Showing posts with label Oberschleißheim. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Oberschleißheim. Show all posts

Schloß Schleißheim and Haimhausen

 The town at the turn of the century and today. Hitler in February 1942 himself refers to his visit here in his Table Talk (273) when reminiscing about the chaos he found after the Great War:

I therefore went to Dachau with Goring. We had the impression we'd fallen into a bandits' lair. Their first concern was to ask us for the password. We were led into the presence of a woman. I remember her, for this was the first time I saw a woman with her hair dressed like a boy's. She was surrounded by a gang of individuals with gallows-birds' faces. This was Schäffer's wife. We drove the bargain, although not without my warning them that they wouldn't see the colour of my money until the weapons were in my possession. We also found, on the airfield at Schleissheim, thousands of rifles,mess-tins, haversacks, a pile of useless junk. But, after it had been repaired, there would be enough to equip a regiment.
schloss schleißheim
From a 1937 postcard. The New Palace was begun under Max Emanuel in 1701-1704 from designs by Henrico Zuccalli and completed from 1719 by Joseph Effner. Of the originally planned, monumental complex consisting of four wings, only the main wing was completed. The result is nevertheless an outstandingly beautiful Baroque palace. In 1912 the airfield beside the palace was built, which is the oldest active airfield in Germany. In the Second World War the air base was heavily bombed, which also led to considerable damage in the area and the schloß. The Altes schloß suffered severe damage during the war and was still in a ruinous state decades after the end of the war. A restoration took place from 1970 onwards, but not all of the historical interiors have been restored, but some of them have been modernised for museum use.
 In 1930 and after the war when the Altes schloß was particularly damaged
Closer look at the damage 
schloss schleißheim  
The schloß 1933 and eighty years later 
Paths of Glory
 Kubrick's 'Paths of Glory' with Kirk Douglas was shot at Oberschleißheim, with the schloß serving as the French Army Headquarters. The soldiers were supplied by 9, 733 conscripts who had been born in 1937. The execution of the WWI French soldiers was filmed in the grand garden of the new Palace (Gartenfassade des Neuen Schlosses):
 and the court martial in the Great Hall (Grosser Saal) inside the Palace:

The same painting seen behind Kirk Douglas
The Großer Saal before and after the war, heavily damaged, and today with the wife. The room serves to glorify Max Emanuel as elector and victorious general against the Turks. On either side of the room are two paintings by Franz Joachim Beich showing the military exploits of Max Emanuel. The stucco decoration by Johann Baptist Zimmermann featuring draperies, weapons and trophies date from 1722. The ceiling is by Venetian Jacopo Amigoni showing the "Battle of Aeneas and Turnus for the hand of princess Lavinia" from which Aeneas emerges victorious; a metaphorical nod to Max Emanuel.
In the Gemäldegalerie
Before the war and today, extensively renovated. The magnificent interior decoration was the work of well-known artists such as Johann Baptist Zimmermann, Cosmas Damian Asam and Jacopo Amigoni. The Gallery Rooms contain masterpieces from the European baroque era.

The wife above the main staircase, shown then and now. This is architecturally the most significant area of the schloß and owes its inspiration to Henrico Zuccalli who created a division of stairways and landings within a high wide hall, which was soon recognised as exemplary and which would inspire Balthasar Neumann when he designed the staircases for the palaces at Brühl and Würzburg.  The dome fresco by Cosmas Damian Asam shows the representation of Venus in the Forge of Vulcan, in which the weapons are made for her son Aeneas. Again, Aeneas in the baroque pose with periwig bears unmistakable traits of Elector Max Emanuel. This presentation was the first secular theme painted by the famous Bavarian fresco painter Asam and finds its thematic continuation in the ceiling paintings with scenes from the Trojan War (according to Virgil's "Aeneid") in the neighbouring ballrooms.
The bedroom of Karl VII
 The bedroom of the Electress Maria Amalia, wife of Elector Max III Joseph, known as the "Yellow Apartment."

The Western door, produced by Franz Ignaz Günther. It's clear how much has been reworked since reconstruction around the door as the lion has since lost his sword.
The Altes schloß before the war on the left and in April 1945 on the right. This building began in 1598 as a renaissance country house and hermitage founded by William V close to Dachau Palace. The central gate and clock tower between both courtyards still date back to the first building period. The inner courtyard is called Maximilianshof, the outer one Wilhelmshof. Under William's son Maximilian I the buildings were extended between 1617 and 1623 by Heinrich Schön and Hans Krumpper to the so-called Old Palace.  The rooms were decorated by Peter Candid. Maximilian's son and successor Ferdinand Maria died here in 1679. After heavy destruction in the Second World War the palace with its spacious buildings was reconstructed as shown here. Most of the stucco decoration of the chapel Wilhelmskapelle has been preserved. The Old Schleissheim Palace houses today two exhibitions, one on religious culture, the other the history of Prussia. The Grand Hall in the middle of the main building today serves as foyer for the museums.
The canal with the Lustheim behind, then and now. It was built by Enrico Zuccalli as a garden villa in Italian style in 1684-1688 for Maximilian II Emanuel and his first wife, the Austrian princess Maria Antonia.  Lustheim lies on a circular island at the conclusion of the baroque court garden. The floor plan of manor reminiscent of a stylized H, to the central main building will be followed by two wing-like avant-corps. The brick built and plastered building has two storeys, the middle section is dominated by a belvedere, which provides a wide view of the surrounding countryside. The centre of the palace is the great hall in the middle section, which is flanked laterally by the apartments of the Elector and Electress. Upstairs rooms were simple for the servants, the basement contained the kitchen and utility rooms.  The interior is dominated by the large banqueting hall in the middle of the building. The frescoes were done by Johann Anton Gumpp, Francesco Rosa and Johann Andreas Trubillio.  Since 1968 the palace has housed a grand collection of Meissen porcelain, only outranged by the Porzellansammlung in the Zwinger, Dresden.  The palace once formed the centre point of a semicircle of round buildings. Two pavilions still exist: To the south of Lustheim Place the Renatus Chapel was erected in 1686 by Zuccalli in a pavilion. The northern pavilion houses the decorated stable which was built for the favourite horses of Elector Max Emanuel. The baroque court garden, laid out by Dominique Girard and others, is still largely in its original form.
The Schlosswirtschaft (palace restaurant) during the war and its façade today. The Schloßwirtschaft Oberschleißheim Biergarten is located on the palace grounds, with seating for 1,000 and its roots trace back to 1597, when the founder of the Hofbräuhaus brewery retired to a farm there. Following the building of the New Schleissheim Palace in the 17th century, the Schloßwirtschaft provided catering to its workers and servants. A royal brewery followed,enjoying a long period of success before closing.
 Hochmuttinger Allee being cleared in 1935 to further extend the airfield eastwards.
The airfield during the war. Rudolf Hess's 
army personnel file records that on 7 May he joined a volunteer unit of Epp’s Freikorps; left it on 15 October; was temporarily recruited by the local airfield at Schleissheim on 29 March 1920; flew an aeroplane to a Bavarian unit stationed in the Ruhr on 6 April; and finally resigned his commission in Munich on the last day of April 1920.
Irving (8) Hess- The Missing Years
USAAF on a bombing run over Oberschleißheim and on the right, the resulting damage
After the war, the USAAF using the airfield for their own, here with a Canadian de Havilland DHC-3

A short section devoted to my school- Bavarian International School at schloss Haimhausen in kreis Dachau
Schloss Haimhausen then and now
In 1281 schloss Haimhausen was listed as a castle (castrum) in a gazetteer of Upper Bavaria. It was destroyed in the Thirty Years War and rebuilt in 1660 as an ornate Baroque structure by Andreas Wolff.   In 1747 and ensuing years, Francois Cuvillies the Elder enlarged the villa by seven bays on each side and added two wings. The external form of the house, with the high roof typical of the region, has remained unchanged to this day.  Cuvilliés was also responsible for such famous buildings as the Munich Residenz (royal palace), the Residenz Theatre, the manor Amalienburg in the grounds of Schloss Nymphenburg, and rooms in Schloss Brühl, near Bonn. The ceiling murals in both the Golden Room and the Chapel were executed by the famous Augsburg artist, Johann Bergmüller in 1750. 
Haimhausen Schloss became the property of the family Butler v. Clonebough (called Haimhausen), after having been awarded to the Irish officer Walther Butler (known as the "Wallenstein murderer") in thanks for his fulfilling a contract to deliver Wallenstein "dead or alive" on February 25, 1634. Friedrich Schiller immortalised Wallenstein in the dramatic trilogy that bears his name (completed in 1799).  He did not enjoy his success for long, passing away in 1635 after being wounded.  The property was then passed from generation up until Theobald, who had a close relationship to Count Stauffenberg, fled in March 1945 by carriage to Neubrandenburg to rescue his wife and three children from the advancing Russian troops, but was too late.  Supposedly he poisoned his wife, then his 3 children, then set his house in flames, and shot himself.  So ended the line of the Counts of v. Clonebough gen. Haimhausen on 29 April 1945.
 The war memorial on the high street is flanked by two flag poles, neither of which can hoist the flag under which those commemorated died for.
1904 and today
In the 1920s
Showing the balcony erected in front of the chapel for owner Haniel's wife who had suffered an accident shown in 1939
Bavarian International School
The chapel then and now. It owes its splendour to its ceiling painting, again by Bergmuller- the Salvator Mundi, dated 1750- as well as the delicate Rococo stucco work by Verhelst. 

Directly above is this fascinating representation of the return of Christ on the throne 0f the Trinity; the largest Salvator Mundi of its kind in which God holds the Flaming Sword of Judgement and has the left hand on the empty seat to his right whilst in the centre a kneeling Christ with the cross rises over a world in flames, depicting the four continents known at that time. But what makes this painting remarkable is the representation of the Holy Spirit in human form. This is expressly forbidden by the Catholic Church, as Pope Benedict XIV declared in October 1745 just before this painting was created, and and today is only permitted in the form of a dove. As a (Catholic) colleague remarked upon entering, "God is not present," noting the lack of a sanctuary lamp.
On the right is a close-up during the 650,000 euro renovation of the chapel completed in 2010.
An interesting touch on the ceiling is the expulsion from Paradise, showing Adam and Eve being followed by a dog and snake hopping along, and at the other end above the altar Christ on the Mount of Olives, with the snake making a reappearance with apple in mouth.

1949 photos of the thousands of books from the Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek in the Haimhauser Schlosskapelle. During the 1944 bombing, the library's collection was distributed throughout 28 sites in Oberbayern.
Moving the books postwar back to the Staatsbibliothek on Ludwigstraße showing the necessity for having relocated its collection
The role the schloss played in preserving  its past and passing it on to future generations free from war and violence makes the school's logo particularly resonant.
In front of the Golden Room 
Daniel Barenboim performing in the Golden Room
Bavarian International School Golden Room
Bavarian International School Golden Room 
The 'Golden Room' today. This banqueting hall, with its ceiling painting of The Four Seasons by Bergmuller (dated 1750) and its two rare Nymphenburger porcelain stoves, forms the visual climax of the state apartments of schloss Haimhausen. 
The carriageway a centenary apart
Here's a link between Marlene Dietrich and Haimhausen! This picture shows Seyffertitz in the film "Dishonoured" in the centre with Dietrich on the left. Seyffertitz was the son of Countess Anna Clonebough Butler and her husband, Dr. Guido Freiherr von Seifferitz and grew up in our schloss. He worked as an actor, comedian, singer and director making him the "black sheep" of the family. He also acted alongside Ginger Rogers and Shirley Temple in "Change" in 1934 as well as small roles alongside Laurel and Hardy in "Swiss Miss" (where they try to man-handle a piano through the alps!) and John Barrymore in "Marie Antoinette." One of his last roles was in the comedy "Never Say Die," "Nurse Edith Cavell" about the martyred British nurse killed by the Germans during the Great War, and the last classic Frankenstein film for Universal, "Son of Frankenstein", all in 1939 the year the war broke out. Four years later he died on Christmas aged 81 at his home in California.
See: Reinhold Gruber: Haimhausen goes to Hollywood
The Israelites' Gathering of Manna on the ceiling
My classroom at the school; a work in progress:
Bavarian International School
  Bavarian International School Bavarian International School
Bavarian International School Bavarian International School
Speaking at the 2017 Seniors Graduation
The Schlossklause next to the Brauerei in front of the school.
The  Schlossbrauerei during the Third Reich and today

The migrant centre visible in the background behind the recently-defaced BIS sign
Currently being constructed on the corn field next to the recycling centre directly across from our school is this refugee centre which will receive about 75 migrants to be accommodated in residential containers on the town outskirts between the recycling centre and the Amper river. The land is owned by the Haniel family and is suitable as the only near stationary place and available. The shops, pharmacy, doctors and bus stops are within walking distance.The cost will be borne by the State of Bavaria (in other words, the taxpayer) .  Nobody yet knows who will arrive in October in Haimhausen although the District Office will endeavour to match ethnic groups together in order to avoid conflicts. Mayor Felber Meier wants local clubs to participate. "Especially young guys need to be busy. This works best with sports. The people who participated in the recent past incredible on their way to us. You must be prepared for life with us. This goes on in little things, such as the handling sanitation facilities in the accommodation to dealing with the MVV. "

A number of our students volunteer through our CAS programme at the Franziskuswerk Schönbrunn-  working with people with  physical and mental disabilities and at out- reach houses with those who are more independent. Schönbrunn belongs to the municipality Röhrmoos, but is a separate village with an unusual history. The village hosts a facility for people with disabilities; in the centre of the village is a small schloss which had been acquired in 1862 by an extraordinary woman: Countess Victoria Butler-Haimhausen.  Her aim was to create a home for old and dependent women and enable young women and girls through education and training.  To support this endeavour, she enlisted the help of a community of sisters from Munich, which later developed into the Congregation of the Franciscan Sisters of Schönbrunn.  
Photos by SS photographer Franz Bauer (known as Himmler's personal photographer) taken on 16 February 1934 of children at Schönbrunn suffering from Down's syndrome. From 1940 to 1945 a few hundred residents, mostly children and young people, were deemed lebensunwert ("unworthy of life") and killed. 
A recently inaugurated memorial at Schönbrunn located di­rectly to the south side of the church of St. Joseph con­sists of a stained glass cross be­hind which the names of the 546 chil­dren killed are listed. The names are in dif­fer­ent sizes and fonts to make the unique­ness of each per­son vis­i­ble, and every Jan­u­ary 27 the vic­tims of Na­tional So­cial­ism are commemorated.  
The building where such decisions were formulated is beside the current Israeli consulate on what had once been Adolf-Hitler-Strasse; the former Haus der Deutschen Ärzte at Brienner Straße 23:

After the war the second floor swastika and laurel wreath were removed and the stone plaque altered to read Haus der Muenchener Ärzte

 See separate entry for Bernstorf- The so-called German Troy

Located outside Dachau, this was where a labour camp for roughly 500 women were forced to work for the Todt organisation.

Krauss-Maffei Locomotive and Tank Factory
I took this unspectacular photo on the train to Dachau of the Krauss-Maffei Factory which produced various types of equipment for the Third Reich from 1937 such as locomotives, tanks, self-propelled artillery and sundry other armoured vehicles. It employed approx. 8,800 workers in 1942, among them approx. 3,500 foreign forced labourers and 1,350 prisoners of war. By armament and hard labour the enterprise obtained high profits. Today Krauss-Maffei Wegmann GmbH and Co. KG continues to make armoured vehicles for Germany and other countries for which it remains Europe's market leader for armoured wheeled and tracked vehicles.