Showing posts with label Schweigen-Rechtenbach. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Schweigen-Rechtenbach. Show all posts

Sites in the Rhineland and the Saar

 The rathaus in 1933 and today. During the war, Speyer was the site of one of the first encounters between pilots and UFOs, or Foo Fighters as they were called at the time:
In an encounter of 27 November 1944 over Speyer, pilots Henry Giblin and Walter Cleary reported a large orange light flying at 250 mph about 1,500 feet above their fighter. The radar station in the sector replied that there was nothing else there. Nevertheless, a subsequent malfunction in the plane's radar system forced it to return to base. An official report was made - the first of its kind - which resulted in many jokes at the pilots' expense. After the 27 November encounter, pilots who saw the Foo Fighters decided not to include them in their flight reports. 
Alan Baker Invisible Eagle -The History of Nazi Occultism
Standing in front of the Altpörtel, and as it appeared in 1939

The postwar changes are evident in this comparison.
Einst und jetzt...

Trier (Rhineland-Palatinate)
Hitler in Trier
 Hitler being driven down Kölner Straße in May, 1939
In September 1944 during the Second World War, Trier was only a short distance from the frontline fighting and was subjected to almost daily bombardment by American artillery. Allied forces carried out three large-scale aerial attacks on the city later in the same year. On December 19 at 15:30, 30 British Lancaster bombers dropped 136 tonnes of high-explosive bombs over Trier. Two days later, on December 21 at 14:35, 94 Lancasters and 47 American fighter-bombers dropped 427 tonnes of ordnance (high-explosive, incendiary and napalm bombs). Another two days after that, 700 tonnes of bombs were released over the city.  According to research by the historian Adolf Welter, at least 420 people were killed in the December 1944 attacks on Trier. Numerous buildings were damaged. During the entire war, 1,600 houses in the city were completely destroyed.  On March 2, 1945, the city surrendered to the U.S. 94th Infantry Division with minimal resistance

The Hauptmarkt,  scene of street battles between Nazis and Communists, in 1935 and today.
 On the Hauptmarkt is the Hauptwache, shown July 1941, and which served as Gestapo headquarters from 1933 to 1935.
In 1935 the Gestapo moved its offices here at the former Reichsbahngebäude at Christophstraße 1.
 Simeonstraße in 1939 and today
Hitler's portrait on the Porta Nigra
Porta-Nigra-Platz became Adolf-Hitler-Platz in 1933
Nazi propaganda at the cathedral on the Domfreihof reading "Deutsche Jungens und Mädels meidet die konfessionellen Jugendverbände"("German boys and girls- avoid confessional youth organisations." By 1937 all Catholic youth organisations would be banned.
In Sichelstraße the former Bishop-Korum-house served as a gaol for collecting Jewish women and children beginning April 1942.
A mounted plaque on the site commemorates this doleful event. At this point was 1929-1931 at the initiative of the "Marian Jünglingscongregation" (MJC), a Catholic youth organisation, established the so-called Bishop-Korum-house, which was demolished in the 1960s and replaced with the current building. From 1942 it served as a rallying point of the female Jewish prisoners prior to their deportation to concentration camps Lublin, Theresienstadt or Auschwitz. Of the more than 400 Trier Jews who were deported to concentration camps between 1933 and 1945, only a few survived- some sources suggest 14, others 20 - and would return to their home town.
The Karl Marx House museum is where Karl Marx was born in 1818; it is now a museum. The significance of the house went unnoticed until 1904, at which point the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) worked hard to buy it, succeeding in 1928. After the Nazis came to power the building was confiscated and turned into a printing house. Here the corpse of the first victim of the Nazis, Social Democrat Hermann Möschel, was laid out in 1932. On March 8 1933 over an hundred SA and SS men stormed the building, tore down the imperial flag replacing it with the swastika flag drove out the Socialists. The Karl Marx House was first occupied by the police then confiscated by the Nazi Party, and finally, on May 4 1933 became the headquarters of their party newspaper "Der Stürmer." 
 ...some buildings still physically in existence after 1933 also disappeared from tourist literature. The Reich Committee for Tourism chastised the Trier Tourism Office for distributing a brochure that alluded to the house in which the ‘famous German Socialist Karl Marx was born’. The Committee therefore ordered the immediate destruction of material making such references to the ‘Marxist-liberalist past’
Semmens (60) Seeing Hitler's Germany
On May 5, 1947 the building was opened as a museum of the life and works of Karl Marx. On March 14, 1983, on the 100th anniversary of Marx's death, the museum was re-opened after a year-long renovation that expanded it to three floors where it now includes the history of communism in the Soviet Union, China, Central and Eastern Europe.
 The Kaufhaus Haas. It  had belonged to the Jewish owners of the fashion house Sinn Leffers and was a main target of Trier Nazis. On May 13, 1933 Albert and Max Haas and his wife were taken into "protective custody." The wife would hang herself and the men later taken to the town gaol. By November 1938, all Jewish businesses were to be 'aryanised'.
 The gaol on Windstraße.  From May 1940 it became the way station for at least 25 000 prisoners and resistance fighters from neighbouring occupied countries Luxembourg, Belgium and France. According to conservative estimates at least 200 were likely sentenced to death here. Across the road is the Episcopal seminary where Klaus Barbie, the so-called 'Butcher of Lyons' lived.

The synagogue in 1944 and today. On the morning of November 10, 1938 it was plundered and the interior destroyed. Twenty-three of the twenty-four Torah scrolls were burned, and over an hundred Jewish men were arrested that day and gaoled. The synagogue and an adjacent residential house where the family of Chief Rabbi Dr. Altmann lived, were sold in 1939 and by 1944 were completely destroyed by bombing .

Gasthaus "Zur Glocke" 
The Gasthaus "Zur Glocke" on Glockenstraße.  It had been owned by a Nazi activist and was a meeting place for them where they instigated attacks on political opponents. 
Then and now
Grabenstraße after the war and today
The Römerbrücke, Germany's oldest standing bridge, on August 27, 1941 and todayHitlerstraße
  Hitlerstraße is now Bahnhofstraße
Memorial for the ubiquitous "victims of National Socialism", so vague that it could refer to practically to anyone and everyone. 

Braubach Then and Now 
Before the war and the wife at the same spot 80 years later
A rumour had spread that Standartenführer Julius Uhl had planned to shoot Hitler on July 1, 1934 here at a concert of the singer Heinrich Schlusnus. Hitler himself referred to this in his July 13, 1934 speech to the Reichstag justifying his slaughter of his own men during the so-called Night of the Long Knives when he spoke of how
the man had already been hired in the meantime who was to carry out my elimination at a later date: Standartenführer Uhl, who confessed only a few hours before his death that he had been willing to carry out such an order.
Uhl in fact had been in Bad Wiessee when he was arrested on June 30 and taken to Stadelheim Prison. Apparently, "Uhl was chosen to play the leading role in Hitler’s concocted assassination plot due to his well-known prowess as a brilliant marksman" (Domarus, 496). 

In the early 11th century, Bacharach had its first documentary mention.[2] It may have been that as early as the 7th century, the kingly domain passed into Archbishop of Cologne Kunibert’s ownership; pointing to this is a Kunibertskapelle (chapel) on the spot where now stands the Wernerkapelle. The Vögte of the Cologne estate were the Elector of the Palatinate, who over time pushed back Cologne’s influence. Count Palatine already had so much influence that he resided at Stahleck Castle. His successor Konrad von Staufen’s daughter secretly wed at Stahleck Castle a son of the Welfs, who were family foes, leading to Bacharach’s, and indeed the whole County Palatine’s, falling for a short time to Henry of Brunswick. In 1214 the Wittelsbachs became Bacharach’s new lords. Together with the Unteramt of Kaub they received here their most important toll and revenue source. In 1314 it was decided to choose Louis the Bavarian as the German king. Furthermore, Bacharach was the most important transfer point for the wine trade, as barrels were offloaded here from the smaller ships that were needed to get by the Binger Loch (a quartzite reef in the Rhine upstream near Bingen) and loaded onto bigger ones. From then on, the wine bore the designation Bacharacher. The timber trade from the Hunsrück also brought Bacharach importance, and in 1356, Bacharach was granted town rights. Wernerkapelle in an engraving by William Tombleson  Widely visible is the Wernerkapelle, a Rheinromantik landmark of the town, lying on the way up to Stahleck Castle from the town. It is the expanded Kunibertkapelle, and is still an unfinished Gothic ruin today. Its namesake is the former “saint” Werner von Oberwesel, known for his anti-Semitic associations. According to the Christian blood libel, which was typical of the times, a 16-year-old was murdered on Maundy Thursday 1287 by members of the local Jewish community, who then used his blood for Passover observances. On the grounds of this alleged ritual murder, there arose an anti-Semitic mob who waged a pogrom, wiping out Jewish communities not only on the Middle Rhine, but also on the Moselle and in the Lower Rhine region. In folk Christianity arose the cult of Werner, which was only stricken from the Bishopric of Trier calendar in 1963.  In 1344, building work began on the town wall, and was already finished about 1400. In 1545, the town, along with the Palatinate, became Protestant under Count Palatine Friedrich II. Stahleck Castle and the town wall could not stop Bacharach from undergoing eight changes in military occupation in the Thirty Years' War, nor the war’s attendant sackings. Moreover, further destruction was wrought by several town fires. Then, in 1689, French troops fighting in the Nine Years' War blew Stahleck Castle and four of the town wall’s towers up. Bacharach about 1832 in an engraving by William Tombleson  In 1794, French Revolutionary troops occupied the Rhine’s left bank and in 1802, Bacharach became temporarily French. During the War of the Sixth Coalition the Prussian Field Marshal Blücher, after crossing the Rhine near Kaub, came through Bacharach and the Steeg Valley on New Year’s Night 1813-1814 with his troops on the way to France. Recalling this event is a monument stone somewhat downstream, across from Kaub. After the Congress of Vienna, the town went, along with the Rhine’s left bank, up to and including Bingerbrück, to Prussia. After the harbour silted up, Bacharach fell into a slumber from which it only awoke in the course of the Rheinromantik. Among the first of the prominent visitors at this time was the French writer Victor Hugo. Illustration by Max Liebermann for Heinrich Heine's historical novel Der Rabbi von Bacherach (The Rabbi of Bacherach  Caring for and maintaining Bacharach’s building monuments, spurred on in the early 20th century by the Rhenish Association for Monument Care and Landscape Preservation (Rheinischer Verein für Denkmalpflege und Landschaftsschutz) which took on the then highly endangered town wall and Stahleck Castle ruin jobs, and the great dedication of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate to the Wernerkapelle have seen to it that Bacharach is still a jewel of the Rheinromantik and a multifaceted documentary site of mediaeval architecture on the Middle Rhine. The Wernerkapelle ruin is under monumental protection and before it a plaque has been placed recalling the inhuman crimes against Jewish residents and also containing a quotation from a prayer by Pope John XXIII for a change in Christians’ thinking in their relationship with the Jews:      “We recognize today that many centuries of blindness have shrouded our eyes, so that we no longer saw the goodliness of Thy Chosen People and no longer recognized our firstborn brother’s traits. We discover now that a mark of Cain stands on our forehead. In the course of the centuries our brother Abel has lain in blood that we spilt, and he has wept tears that we brought forth, because we forgot Thy love. Forgive us the curse that we unrightfully affixed to the Jews’ name. Forgive us for nailing Thee in their flesh for a second time to the Cross. For we knew not what we did........."  Today Bacharach thrives on tourism and wine from Bacharach is still enjoying international popularity. Not to be overlooked, however, are problems arising from a shrinking population, itself brought about by a lack of prospects. 
The wife again at Stahleck Castle overlooking the Rhine and as it appeared at the start of Nazi rule when this 12th-century fortified castle was completely rebuilt, providing 260 beds to the hostel using the site. The ceremonial laying of its foundation stone took place on 18 November 1934. The work, which took only 11 months, cost 25,000 reichsmarks and included addition of a kitchen, another Fachwerk building, on the south side. On 25 October 1935, the rebuilt building was officially dedicated. In the presence of members of the Hitler Jugend, the Deutsches Jungvolk, the Bund Deutscher Mädel, and both the SA and the SS, Gauleiter Gustav Simon gave the dedicatory address. Stahleck became one of 27 Jugendburgen (youth castles), to be used for indoctrination of teenagers and young adults. Between 1937 and early 1938, the turrets on the shield wall were built and its chemin de ronde roofed over. A visit by Rudolf Hess in June 1938 prompted the start of work to complete the rebuilding of the keep, which was still a ruined stump. The plan was to reconstruct it to a height of 36 metres and, 7 storeys, and name it the Rudolf Hess Tower. However, the existing foundations would not have been able to bear the weight, so the ruin was pulled down, and in November 1938, work began on a completely new tower on a smaller footprint. Work on this was interrupted by the outbreak of World War II.  From 1940 to 1942, the castle served as a military hospital. In addition, in November 1940, students from now occupied Luxembourg who had been studying at German and Austrian universities when the war began were forced to attend re-education classes there, and eventually a youth re-education camp was set up. Male schoolchildren and students from Esch-sur-Alzette and Echternach were interned at the castle for 4 months as punishment for protesting against the announcement in 1942 of the introduction of required military service in Luxembourg and the forced conscription associated with it, as well as for participating in the general strike which followed. (Girls were sent to a youth hostel at Adenau.) Those of military age were then sent to the front. There is a memorial plaque at the castle, and the State of Rhineland-Palatinate and the City of Bacharach have organised memorial events at which contemporary witnesses spoke.  Beginning in January 1943, the castle was used as an internment camp for German youth who had shown insufficient loyalty to the Party, such as the founders of the Catholic youth resistance group the Michael Troop; some were taken from Stahleck to concentration camps. From June 1943 to summer 1944, it was a work and military training camp for Germans between 14 and 18 years of age. 
Nazis in Bacharach 
National Socialism in the courtyard and the site today. On the right is a tin badge showing the castle at the top over the words “Jugendburg Stahleck” and “25 Jahre 1911 1936 Rhineland”. The central triangle reads “DJH”. 

Rheinbrohl Ehrenmal
The flag poles at the 29er Ehrenmal, a memorial to the 29th Infanterie-Regiments „von Horn“ (3. Rheinisches), are there, but the flags have since changed.

Schweigen-Rechtenbach (Rhineland-Palatinate)
The Weintor, built in the autumn of 1936, marks the start of the Weinstrasse in the south of the Palatinate, less than a mile from the French border. The swastika in the eagle's talons shown in the 1940s postcards has been defaced but can still be made out. 

Swastikas flying at the Kalmithaus (left) and Aussichtsturm (background) on the Southern Weinstraße
Frankenthal Unter Dem Hakenkreuz
In 1938 the Jewish synagogue, built in 1884, was burnt to the ground during the Reichskristallnacht.  In 1943 during a bombing raid the centre of the town was almost completely destroyed. In 1945, at the end of World War II, its industries in ruins, it was occupied first by the Americans and then by the French by way of ultimate humiliation. 
 The  Frankenthaler Brauhauskeller, where Hitler stayed in April, 1931
  Wormser Straße on May 1, 1933 and today, the Wormser Tor in the background
Frankenthal Marketplatz  
Marktplatz then and now

Despite being banned in all uses by the German government, the town still uses the Wolfsangel, symbol of the forbidden Jungen Front, in its Nazi-era arms which were approved by the Oldenburg Ministry of State for the Interior and have been used since 10 July 1934. 
At the Oldenburg Landtag elections in 1931, the NSDAP received more than 37% of the votes cast, but could not form the government. After the Nazis had first given up a declaration of tolerance for the existing government, they were then soon demanding that the Landtag be dissolved. Since this was not forthcoming, the Nazis filed suit for a referendum, and they got their way. This resulted in dissolution on 17 April 1932. In the ensuing new elections on 20 May, the Nazis won 48.38% of the popular vote, and thereby took 24 of the 46 seats in the Landtag, which gave them an absolute majority. In Idar, which was then still a self-governing town, the National Socialists received more than 70% of the votes cast. They could thereby already govern, at least in Oldenburg, with endorsement by the German National People's Party, which had two seats at its disposal, even before Adolf Hitler’s official seizure of power in 1933. One of the new government’s first initiatives was administrative reform for Oldenburg, which was followed on 27 April 1933 by the similar Gesetz zur Vereinfachung und Verbilligung der Verwaltung (“Law for simplifying administration and reducing its cost”) for the Landesteil of Birkenfeld. Through this new law, 18 formerly self-administering municipalities were amalgamated; this included the self-administering towns (having been granted town rights in 1865) of Idar and Oberstein, which were amalgamated with each other and also with the municipalities of Algenrodt and Tiefenstein to form the new town of Idar-Oberstein. The law foreshadowed what was to come: It would be applied within a few weeks, without further discussion or participation, to the exclusion of the public and against the will of municipalities, who had not even been asked whether they wanted it, to places such as Herrstein and Oberwörresbach, Rötsweiler and Nockenthal, or Hoppstädten and Weiersbach. The restructuring also afforded the Nazis an opportunity to get rid of some “undesirables”; under Kreisleiter (district leader) Wild from Idar, all significant public positions were held until Hitler’s downfall by Nazis.  In 1937, on the basis of the Greater Hamburg Act, the Landesteil of Birkenfeld was dissolved and transferred together with the “Restkreis St. Wendel-Baumholder” to the Prussian district of Birkenfeld, a deed which put all of what are today Idar-Oberstein’s constituent communities in the same district.  After the Second World War, along with the whole district, the town’s whole municipal area passed to the then newly founded state of Rhineland-Palatinate.

Another reichsadler in the Palatinate is this one, still allowed to grace the entrance of the Finanzamt. Hitler spoke in the town on June 14, 1932 during his presidential campaign.On Reichskristallnacht (9 November 1938), the Alzey synagogue was destroyed and the fittings were burnt in front of the building. The ruin was torn down in the 1950s. A rescued Torah scroll can nowadays be found in the museum. On 8 January 1945, in World War II, the town narrowly missed being destroyed when 36 Boeing B-17 bombers had been sent to take out a railway bridge in Alzey. Owing to bad weather and a landmark misinterpretation – the crew mistook the top of the old watchtower for the church steeple – the bombers ended up dropping their load on the Wartberg, a nearby hill, giving rise to the legend of the Wartbergturm – the old tower – as Alzey's saviour.

Mainz then and now
In 1929 and today.  After the Great War the French occupied Mainz between 1919 and 1930 according to the Treaty of Versailles which went into effect 28 June 1919. The Rhineland (in which Mainz is located) was to be a demilitarized zone until 1935 and the French garrison, representing the Triple Entente, was to stay until reparations were paid.  In 1923 Mainz participated in the Rhineland separatist movement that proclaimed a republic in the Rhineland. It collapsed in 1924. The French withdrew on 30 June 1930. Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany in January, 1933 and his political opponents, especially those of the Social Democratic Party, were either incarcerated or murdered. Some were able to move away from Mainz in time. One was the political organizer for the SPD, Friedrich Kellner, who went to Laubach, where as the chief justice inspector of the district court he continued his opposition against the Nazis by recording their misdeeds in a 900-page diary.  
In March, 1933, a detachment from the National Socialist Party in Worms brought the party to Mainz. They hoisted the swastika on all public buildings and began to denounce the Jewish population in the newspapers. In 1936 the forces of the Third Reich re-entered the Rhineland with a great fanfare, the first move of the Third Reich's meteoric expansion. The former Triple Entente took no action.  During World War II the citadel at Mainz hosted the Oflag XII-B prisoner of war camp.  The Bishop of Mainz, Albert Stohr, formed an organization to help Jews escape from Germany.  
During World War II, more than 30 air raids destroyed about 80 percent of the city's centre, including most of the historic buildings. Mainz was captured on 22 March 1945 against uneven German resistance (staunch in some sectors and weak in other parts of the city) by the 90th Infantry Division under William A. McNulty, a formation of the XII Corps under Third Army commanded by General George S. Patton, Jr.Patton used the ancient strategic gateway through Germania Superior to cross the Rhine south of Mainz, drive down the Danube towards Czechoslovakia and end the possibility of a Bavarian redoubt crossing the Alps in Austria when the war ended. With regard to the Roman road over which Patton attacked Trier, he said:
one could almost smell the coppery sweat and see the low dust clouds where those stark fighters moved forward into battle.  
From 1945 to 1949, the city was part of the French zone of occupation. When the federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate was founded on 30 August 1946 by the commander of the French army on the French occupation zone Marie Pierre Kœnig, Mainz became capital of the new state.[17] In 1962, the diarist, Friedrich Kellner, returned to spend his last years in Mainz. His life in Mainz, and the impact of his writings, is the subject of the Canadian documentary My Opposition: The Diaries of Friedrich Kellner.  Following the withdrawal of French forces from Mainz, the United States Army Europe occupied the military bases in Mainz. Today USAREUR only occupies McCulley Barracks in Wackernheim and the Mainz Sand Dunes for training area. Mainz is home to the headquarters of the Bundeswehr's Wehrbereichskommando II and other units.

The famous Weimar novelist Alfred Döblin reappeared in Germany in French uniform and became a literary censor in Baden-Baden. By his own testimony, towering piles of books were placed before him, written either during the war or just after. Suppression had not done wonders for German letters, he thought. With no pun intended (Günter Grass’s first successful novel, The Tin Drum, was not published until 1959), he wrote, ‘At first the only thing that grew on the ground was grass and weeds.’ He founded a literary journal, and formed part of the delegation that inaugurated the new University of Mainz. The journey to the inauguration
ceremony was an adventure in itself. As they approached the cathedral city they saw the wrecks of factories ‘as if brought down by an earthquake’ and then the city centre: ‘But where was Mainz? All that one could see were ruins, faceless people, twisted beams, empty façades: that was Mainz.’ In the old barracks that was now the university Döblin watched civilians and military figures leafing through the translated transcripts of the speeches that morning. There were British and American uniforms scattered along the rows. An orchestra struck up the overture from The Magic Flute. Men came in wearing black gowns and mortar boards. Döblin was reminded of a high-school graduation in the United States. The president of the region gave a speech in which he described the new university as the key to the material and cultural revival of the region. 
MacDonogh (276-277) After the Reich- The Brutal History of the Allied Occupation
The main railway station 
Schusterstrasse then and now
 President Hindenberg in July 1930 at a swastika-bedecked Schillerplatz, the Befreiungsdenkmal now replaced with the Fastnachtsbrunnen. The statue itself, Benno Elkan's "Rhenania"  (representing a Rhineland freed from French brutality) was destroyed by the Nazis because of the Jewish background of the artist in late March 1933. Elkan then fled Germany and emigrated to England, where he lived until his death in 1960. In gratitude to the British, Elkan created a large Menorah featuring scenes from the Passion of the Jewish people . As a gift of the British Parliament, it is now before the Knesset in Jerusalem.
When they took power, the Nazis destroyed the huge memorial to Gustav Stresemann at Fischtrplatz.
Hitler in Mainz
Hitler speaking at the fussballplatz June 13, 1932
 The marktplatz before the war, September 1942, and today
 The Eisenbahnbrücke 1942 and today

Annweiler am Trifels
Down the hauptstrasse then and now. 
On the Sonnenberg behind lie the ruins of the castle of Trifels, in which Richard the Lionhearted was imprisoned from 31 March to 19 April 1193. 

Neuwied (Rhineland-Palatinate)
Neuwied lies on the right bank of the Rhine, 12 km northwest of Koblenz, on the railway from Frankfurt am Main to Cologne. The town has 13 suburban administrative districts: Heimbach-Weis, Gladbach, Engers, Oberbieber, Niederbieber, Torney, Segendorf, Altwied, Block, Irlich, Feldkirchen, Heddesdorf and Rodenbach. The largest is Heimbach-Weis, with approximately 8000 inhabitants.  Founded by Count Frederick of Wied in 1653 as residence of the Lower County of Wied, Neuwied was located near the village of Langendorf, destroyed during the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). It grew rapidly due to its religious toleration. Among those who sought refuge here was a colony of Moravian Brethren.  Near Neuwied, one of the largest Roman castra on the Rhine has been excavated by archeologists.  In April 1797 the French, under General Louis Lazare Hoche, defeated the Austrians near Neuwied, this being their first decisive success in the French Revolutionary Wars.  Neuwied is the native town of paternal ancestors of John D. Rockefeller, traced to the 16th century and possible French Huguenot refugees. His father's line emigrated to the North American colonies, arriving in New York in 1710, the year of a massive immigration of nearly 2800 Palatine Germans, whose transportation of refugees from London was paid by Queen Anne's government of England. Neuwied was also the birth town of William of Wied, who briefly held the title of King of Albania in 1914.  Contents      1 Geography     2 Politics     3 Notable residents         3.1 To 1800         3.2 1801–1850         3.3 1851–1900         3.4 1901–1950         3.5 1951–present     4 Population     5 Infrastructure         5.1 Public transport     6 Twin Towns     7 Notes     8 References     9 External links  Geography  Parts of the 86,5 square kilometre area are divided into the suburban districts of:      Altwied     Block     Engers     Feldkirchen     Gladbach     Heimbach-Weis     Irlich     Niederbieber     Oberbieber     Rodenbach     Segendorf     Torney  The core of Neuwied and the former village of Heddesdorf, which belonged to the municipality before these districts were added, are not listed as districts themselves.  Since the inner city of Neuwied is situated on a former bed of the river Rhine, it is at great risk of flooding. It is one of very few towns in the region protected by anti-flood levees, a source of friction with communities downstream.  Neuwied is twinned with the London Borough of Bromley. Politics  The June 2004 municipal council elections led to the following distribution of seats: CDU (22), SPD (17), FWG (4), Grüne (3), FDP (2). The mayor of Neuwied is the social democrat Nicolaus Roth. Notable residents To 1800      Hermann of Wied (1477–1552), archbishop of Cologne, reformer     David Roentgen (1743–1807), cabinetmaker     Peter Kinzing (1745–1816), watchmaker and mechanic     Johannes Baptista von Albertini (1769–1831), Bishop of Moravian Church     Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied (1782–1867), ethnologist  1801–1850      Philipp Wilhelm Wirtgen (1806–1870), botanist     Hermann, Prince of Wied (1814–1864), Prince of Wied     Elisabeth of Wied (1843–1916), Queen of Romania, poet, pseudonym of Carmen Sylva     William, Prince of Wied (1845–1907), Prince of Wied, Officer and politician  1851–1900      Ferdinand Hueppe (1852–1938), Co-founder of the DFB and sports medicine     Paul Reichard (1854–1938), African researchers     Friedrich von Ingenohl (1857–1933), Admiral, commander of the imperial High Seas Fleet in World War I     Ferdinand Siegert (1865–1946), pediatrician     Carl von Moers (1871–1957), horse rider – Eventing and Dressage     Carl Einstein (1885–1940), writer, art historian, and critic     Friedrich Wolf (1888–1953), doctor and writer.  1901–1950      Walter Kaiser (1907–1982), professional footballer     Friedrich Wilhelm, Prince of Wied (1931–2000), Prince of Wied, grandson of William Frederick, 6th Prince of Wied     Horst Siebert (1938–2009), economist     Klaus Rudolf Werhand (1938–2009), Blacksmith and Art Metal Sculptor  1951–present      Jörg Bewersdorff (* 1958), mathematician     Ulf Mark Schneider (* 1965), Manager and current CEO of Fresenius     Ferris MC (* 1973), musician, rapper and actor     Christian Ulmen (* 1975), entertainer and actor     Simon Kirch (* 1979), track and field athlete     Mike Rockenfeller (* 1983), race car driver     Tobias Nickenig (* 1984), professional footballer     Tobias Hegewald (* 1989), racing driver     Hasan Ali Kaldırım (* 1989), Turkish footballer     Anna-Lena Friedsam (* 1994), tennis player  Population  Originally there were only a few thousand people living in Neuwied with the number not growing significantly because of wars and famines. With the industrialization in the 19th century the number of inhabitants increased from 5,600 in 1831 to 18,000 in 1905.  By 1970 the figure had grown to 31,400 and following a major realignment incorporating several communities within the town, it jumped to 63,000.  As of 30 June 2005 there were officially 66,455 people living in Neuwied. Infrastructure Raiffeisenbrücke between Neuwied and Weißenthurm  Neuwied is connected to the German network of Bundesstraßen (national routes) (here: B9, B42 and B256). The Autobahnen (motorways) A3, A48 and A61 are quickly reachable from Neuwied. Public transport  Within the bounds of Neuwied are two railway stations, Neuwied and Engers on the Right Rhine line, and a third station is under consideration by the state agency for northern commuter railway services (SPNV Nord), which is responsible for the service on the railway lines connecting to Koblenz Hauptbahnhof in the south and Köln Hauptbahnhof in the north. Via either of those stations, the German high-speed rail network and the InterCity network are accessible. Daytime service includes      a Deutsche Bahn hourly semi-fast train (Regional-Express), the Rhein-Erft-Express, running Koblenz-Engers-Neuwied-Cologne-Mönchengladbach and back,     and a Deutsche Bahn hourly all-stops service (Regionalbahn) Koblenz-Neuwied-Cologne-Stommeln(-Mönchengladbach) and back, which is also available in the evening hours.     A VIAS hourly semi-fast train (StadtExpress) Neuwied-Koblenz-Lahnstein-Wiesbaden(-Frankfurt) and back, running also in evening hours.  It takes about 15 to 20 minutes to travel to Koblenz while Cologne is about 70 to 80 minutes away, Mainz 90 to 120 minutes, direct connection to Frankfurt is around 150 minutes, sometimes faster when changing to the IC/ICE network.  Public transport within Neuwied relies on a bus network, offering (depending on line) 20, 30 or 60-minute schedules, the majority of lines are served by Transdev.  All public transport (road and rail) is integrated into the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Mosel public transport association. Tickets are valid for all service, restricted by time and fare zones. For more information on timetables see [1]. Twin Towns Main article: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany  Neuwied is twinned with:      United Kingdom Bromley, United Kingdom.     Israel Drom HaSharon Regional Council, Israel.
Linking Weißenthurm and Neuwied over the Rhine, what is now known as the Raiffeisenbrücke replaces the destroyed Hermann-Göring-Brücke. 

Linz am Rhein 
In kreis Neuwied, the Rheintor at Burgplatz then and now, with a different flag flying

Around 1000 BC, early fortifications were erected on the Festung Ehrenbreitstein hill on the opposite side of the Moselle. In 55 BC, Roman troops commanded by Julius Caesar reached the Rhine and built a bridge between Koblenz and Andernach. About 9 BC, the "Castellum apud Confluentes", was one of the military posts established by Drusus.  Remains of a large bridge built in 49 AD by the Romans are still visible. The Romans built two castles as protection for the bridge, one in 9 AD and another in the 2nd century, the latter being destroyed by the Franks in 259. North of Koblenz was a temple of Mercury and Rosmerta (a Gallo-Roman deity), which remained in use up to the 5th century. Palace of the prince electors of Trier. Map of the Koblenz region. Middle Ages  With the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the city was conquered by the Franks and became a royal seat. After the division of Charlemagne's empire, it was included in the lands of his son Louis the Pious (814). In 837, it was assigned to Charles the Bald, and a few years later it was here that Carolingian heirs discussed what was to become the Treaty of Verdun (843), by which the city became part of Lotharingia under Lothair I. In 860 and 922, Koblenz was the scene of ecclesiastical synods. At the first synod, held in the Liebfrauenkirche, the reconciliation of Louis the German with his half-brother Charles the Bald took place. The city was sacked and destroyed by the Normans in 882. In 925, it became part of the eastern German Kingdom, later the Holy Roman Empire. Fortress (Festung) Ehrenbreitstein in the background.  In 1018, the city was given by the emperor Henry II to the archbishop and prince elector of Trier after receiving a charter. It remained in the possession of his successors until the end of the 18th century, having been their main residence since the 17th century. Emperor Conrad II was elected here in 1138. In 1198, the battle between Philip of Swabia and Otto IV took place nearby. In 1216, prince-bishop Theoderich von Wied donated part of the lands of the basilica and the hospital to the Teutonic Knights, which later became the Deutsches Eck.  In 1249–1254, Koblenz was given new walls by Archbishop Arnold II of Isenburg; and it was partly to overawe the turbulent citizens that successive archbishops built and strengthened the fortress of Ehrenbreitstein that still dominates the city. Modern era  The city was a member of the league of the Rhenish cities which rose in the 13th century. The Teutonic Knights founded the Bailiwick of Koblenz in or around 1231. Koblenz attained great prosperity and it continued to advance until the disaster of the Thirty Years' War brought about a rapid decline. After Philip Christopher, elector of Trier, surrendered Ehrenbreitstein to the French, the city received an imperial garrison in 1632. However, this force was soon expelled by the Swedes, who in their turn handed the city over again to the French. Imperial forces finally succeeded in retaking it by storm in 1636.  In 1688, Koblenz was besieged by the French under Marshal de Boufflers, but they only succeeded in bombing the Old City (Altstadt) into ruins, destroying among other buildings the Old Merchants' Hall (Kaufhaus), which was restored in its present form in 1725. The city was the residence of the archbishop-electors of Trier from 1690 to 1801. Since 2010 the Koblenz Cable Car has been Germany's biggest aerial tramway  In 1786, the last archbishop-elector of Trier, Clemens Wenceslaus of Saxony, greatly assisted the extension and improvement of the city, turning the Ehrenbreitstein into a magnificent baroque palace. After the fall of the Bastille in 1789, the city became, through the invitation of the archbishop-elector's chief minister, Ferdinand Freiherr von Duminique, one of the principal rendezvous points for French émigrés. The archbishop-elector approved of this because he was the uncle of the persecuted king of France, Louis XVI. Among the many royalist French refugees who flooded into the city were Louis XVI's two younger brothers, the Comte de Provence and the Comte d'Artois. In addition, Louis XVI's cousin, the Prince de Condé, arrived and formed an army of young aristocrats willing to fight the French Revolution and restore the Ancien Régime. The Army of Condé joined with an allied army of Prussian and Austrian soldiers led by Duke of Brunswick in an unsuccessful invasion of France in 1792. This drew down the wrath of the First French Republic on the archbishop-elector; in 1794, Coblenz was taken by the French Revolutionary army under Marceau (who was killed during the siege), and, after the signing of the Treaty of Lunéville (1801) it was made the capital of the new French départment of Rhin-et-Moselle. In 1814, it was occupied by the Russians. The Congress of Vienna assigned the city to Prussia, and in 1822, it was made the seat of government for the Prussian Rhine Province.  After World War I, France occupied the area once again. In defiance of the French, the German populace of the city has insisted on using the more German spelling of Koblenz since 1926. During World War II it was the location of the command of German Army Group B and like many other German cities, it was heavily bombed and rebuilt afterwards. Between 1947 and 1950, it served as the seat of government of Rhineland-Palatinate.  The Rhine Gorge was declared a World Heritage Site in 2002, with Koblenz marking the northern end. 
The Kaiser Wilhelm memorial with and without swastika. The monument was unveiled in the presence of William II on August 31, 1897. The semi-circular pediment with its 33 ft high hall of columns survived the last world war.  The 46 ft high equestrian statue of Emperor William I in his parade uniform, followed by the female allegory of the Empire carrying the imperial crown of Germany on a velvet cushion, was destroyed in March 1945 by an artillery shell.  In 1953 the monument was declared the Memorial to German unity by German president Theodor Heuss. The Germans remember the date since they sung their national anthem here for the first time on that occasion after the defeat in WW II. But the people of Coblenz wanted their ‘old Emperor William’ back. This was made possible by a generous private donation of 3 million marks (EUR1.53 million/$1.9 million) and a local fundraising effort in Coblenz which brought in 350,000 DM (EUR180,000). The heavy statue of 63.5 tonnes was unveiled to the public on 25 September 1993.
After the Great War, France occupied the area once again. In defiance of the French, the German populace of the city has insisted on using the more German spelling of Coblenz since 1926. During World War II it was the location of the command of German Army Group B and like many other German cities, it was heavily bombed and rebuilt afterwards. Between 1947 and 1950, it served as the seat of government of Rhineland-Palatinate.
The hauptbahnhof August 27, 1941 and today, with the fortress behind
Deutschen Arbeitsfront (DAF) meeting  March 1935  in front of the Kurfürstlichen Schloss  (Electoral Palace)
The Weindorf (wine village) of Koblenz was established in 1925 as part of the Reichsausstellung Deutscher Wein (The Reich German Wine Exhibition),  held from 8 August to 13 September 1925 as part of the celebrations for the 1000th anniversary of the Rhineland. Koblenz was chosen as the venue because the city is in the centre of the wine trade and tourist area. Above shows the largest exhibition hall, the Fachwerkhaus (also called the Rheinhalle), which was located in the middle of the exhibition area. Originally built only for the duration of the exhibition, the buildings were so popular that they have been retained since as a tourist attraction. Newly-elected President Paul von Hindenburg sent at the opening on August 8, 1925 a congratulatory telegram. The devastating air raid on Koblenz on 6 November 1944, left the site in ruins and it was eventually rebuilt in the 1950s, albeit in simplified form.

Adolf Hitler Straße then and now

 Binger Straße in 1939 and today, under renovation. After the war, Ingelheim emerged as the only unscathed town between Mainz and Koblenz.
Demonstration outside the Burgkirche 

Remagen (Rhineland-Palatinate)
The Ludendorff Bridge at Remagen—the last standing on the Rhine—was captured by soldiers of the U.S. 9th Armoured Division on March 7, 1945 during Operation Lumberjack.
The Ludendorff Bridge was originally built during World War I as a means of moving troops and logistics west over the Rhine to reinforce the Western Front. The bridge was designed by Karl Wiener, an architect from Mannheim. It was 1,066 ft long, had a clearance of 49 ft above the normal water level of the Rhine, and its highest point measured 96.0 ft. The bridge was designed to be defended by troops with towers on each bank with machine gun slits in the towers. The bridge carried two railway tracks and a pedestrian walkway. 
During World War II, one track was planked over to allow vehicular traffic. During Operation Lumberjack, on 7 March 1945, troops of the U.S. Army's 9th Armored Division reached the Ludendorff Bridge during the closing weeks of World War II and were very surprised to see that the railroad bridge was still standing. It was the last of 22 road and railroad bridges over the Rhine still standing after German defenders failed to demolish it. U.S. forces were able to capture the bridge. The unexpected availability of the first major crossing of the Rhine, Germany's last major natural barrier and line of defence, caused Allied high commander Dwight Eisenhower to alter his plans to end the war and possibly shortened the war in Europe. The ability to quickly establish a bridgehead on the eastern side of the Rhine and to get forces into Germany allowed the U.S. forces to envelop the German industrial area of the Ruhr more quickly than planned. The Allies were able to get six divisions across the bridge before it collapsed on 17 March 1945, ten days after it was captured. The collapse killed 18 U.S. Army Engineers.
Hans Peter Kürten, at that time Mayor of Remagen, had long considered the idea of constructing a memorial. The negotiations with the German Federal Railway alone lasted seven years before the city could finally acquire the former railway property. Announcements sent to government officials concerning the intended preservation of the bridge towers and the construction of a Memorial to Peace stirred no interest.  In the summer of 1976, it was necessary to remove the still intact bridge support pilings in the river. The mayor had the stones deposited on the Remagen river bank, with the idea in mind of selling small pieces of the bridge stones enclosed in synthetic resin and containing a certificate of authenticity. On 7 March 1978, he went public with his idea and achieved such an unexpected degree of success, that he had realised more than 100,000 DM in sales profits.  There has not been another bridge built across the Rhine here, mainly due to opposition from the people of Remagen (and surrounding areas), contending that a bridge located at this point along the Rhine would spoil the view.
In his book Crimes and Mercies regarding allied brutality towards Germans after the war, James Bacque writes that
 Much concerning these atrocities has been deliberately suppressed, some has been forgotten, some falsified, but perhaps the most poignant anecdote was given by an ex-prisoner, Johannes Heising, who in the 1990s published a book about his experiences in the US camp at Remagen. After the book was published, Heising was talking in 1991 with another former Remagen prisoner, Franz-Josef Plemper, who reminded him of something Heising had not described in the book: one night, the Americans had bulldozed living men under the earth in their foxholes. Plemper described the scene to him: 'One night in April 1945, I was startled out of my stupor in the rain and the mud by piercing screams and loud groans. I jumped up and saw in the distance (about 30-50 meters) the searchlight of a bulldozer. Then I saw this bulldozer moving forwards through the crowd of prisoners who lay there. In the front it had a blade making a pathway. How many of the prisoners were buried alive in their earthholes I do not know. It was no longer possible to ascertain. I heard clearly cries of "you murderer".' And then Heising remembered.
The Zehnthaus during the Third Reich and today. The municipality had been the setting for a number of Nazi-era films such as  Carl Froelich’s 1936 work Wenn wir alle Engel wären (“If We Were All Angels”) starring Heinz Rühmann (described by Hull, 104, as "the best comedy of the year which contained a number of racy situations that would have curled the hair of an American censor) and the 1938 film Das Verlegenheitskind starring Ida Wüst and Paul Klinger.

American soldiers Nibelungenbrücke
Two American GIs take cover on the bridge on the Nibelungenbrücke on March 28, 1945, as snipers on the other bank of the Rhine take aim. In the foreground lies one of their victims.
Die Nibelungenbrücke verbindet die rheinland-pfälzische Stadt Worms über den Rhein mit den hessischen Städten Lampertheim und Bürstadt.  Die Brücke im Verlauf der B 47, hier identisch mit Nibelungen- und Siegfriedstraße, ist die einzige Straßenbrücke zwischen Mannheim im Süden und Mainz im Norden. Sie wurde nach der Nibelungensage benannt und birgt mit dem Nibelungenturm eine Wormser Sehenswürdigkeit.  Nachdem bei Worms der Fährbetrieb urkundlich seit dem Jahr 858 belegt ist, entstand die erste Schiffsbrücke im Jahr 1855. Die erste feste Brücke über den Rhein war von 1900 bis 1945 die Ernst-Ludwig-Brücke. Die im Zweiten Weltkrieg zerstörte Brücke wurde als Nibelungenbrücke (heute „alte“ Nibelungenbrücke genannt) von 1951 bis 1953 wieder aufgebaut.  Aufgrund von gewachsenem Verkehrsaufkommen und Sanierungsbedürftigkeit wurde von 2005 bis 2008 parallel zur „alten“ die „neue“ Nibelungenbrücke errichtet. Seit der 2013 vollendeten Sanierung der „alten“ Brücke führen die zwei Fahrstreifen der „alten“ Brücke stadteinwärts und die zwei der „neuen“ stadtauswärts.[1] Beide Brücken verfügen über kombinierte Fußgänger- und Radfahrwege.  Die alte Nibelungenbrücke einschließlich des Nibelungenturms ist ein Kulturdenkmal sowohl nach dem Hessischen Denkmalschutzgesetz als auch nach dem rheinland-pfälzischen Denkmalrecht.  Inhaltsverzeichnis      1 Geographische Lage     2 Vorgeschichte     3 Brücken         3.1 Ursprung: Ernst-Ludwig-Brücke (1900 bis 1945)         3.2 Erste bzw. „alte“ Nibelungenbrücke (seit 1953)         3.3 Parallelbau „neue“ Nibelungenbrücke (seit 2008)     4 Nibelungenturm     5 Literatur     6 Weblinks     7 Einzelnachweise  Geographische Lage  Die Nibelungenbrücke steht unmittelbar östlich der Stadt Worms und leitet mit den hier auf der B 47 verlaufenden Ferienstraßen Nibelungen- und Siegfriedstraße über den Rhein zum Lampertheimer Stadtteil Rosengarten und zur weiter östlich befindlichen Stadt Bürstadt über. Die zwischen den Rheinkilometern 443 und 444 errichtete Zwillingsstraßenbrücke verbindet die rheinland-pfälzische Region Rheinhessen im Westen mit dem Hessischen Ried im Osten.  Auf rheinland-pfälzischer Seite und damit westlich der Nibelungenbrücke hat die B 47 direkt an der Brücke Anschluss an die B 9. Westlich des Rheins breitet sich die Wormser Kernstadt aus, nordwestlich der Brücke liegt der städtische Festplatz, unmittelbar nördlich die Rheinpromenade mit Restaurants, kleiner Parkanlage und Hagendenkmal und etwas südlich des Bauwerks befindet sich der „Floßhafen“. Unter der westlichen Vorlandbrücke hindurch führt die Hafenbahn Worms. Auf hessischer Seite und damit östlich der Brücke hat die B 47 bei Bürstadt Anschluss an die B 44. Östlich des Rheins erstreckt sich entlang des Flussufers etwas stromabwärts das Naherholungsgebiet Maulbeeraue mit einem dieses östlich abgrenzenden Altrheinarm.  Die nächste rheinaufwärts stehende Straßenbrücke ist die etwa elf Rheinkilometer weiter südlich zwischen Mannheim im Osten und Frankenthal und Ludwigshafen im Westen befindliche Theodor-Heuss-Rheinbrücke im Zuge der A 6. Die nächste Straßenbrücke rheinabwärts ist die rund 51 Rheinkilometer weiter nördlich zwischen Mainz im Westen und Ginsheim-Gustavsburg im Osten errichtete Weisenauer Brücke im Zuge der A 60. Etwa 2,3 km rheinabwärts queren die Nibelungenbahn und die Riedbahn den Rhein auf der Rheinbrücke Worms, der einzigen Eisenbahnbrücke zwischen Mannheim und Mainz. Vorgeschichte  Der Fährbetrieb bei Worms ist erstmals in einer Urkunde aus dem Jahr 858 belegt, in der Ludwig der Deutsche die Schifffahrtsrechte des Klosters Lorsch bestätigt. Spätestens im Hochmittelalter wurden die Fährrechte auf verschiedene, vor allem geistliche Institutionen aufgeteilt, die diese zu ihrer Finanzierung nutzten. Dennoch blieb das Fährwesen eine städtische Aufgabe, wie die um 1400 erlassene städtische Fährordnung dokumentiert, die neben den Tarifen unter anderem auch die Reihenfolge des Übersetzens und die Betriebszeiten festlegte.[2]  Die ersten Planungen für eine Schiffsbrücke als dauerhaftere Form der Rheinquerung datieren von 1720. Sie wurden von Franz Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg, dem Bischof von Worms, angestoßen, der so seine rechtsrheinischen Hoheitsgebiete besser erreichen wollte. Diese Pläne wurden aus unbekannten Gründen nicht umgesetzt. Ein zweites, weit fortgeschrittenes Projekt wurde 1790 durch die Folgen der Französischen Revolution vereitelt. Obwohl die Stadt auch danach mehrfach entsprechende Projekte anregte, dauerte es noch weitere 65 Jahre, bevor eine Schiffsbrücke angelegt wurde; ein wesentlicher Hinderungsgrund für einen schnelleren Bau waren die komplizierten Rechts- und Eigentumsverhältnisse am Fährbetrieb, die erst 1831 durch Verkauf an das Großherzogtum Hessen geklärt wurden. 1842 beantragten die beiden Wormser Mitglieder in den Landständen des Großherzogtums Hessen, Wilhelm Valckenberg und Friedrich von Dörnberg, erneut den Bau einer Schiffsbrücke. Obwohl dieser Antrag noch im selben Jahr positiv beschieden wurde, konnte diese Brücke erst am 14. Juni 1855 eingeweiht werden.[2]  Ab etwa 1880, also 25 Jahre nach Einweihung der Schiffsbrücke, wurde intensiv über den Bau einer festen Brücke diskutiert. Ausschlaggebend hierfür waren die mit der Rheinregulierung einhergehenden Planungen, das Rheinhochwasser von 1882 und der steigende Arbeitskräftebed

The town swimming pool then and now, relatively unchanged.

Bishops Franz Rudolf Bornewasser of Trier and Ludwig Sebastian of Speyer giving the Nazi salute along with Reichskommissar for the Reunification of the Saarland to the German Reich Josef Bürkel, Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick, and Joseph Goebbels inside the rathaus on March 1, 1935.
 Goebbels provided a weekly illustrated magazine, telling the catholic Saar electorate that the bolsheviks were the sworn enemy of God. In neutral Geneva his ministry’s anti-Comintern unit set up a religious front, Pro Deo, which formally received the anti-bolshevik exhibition that he had prepared in Berlin and sent it on to the Saar camouflaged with Swiss certificates of origin. In the Saar, the catholic clergy publicized the exhibition from their pulpits. ‘ The Saarbrücken clerics never guessed whose errands they were running,’ wrote Eberhard Taubert.

Hitler arriving in front of the Johanneskirche
Nazis marching past the Johanneskirche  
Then and now
The rathaus on that day and today.
Adolf-Hitler-Straße before and after the war, and today as Bahnhofstraße

Bahnhofstraße then and now

The hauptbahnhof itself with Hitler during a march, after the war, and its current replacement.
Saarländisches Staatstheater
The Saarland national theatre was officially opened in 1938 by Adolf Hitler as the Gautheater Saarpfalz. The following year on May 16, Hitler attended a performance of Karl Millöcker’s operetta Gräfin Dubarry here. "Incidentally, the foundations of the theatre building formed part of the West Wall’s substructure along the Saar River (Doramus p.1610)."
The  Ludwigskirche during the Third Reich and today. During the Second World War, Ludwigskirche was almost completely destroyed. After a bombing on October 5, 1944, only the surrounding walls remained. Rebuilding began in 1949, however it has still not been completed. The main reason for this long delay was the fierce dispute, which lasted from the 1950s into the 1970s, about whether the baroque interior, which had been completely lost, should also be reconstructed according to the original plans. At first, it had been agreed to restore the exterior, with a modern interior, but this plan was finally abandoned. After the reconstruction of the "Fürstenstuhl" (i.e., the princely seating in the gallery across from the organ) in 2009, the interior is more or less complete, but some of the balustrade figures on the outside are still lacking.


The Ludwigskirche after the war and today. 
The Ludwigskirche after the war and today. After the First World War, French troops occupied Saarlouis. The Saargebiet became a protectorate of the League of Nations for a period of 15 years. In 1933, a considerable number of anti-Nazi Germans fled to the Saar, as it was the only part of Germany left outside the Third Reich's control. As a result, anti-Nazi groups campaigned heavily for the Saarland to remain under control of League of Nations as long as Adolf Hitler ruled Germany. However, long-held sentiments against France remained entrenched, with very few sympathising openly with France. When the 15-year-term was over, a plebiscite was held in the territory on 13 January 1935: 90.3% of those voting wished to rejoin Germany.  From 1936 till 1945, Saarlouis was named as Saarlautern (-lautern being a common ending of town and village names in Germany) in an attempt by the Nazis to Germanise the town name. 
After World War II, the region (then called the Saarland), was again occupied by France. In a plebiscite in 1955, most of the people in the Saarland opted for the reunification with the Federal Republic of Germany, and on January 1, 1957, it became the 10th federal state of West Germany.
Seen from Adolf Hitler Platz then and now
The Dreißiger Denkmal

The Galgenbergturm (Gallows Hill Tower), the main symbol of the community Schiffweiler, was built between 1937 and 1939, inaugurated 8 July 1939 in the name and service of Adolf Hitler. After the war it was renamed Galgenberg tower.

Hermann Göring Straße 
Nazi-era postcard of Hermann Göring Straße, today St. Ingberter Straße, in Spiesen-Elversberg 

Bad Hersfeld 
The Verwaltungsgebäude in 1943 and today
Auxiliary building of the former barracks (Hohe Luft), the reichsadler still in place of honour
Hanau im Mainz 
The promenade at Wilhelmsbad with and without the swastika. During World War II, Hanau was for the most part destroyed by British airstrikes in March 1945 a few days before it was taken by the US Army.

St. Wendel 
Balduinstraße then and now
     Aach (Baden-Württemberg)     Aachen (North Rhine-Westphalia)     Aalyhen (Baden-Württemberg)     Abenberg (Bavaria)     Abensberg (Bavaria)     Achern (Baden-Württemberg)     Achim (Lower Saxony)     Adelsheim (Baden-Württemberg)     Adenau (Rhineland-Palatinate)     Adorf (Saxony)     Ahaus (North Rhine-Westphalia)     Ahlen (North Rhine-Westphalia)     Ahrensburg (Schleswig-Holstein)     Aichach (Bavaria)     Aichtal (Baden-Württemberg)     Aken (Elbe) (Saxony-Anhalt)     Albstadt (Baden-Württemberg)     Alfeld (Lower Saxony)     Allendorf (Lumda) (Hesse)     Allstedt (Saxony-Anhalt)     Alpirsbach (Baden-Württemberg)     Alsdorf (North Rhine-Westphalia)     Alsfeld (Hesse)            Alsleben (Saale) (Saxony-Anhalt)     Altdorf bei Nürnberg (Bavaria)     Altena (North Rhine-Westphalia)     Altenau (Lower Saxony)     Altenberg The state of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz), patched together by the French after WWII, united historically disparate bits of Bavaria, Hesse and Prussia that had only one thing in com- mon – the Rhine (Rhein). The river meanders for 1390km from the Swiss Alps to Rotterdam, but nowhere else has it shaped the land and its people more profoundly than along the 290km stretch traversing Rhineland-Palatinate. Some of Europe’s largest corporations dominate the Rhine banks south of Mainz, the state capital. But along here there’s also a grand legacy of the Middle Ages: the magnificent Ro- manesque cathedrals of Mainz, Worms and Speyer. Northwest of Mainz is the river’s most picturesque stretch, the storied Romantic Rhine, whose vine-clad slopes, medieval hilltop castles and snug wine villages have drawn artists and tourists since the early 19th century. Most of Germany’s wine is grown in Rhineland-Palatinate’s six wine regions: the Ahr Val- ley, Moselle-Saar-Ruwer, Middle Rhine, Nahe, Rheinhessen and, famed for its German Wine Road, the Rheinpfalz. The region’s wonderful wines can all be sampled in a multitude of ambience-laden wine taverns. The local people’s joie de vivre finds expression in the many town and village wine festivals, held from August to October. Tiny Saarland, in the southwest, was once a centre for heavy industry but these days it’s better known for Saarbrücken’s Frenchified urbane charms, and its verdant forests and fields. HIGHLIGHTS Riverine Scenery Cruise, cycle or ramble along the castle-studded Romantic Rhine (p483) © Lonely Planet Publications 465 Rhineland-Palatinate & Saarland RHINELAND-PALATINATE & SAARLAND between Koblenz and Bingen Architectural Stunners Marvel at the Romanesque cathedrals in Mainz (p467), Worms (p472) and Speyer (p474) Roman Relics Explore the remarkable ruins of Roman Trier (p497) Romantic Bargain Dream about knights and damsels – in your bunk and over a muesli breakfast – at the DJH Burg Stahleck hostel (p492) in Bacharach Thrill Ride Take a high-speed spin