17th century onwards, to incorporate all the territories on the western side of the river Rhine and repeatedly invaded the area in 1635, in 1676, in 1679 and in 1734, extending their realm to the Saar River and establishing the city and stronghold of Saarlouis in 1680.  It was not the king of France but the armies of the French Revolution who terminated the independence of the states in the region of the Saarland. After 1792 they conquered the region and made it part of the French Republic. While a strip in the west belonged to the Département Moselle, the centre in 1798 became part of the Département de Sarre, and the east became part of the Département du Mont-Tonnerre. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, the region was divided again. Most of it became part of the Prussian Rhine Province. Another part in the east, corresponding to the present Saarpfalz district, was allocated to the Kingdom of Bavaria. A small part in the northeast was ruled by the Duke of Oldenburg.  On 31 July 1870, the French Emperor Napoleon III ordered an invasion across the River Saar to seize Saarbrücken. The first shots of the Franco-Prussian War 1870/71 were fired on the heights of Spichern, south of Saarbrücken. The Saar region became part of the German Empire which came into existence on 18 January 1871, during the course of this war. Interwar history Main article: Saar (League of Nations)  In 1920 the Saargebiet was occupied by Britain and France under the provision Frankfurter Römer (Rathaus) (4) Location: Römerberg 21-27 Today: Still there When Adolf Hitler visited Frankfurt am Main on March 31, 1938 he spoke at the Festhalle again, but he also visited the town hall, called the Römer. All the pictures above show the Römerberg when Hitler visited itin 1938. The two pictures on top (centre and right) have Hitler on them, on the balcony of the Rathaus. The picture in the centre below shows Hitler leaving the Rathaus. All the pictures below are dated 31.03.1938, exept the two coloured ones in the centre. The Kaisersaal The Kaisersaal still looks the same The Römer today The Bürgersaal Picture of Hitler's motorcade driving through Frankfurt (5) Location: Braubachstrasse (near the Römer) Today: Still there The picture below shows Hitler in his car, driving through the Braubachstrasse in Frankfurt am Main. I.G.-Farben-Haus (6) Location: Grüneburgplatz 1 Today: The building that housed I.G.Farben was turned into the Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, but it still looks the same as it did.   In 1931 the I.G. Farben-Haus was opened. It was one of the largest office buildings in the world. The company Degesch was responsable for the gass Zyklon B, that was used to kill jews in Auschwitz. Degesch was a daughter of the Degussa-concern and I.G. Farben. The remarkable building and especialy the dark roll the company played are reason enough to mention this on this website. We haven’t got any information about Hitler visiting the I.G. Farben-Haus. The IG-Farben Haus Reichsautobahn Frankfurt - Darmstadt (1) Location: Exact locations unknown Today: The Reichsautobahn is still there. It is often said that the plans for the highways in Germany were Hitler's, while in fact a lot of plans were already made before he came to power. Adolf Hitler put a spade in the ground at the groundbreaking ceremony of the first section of the autobahn from Frankfurt am Main to Darmstadt on September 23, 1933 in Frankfurt.   On May 19, 1935 Hitler opened this new part of the highway in an open car. Hitler's shoveling ceremony Hitler's car driving on the Autobahn between Frankfurt and Darmstadt at the opening of the highway Frankfurter Festhalle (3) Location: Ludwig-Erhard-Anlage 1 Today: Damaged during the war but restored afterwards. On August 3, 1930, during a NSDAP-gathering, Hitler spoke to 17.000 people in the Frankfurter Festhalle. On October 4 of the same year Hitler also spoke at the Festhalle. The next time Hitler was in Frankfurt am Main was on March 6, 1932, for the election of the Reichstag in July of that year. The Festhalle was crowded with 35.000 people, but Hitler didn’t speak very long. Hermann Göring was the most important speaker for the evening. For the same elections of the Reichstag Hitler spoke in the Festhalle again on April 7, 1932 and three days before the election on July 28, 1932. For the elections in 1933 Hitler spoke at the Festhalle again on February 23, 1933. On October 29, 1933 Hitler spoke in Frankfurt too, but exactly where, I don’t know. On March 16, 1936 Hitler also spoke at the Festhalle. On March 31, 1938 Hitler spoke at the Festhalle again. Left: The Festhalle in the 1920’s Centre: After the bombing in 1942 Right: The Festhalle today Inside the Festhalle FRANKFURT AM MAIN  Plane and Sonderzug (7)  Location: The Flugplatz is on the Airportring, the railroad runs north of it.  Today: Still there  On June 17, 1940 Hitler flew to Frankfurt from Belgium to go to München. In Frankfurt he got aboard his Sonderzug and he went to München.    Hitler visits his soldiers Location: Unknown On December 23, 1939 Hitler visited an Aufklarungsstaffel, Infanterie Regiment Grossdeutschland, and Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler. Festzelt (tent) on the Marktplatz (17) Location: Marktplatz the Kornmarkt between the Bahnhofstrasse and the Böhmergasse Today: Still there On October 31, 1932 Hitler spoke to some 30.000 people in Limburg an der Lahn.   Left: Hitler in Limburg an der Lahn Above: the Kornmarkt (source: LIMBURG AN DER LAHN GIEßEN Volkshalle (9) Location: Grünberger Strasse Today: Miller Hall On November 9 (!), 1931 Hitler held a speech at the Volkshalle. On June 17, 1932 Hitler spoke at the Festhalle in Gießen. It’s probably the same hall. KASSEL Election speech of Adolf Hitler 1933 - Reichskriegertag 1939 Location: Friedrichsplatz (10) Today: The Friedrichsplatz was bombed several times from 1940 until 1943. Some of the historic building are still on the Friedrichsplatz. Some aren’t. The place has been restored. Hitler was in Kassel in 1933. He spoke to a large crowd of people on the Friedrichsplatz. On the same day in the Wilhelmshöher Allee a Adolf-Hitler-Haus was opened. On June 4, 1939 Hitler was in Kassel for the Reichskriegertag. He watched a parade on the Friedrichsplatz. The Staatstheater, that’s on a lot of the pictures that where made of that event, was bombed in the war. After the war the old theatre was broken down and replaced by a new one, that was ready in 1959. The Friedrichplatz  in 1783 The Friedrichsplatz  in 1938 The Friedrichplatz today The Wilhelmshöherplatz A postcard of the old Staatstheater on the Friedrichsplatz The Friedrichsplatz on June 4, 1939 with Adolf Hitler. In the background is the Staatstheater. (picture: LIFE magazine) The new Staatstheater in 1959. (picture: Bundesarchiv) Election speeches in a tent in 1932 Location: Unknown Hitler spoke to 60.000 people in a tent somewhere in Kassel on April 20, 1932 (Hitler's birthday). On the same day he also spoke in Halle (Sachsen-Anhalt) and Marburg. On November 3 he spoke in a tent Kassel again, to about 50.000 people.  Adolf-Hitler-Haus (11)  Location: Wilhelmshöher Allee, exact location unknown.  Today: Unknown  Hitler held a speech at the opening of the Adolf-Hitler-Haus in Kassel on February 11, 1933.              The map shows the airport area in 2004. The runway was located between the two red dots on the right.  Großdeutschen Reichskriegertag (12)  Location: Arrival at the Flugplatz in Waldau; In between the Marie-Curie-Straße and the Fuldaaue lies an industriepark. The runway of the airport was a little east of the Antonius-Raab-Strasse.  Today: Industriepark Waldau, Kassel  On June 4, 1939 Hitler visited Kassel when the Großdeutschen Reichskriegertag took place. About 300.000 people took part of it. Hitler arrived at the airport around 10 o’clock. Keitel and Bormann join Hitler on his way to Kassel. Hitler leaves Kassel by air on 19.00 hours.  Both pictures: Hitler driving through Kassel on the Reichskriegertag  Großdeutschen Reichskriegertag – drive through the city (10, 13, 14, 15, 16)  Location: from the Leipziger Straße (13), to the Fuldabrücke (14) through the Altstadt to the Königsstraße (15) and the Friedrichsplatz (10) and he arrives at the Karlwiese (16) at the Karlsaue.  Today: The streets still have the same names.  On June 4, 1939 Hitler visited Kassel when the Großdeutschen Reichskriegertag took place. About 300.000 people took part of it. When Hitler drove through the city, thousands of people cheared him on.  The Karlsaue today  (picture:  The Orangerie on the Karlsaue  Hitler on the Reichskriegertag  Großdeutschen Reichskriegertag – Karlwiese (16)  Location: An der Karlsaue  Today: Still there  On June 4, 1939 Hitler visited Kassel when the Großdeutschen Reichskriegertag took place. About 300.000 people took part of it. At the Karlwiese a large army demonstration is planned. Hitler gave a speech in which he attacked England. FRITZLAR  Speech for the 9th army-corps (8)  Location: The old Watterkaserne on the Kasseler Straße was the home of Artillerie-Regiment 5 and parts of the Artillerie-Regiment 9, 29, 45 and 65. There also was an army airport in Frizlar. The speech could have taken place at the Watterkaserne, but I don’t know  the exact location.  Today: The airport is still there. Unknown what happened to the Kaserne.  On September 18, 1936 Hitler spoke to the 9th army-corps on the occasion of the so called Fahnenübergabe. Adlerhorst (24) Near Bad Nauheim, Ziegenberg (Wiesental), Schloßstrasse Today: Some buildings still exist. Hitler conducted the Ardennes Offensive here from December 11, 1944  until January 15, 1945. Behind the castle were 7 bunkers  built, looking like normal cottages.The castle and many homes were firebombed by the allied forces. After that German troops were instructed to dynamite the compound. The Wachhaus, the Pressehaus and the garage of the large motor pool building located in the village prop exist today. The castle is rebuilt. There are apartments in it now. More information can be found here: A picture of the Adlerhorst area ZIEGENBERG LORSCH Friedhof  (18) Location: Friedhofstrasse Today: Still there. Excact location of the grave unknown. Hitler came to Lorsch on August 9, 1929 for a speech at the funeral of Erich Jost, a member of the SA. Die Marburger Rede (19) Location: University of Marburg, Lawschool (room 101); Landgrafenhaus, the 1920s neo-rococo class room building of the university, in the main lecture hall, Universitätsstraße Today: The hall is still there today, including the original furniture. Franz von Papen held a speech at the University of Marburg, that is said to have been the last public speech against Nazism. Hitler was furious. Von Papen resigned as vice chancellor, but he was a diplomat for Germany until 1944. MARBURG Bürgerwiese (20) Location: Erlenring 11 Today: There was a Festhalle on the Bürgerwiese once. It burned down. The firedepartment (Hauptfeuerwache) has a building on the location of the Festhalle. If Hitler spoke inside the Festhalle or outside on the Bürgerwiese, I don’t know. Hitler held a speech at the Bürgerwiese of Marburg once. OFFENBACH Sportplatz (21) Location: Unknown Hitler spoke at the Offenbach Sportplatz on June 16, 1932. Niederwalddenkmal (22) Location: Am Niederwald; Rheingauer-Riesling-Route (L3034) Today: Still there Hitler saw the Niederwalddenkmal when he and his fellow soldiers were in a train on their way to the battlefields of the first World War in 1914. Hitler mentions this in Mein Kampf. He was very impressed by the monument and the spontaneous outburst of the soldiers singing ‘Wacht am Rhein’. On August 28, 1933 Hitler spoke at the Saarkundgebung at the Niederwald-Denkmal. RÜDESHEIM The Niederwalddenkmal today  Adolf Hitler at the Niederwalddenkmal. It’s hard to see, but he walks inbetween the crowds in the centre of the picture.  (picture: Heinrich Hoffmann)  A large crowd has gathered to see Hitler.  (picture: Heinrich Hoffmann)  Through a relay greetings from the Saarland were brought to Hitler.  (picture: Heinrich Hoffmann) WIESBADEN Sportplatz (23) Location: Unknown Hitler spoke at a Sportplatz in Wiesbaden on July 28, 1932. There were about 50.000 people present. BUNDESLÄNDER. NORDR.-WESTFALEN. BAD.-WURTEMBERG. RHEINL.-PFALZ - SAARLAND. NIEDERSACHSEN. SCHLESW.-HOLSTEIN - HAMBURG. BAYERN. BRANDENBURG. THURINGEN. SACHSEN. SACHSEN-ANHALT. MECKLB.-VORPOMMERN. HOME - BIBLIOGRAPHY - PICTURES - LINKS - MURDERING HITLER - FHQ’s - NEWS HOME - BIBLIOGRAPHY - PICTURES - LINKS - MURDERING HITLER - FHQ’s - NEWS    Reichsautobahn Frankfurt - Darmstadt (1) Location: Exact locations unknown Today: The Reichsautobahn is still there Adolf Hitler started the building of the first section of the autobahn from Frankfurt am Main to Darmstadt on September 23, 1933 in Frankfurt. On May 19, 1935 Hitler opened the highway. Look here for more. Festhalle (2) Location: Exerzierplatz, near the present Hauptbahnhof, to the southeast of the Rheinstrasse Today: Gone, the Rheinstrasse is called Berliner Allee now. On November 13, 1931 Hitler held a speech at the Festhalle.  An old picture of the Festhalle Radrennbahn Location: Not sure Today: There is a new Radrennbahn on the Heidelbergerstrasse, but if it’s on the original location I don’t know. On June 15, 1932 Hitler held a speech at the Radrennbahn in Darmstadt. DARMSTADT  One of the things Hitler is still credited for is that he was responsible for making the German highway-system. The plans for a highway between Frankfurt and Darmstadt, both in Hessen, were already made before he came to power. Hitler visited Frankfurt several times.  1. Autobahn, Darmstadt 2. Festhalle, Darmstadt 3. Festhalle, Frankfurt  4. Römer, Frankfurt 5. Braubachstrasse, Frankfurt 6. I.G.-Farben-Haus, Frankfurt  7. Plane and Sonderzug, Frankfurt  8. Speech, Frizlar 9. Volkshalle, Gießen  10. Friedrichsplatz, Kassel 11. Adolf-Hitler-Haus, Kassel 12. Flugplatz Waldau, Kassel  13. Leipziger Strasse, Kassel 14. Fuldabrücke, Kassel 15. Königsstraße, Kassel  16. Karlwiese, Kassel 17. Marktplatz, Limburg an der Lahn 18. Friedhof, Lorsch 19. University, Marburg 20. Bürgerwiese, Marburg  21. Sportplatz, Offenbach  22. Niederwalddenkmal, Rüdesheim  23. Sportplatz, Wiesbaden 24. Adlerhorst, Ziegenberg      HESSEN  THE HITLER PAGES  HISTORICAL HITLER SITES  Hessen weergeven op een grotere kaart Possible visit of Hitler in 1926 Location: Unknown Adolf Hitler sent a postcard to Maria Reiter on November 21, 1926 from Bad Homburg. In that period Hitler travelled through Germany. A few days later, for instance, he visited the Hermannsdenkmal in Nordrhein Westfalen. What Hitler was doing in Bad Hamburg and where he stayed, is still a mystery (to me). If you know more about this visit, please send an e-mail. BAD HOMBURG vor der HÖHEs of the Treaty of Versailles. The occupied area included portions of the Prussian Rhine Province and the Bavarian Rhenish Palatinate. In practice the region was administered by France. In 1920 this was formalized by a 15-year League of Nations mandate. A postage stamp from the French occupation of Saarland (Sarre in French)  In 1933, a considerable number of communists and other political opponents of National Socialism fled to the Saar, as it was the only part of Germany that remained outside national administration following the First World War. As a result, anti-Nazi groups agitated for the Saarland to remain under French administration. However, with most of the population being ethnically German, such views were considered suspect or even treasonable, and therefore found little support.  When the original 15 year term was over, a plebiscite was held in the territory on 13 January 1935: 90.8% of those voting favored rejoining Germany.  Following the referendum Josef Bürckel was appointed on 1 March 1935 as the German Reich's commissioner for reintegration (Reichskommissar für die Rückgliederung des Saarlandes). When the reincorporation was considered accomplished, his title was changed (after 17 June 1936) to Reichskommissar für das Saarland. In September 1939, in response to the German Invasion of Poland, French forces invaded the Saarland in a half-hearted offensive, occupying some villages and meeting little resistance, before withdrawing. A further change was made after 8 April 1940 to Reichskommissar für die Saarpfalz; finally, after 11 March 1941, he was made Reichsstatthalter in der "Westmark" (the region's new name, meaning "Western March or Border"). He died on 28 September 1944 and was succeeded by Willi Stöhr, who remained in office until the region fell to advancing American forces in March 1945. History after World War II Further information: Saar (protectorate)  After World War II, the Saarland came under French occupation and administration again, as the Saar Protectorate.  Under the Monnet Plan France attempted to gain economic control of the German industrial areas with large coal and mineral deposits that were not in Soviet hands: the Ruhr area and the Saar area. Attempts to gain control of or internationalize permanently the Ruhr area (see International Authority for the Ruhr) were abandoned in 1951 with the German agreement to pool its coal and steel resources (see European Coal and Steel Community) in return for full political control of the Ruhr. The French attempt to gain economic control over the Saar was more successful at the time, with the final vestiges of French economic influence ending in 1981. In contrast to the actions of Soviet-controlled Poland in Upper Silesia, France did not annex the Saar or expel the local German population.  In his speech "Restatement of Policy on Germany", made in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946, United States Secretary of State James F. Byrnes stated the U.S. motive in detaching the Saar from Germany: "The United States does not feel that it can deny to France, which has been invaded three times by Germany in 70 years,[Note 1] its claim to the Saar territory". (See also Morgenthau plan for U.S. and UK designs for the Saar area.)  From 1945 to 1951, a policy of industrial disarmament was pursued in Germany by the Allies (see the industrial plans for Germany). As part of this policy, limits were placed on production levels, and industries in the Saar were dismantled just as in the Ruhr, although mostly in the period prior to its detachment (see also the 1949 letter from the UK Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin to the French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman, urging a reconsideration of the dismantling policy).  In 1948, the French government established the Saarland University under the auspices of the University of Nancy. It is the principal university in the Bundesland, the other being HTW.  The Saar Protectorate was headed by a military governor from 30 August 1945: Gilbert Yves Édmond Grandval (b. 1904 – d. 1981), who remained on 1 January 1948 as High Commissioner, and January 1952 – June 1955 as the first of two French ambassadors, his successor being Eric de Carbonnel (b. 1910 – d. 1965) until 1956. Saarland, however, was allowed a regional administration very soon, consecutively headed by:      a President of the Government:         31 July 1945 – 8 June 1946: Hans Neureuther, Non-party     a Chairman of the (until 15 December 1947, Provisional) Administration Commission:         8 June 1946 – 20 December 1947: Erwin Müller (b. 1906 – d. 1968), Non-party     Minister-presidents (as in any Bundesland):         20 December 1947 – 29 October 1955 Johannes Hoffmann (b. 1890 – d. 1967), CVP         29 October 1955 – 10 January 1956 Heinrich Welsch (b. 1888 – d. 1976), Non-party         10 January 1956 – 4 June 1957 Hubert Ney (b. 1892 – d. 1984), CDU  In 1954, France and the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) developed a detailed plan called the Saarstatut to establish an independent Saarland. It was signed as an agreement between the two countries on October 23, 1954 as one of the Paris Pacts, but a plebiscite held on October 23, 1955 rejected it by 67.7%.  On 27 October 1956 the Saar Treaty declared that Saarland should be allowed to join the Federal Republic of Germany, which it did on 1 January 1957. This was the last significant international border change in Europe until the fall of Communism.  The Saarland's reunification with the Federal Republic of Germany was sometimes referred to as the Kleine Wiedervereinigung ("little reunification", in contrast with the post-Cold War absorption of the GDR). Even after reunification, the Saar franc remained as the territory's currency until West Germany's Deutsche Mark replaced it on 7 July 1959. The Saar Treaty established that French, not English as in the rest of West Germany, should remain the first foreign language taught in Saarland schools; this provision was still largely followed after it was no longer binding.  Since 1971, Saarland has been a member of SaarLorLux, a euroregion created from Saarland, Lorraine, Luxembourg, Rhineland Palatinate and Wallonia. Geography "Saarschleife" (Bend in the Saar) near Mettlach  The state borders France (département of Moselle, which forms part of the région of Lorraine) [3] to the south and west, Luxembourg to the west and Rheinland-Pfalz to the north and the east.  It is named after the Saar River, a tributary of the Moselle River (itself a tributary of the Rhine), which runs through the state from the south to the northwest. One third of the land area of the Saarland is covered by forest, one of the highest percentages in Germany. The state is generally hilly; the highest mountain is the Dollberg with a height of 695.4 m (about 2,280 feet).  Most inhabitants live in a city agglomeration on the French border, surrounding the capital of Saarbrücken.  See also List of places in Saarland.      Saar-Warndt coal mining basin  Districts Districts of Saarland (towns dark-coloured, position of number in the capital)  Saarland is divided into six districts ("Landkreise" in German):      Merzig-Wadern     Neunkirchen     Saarbrücken     Saarlouis     Saarpfalz     Sankt Wendel  Religion Religion in Saarland - 31 December 2007[4] religion             percent      Roman Catholics             65.1% Protestants             19.6% Other or none             15.4%  The adherents of the Catholic Church comprise 65.1% of the population, organised in the two dioceses of Trier (comprising the formerly Prussian part of Saarland) and Speyer (for the smaller eastern formerly Palatine part). 19.6% of the Saarlandic population adhere to the Evangelical Church in Germany, organised in the two Landeskirchen named Evangelical Church in the Rhineland and Evangelical Church of the Palatinate, both following the same former territorial partition. 15.4% are not affiliated with one of these churches.[4]  Saarland has the highest concentration of Roman Catholics of any German state, and is one of two states (the other being Bavaria) in which Catholics form an absolute majority (over 50%). Politics Main article: Politics of Saarland  Except for the period between 1985 and 1999 – when the centre-left Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) held a majority of seats in the Landtag (state diet) – the centre-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) has governed the Saarland, either alone or in coalition, continuously since the accession of the state to the Federal of Republic of Germany in 1955.  After the most recent state elections – held in 2012 following the collapse of the "Jamaica coalition" agreement of 2009 between the CDU, the liberal FDP, and the centre-left Bündnis 90/Die Grünen (The Greens) – the CDU and SPD, as the two largest parties in the Landtag, decided upon the formation of a "grand coalition" under the overall leadership of the current minister-president, Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer (CDU).