Showing posts with label Osteria Bavaria. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Osteria Bavaria. Show all posts

Sites around Munich (3)

Bavarian State Tax Office (Oberfinanzpräsidium)
Nazi Eagle 
Victims of Hitlerism still have to endure this symbol when entering a government building. That this building served a key role in the unrestrained plundering of the Jews during the Nazi period, its continued existence is all the more striking. This building at Sophienstraße 6 was constructed between 1938 to 1942. During the Nazi era this building administered the expropriation of assets of political opponents and racial undesirables through public auctions of furnishings. Regarding the “Arisierung” of Jewish property, the fiscal authority located here played a key role. After 1945 it was found that 1,589 Munich properties had been confiscated by this office.
This less-offensive Eagle in the courtyard represents the Bavarian Free State. After the war this building served the American Military Authorities before hosting the America Haus (until it moved to the former Führerbau in 1948). This is also where the Bavarian State Parliament met from May 1947 until January 1949.
Poster displaying the history of the eagle as used on the coats of arms of German cities and governments from the earliest times through 1939. When confronting Germans with this offensive symbol, most respond to me that without the swastika, it is simply a typical eagle that has always been the symbol of Germany. But as this chart shows, the Nazi eagle was entirely different from its previous (and current) incarnations. Hitler
spent hours poring over old art publications and books on heraldry to find a model for the eagle. Eventually he discovered what he wanted in an anti-Semitic lexicon where the fowl was characterised as the Aryan of the animal kingdom. He then asked a jeweller to design a model, but when this proved too feeble, he invented his own- a menacing eagle which appeared about to take flight.
Munich Main Station

The main railway station in 1923 and in a still from footage of the Day Of German Art held on the weekend of 14-16 July, 1939.  Hitler was assigned to guard the site upon his return from the Great War in 1919.
Probably in late January, as Schmidt hinted, Hitler returned to Munich. Then, for just over two weeks, beginning on 20 February, he was assigned to guard duty at the Hauptbahnhof, where a unit of his company was responsible for maintaining order, particularly among the many soldiers travelling to and from Munich. 
Kershaw (69) Hitler
Hitler and Mussolini at the Munich railway station, September 1938 for the Munich conference. The post building in front looks unchanged apart from the loss of one floor and is today an hotel. A sketch by Hitler dated 22 March 1939 served as the basis for the competition for the Munich Central Station: a flat dome rests on a ring of supporting buildings, a columnar portico emphasises the projecting entrance. A circular ribbon window and a lantern illuminate the giant cupola. Hitler very specifically wanted a distinction between the Munich Central Station as a “monument of our century’s technology”, in contrast to the Halle des Volkes in Berlin, designed by Albert Speer as a massive dome.

Planning conceived of the redesign of the station through architect Paul Bonatz with a 136 metre high domed structure with a width of 300 metres and the establishment of a “monument of the movement” at its old site. It was to have served as the central nodal point for the planned Adolf-Hitlerstrasse and would accommodate wide-gauge double-decker trains that would travel at speeds of 250 km/h across the Gross Deutsches Reich from Brest to Baku.
Advertising banner for the opening of the anti-Semitic exhibition Der ewige Jude being held at the Deutschen Museum at the entrance in November, 1937 and the site today.

What Hitler proposed and his war disposed; the Main Station after the war and today. Between June 1942 and February 1945 the hauptbahnhof was the starting point of the deportations of Munich Jews, Roma and Sinti to the extermination camps in the east of the reich.
Nearby at Arnulfstrasse 52  is the Augustiner-Keller where Hitler spoke at seven times between 1921 and 1931.

Schellingstraße during the wartime bombing and today. The street has a number of sites associated with the NSDAP era. One legacy is a prominent relief of a Nazi-era coat of arms of Munich, with the eagle and swastika excised:
From 1936 to 1945, the lion was replaced by the Nazi party eagle- the Reichsadler. Deemed the Hauptstadt der Bewegung, Munich was a significant place in terms of the Nazi ideology. The city was home to the NSDAP headquarters, the Beer Hall Putsch and also saw the establishment of Dachau, the first Nazi concentration camp. Post-war designs were not pursued until 1949 with the current arms shown for comparison at the bottom.
Nazi Party offices Schellingstraße 50
This is where Hitler met Eva Braun for the first time as she worked in the new shop of Hoffmann, opened in 1913, on Schellingstraße 50. They first met in 1929, when he was 40 and she was 17. She worked in a Munich camera shop run by his official photographer, Heinrich Hoffmann. According to Hoffmann's daughter, Hitler's opening line was: "May I invite you to the opera with me, Fräulein Eva? You see, I'm surrounded by men and I know what a pleasure it is to enjoy female company." 
  Eva was the middle of the three daughters of Fritz Braun, a  master craftsman from Simbach on the Inn. She was a pretty, empty-headed blonde, with a round face and blue eyes, who  worked as a shop girl in Hoffmann's photographer's shop. Hitler met her there, paid her a few casual compliments, gave her flowers, and occasionally invited her to be one of his party on an outing. The initiative was all on Eva's side: she told her friends that Hitler was in love with her and that she would make him marry her.
Bullock (394)
Dates at the cinema and restaurants followed. From 1925 until 1931 the NSDAP-headquarters were here. The Reichsadler is still above the door even though, as can be seen in the 'then and now' photos above, the exterior has been changed completely.

Inside, with the Blutfahne flanked by two standards. The central photo shows Hitler conducting a meeting in the building 1928 during a leadership conference. Also present in the photo are Alfred Rosenberg, Gregor Strasser, Heinrich Himmler, Julius Streicher, and Robert Ley. 
ϟϟ men distributing flyers on the corner of Schellingstraße and Barer Straße circa 1930, now a Tengelmann supermarket. Directly across the street is:
Schelling Salon
Having lunch at the Schelling Salon. I'm going to quote from my copy of the 'Past Finder Zik Zak' of Munich, which is based on Maik Kopelek's series of books, although the fold-out map hasn't any author mentioned:
"Family-owned since 1872... Hitler is said to have often left without paying; Lenin never did! Worth seeing: the stone urinals in the cellar."

Claimed to have been used by Lenin, Hitler and Franz Josef Strauss.
When banned from entering for refusal to pay his bills, Hitler then moved down the road to the
Osteria Bavaria
Now the Osteria Italiana, this was apparently Hitler's favourite restaurant where he would have his "Stammtisch" and where he wooed Eva Braun who worked, one block down the street, as a clerk and bookkeeper, at Heinrich Hoffmann's photography studio. Clearly little has changed. It was here that, according to Irving (100) in Hitler's War, that "Hitler himself had sketched the rough outlines for the House of Art, using the back of an Osteria menu, one day in 1931 – a gallery of stern Grecian lines which even today is mocked as Munich’s 'Athens Station.’"
Irving also quotes Goebbels's diary (in an excessively misleading way that Evans castigates in Lying About Hitler) wherein he records that it was here that he had reported to Hitler about the events of Reichskristallnacht:
[Hitler] is in agreement with everything. His views are quite radical and aggressive. The Aktion itself went off without a hitch. A hundred dead. But no German property damaged.’ Each of these five sentences was untrue, as will be seen. With minor alterations the Führer authorizes my decree re: breaking off the Aktionen. I issue it immediately through the press. The Führer wants to proceed to very harsh measures against the Jews. They must repair their shops themselves. The insurance companies will pay them nothing. Then the Führer wants Jewish businesses gradually expropriated and their owners compensated with paper which we can [word illegible: devalue?] at any time. Meanwhile people are starting with their own Aktionen. I issue appropriate secret decrees. We’re waiting to see the repercussions abroad. For the time being there is silence there. But the hullabaloo will come.
Hitler with Unity Mitford at right at the Osteria.Her sister Diane married Sir Oswald Mosley, leader of the British Fascist Party, made it her business to meet Hitler here. In 1934 she stalked him in Munich where he noticed her at the Osteria Bavaria. She was invited to his table and so began five years within Hitler’s inner circle. Lady Phipps, wife of the British ambassador to Berlin, observed that Hitler spoke only a few words of English and when speaking of Unity Mitford he had said falteringly: "Young lady, young English lady, Freeman, bonourable lady. . . ." (David Pryce-Jones, Unity Mitford: A Quest, p. 100). When England declared war on Germany in 1939, she was mortified and attempted suicide (like many other women in Hitler’s life). The bullet lodged inoperably in her brain. Subsequently, Hitler arranged for her to return to England via Switzerland. 
At the usual time, around half past two, I went to the Osteria Bavaria, a small artists' restaurant which rose to unexpected fame when it became Hitler's regular restaurant. In a place like this, one could more easily imagine a table of artists gathered around Lenbach or Stuck, with long hair and huge beards, than Hitler with his neatly dressed or uniformed retinue. But he felt at ease in the Osteria; as a "frustrated artist" he obviously liked the atmosphere he had once sought to attain to, and now had finally both lost and surpassed.
Quite often the select group of guests had to wait for hours for Hitler. There would be an adjutant, also Bavarian Gauleiter Wagner if by this time he had slept off last night's drinking bout, and of course Hitler's constant companion and court photographer, Hoffmann, who by this time was quite often slightly tipsy. Very often the likeable Miss Unity Mitford was present, and sometimes, though rarely, a painter or a sculptor. Then there would be Dr. Dietrich, the Reich press chief, and invariably Martin Bormann, Rudolf Hess's secretary, who seemed utterly inconspicuous. On the street several hundred people would be waiting, for our presence was indication enough that he would be coming.
Shouts of rejoicing outside. Hitler headed toward our regular comer, which was shielded on one side by a low partition. In good weather we sat in the small courtyard where there was a hint of an arbour. Hitler gave the owner and the two waitresses a jovial greeting: "What's good today? Ravioli? If only you didn't make it so delicious. It's too tempting." Hitler snapped his fingers: "Everything would be perfect in your place, Herr Deutelmoser, if I did not have to think of my waistline. You forget that the Fuehrer cannot eat whatever he would like to." Then he would study the menu for a long time and order ravioli.
Everyone ordered whatever he liked: cutlets, goulash, Hungarian wine from the cask. In spite of Hitler's occasional jokes about "carrion eaters" and "wine drinkers," everyone ate and drank with zest. In this circle there was a sense of privacy. One tacit agreement prevailed: No one must mention politics. The sole exception was Lady Mitford, who even in the later years of international tension persistently spoke up for her country and often actually pleaded with Hitler to make a deal with England. In spite of Hitler's discouraging reserve, she did not abandon her efforts through all those years. Then, in September 1939, on the day of England's declaration of war, she tried to shoot herself with a small pistol in Munich's Englischer Garten. Hitler had the best specialists in Munich care for her, and as soon as she could travel sent her home to England by a special railroad car through Switzerland. 
Speer (39-40) Inside the Third Reich
The non-descript address here at #94 Turkenstraße off Schellingerstraße was where, in 1939, Georg Elser rented a room before attempting to blow up Hitler at the Burgerbraukeller in November, 1939. Nearby a square is named in his honour.
Between 1933 and 1945 tens of thousands of Germans were actively involved in various forms of resistance to the Nazi regime and many thousands suffered death or long periods of incarceration in prison or concentration camp as a result. Among these actions were a series of concerted efforts to overthrow the regime between 1938 and 1944. They were undertaken by a number of partially inter-linked circles, consisting mainly of army officers, senior civil servants, clergy and individuals formerly associated with the labour movement. Their actions culminated in the unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Hitler by planting a bomb in his military headquarters in East Prussia on 20 July 1944. Though the bomb went off, Hitler survived. It is these efforts and the people associated with them that have been the main focus of interest, both for historians and the wider public, because they represented the form of resistance most likely to succeed in destroying Nazism; these men had thought longest and hardest about the alternatives to Hitler and it is they who form the subject of this book. However, we should not forget that there were many other resisters, unconnected with these conspiracies, such as the simple Württemberg carpenter, Georg Elser, who very nearly killed Hitler with a bomb in a Munich beer hall in November 1939. They showed equal courage and commitment in their resistance.
Unlike the White Rose, Georg Elser, who attempted to assassinate Hitler by planting a bomb in Munich’s Bürgerbräukeller on 8 November 1939 and was shot in Dachau concentration camp on 9 April 1945, for a long time went unacknowledged; nor was he himself commemorated. Starting in the late 1960s several attempts were made to have a street named after Elser. It was not until January 1997, however, that a small square off Türkenstraße that Elser had passed every day on his way to the Bürgerbräukeller was named Georg-Elser-Platz, chiefly thanks to the unflagging efforts of the Munich Georg Elser Initiative.
To mark the seventieth anniversary of the assassination attempt in 2009, moreover, a permanent art installation mounted on the façade of the school building on Türkenstraße adjacent to the square was also dedicated to Georg Elser. The neon lettering reading “8 November 1939” by Silke Wagner was the winning entry in a competition held by the city’s Department of Art and Culture. “Georg Elser,” says Silke Wagner, “earned himself a place in the history of resistance to the Nazi dictatorship. The object of the memorial can only be to remind people of this. The work directs the viewer’s gaze to the most important thing – the assassination attempt.” Each day at exactly 9.20 p.m., the time of the explosion, the red neon tubes light up one after another, writing the historic date 8 November 1939 in lights. At exactly 9.21 p.m. the lights go out again and the work “disappears” from public view. The abstract monument thus confines itself to the central message and through this deliberate reduction interrupts our habitual view of the square, alerting us to that single moment when the history of the twentieth century might have taken a different course. An earlier memorial to Georg Elser was installed in the pavement in front of the building housing the GEMA – the semi-fascist music performing rights and copyright authority that prevents any form of music from being enjoyed in Germany unless being paid for the privilege first– in 1989.
Just across the street is Alter Simpl:
At #57 the name and bulldog logo of which provides a link to the Private Eye-type satirical magazine Simplissimus, banned in 1944 by the Nazis for being critical of them.

The Nazis took over this building at Arcisstraße 19 in 1938 from the architecture office of Joseph Heldmann. Heldmann had worked for the party since 1930 as chief of party construction and supervisor of the Treasury for all construction matters of the NSDAP. It served as the headquarters of the NSDAP-Bauleitung.


Site of High Command of the SA (Oberste SA-Führung)
The Sturmabteilung ("Storm detachment" or "Assault detachment" or "Assault section", usually translated as "stormtroop(er)s") was the paramilitary organisation of the Nazi Party and played a key role in Hitler's rise to power. SA men were often called "brownshirts" for the colour of their uniforms which distinguished them from the Schutzstaffel (ϟϟ), who wore black and brown uniforms (in comparison to Mussolini's blackshirts). Brown-coloured shirts were chosen as the SA uniform because a large batch of them was cheaply available after World War I, having originally been ordered for German troops serving in Africa. The SA was also the first Nazi paramilitary group to develop pseudo-military titles for bestowal upon its members later to be adopted by several other Nazi Party groups, chief among them the ϟϟ. The SA became largely irrelevant after he took control of Germany in 1933; it was effectively superseded by the ϟϟ after the Night of the Long Knives.
The site of the Supreme Storm Troopers' Leadership (Oberste SA-Führung) at München 33, Barerstraße 7-11. Today it has reverted to its original function as the Hotel Marienbad. On the right is Hitler with SA leader Ernst Röhm saluting SA troops in Munich, in 1933.
At a special party congress held 29 July 1921, Hitler was appointed chairman. He announced that the party would stay headquartered in Munich and that those who did not like his tactics or leadership should just leave; he would not entertain debate on such matters. The vote was 543 for Hitler, and 1 against him.
Toland (111) Adolf Hitler

Next to the SA headquarters at Barer Straße 13 was the Office for Telecommunications of the Reich Treasurer; on the ground floor was the book binding and printing plant of the "national leadership".


Reich Press Office (Reichspressestelle and Reichspropagandaleiter)

Former office of Ernst Hanfstaengl, Head of the International Press Office, at Karlstraße 18. Gradually from 1933 the addresses at Karlstraße 6-20 and 22-29 held the offices of the Oberste SA-Führung, Reichsführung SS, NS-Dozentenverband, Reichsjugendführung and the NS-Studentenverbund. Ernst “Putzi” Hanfstaengl (1887–1975), who had studied in the US, served the NSDAP in various functions before losing favour and emigrating to London in 1937. An early backer of Hitler, he participated in the Beer Hall Putsch and hid Hitler in his home after it failed. He became acquainted with Hitler on the occasion of a NSDAP meeting in the Bürgerbräukeller. As its largest civil promoter he became part of Hitler's close circle of friends. From 1931-1937 he served as foreign press chief of the NSDAP. After the elimination of the SA and Ernst Röhm on 30 June 1934 he dissociated himself increasingly from the party, which made him suspicious in the eyes of the Gestapo. He fled in 1937 and eventually arrived in the USA, where in 1942 he became German advisor to Roosevelt; the only man to have worked directly under Hitler and FDR.

Widenmayerstr 18 bears the name of Hanfstaengl through Munich photographer and founder of the eponymous publishing house Franz Hanfstaengl Verlag, which specialised in art publications. Ernst's brother Edgar (1883-1958) was joint owner Munich of this publishing house, which since 1933 printed postcards and propaganda for the National Socialists and became the party's art advisor.
Further down at Widenmayerstraße 31 Hanfstaengl is shown in the foreground with Hitler, Hess, Röhm and Himmler on July 3, 1932; the building remains unchanged. Also on Widenmayerstraße at number 27 was the location of the  Office of Aryanisation (Arisierungsstelle)
The verb ‘to Aryanize’ (Arisierung) means to make something Aryan by eliminating the influence of allegedly inferior races. Also used as an adjective when speaking of or pertaining to the so-called Aryan race (e.g. Aryan art or art produced by pure Aryans).
By January 1, 1938, German Jews were prohibited from operating businesses and trades, and from offering goods and services. In the Autumn of 1938, only 40,000 of the formerly 100,000 Jewish businesses were still in the hands of their original owners. Through its office here on Widenmayer Str. 27, Aryanisation was completed with the enactment of a regulation, the Verordnung zur Ausschaltung der Juden aus dem deutschen Wirtschaftsleben of November 12, 1938, through which the remaining businesses were transferred to non-Jewish owners and the proceeds taken by the state. Jewellery, stocks, real property and other valuables had to be sold below market value. Jewish employees were fired, and self-employed people were prohibited from working in their respective professions. By the end of 1939, almost all Munich companies in Jewish possession had been expropriated, followed by the “Arisierung” of houses, apartments and fortunes of the entire Jewish population. This was completed by June 1943.
Two accounts related to this address are presented at Memory Loops (both in German): 

Next door to the Reichspropagandaleitung der NSDAP at Karlstraße 20-22 is this building built in 1828 by the architect Rudolf Röschenauer for master locksmith Johann Schmitz. The Nazis acquired the property in 1934 to serve as the Reichsstudentenführung der NSDAP and, at no. 22, the Schiedsabteilung des Reichsschatzmeisters. Today it remains vacant.

Park Cafe

The building in which the Park Café is located was built in 1935 – 1937 after plans prepared by the architect Oswald Bieber. The building at Sophienstrasse 7 in the old Botanical Gardens originally served as a coffee house and pavilion for exhibitions.  The main entrance of the neoclassical structure is dominated by the portico with its four columns. To the right and left of the main building are the two wings, behind which are the idyllic beer garden with its own bar and small kitchen. The dance café was already an established part of Munich nightlife in the 1960s and 1970s. Over the years, it became known as one of the coolest clubs on the Munich scene.  A- and B-list celebrities have used the café as their chosen rendezvous. The “Blub Club” met here for many years. Hugh Hefner came here to celebrate with his Playmates. The 089 Bar has recently had to be given a temporary home. The internal rooms were currently closed for technical reasons and the whole building was undergoing refurbishment with the aim of restoring the original neoclassical architecture. 
Park Cafe and the entrance to the Botanical gardens. The rear of the building has the same fascist busts that can be found on the façade of the nearby Zentrale which " housed some of the main Nazi administration offices for the Party" and was built the same time in 1934.
The site in 1932 when it held the skating rink at the Glaspalastes and the 1937 redevelopment plan put forward by Professors Oswald Bieber and Josef Wackerle.
Within one can still find the Neptune fountain sculpted in 1937 by Nazi sculptor Josef Wackerle.
From the rear, looking towards the Palace of Justice (Justizpalast)
The Palace of Justice (Justizpalast) from a 19th century postcard and the turn of the century
During the National Socialist era flying the Nazi flag and today. This was the site of the Nazi's "People's Court." Members of the White Rose (Weiße Rose) were tried here on February 22, 1943.
Comparison of the building after the war and today with its atrium
and corridors tastefully rebuilt with something of the original style
Courtroom 216 (now 253) then and now where the Scholls were tried. It now serves as a permanent exhibition with portraits of Willi Graf, Prof. Kurt Huber, Alexander Schmorell, Hans Scholl, Sophie Scholl and Christoph Probst.  It was in this room that the death sentences for Professor Kurt Huber, Willi Graf and Alexander Schmorell were pronounced on 19 April 1943. During the opening ceremony Munich’s former Mayor Hans-Jochen Vogel said the most important thing about this exhibition was not that it provided an- other memorial to the White Rose – ten years after the opening of the DenkStätte Weiße Rose (White Rose Commemorative Site) at Munich University – but rather “that it is being staged in this room”. The documentation of the trial also signals an increasing willingness on the part of the German judiciary to critically examine its own past, including the fact that many members of the Nazi judiciary remained in their posts even after 1945.
The neues Justizgebaeude seen from behind the Justizpalast during the Nazi era and today
In addition to the coffee house and the Neptunbrunnen, this Ausstellungspavillon was built as an exhibition hall in 1936. It was originally intended as the state studio for Joseph Thorak until shortly after he received his massive studio in Baldham near Munich. Josef Wackerle was again responsible for the simple neoclassical building's reliefs representing music, architecture, sculpture and painting.
Ironically, inside are the only examples of stolperstein allowed in Munich, in a building commissioned by Hitler and which is closed more often than not (as when I gave a tour for members of the Israeli consulate), whilst outside little Drake Winston plays with squirrels.

Hitler's Residences
This was Hitler's first residence in Germany when he arrived in Munich on May 25, 1913, a bright Spring Sunday, when
Hitler followed up an advertisement for a small room rented by the family of the tailor Joseph Popp on the third floor of 34 Schleissheimersrasse, in a poorish district to the north of the city, on the edge of Schwabing, the pulsating centre of Munich's artistic and bohemian life, and not far from the big barracks area.
Kershaw (48)  Hitler
Hitler shared the room until mid-February 1914 with Rudolf Häusler, 
a pal who had accompanied him from Vienna, [who was of] similar background and shared Hitler’s political views. Hitler offered to pay and Häusler readily agreed to accompany him, but first Hitler had to wait for his share of an inheritance from his father’s will. After a frustrating month in limbo, they finally left Vienna by overnight train. Years later Hitler told confidants that he came to Munich intending to study ‘for another three years . . . as a designer. I’d enter for the first competition, and I told myself that then I’d show what I could do!’ Nothing came of this, but Hitler seems hardly to have been disappointed. It was enough for him to be in the German city of his dreams, which seemed ‘as familiar . . . as if I had lived there for years within its walls’. Munich was a ‘German city. What a difference from Vienna! I grew sick to my stomach when I thought back on this Babylon of races.’ 
  Eventually Häusler found 
Hitler an exhausting room-mate. Hitler often left the ‘lamp burning until three or four in the morning’, or kept him awake with ‘agitated monologues all night’. Worn out by nocturnal diatribes, Häusler moved to another room. With no ill feeling it seems, since they remained in contact and Häusler later became a Nazi functionary in Vienna. 
Williams (21)
Hitler would then live there alone until the war broke out the following August. Hitler paid the rent by painting and selling architectural watercolours door-to-door and in the local beer halls. His landlady recalled that he had no visitors at all for the year and a half that he rented there. And yet, whilst she would claim that she had ‘never met a young man with such good manners,’ 
the Popps’ account of Hitler in Munich is filled with inconsistencies. While ‘a whole week’ might pass ‘without a sign of Hitler’, he was still and miraculously able to join them in ‘political discussions every evening’. When not painting in his room, the lodger, who was rarely present, spent ‘most of the time’ with his ‘nose buried in heavy books’. Circumstances and survival probably demanded that Hitler put his energy not into reading books, but into painting. From the moment he arrived in Munich, according to Anna Popp (in yet another contradiction): "Hitler began to paint immediately and remained working for hours. After a few days, I saw two beautiful pictures that he’d finished on his table, one of the cathedral and the other of the Theatiner church. Then early in the morning my lodger went out, a briefcase under his arm, looking for buyers."  
The period photo on the left shows the plaque declaring that 
Adolf Hitler lived in this house from spring 1913 to the day he volunteered for the German army in August 1914. 
According to The Hitler Pages and Third Reich Ruins, his room was the third from the left on the top floor. This is confirmed by Williams (20):
Shortly after their arrival, he and Häusler found a third-floor room in the house of master-tailor Popp, the main occupant of a terrace at 34 Schleissheimerstrasse. Popp’s wife immediately made this ‘Austrian charmer’ welcome. Her husband, who had worked in Paris and regarded himself as a man of the world, quickly saw in Hitler ‘a personality whose abilities entitled him to the highest hopes’. Hitler was not the first twentieth-century dictator to live in Schleissheimerstrasse. A few years earlier Lenin had lodged about a block away. Today the area appears much as it did in Hitler’s (or Lenin’s) time. A small playground, which Hitler sketched from his window, still lies opposite. While its 1930s’ Nazi-era plaque was pulled down in 1945 along with its ornate stucco façade, 34 Schleissheimerstrasse is still identifiable as Hitler’s first Munich home.
Remarkably, just down the same street at 106 lived Lenin a dozen years earlier:

Nearby at 142 Schleißheimer Straße is the Nordbad swimming pool:
 The topping out ceremony on 16 October 1937 in the presence of Mayor Karl Fiehler and various councilors, representatives of state and municipal authorities, the Armed Forces, the Police Headquarters, the Munich swimming clubs and the German Labour Front.
Nazi propaganda at Schwabing hospital in 1936. Of all the professions requiring higher qualifications, the medical one had the highest proportion (45%) of Nazi Party members, and after the 'forced coordination' of the health system in 1933, these people proceeded to radically attack the 11% of their colleagues who were Jewish. The so-called 'Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service' provided for the dismissal of non-aryan doctors from the public health system, and in July 1938 they had lost their approbation.
There is hardly any profession more significant for the greatness and future of a nation than the medical one, and none is as Jewified as the medical profession. Jewish professors dominate university chairs in medicine. They have dehumanised the art of healing and have saturated generation upon generation of young doctors with their mechanical spirit. For that reason, we call upon the entire German medical profession to make the leadership and spirit of our guild once again German.
National Socialist League of German Physicians, 1933
Hitler's Residence from May 1 1920- October 5 1929

Gathering his meagre belongings which consisted of a cap, coat, jacket, trousers, underwear, shirt, socks, shoes and demobilisation pay of fifty marks, Hitler moved to a small room at Thierschstrasse 41 on March 31, 1920; "a poorish street near the river Isar." (Bullock, 83) which would be his home for the next nine years. He arrived at this room—sublet from a Jew—as an unknown person and left it as a national political figure. Ernst Hanfstaengl described the room in his 1957 work Unheard Witness:
Drab and dreary beyond belief, akin to a back bedroom of a decaying New York tenement. The room . . . was tiny. I doubt it was nine feet wide. The bed was too wide for its corner, and the head projected over a single narrow window. The floor was covered with cheap, worn linoleum with a couple of threadbare rugs, and on the wall opposite the bed there was a make- shift bookshelf, apart from the chair and rough table, the only other piece of furniture in the entire room.
It was also the house’s coldest room. Hitler’s landlady later said that he either paid the rent on time or in advance, and he kept his German shepherd dog, Wolf, as company. Today, the building still stands with a statue of the Virgin Mary staring down from an alcove on the second floor outer wall. The room itself, however, was known to make later tenants ill, and since no one would rent it anymore, today it is used as a storeroom.
From July 1936 a plaque was placed outside by the city council that read "Adolf Hitler lived in this house from 1 May 1920 to 5 October 1929." Nearby on Thierschstrasse 15 was the Nazis' third headquarters. His landlord is recorded in Germany's Hitler by Heinz A. Heinz as saying
I hadn't much to do with him myself, since ... his room was a sub-let. And since I am a Jew, I concerned myself as little as possible with the activities of my lodger.... I admit I liked Hitler well enough. I often encountered him on the stairway and at the door - he was generally scribbling something in a notebook.- when he would pass the time of day with me pleasantly enough. Often he had his dog with him, a lovely Wolfshund. He never made me feel he regarded me differently from other people.... He lodged in my house from ....1919 to 1929. First he took a little back room, and then an equally small one in the front to serve as a sort of office and study. The back room, in which he slept is only 8 by 15 feet. It is the coldest room in the house .... Some lodgers who've rented it since got ill. Now we only use it as a lumber room....The only 'comfort' Hitler treated himself to when he was here, was a hand basin with cold water laid on. The room to the front was a bit bigger, but the small high-set window left much to be desired. It was very scantily furnished. (pp. 276-277)
Hitler himself had described the scene when he had returned from his term at Landsberg:
I found them gathered at my door, in the Thierschstrasse, in Munich, men like Fuess, Gahr and the other old faithfuls. My apartment was decorated with flowers and laurel wreaths (I've kept one of them). In his exuberant joy, my dog almost knocked me down the stairs.
Former close associate (and only man to have worked directly under Hitler and FDR) Ernst Hanfstaengl revisited the flat after the war and wrote:
When by chance I found myself walking along Thierschstrasse, I couldn't resist the temptation to pay a visit to Hitler's former house at number 41. Nothing had changed; the façade was the same... and the bombs falling on Munich had failed to shake the porcelain Madonna from her alcove.
The residence in 1937 and today. This was Hitler's residence which, from 1929, was paid for by Hitler's publisher until a decade later when Hitler paid for it outright. Hitler’s private apartment on the third floor of 16 Prinzregentenplatz was located in an apartment house and consisted of nine living rooms, two kitchens, two walk-in closets, two bathrooms, and furnishings. Hitler’s patron, Hugo Bruckmann, had procured the apartment for him. The annual rent was 4,176 marks. The term of the lease contract was first to run until April 1, 1934, with a six-month term of notice. Hitler moved into the apartment on October 1, 1929.
Angela Maria Raubal,nicknamed “Geli”, was born on June 4, 1908 in Linz. She was the daughter of the deputy head of the tax department, Raubal, and his wife Angela, born Hitler (from the second marriage of Hitler’s father, Alois). She studied singing in Munich, although her voice was only average. When Hitler took up residence at Prinzregentenplatz No. 16 in 1929, she got her own room in the huge but sinister apartment of her uncle. She committed suicide there on September 18, 1931. By the time Hitler returned from an engagement in Nuremberg, her corpse had already been removed. Hitler did not attend the funeral in Vienna but instead retreated to the home of his publisher Müller at the Tegernsee. He spent several days there in seclusion. His court photographer Heinrich Hoffmann was the only one allowed to accompany him. Many feared the shock of Geli’s unexpected death might lead him to commit suicide, too. On the anniversary of his niece’s death on September 18, 1932, Hitler secretly visited her grave in Vienna. Goebbels noted in his diary: “Führer gone to Vienna for private visit. Nobody knows about it so that there won’t be any crowds.” News of Hitler’s presence in Vienna leaked, however, and led to many political rumours. On Hitler’s orders, Geli’s room remained untouched. Before the war, he spent every Christmas Eve there in sentimental reflection.
Hitler also met with Mussolini there on September 25, 1937. During their hour-long summit conference, the German and Italian leaders agreed to continue supporting Francisco Franco in Spain, to seek better relations with Imperial Japan, and to oppose Franco-British policies that prevented their joint expansion of power and territorial acquisitions—a great strengthening of the Axis Pact of 1935 and the Anti-Comintern (Communist International) Pact of 1936.
On September 30, 1938, Hitler hosted Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain at the apartment following the signing of the four-power Munich Pact, but before the signing of the Anglo-German Declaration that led Chamberlain to declare that he had brought “peace for our time” home with honour from Germany.
As for Hitler, he later boasted to his intimates: “I saw our enemies at Munich—they are little worms!” Because of the document signed in Hitler’s apartment, Chamberlain mistakenly thought they’d guaranteed European peace for a generation. Nazi Germany occupied the German Sudetenland—taken from the Czechs—the next day.
Hitler looking out from the balcony. After the American Army had entered Munich, it became the headquarters of an American Section. The furnishings were removed and the Munich Financing Office of the Land of Bavaria took up its quarters in the building and today the third floor is actually police station.

Eva Braun's House
Hitler had Heinrich Hoffman buy this ordinary-looking villa for Eva Braun for the then fabulous sum of $30.000 to recompense her for the millions of marks Hoffman made from her photographs of Hitler on the Obersalzberg. The photo on the left dates from 1938; today the address is 12 Delpstrasse (formerly Wasserburgstrasse) near Hitler's own residence on Prinzregentenplatz. The third photo shows Eva Braun cycling from her house (photo from The Hitler Pages) and the site today.
Footage from Eva Braun's home movies; a number of scenes show her at home here. The photo on the right shows her birthplace on Isabellastrasse 45 (behind the tree).

On November 20 1937, Hitler embarked on a small tour through the Swabian region in Bavaria. In the evening, he attended the reopening of the rebuilt Theater am Gärtnerplatz where he saw a performance of the Johann Strauss operetta Die Fledermaus. On January 7 1938 at the Theater am Gärtnerplatz, Hitler once again saw the ballet Tanz um die Welt, a guest performance of the German Opera House of Berlin- Charlottenburg.
 Hitler in November, 1937. It had been after watching the Zigeunerbaron here in 1926 that Hitler went to the Café Viktoria to eat, renamed Café Roma until its closure in 2008:

 Nürnberger Bratwurst Glöckl

This was a restaurant frequented by top Nazis, including Hitler and SA chief Ernst Röhm. The owner, Karl Zehnte, was an homosexual associate of Röhm and Heines and was killed during the Night of the Long Knives in 1934.
At the door of the Bratwurstgloeckl, a tavern frequented by homosexual roughnecks and bully-boys, Roehm turned in and joined the handful of sexual deviants and occultists who were celebrating the success of a new campaign of terror. Their organization, once known as the German Worker's Party, was now called the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, The National Socialist German Worker's Party -- the Nazis.  
Yes, the Nazis met in a 'gay' bar.
According to Otto Strasser, never the most reliable of sources, Goebbels had a private tryst with Röhm in his ‘local’, the Munich Bratwurstglöckl tavern; Strasser’s only evidence was the liquidation of Karl Zehnter, the bar’s owner, in the coming purge.
Irving (333) Goebbels
According to Konrad Heiden, author of the 1944 book Der Fuehrer: Hitler's Rise To Power, in May 1927 Adolf Hitler called together the Munich S.A. and shouted, "The clique from the Bratwurstglöckl are all fairies: Heinz, Röhm, Zentner, and the rest. Am I supposed to take accusations from such people?" 
Heiden (294)  
Café Neumayr
Now Berni's Pizzeria Nudelbrett, the Café Neumayr at Petersplatz 8, just south of St. Peter’s Church in Munich, was where Hitler went every Monday night to sound out his associates on various new political ideas in the early 1920s. The building itself is still called Haus Neumayr. Kershaw writes that
by the time Putzi Hanfstaengl, the cultured part-American who became his Foreign Press Chief, came to know him, late in 1922, Hitler had a table booked every Monday evening at the old-fashioned Café Neumaier on the edge of the Viktualienmarkt. His regular accompaniment formed a motley crew – mostly lower-middle class, some unsavoury characters among them. Christian Weber, a former horse-dealer, who, like Hitler, invariably carried a dog-whip and relished the brawls with Communists, was one. Another was Hermann Esser, formerly Mayr’s press agent, himself an excellent agitator, and an even better gutter-journalist. Max Amann, another roughneck, Hitler’s former sergeant who became overlord of the Nazi press empire, was also usually there, as were Ulrich Graf, Hitler’s personal bodyguard, and, frequently, the ‘philosophers’ of the party, Gottfried Feder and Dietrich Eckart. In the long room, with its rows of benches and tables, often occupied by elderly couples, Hitler’s entourage would discuss politics, or listen to his monologues on art and architecture, while eating the snacks they had brought with them and drinking their litres of beer or cups of coffee. At the end of the evening, Weber, Amann, Graf, and Lieutenant Klintzsch, a paramilitary veteran of the Kapp Putsch, would act as a bodyguard, escorting Hitler – wearing the long black overcoat and trilby that ‘gave him the appearance of a conspirator’ – back to his apartment in Thierschstraße. 
Hitler (98)
Gasthaus Deutsche Eiche

In 1926 Hitler gave six speeches here, and another in 1929. Ironically, the Gasthaus Deutsche Eiche is now "one of the Munich gay scene's most popular meeting places" with its bathhouse that takes over four floors and almost 4,600 square feet complete with a Finnish sauna, a salt sauna, a whirlpool, a large steambath, shower area, massage rooms, a solarium, a rooftop garden, a Bistro & Bar, TV rooms, relaxation rooms, individual and exclusive booths etc... which explains the gay flags that flank the international ones in the centre. 

Romano Guardini * 17. 2. 1885 † 1. 10. 1968 Since 1997 grave in St. Louis Munich, Fr. 20:11:53 Now the talks are over. Seven whole. ... The result is not much. The thing is pretty dismal. The resistance to the restoration is lost, and things will be even in this, as they were - that is, for that reason worse than they were, for the twelve years of the war and the postwar between. Man has learned nothing and does not feel strong for the new beginning. Tonight was Heidegger here. Humanly nice and close. Munich, So. 6:12:53 Today in St. Louis many hats could be seen. I understand that it has been held in Bonn, the colors wear is allowed. Now coming back one by one. Restoration in particular. Nothing has been learned. Ludwigskirche on the front side Schellingstrasse Joseph Friedrich Wilhelm (of) SCHELLING * 1775 † 1854 gave the street "It has been too often forgotten - and this forgetting joins the tradition of abstract opposition between nature and spirit - that spirit for kingdom . this includes the terrible repression that makes mankind guilty, is the neglect of the naturalness of the human being -. a naturalness that has been considered as a subject of the technical nature of exploitation the inhumanity of the image that reflects today the natural environment, is only the reflex of treachery we have committed the "original Kompatriotismus with nature." There is no hope to return to it, unless we besännen the fact that the natural man does not have for their purpose, but that they end in itself, namely, is a self-reflexive organism sovereign regulated by assimilation and adaptation, as well as - mutatis mutandis - does the self-conscious spirit. This is the lesson that can be drawn from a sensitized rereading Schelling "Manfred Frank, a professor of philosophy, University of Tübingen Schellingstraße 4 -. 12 corner Schelling Amalienstr 57 -. Schellingstraße 24 Schellingstraße 32 neo-classical jewelry by Eugen Drollinger 1927 The restaurant decor is largely preserved since the opening 1890th It is considered important testimony earlier Mediterranean gastronomy in Munich. The founder of the restaurant, Joseph Deutelmoser, was German, but a friend of the Italian countryside, cuisine and art. The decor reflects the understanding of Mediterranean flair of the late 19th century. An adjoining room is designed as a column-supported Italian loggia with flat columns templates mimic this architecture, murals by Carl Wuttke views of the Bay of Naples pretend. The ceiling is painted with designs from the Greek and Roman mythology and Mediterranean landscapes. Also, the main room is decorated in Mediterranean style; he is paneled with dark wood and wears a dark wood paneled ceiling. By benches with high backs, much of the space is divided into seating. In the yard is a gazebo, which is decorated in the style of a Roman circular temple, the weather protection of the guests; it was erected on the initiative of the landlord Alois Fischer, a stonemason there. History The house was built in the years 1889 and 1890 by the architect Johann Lihm. Still in the year of completion leased Joseph Deutelmoser the ground floor and opened the Italian restaurant under the name "Osteria Bavaria", which should bring the situation created by the local connection between Italy and Munich expressed there. The restaurant was after the Second World War in family and received only later its present name. Thanks to its location in the Maxvorstadt near the University of Munich, Munich today's Technical University and the Munich Art Academy, the restaurant quickly became a meeting place for students, professors and artists. Among the recurring guests included Oskar Maria Graf, who met up with editors of Simplicissimus; in his memoirs "laughter from outside", he describes know the unpleasant impression that Adolf Hitler and his followers went to him when they were in the next room of the restaurant [1] His British admirer Unity Mitford met Hitler in 1935 in the former Osteria Bavaria Schellingstraße 54 (1885 built) the traditional "Schelling-Salon" (innkeeper Sylvester more) was meeting more of sorts or less well-known personalities (Original 2011) << Ludwigstrasse Siegestor to Ludwig-Maximilians University -. Universtitätsbibliothek the memorial of the "White Rose "Ludwigstraße to Odeonsplatz >> wounds of memory corner Schelling to Ludwigstraße university building King Ludwig I took, with one of its first acts, the University in 1826 to Munich. 1840 today's main university building (architect Friedrich von Gärtner) was obtained. the students thanked it but the king bad, they were instrumental in that he was forced to resign in the revolutionary year 1848 (due to his mistress Lola Montez). For Ludwig Maximilian University - Universtitätsbibliothek the memorial of the "White Rose" NR. 2 to 12 4 Department of Physics Education Salinenhof In the park-like courtyard there is a monument of Karl Geyer to discover; the trees are marked with Lehrschildchen; in the middle there is a small pavilion, whose ceiling is painted artistically. In the middle sits a owl statue made of stone. Historicum is located at the corner Schellingstraße / Amalienstraße that, in 1999 newly-related center for history and archeology. << Amalienstraße the Academy of Fine Arts Amalienstraße to downtown (Siemens) >> 23 Joachim Ringelnatz "A little note in the mailbox, so tried Hans Boetticher alias Joachim Ringelnatz 1909 for his customers" Tabakhaus the house poet to attract ". This was only from March to December 31, 1909. at that time Ringelnatz gave all his possessions in order to acquire the business. In this crazy store a human skeleton, a giant beetle, trophies from his seaman time and skulls was seen in plaster. Detail of the image of Michael Mathias Prechtl (died 2003) Tabakhaus the house poet "The earth has a friendly face, so great that it's detected from a distance only. Come on, tell me what you have for worry. Reich will you be? - Why are not you? 25 28 27 Benjamin Franklin (Frank) Wedekind (1864-1918) in this house ekes his student life. In 1885 he moved with three other students, the apartment in which he enthusiastically preparing little to legal lectures. Theater had awakened his passion. 84 times he moved last winter as a spectator to the stage, so he took now also lectures in philosophy, literature and art history. After working as a reward poets for Maggi in Kemptal at Zurich in 1889 he returned to Munich. 1891 appeared "Spring Awakening". Wedekind died in 1918 after his fourth appendectomy of pneumonia and heart failure. << Türkenstraße for Arri-Kino "Old Simpl" (Türkenstraße 57) Türkenstraße to Landesbank> Restaurant Engelsburg Lara Bistro 30 29 HypoVereinsbank VdK Antiquarian Bistro 32 semicolon Stationery Baker 34 Cutting Crew Sun Studio 36 33 Franz Marc (1907-1908) (Atelier Friedrichstrasse 4) "speak the things in things is the will and the form, why we want intervening speak we have nothing Clever to tell them have we not a thousand years of experience that things are so silent, the more clearly we them the optical mirror?. ? hold her appearance appearance is eternally flat, but pulls him away completely out of your mind away - thinking you continue together with your worldview - that the world remains in its true form, and we artists guessed this form; a demon gives us between to see the columns of the world, and in dreams he takes us behind the colorful world stage. " PLUS 38 35 Goldankauf flowers Carpenter 40 Joh. Mendl front. Ulrich (craft workshop) Bears & Friends (Fruit gums) 42 39 In July 1920, the acquired "Volkischer Beobachter" the publisher of Franz overseer of the NSDAP for 115 000 Reichsmark. Because antisemitistischer baiting the sheet was repeated prohibited. In August 1921 Dietrich Eckart, antisemitic writer and mentor Hitler, chief editor, Alfred Rosenberg and Hermann Esser was been editor. Since 08.02.1923 the "Volkischer Beobachter" appeared as a daily newspaper, which was only possible through private donations. Ernst Hanfstaengl was in August 1323 a loan to buy an American rotary machine printed in the American large format and in the print shop Müller 6 son Schellingstraße 41 was used. Tailor Hampel auction house 44 41 publishing house of the "Re-Education" sheet "The New Newspaper". She appeared in the same house for the same printing presses, the wedding in Franz Verlag the South German edition of "had produced VB's Erich Kastner as features editor of." Neue Zeitung ", with his colleague Luiselotte Enderle Alvensleben Kunshandel Nähstube Schwabing Hinterhaus: Art and Space Anselm Roehr "glass in building" 46 "Schellingstraße 48 - experience with Germany" (1984) by Walter Kolbenhoff (actually Walter Hoffmann) 20.05.1908 - 29.01.1993 the call Independent leaves the younger generation Publisher:... Alfred Andersch (Ab October 1, 1946 published by Alfred Andersch and Hans Werner Richter, from issue 17 of Erich Kuby, from III Jg of Walter von Cube) at this time "was undoubtedly the 'reputation', the journal of the young generation returning..... This generation, hard desilllusioniert, used to living on the edge of human existence, an enemy of phraseology, yet again began with high hopes. Their hope was a united socialist Europe. Passionately they turned against the division of Germany, not chauvinism, but because they were aware that a new Europe never on the basis of shared Nations is possible "(HW Richter)." Americans Had the 'RUF' in 1947 not prohibited, would probably also no 'group 47' given "(HW Richter). Among the contributors are Alfred Andersch, Günter Eich, Erich Kuby, Hans Werner Richter, Wolf Dietrich Schnurre uva In September 1947 invited Hans Werner Richter, former employees of the RUF to a meeting after Bannwaldsee in Fussen. Since it had no more official publication and a new was not approved by the military censor, the participants read aloud from brought manuscripts. This was the birth of the group 47. It took several years until a group meeting and relatives the group emerged lyrical WALTER JENS reported. "Then suddenly it happened. A man named PAUL CELAN began ... to speak his poems; Ingeborg Bachmann, a debutante whispered haltingly and hoarse some verses; ILSE AICHINGER brachre ... the Mirror story on the lecture. At that time, seven years after the end of the war, unfolded ... the young German literature of modernity "48 Reich Administration of the NSDAP -. Still recognizable eagle with herausgemeiselten swastika - on 1 January 1931, the national leadership moved from Schellingstrasse 50 in the former Barlow at Brienner Straße 45. This building was popularly known by the color of the party uniforms "Brown house". This title was soon officially adopted. Atelier Heinrich Hoffmann (1885-1957) He was Hitler's personal portraitist and worked as . most important photographic propagandist His recordings dominated sustainable Hitler's image as a "leader": 1909 established Hoffmann own studio in Schellingstrasse 33, later 50th in number his backyard studio was initially anything but representative in April Hoffmann joined the DAP / NSDAP.. In the same year he took over the exclusive distribution of anti-Semitic diatribe "on good German". directly opposite the "Münchner Buchgewerbe house M. Müller son" was that the "Volkischer Beobachter" and later "Mein Kampf" printed and its co-owner Adolf Müller a close friend Hoffmann was. There was hardly a leading party members who refused to be a portrait of Hoffmann. To him came Hermann Goering, Heinrich Himmler and Joseph Goebbels. He was allowed to move freely in Hitler's private surroundings and photograph freely. With the establishment of the Nazi regime began a tremendous expansion of his company, which brought in a million assets. Since the mid-twenties Hoffmann switched some rooms of the building of the Reich Main branch of the NSDAP. In the spacious studio above his photo studio of the "hall of honor of SA" was established. There met the party leadership. 1929 gave Hoffmann on this studio. Founded in October 1929 "Photo Haus Hoffmann" was on the first floor above the famous "Cafe Stefanie" at the corner Theresienstraße / Amalienstraße. Among the new employees was the young Eva Braun, who was standing behind the counter. They had met in 1930 Hitler first. 50 Mashallah Tengelmann 52 << Barerstraße to Elisabethplatz Barerstraße about the art galleries to Karolinenplatz> Oskar Maria Graf (Barerstraße 36) Schelling Salon Who perverted everything here? Hitler Lenin Hugo Ball, founder of the "Cabaret Voltaire" and the "Galerie Dada" in Zurich, studied in Munich his later Dada companion and wife Emmy Hennings know. Emmy Hennings as a singer and Diseuse in "Simplicissium", Hugo Ball as a dramaturge at the "Münchner Kammerspiele". Here Hugo Ball also met the medical student Richard Huelsenbeck with which he presented a very programmatic prädadaistisches manifest following the Munich residence: "We want the appetite spoil to all beauty, culture, poetry, to all tastes, socialism, altruism and Synonyismus. we go to all the 'isms', parties and 'views'. negationists we want to be. " Cafe Altschwabing 56 58 60 60 Website Schellingstraße << Schraudolphstraße Schraudolphstraße the Neue Pinakothek Hermann Frieb Social and resistance fighter (11.12.1909-12.8.1943) In Munich Schellingstraße is located at number 78, a simple memorial plaque with the inscription "Here lived up to his execution of resistance fighters Hermann Fried. "Hermann Fried was born on 11 December 1909 as a son of the auditor Eduard Frieb and his wife Paula in Mauerkirchen. after the family moved to Munich in 1928, he joined the SPD and became involved as a student the economy as Chairman of the Socialist students Union. After the seizure of power by the Nazis on 30 January 1933 he worked further illegal political. on 03.27.1934, the Munich police headquarters dismissed the Austrian citizen Hermann Frieb of suspicion of illegal political Life activity from Bavaria. From Vienna and later from Prague, where he continued his studies, he comb with the later state chairman of the SPD in Bavaria, Waldemar von Knoeringen and movement New Beginning in contact. In August 1933, the Berlin Socialist Walter Loewenstein a manifesto had under the pseudonym "Miles" wrote entitled "New Beginning" in which he looked at the Nazi state as a longer-term form of government and not-as many Sozialdemokraten- as a regime that must perish because of its internal contradictions in a short time. Loewenstein saw a long-term and conspiratorial thoroughly hedged illegal work all socialist groups against fascism as the greatest need. Lag for him V.A. the rise of Nazism due to the inability due to cleavage of the labor movement to enforce the socialist revolution. therefore Loewenstein urged the creation of an overarching revolutionary workers' party. Of these ideas also Waldemar von Knoeringen felt addressed. As the responsible for Southern Bavaria Border secretary of the SPD Auslandsorganisation Sopade, he made contact with resistance groups in Augsburg (Josef "Bebo" Wagner and Eugen Nerdinger) and Munich (Lotte and Gottlieb Branz or Hermann Frieb) on and won it for New Beginning. After death of his father and the annulment of his expulsion returned Frieb in spring 1935 to Munich and took over as an independent tax advisor paternal firm. in the following years he built for the resistance, with the support of his mother, a new information and contact network on and was next to Bebo Wagner for relevant member of New Beginning in southern Bavaria. the organization grew during this time to approximately 200 people in 15 groups in Nördlingen, Rosenheim, in the Bavarian forest, in Landshut and Regensburg on. A major objective of the "Revolutionary Socialists", had this name to given by Knoeringen and the New Beginning squad in southern Bavaria and Austria in the meantime, lay in a comprehensive and versatile information about the Nazi system whose news monopoly should be run with "qualified coverage". With the start of World War 2 was the abandoned previously propagated by the organization "tactics of waiting", seemed to the beginning of the war unifying of Nazi rule foreseeable. Despite initial success of the German Wehrmacht, the meetings of Frieb and Wagner took their base ladders to. they put weapons depots to, conducted target practice, trying to recruit new members. face the foreseeable defeat of the Nazi regime is also believed to be able to neglect certain precautions against the police. A fatal error, the resistance fighters since stood but already . 1936 observation by the Gestapo after six years they had mustered sufficient material to crush the organization: on April 16, 1942 Bebo Wagner, Hermann and Paula Frieb were arrested and the "high and treason" accused. The People's Court sentenced Hermann Frieb, Bebo Wagner and eight other members to death, others to long prison sentences, among others Paula Frieb to 12 years in prison. The sentence against Hermann Frieb was executed on August 12, 1943 in the prison Munich Stadelheim, the imprisoned mother turned to the cost accounting for the execution of the Son. Waldemar von Knoeringen called Hermann Frieb later one of the most extraordinary figures in the Socialist Resistance, have been suitable because of its intellectuality, its moral intransigence and his unconditional entitlement to yourself seier for illegal work, like no other. In memory of Hermann Frieb the City of Munich notified on 22 January 1964, the urban middle school for boys in the Hohenzollernstraße in Hermann-Frieb-Realschule to. On 26.10.1987 the aforementioned plaque was attached to the former home of Frieb family. The former SPD mayor Klaus Hahnzog said at the unveiling: "brave people like them Munich owes the vindication. Only allowed her sake there claiming to have been not only the capital of the movement "Text: Robert Bierschneider 78 Sisters of." Holy Family ", the Munich Bishop presented the Oberabbiner Munich a truck to enable consecrated objects from the Synogoge in security could be brought. Jews found refuge with the sisters of the "holy family" in Schellingstrasse. model 1930 "Old Simpl" (Türkenstraße 57). "30 April 1903. The "Wine Restaurant Dichtelei" in Türkenstraße 81 - time hangout of staff of the satirical magazine Simplicissimus - is packed again. Shortly before midnight, opened landlady Kathi Kobus surprised the guests, they'll cancel their tents here in a few minutes. Who would like, she could now equal to the move into the new home, just a few house numbers away, accompany. Always placed at any joke, you take pictures from the walls, champagne bucket and ashtray in the arm and pulls with burning candles going. As Spielmann frank Wedekind marched ahead with the lute. This is the birth of "Künstlerkneipe Simplicissimus" in house Türkenstraße 57 (formerly "Cafe Crown Prince Rudolf"). Anyone who has something to say, may enter the small podium at Kathi Kobus, enter a poem or a song the best. In her all the letters, the Munich of the century circulate them to light: Thomas Mann, Max Halbe, Ludwig Thoma, Erich Mühsam, Johannes R. Becher, Otto Julius Birnbaum, next to politicians, diplomats and aristocrats from near and far. The German Crown Prince liked sniffed "Simpl" atmosphere. Enrico Caruso can be persuaded to a song Isodora Duncan to dance on the marble table. Meanwhile Steal her mink coat. But the repentant thief sends him the next day, filled with red roses, back to the hotel. A literary cabaret culture develops, the Elf Executioner circle as the core. An axis named Hans Boetticher appeared on 1908 and become the house poet Joachim Ringelnatz. ... 1935 risked Adolf Gondrell his savings, acquires the operation, is committed to Viennese humorist and export merchant Theo Prosel as "poet host" and sold in 1941 it further. ... It will sound for the first time Prosels unforgettable hit song "I have not invented the beautiful Madeln who guade wine is not my patent" to the Ludwig Schmidseder composed there in one night the melody. And Lale Andersen raises the eventual hit from the Lili Marleen launched. On July 13, 1944, a bomb exploded in the stage area. ... With the "Old Simpl" in Türkenstraße (temporary quarters at the Platzl!) It is only picking up again, as in 1960, the young actress Toni Netzle takes on the role of hostess. .. Until 1968 she holds with cabaret programs through, then artists act only if it's what there is to celebrate - but it is often celebrated. On Tonis pastry board are Wolfgang Neuss and Ursula Herking that siblings Ofarim and Evelyn Künneke, Oliver Hassenkamp, ​​Helen Vita and many more. At the bar devil, Langhans and comrades forge their Apo-plans. At a film premiere of Uschi Glas for brawl. Bernd Eichinger upsets on his 30th birthday in the kitchen, and Minister of State Peter Gauweiler mimes the Ludwig Thoma. ... 1995 redesign. But whether ever again Ringelnatz cal "Simpl-Glasglü-dawn" the night there for more beautiful half of the day makes - as once in May? "The Catholic, Dadaist and German thinker" his "German newspaper clipping from the SZ 29.9.2005 Hugo Ball - drawing by Karl Arnold from the" Münchner Illustrierte Presse "from 12.28.1939 - First War Winter Castel Sant'Angelo from the SZ Franz Freisleder Ringelnatz ie transverse to the mankind are; his German is confuse all concepts, upset, bow to the freedom to protect themselves'. build Being German, Babylonian towers on which makes claim to novelty in ten thousand tongues of obstinacy; be German's recalcitrant systems full of sophistry devise, from simple fear of truth and goodness "(from:". Criticism of the German intelligentsia "(1918-19) grew up in Pirmasens, he was raised as a Catholic, he studied philosophy, fascinated by Nietzsche, went but the theater. formed with success. When Max Reinhardt in Berlin, he brought his short career to Munich, where he was at the Kammerspiele dramaturg and director. he began to draw attention to themselves, as the first world war his work put an end. Together with the chanson singer Emmy Hennings went over to Zurich, where both cabaret numbers recited. ... the cabaret Voltaire Dada invented. ball, an admirer of Kandinsky was, was preceptor and the company at the same time organizer. and pulled was the first to return it when he began to think it in vain. From him were a few sound poetry for anthologies where others the basis for lifelong fame created for themselves. Ball seemed all to be no longer useful. A path from Futurism to Surrealism had passed over the crossing, on which he stood and held out for something better. He became editor of the leftist newspaper outdoors in Bern. He wrote vehemently against the German war illusions, analyzed the causes of the German destiny and urged the Germans to recognize their guilt for the war, otherwise they could not come to terms and to a better future with them. This activity ball also met Ernst Bloch. - "Ernst Bloch is curiously obsessed with me," he wrote in November 1917 to Emmy. A little later, it appears to be less strange when he noticed namely that Bloch made use of its products any furnished draft Balls in nascent "criticism of the German intelligentsia". Ball diagnosed the German Maldevelopment as consequences of the Reformation. He scolded Luther and praised Thomas Muenzer. Shortly after Balls "criticism" appeared Bloch's "coin", which some consider to be his best book and in the traces of the reading of the former friend are abundantly clear. But not why they were now divided. Bloch had decided - "Ubi Lenin, ibi Jerusalem". Ball had, after he had put some hope in the Munich Soviet Republic, also held. He returned to Catholicism. He wrote a book on "Byzantine Christianity". ... Meanwhile, he had won those other prominent friend he soon should lose again: Carl Schmitt. About the first books of the constitutional lawyer, he wrote a brilliant essay in the Catholic monthly magazine The Highlands. They met in Ticino. Ball joined at the extremism Schmitt. Meanwhile dictatorship ideas, he noted in his diary in 1924, came the "Prussian restoration and revanche policy benefits". The same is true of his disgust at the idea of ​​1789. "His assessment of human rights is unfair and unobjective" Ball adds. A "Catholic dictatorship in Germany" will Schmitt "expect vain next decades and not carry through his doctrine initially also." As in the suited nothing together. But a friendship lasted. It was the had become Hermann Hesse, whose neighboring ball in Ticino. Hesse helped the family who so could avoid coarsest emergency. And Ball was a competent friend an increasingly difficult writer. As to Hesse's 50th birthday of S. Fischer Verlag wanted to publish a biography of the authors, this ensured that ball got the job. ... It's Balls became the Most Beautiful Book. One can read it as a kind of testament of the author, which certifies that the Snappy and Torn was only a part, of the unwanted part of his being. JÜRGEN BUSCHE in the SZ on: HUGO BALL: Letters 1904 to 1927. Franz von Stuck (painter) was creative in Schellingstrasse # 5.. Ferdinand von Reznicek (Illustrator) lived in Schellingstrasse 19 and 111. Joachim Ringelnatz (writer) lived a time in Schellingstrasse Nr. 23 Wilhelm Hüsgen (sculptor) lived in Schellingstrasse Nr. 24 Wilhelm Hoegner (politicians) had in the Schellingstraße 26 a home found. Frank Wedeking (writer) lived a long time in the house number 27 Alfred Rosenberg (NS philosopher) lived in Schellingstrasse no. 39. Franz Josef Strauss (politicians) grew up in Schellingstrasse 44 and 49. Henrik Ibsen (writer) lived in Schellingstrasse 55. Wassily Kandinsky (painter) painted and lived in Schellingstrasse 62 and 75. Source: Maxvorstadt Munich princely houses in Schellingstrasse 83 -93 (built 1888-89 - destroyed 01/07/1945) facade painting history painter Ferdinand Wagner Ferdinand Wagner (* 1847 in Passau † in Munich) "It was in 1927 with the theme" the five Bavarian rulers and their promotion of sciences "the end of April 1897. Lou traveled from Berlin to Munich to meet here her good friend Frieda von Bülow and a lecture by her over Africa attend. She was with her in the so-called royal houses in Schellingstrasse in Munich-Schwabing relegated (these were destroyed during the war. in their place are now the new buildings Schellingstraße 83-98.) met on this occasion, many other friends and acquaintances, among them Frank Wedekind. through this learned Lou know the young writer Jakob Wassermann. In the meantime she got, evidently from an admirer, repeated anonymous letters with accompanying poems that she no longer noticed, because they did not impress much. On 12/05/1897 it presented in his apartment the new friend Jakob Wassermann a slim, 21-year old man with delicate appearance, which his sensibility and excitement were written on their faces, René Maria Rilke. Although the young Rilke had he unknowingly revered author only sought to establish through them contacts and to be patronized as a writer. But from the beginning drew him the 36-year-old Lou, which could almost be his mother, under her spell. "Source: Lebensreform theodor frey top of page The unspectacular beginning Lothstraße The house German oak in today Reichenbachstraße as many buildings around built in 1864, a restaurant operating at the time is not detectable. The name was used at the time for various institutions quite often and should national pride, law and order demonstrate. At least since 1882 a tavern detectable. In 1896 Emil Reichenbach bought the local. Destroyed in 1944, an aerial bomb to the upper floor. In the 1950s, more and more dancers from nearby Gärtnerplatztheater visited the restaurant. This earned not particularly good, appreciated the favorable economic and were sometimes even a soup or a glass of wine for free. To thank the hostess got theater tickets more often, and soon launch events were transferred to the German oak. Dancer devised the idea to organize a carnival celebration, which became the institution soon. So the place was especially in the evening a meeting place for artists, bohemians and gays. For the former owner Ella Reichenbach the clientele was as follows: "In mia verkehr'n ninety percent Artists and ten percent of the disappointing Fraun men". From 1971 the homosexual action group met regularly in local. Rainer Werner Fassbinder, who lived from 1974 to 1978 in the house across the street, was one of the regulars of the restaurant and held there many of his celebrations. For him it was a kind of living room and by Harry Baer the "mother house" of the crowds that cluster around Cooper clan. His lover Armin Meier, who also participated as an actor in some of his films, worked in Deutsche Eiche. Also in several films Fassbinder come before his hangout; a scene of the film Lola was filmed there, and the hostess Sonja got a role in a number of films. Also countless other personalities visited the restaurant. Finally, the rather simple hotel of Ella Reichenbach, her daughter Sonja and her sister Toni was out. Mid-1980 began the descent of the premises. The neighborhood was around chic and thus rents more expensive; the kitchen should be modernized on instructions of the authorities, which would have led to higher prices. Furthermore died Seniorchefin Ella, the lease agreement is terminated and in 1993 was the building "gutted" and commercially profitable are designed. Then it came to worldwide protests, and there were offers of help to the USA. Nevertheless Sonja Reichenbach gave in 1995, closed the restaurant, and the owner Monachina selling the "problematic property". This ended after almost a hundred years, this part of Munich's "local" story, led by the Reichenbach family. today "Leo von Klenze" monument at Gärtnerplatz; donated by the "German Oak". From 1995, the building was renovated and remodeled by the new owners, piece by piece. In the rear buildings a gay sauna, which was expanded in 1997 originated. 1996 Hotel rooms were renovated and in 1998 the restaurant. As a result, the designer nunmehrige Hotel 1999 received three stars. The house keeps the memory of Cooper and also hosts repeatedly art projects. the operation is led today by Josef Sattler GmbH, whose Managing Director Dietmar Holzapfel - are - is also a member of Rosa list Munich - and his partner Josef Sattler - of the Vollmarhaus Theatre founded 1999th The "German Oak" founded 1998 by Friedrich Brugger 1867 created Leo von Klenze Memorial at Gärtnerplatz. The end to the Ludwigstraße with Ludwigskirche Türkenstrasse from north to south saw theodor frey Cultural history trail Schwabing-West Already appeared and future publications on the cultural history paths: District 01 District 02 District 03 District 04 District 05 District 06 District 07 District 08 District 09 District 10 District 11 District 12 District 13 District 14 District 15 District 16 District 17 District 18 District 19 District 20 District 21 District 22 District 23 District 24 District 25 Altstadt-Lehel Ludwig-Isarvorstadt Maxvorstadt Schwabing-West Au-Haidhausen Sendling Sendling-Westpark Schwanthalerhöhe Neuhausen-Nymphenburg Moosach Milbertshofen Schwabing-Freimann Bogenhausen Berg am Laim Trudering-Riem Ramersdorf-Perlach obergiesing Untergiesing-Harlaching Thalkirchen-Obersendling- Forstenried-Fürstenried-Solln Hadern Pasing-Obermenzing Aubing-Lochhausen-Langwied Allach-Untermenzing Feldmoching-Hasenbergl Laim A detailed map for orientation in the district, see the Appendix. At the site itself, the main stages are identified by marking labels. All texts and other information are available under available. content Foreword Mayor Dieter Reiter 3 greeting District Committee Chairman Dr. Walter Klein 5 Historical Introduction 9 tour Walk from Kurfürstenplatz to Viktoriastraße Kurfürstenplatz 28 Jakob-Klar-Straße 7 30 Olga Benario-Prestes 32 Agnes Post 34 Gisela Gymnasium 35 Elisabethenschule 37 Elisabethplatz and Elisabethmarkt 39 Schauburg 41 Frank Wedekind 43 Luise Kiesselbach 45 Ainmillerstraße 47 Wilhelm Hoegner 49 Carry Curlew 51 Erwin Oehl 53 Otto Falkenberg 55 Walk west of Hohenzollern Square Hermann-Frieb-Realschule 58 Evangelical Lutheran Church Cross 60 Ackermannbogen 62 Barbara settlement 64 Catholic Church of St. Barbara 66 Prince Leopold Barracks 68 City Archive Munich Nordbad 70 73 Walk from Luitpoldpark about Petuelpark to Schwabing Hospital Catholic Church St. Sebastian 76 Luitpoldpark 78 Petuelpark 81 Pfennigparade 83 Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry 85 Schwabing Hospital 88 Selected Literature 90 Credit 92 Maps 93 foreword The cultural history trails of Munich are walks along historically important places and events in urban areas. They are broken down by districts and will be expanded to a nationwide topographic network of the history of Munich. We invite all people of Munich and all External Action visitors a to come also the less known peculiarities of local history on the track next to the familiar highlights of Munich. Each cultural history trail is available to buy as a brochure and on the Internet. It leads to the signifi- cant buildings, the historic places and the homes or work places remarkable personalities of the district concerned. On the spot, have orientation boards each path and the 3 concerned individual station. The cultural history trails are designed so that they can be covered on foot or by bicycle. I wish all travelers who embarking on the historic milestones in his own front door and beyond the exclusively entered paths, stimulating, new findings and the project of munich wide cultural history trails great resonance among the population. Mayor Dieter Reiter Greetings Dear fellow citizens, dear guests in Munich, one speaks of Schwabing, then swings always a bit of glorifying myth of earlier times with. This is especially true for the western part of Schwabing. Many artists, writers, bohemians and politicians lived here; here also the former Lord Mayor Christian Ude has its home. And despite the many bombs that fell in World War II in this neighborhood, there are plenty of buildings from the "old days", who shape many roads. The Schwabinger love their neighborhood and it makes them at all not mind that it is the most densely built-up part of Munich. And at the same time there are many who with dread 45 remember that it may soon no longer pay their rent and have to move elsewhere. The past has its dark sides. Here the Nazis were particularly present. Here had Wilhelm Hoegner, who later became Prime Minister and "Father of the Bavarian innovative Constitution," every night sneaking out of his apartment to hide from the Gestapo. Again Jews were crammed into apartments before they were deported and murdered in extermination camps. But we look to the future: In the West emerged in recent years with the new neighborhood Ackermannbogen on the site of former barracks a showcase in which social interaction works well; the streets were named here by members of the peace, and Workers' freedom of movement. I thank all those who have worked in this medium-cultural history trail, not least my colleagues Bezirksausschuss- Ani-Ruth Lugani and Doris Niemann. Enjoy reading and on passing through our neighborhood wishes you you Dr. Walter Klein District Committee Chairman Schwabing-West 6 Schwabing-West Urban Habitat with a troubled past The area, which forms the District Schwabing-West today, was sparsely populated mid-19th century. In Key Plan of 1856 clearly shows the former "Schwabinger channel", the originally the royal residence was to connect downtown with castle wear- home and culminated in Georgenschwaige in the Nymphenburg-Biedersteiner channel. Only the southern part of the beginning of the 19th century leveled »Schwabing channel" (now called türkengraben), the street today and Nordend- Kurfürsten-, mid-19th century were settled at least sparse. The northern portion of the former canal, the street today Belgrade-, however, was still completely undeveloped. Historical Introduction Schwabing is the most famous part of Munich that magically attracts people has always been in its spell. The still widespread Schwabing-image has its origins in the heyday of Schwabing Boheme in 1900. The legendary Countess Franziska zu Reventlow (1871- 1918) coined the Schwabing this time the name "Wahnmoching". The publicist Erich difficulty (1878-1934) rewrote the then prevalent Schwabinger attitude towards life as a "cultural state". Until 1933 lived numerous celebrities in Schwabing or in the city in 1909 Western-educated by Altschwabing district Schwabing-West. Even after the Second World War had Schwabing reputation as former living and impact site away from artists and free spirits and attracted important personalities, who settled in Schwabing. 89 First settlement and early history of Schwabing A deposit of bronze ingots, which in 1928 found on the site Luitpoldpark, shows that this area has been inhabited since the Bronze Age. Baiuvarii graves from around 600 n. Chr. Were found in Martiusstrasse and the Siegestor. The ending of the name in -ing has Schwabing from as early Baiuvarii settlement. Their first written record as "Suuapinga" took place 782 in a tradition of book bishopric Freising. The name means "at Swapo and his people"; the settlement was apparently named after a man called his neighbors as "the Swabians". The village originally consisted of a few yards that lay between today Leopoldstrasse and Schwabing Bach. Schwabing had since the early Middle Ages were a manor house with a small castle, where from 9 to 13 century gentlemen "of Schwabing" (de Suabingen). From this generation comes Bishop Konrad III. (1314-1322) of Freising. To the west of the district of Schwabing, in Altstrasse "Rennweg" (Schleißheimerstraße), originated in the Middle Ages, a place that is attested in 1260 as Chunratshoven (Konradshofen), but went down later. Perhaps it is a foundation of the Lords of Schwabing, where the name of Konrad was widespread. Others believe that the settlement was named after Provost Konrad of Schäftlarn because the Schäftlarn in this area were fields. Channels first formative structures in western Schwabing Elector Maximilian II Emanuel. (1679 - 1726) had built channels for the representative design of parks his residence in Schleißheim his architect Enrico Zucalli. First 1689 Watercourse from Schwabinger Bach was applied to Schleissheim Palace. 1702-1704 of the "Nymphenburg Biederstein- channel" has been built, which today south of Petuelrings runs and empties into the Schwabing Bach. At the same time came the "new verfertigte Canal," later "called türkengraben". Lange was claimed that Turkish The colored steel engraving around 1860 shows the view from Nymburk phenburg-Biederstei- ner channel (height Bad Georgenschwaige) to the royal capital and royal residence city of Munich. Anyone who wants to enjoy this sight today, the pile of rubble in Luitpoldpark bestei- must gen. As formerly one sees from there at the hair dryer silver ette of Munich-based Old Town before the Alpine panorama. 10 11 POWs were involved in the construction work, which led to the naming of the building. This is meantime disproved because the prisoners have already been in 1699 to return home. The waterway would connect the residence in Munich with the new Schleissheim Palace. From the ambitious construction project, however, only part of the moat today Odeonsplatz to Nymphenburg Biedersteiner Canal was completed. Since this channel was due to lack of water will soon no longer navigable, he was filled from 1811th Along the-one term channel Betts emerged Belgrade-, Nordend- and Elector street. Rise to the city and incorporation The mid-19th century incipient industrialization (as Lokomotivfabrik Maffei, Lodenfabrik Frey) and the establishment of universities in neighboring Munich Schwabing bestowed a soaring growth of inhabitants. Lived in 1855 only 1,667 people in Schwabing, so it was 30 years later already 8,744 inhabitants. The place had its own community newspaper since 1876 and was applicable on 1 January 1887, around 10,000 inhabitants to "indirect city". 1864 Schwabinger had a incorporation to Munich rejected even a majority. Because of mounting debts, problems with Schulraumver- supply, water supply and road changed this. Baumeister Alois Ansprenger, the 1883 mayor of Schwabing, ran the association of Schwabing with the state capital. After their execution Ansprenger there rose to Magistratsrat. On the day of incorporation, November 20, 1890, Schwabing had 11,589 inhabitants in an area of 1,195 hectares. Alois Ansprenger (1853-1913), the last mayor of Schwabing Until the "annexation" of Schwabing in the royal capital and seat of the southern Munich Schwabing truce ran approximately along Nikolaiplatz / Hohenzollernstraße / Ainmillerstraße / Elizabeth Street. After the incorporation was the southern boundary of the newly formed XXII. Urban District (Schwabing) over that time still largely undeveloped areas to the south extended to George Street. In 1900 were in the XXII. reported municipality has 28 154 inhabitants living in 7,002 families and 1,276 properties. 12 13 Also along the Franz-Joseph-Strasse and Elisabethenstraße designed Theodor Fischer a curved east-west connection and planning in this regard, a place with a public building as a center for urban part. That a school building - with Clock Tower! - Which later Elisa- bethschule, and not a church archi- this new space marked tectonic, was a sign of the importance that has now been awarded the popular education. Building lines planning new roads between Belgrade road and Winzererstraße by city architect Theodor Fischer in 1899 The early development along the former Turks trench (here Kurfürsten- street 31 and 32) was demolished and built with tenements. Recording of 1905 New building lines Around 1894, the revised Stadterwei- sion office under the Schwabing architect Theodor Fischer, the geometric design, which had provided for Schwabing Baurat Arnold Zenetti. In some areas, scenic space images and numerous court systems were created. Unlike in the neighboring Maxvorstadt, which was built by a rectangular grid principle, was here by curved alignments, road such as in the Tengstraße or the Hohenzollern, an elegant loosening causes. 14 15 Overlooking the Elizabeth Place (with Droschkenstandplatz) school at the Elisabeth and Gizella District Secondary School (left). Postcard from 1910 Due to the strong population rises the western part in 1909 from the city's Schwabing district separated off and from the XXVI. District (Schwabing-West) created. The District Schwabing-West was limited to the west by the Winzererstraße, northward from the Clement Street, east of Victoria and Friedrich Street and south of George Street. thus has always belong to the urban district Schwabing- West the formative centers Elisabethplatz, Elector space, Hohenzollernplatz and Pündterplatz. In the years between the incorporation of Schwabing in 1890 and the beginning of WWI the western parts of Schwabing were closely built. Land were bought by individuals and societies and building speculation began. This resulted in a tight working bauung with tenements. The houses were mostly built and equipped to meet higher demands up consuming. stilbauten From the time built many youth are still many available. The building boom led in 1910 to a surplus of large dwellings. The still moist new buildings were often given low rental rates to less wealthy first tenant. The sometimes low rents favored the settlement of creative and free spirits. 16 17 Detail of beautifully decorated Art Nouveau building in the Roman Road 11. The building was constructed in 1899, designed by Henry Helbig and Ernst Haiger. The loving Water Restoration in 1986 awarded the Munich facade price. lived the writer Karl Wolfskehl and Stefan George. The Franz-Joseph-Straße 24 was for several years the author's address and writer Frank Wedekind; whose term-one colleague at the "Eleven executioners", the actor and director Otto Falkenberg, lived two decades in the Viktoriastraße 11th The Schwabing art scene frequented the numerous coffee houses around; but also the slightly off located pension Fürmann in Belgrade street 57 (today Belgradstraße 61) became an important place of Schwabing cultural life. Artists from around the world arrived in Self-portrait by Gabriele Münter 1909 © VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2015 View from the Romans road - right front shoe Julius Mandelbaum - tenplatz to the residential and commercial street Hohenzollernstraße towards Kurfürs-. 1910 postcard »Wahnmochings" classic time Through the nearby university, the Academy of Fine Arts, numerous private art schools and studios contain Schwabing wrapped around 1900 for "art metropolis". So lived the artist couple Gabriele Münter and Wassily Kandinsky in Ainmillerstraße 36. Reinhard Piper, publisher of the almanac "Der Blaue Reiter", moved his publishing of the Hohenzollernstraße 23 road in the Romans 1. The composer Max Reger lived temporarily in the Viktor -Scheffel- road 10. In the Roman road 16 18 19 recording from 1910 shows the then still standing lonely Pension Fürmann. The Swiss Heinrich Fürmann had inherited the farm estate in the Belgrade street and it converted into a lerpension artists converts. this affordable pension under, were celebrated in the legendary carnival balls and every Saturday held celebrations. The special atmosphere of the place portray the writers Karl Wolfskehl, René Prévot and Hans Brandenburg. Schwabing-Nord and Oberwiesenfeld In northern Schwabing more formative installations and structures emerged: Surrounded by fields and meadows, the swan binger hospital was in the large pavilion style 1904-1913 built as a modern hospital building Bavaria. West of the urban Luitpold Park was created, which in 1911 was opened to the public. For today's city district Schwabing-West since 1996 also includes a part of the upper meadow field. The area between severity Rider Street, Ackermannstraße, Winzererstraße, Lothstraße and Heßstraße was since the late 19th century, part of the Munich barracks district (including the 1896 built Luitpoldkaserne and the Prince Leopold barracks from 1902 and barracks from the 1930s that after the use by the US army as of-Stetten- and forest known man barracks were). Besides barracks there were numerous other military facilities, such as the former clothing Office of the First Army Corps with associated residential accommodation and the military residential complex along the Barbara Road, the garrison church of St. Barbara and the urban Recruiting Office (now Munich City Archives) in Winzererstraße 68th Soldiers and military personnel specific in this area the Strasser senbild. A favorite with the soldiers Ausflugslokal was the 1887 Restaurant Rosenau in Schleißhei- mer Road 128. soldiers met there happy with their liaisons. Audience and mood in Rosenau Military Musikzug front of the restaurant Rosenau with host Stephan Haas in civil 1894 20 21 From 1933 Schwabinger crane stood pital in character of the Nazi regime. The Israelite cuisine that had existed since the founding of the hospital was closed, Jewish patients were turned away, Jewish doctors and staff made redundant sen. From 1934 München-Schwabing Zwangssterilisatio- were car- ried through the hospital. Recording from January 1940 shows above the entrance portal at the Kölner Platz 1 a banner with a slogan ( "We are marching in the power struggle of the German working gear") of the German Labour Front (DAF). inspired Karl Valentin to the Piece "brilliant fireworks", in which the gravity rider Karl Valentin his spontaneous acquaintance, the nannies Liesl Karlstadt invites in the Volksgarten Rosenau to drinking beer admiring a firework. Political radicalization In Schwabing lived not only artists and military employees and officials, but also many entrepreneurs, traders and artisans. Many of these independent existences were particularly hard hit by the emergency period of World War I and inflation. This may explain why many Schwabinger the radi- cal parties joined and there was fighting again to road. So was attacked on 1 May 1923, the corner Elisa- bethstraße / Isabellastraße a returning home from a May Day rally Arbeiterzug of the Free Corps Blucher, Ross- bach, Oberland and Nazis. The formed 1921 NSDAP section Schwabing, its chairman since 1926. Councillor Karl Fiehler (later mayor of the "Capital of the Movement") had been, with some 600 members of the strongest in Munich. In the Nazi period many Jewish Munich were persecuted, humiliated and forced to emigrate or to death. In the cultural history trail Straße 7 is representative reminded binger to the numerous Jewish brother-in station Jakob plain that were persecuted and murdered during the Nazi time the; Only a few managed to escape. Among the most important personalities of the resistance in Schwabing counts Centa Herker (1909-2000), who came from a working-class household in the Schleißheimerstraße; it was the Communist Youth League KJVD and 1928 the KPD acceded 1925th With her first husband, the Communists Hans Beimler, she was arrested in April 1933, was detained in annual status Delheim and one year in Moringen. After the Second World War she built with her second husband Hans Herker the KPD in Munich again and engaged in the VVN (Association of Victims of the Nazi Regime) and in the peace movement. 1950 the couple had a cooperative apartment in the Winzererstraße 83 gen relatedness. In the new district on Ackermannbogen recalls a street at Centa Herker. 22 23 Development after the Second World War Especially the south west of Schwabing was benkrieg hit hard by the bombing. In Old Town district Schwabing- West were more than 5,500, destroying almost half of all dwellings; in less densely populated north were laid waste by only 20 percent. For artists and other creative Schwabing still had a good sound. Many returnees from exile settled here, as the writer Leonhard Frank and the composer Werner R. Heymann (1896-1961). The German-Jewish composer and conductor lived after his return from Rainer Werner Fassbinder (1945 -1982), photo around 1975 24 25 exile in Hollywood with interruptions from 1951 until his death in George Street 34. In addition to the famous film music includes Hey- man's work also operettas and Büh- nenmusik. Unforgettable are his songs from the UFA film "The Three Good Friends" from 1930, which in 1955 was remade. The increased attractiveness of the district in the 1960s, continues to grow. So the actor and great director of the New German Cinema Rainer Werner Fassbinder (1945-1982) lived at the Schleißheimerstraße 128 and in the Clemens Road 76. The attending knew of numerous television series and as fast preacher at Nockherberg and popular Bavarian folk actor Walter Sedlmayr (1926- 1990) lived in Elizabeth street. 5 The former local "Romagna Antica" (Elisabethstraße 52) became the model for Helmut Dietl's star-studded film "Rossini - or the murderous question, who with whom slept" in 1997, which the behei- especially in Schwabing matete former Munich media and Filmschickeria pokes. With its numerous bars and clubs to Schwabing developed in the 1960s and 1970s to the center of the youth and protest culture. One of the most important places of eccentric cal celebration people was the wide-bodied disco "Blow up", which in 1967 opened in the former cinema Schauburg space on Elisabeth. Appearance of a band at the Blow up around 1970 Schwabing-West Walk from Kurfürstenplatz to Viktoriastraße 27 The "Big Meadow" in new Stadtquar- bow animal Ackermann. tar on 1.3 Hector can play here, picnic and celebrate. The one with the leeway award 2009 ex- cellent Ackermann bow offers numerous other outdoor and Spielflä- chen, the referat the construction has also designed. Schwabing-West today 1996 existing since 1909 District Schwabing-West has been extended to the north and west to the Petuelring Schwere-Reiter-Straße / Ackermann street, which led to a tripling of the original area of 436.30 hectares. Now home to about 65 892 inhabitants; with 151 inhabitants per hectare is Schwabing-West of the most densely populated municipality (December 31, 2013). Buildings and residential buildings postwar dominate the picture. In the West, on formerly militarily occupied area of the district was on Ackermann bow. On the grounds of the former Luitpoldkaserne a new district is planned that up to Dachauerstraße (District 09) will stretch achieved. In this "Kreativquar- animal" Live and work, art and culture to be very closely linked. 26 existing residential and commercial building. Remarkable characteristic architecture by Hanns Atzenbeck facility is towering above the gate entrance bay, its hexagonal clock tower is topped by an elongated onion dome. In 1938 finished building the Stadtsparkasse (Hohenzollernstraße 55) has since been housed. August Heisenberg (1869-1930), since 1910 professor of Byzantine Studies at the University of Munich, and his family lived in the Art Nouveau building in the Hohenzollernstraße 110. Since 1989, a memorial plaque to his son, the later Nobel Prize winner Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976 ), who spent his formative years here and the Maximilian high school attended. Kurfürstenplatz The recording from 1935 shows the proposed urban development on the west side the elector place - overlooking the restaurant »For Gschlössl" (later "Café Schwabing") - shortly before the demolition. The first houses in the West swan bings emerged in the middle of 19th century ten- the former channel "türkengraben" later Kurfürs-, Nordend- and Belgrade Street. It was a low Bebau- ung with market gardens, the cottage industry ben and simple workers' dwellings. In 1910 there were west of the road Nordend- many meadows and foundation pits ben. Until the mid-1930s the West side of Kurfürstendamm square of low-rise buildings was marked. Around 1935 began the demolition work and other agency built the need of restructuring old emerged from five units 28 29 Residential and commercial building under construction at Kurfürstenplatz 1937 Jakob-Klar-Straße 7 had. The background formed National Socialist regulations, the Jewish tenants systematically repressed from "Aryan" houses from 1938th Thousands lost their homes in this way; who has not been reported used in a warehouse, was sometimes temporarily with Jewish landlords under - with Jewish house property systematically "arisiert" was thus forced sold. The house Jakob-Klar-Straße 7 was foreign owned and was therefore excluded from the "Aryanization". In the building, there were two apartments, were reported zwangsein- the Jews. In these apartments, the 32 people who called the plaque distributed. The mentioned therein were deported, some died in transit, but most of them were murdered in Kaunas, Auschwitz or Theresienstadt. The plaque also reminds Luise, Julius and Bruno Kaufmann: The family of three had already on 31 October 1940, clearly before the first deportations from Munich carried out, committed suicide. On the plaque is also the name of Ruth Eva Gutmann, who was born on 24 June 1925 in Nuremberg and lived in Munich since 1929th Separated from their forced trained in another apartment parents Dorothee and Eugen Gutmann lived the then only 15-year-old schoolgirl from January to June 1941 in the Jakob-Klar-Straße 7. Before being deported to Kaunas over on 20 November 1941 rendered Ruth Eva Gutmann forced labor in the Flachsröste Lohhof. Like her parents, she was murdered on 25 November 1941 in Kaunas. The 1910 contains standene photograph shows the building Jakob-Klar-Straße 7 and 9 with Bauer road 24th From 1921 to emigrate in December 1936, the Jewish couple Frieda and Moritz Frank lived with his children Richard and Lieselotte in Jakob-Klar-Straße 7. Even the Jewish spouses Dorothea and Max Sugar, who lived in the house, since July 1936 GE long in October 1938 to emigrate. On the wall of the building a plaque recalls that in this house were during the time of National Socialism in Munich who been deprived of because of their Jewish ancestry of their civil rights to live here forcibly 30 31 Olga Benario-Prestes The tenement house in the Jakob-Klar-Straße 1 is the childhood home of communist and resistance fighter Olga Benario- Prestes (1908-1942). Her father, a lawyer and writers Leo Benario had purchased the house 1915th As a convinced Social Democrat Leo Benario sent his daughter in a social democratic group of children. With 15 years, Olga Communist youth group Schwabing joined, dropped out of high school and began an apprenticeship as a bookseller in the Georg-Müller-Verlag, which was partially housed in the Jakob-Klar-road. 1 Two years later, she went to Berlin, where he worked for the Communist Party. In 1928 she freed her partner, the militant Communist Otto Braun, from the Moabit prison and fled with him to Moscow. There she worked for the Young Communist International, was an intense ideological and military training. She learned flying and skydiving and had the aim to fight the Soviet Army against Nazi Germany. 1935 accompanied Olga Brazilian revolutionary leader Luís Carlos Prestes to Brazil. But in November 1935 failed the planned Prestes military coup against the fascist regime of dictator Getúlio Vargas. Prestes and many of his followers were arrested. Olga was extradited to Germany, although she had married Prestes and was pregnant by him. On 27 November 1936, they brought their daughter Anita Leocádia the Gestapo prison in Berlin to the world. While the child survived because it was handed over to his Brazilian grandmother, Olga spent years in a concentration camp and was killed in February 1942 in Bernburg. Olga Benario-Prestes when she was arrested in Brazil in spring 1936th After Leo Benario died in 1933, his wife Eugenie inherited the house in the Jakob-Klar-Straße 1. Her son Otto lived here, and in 1939 moved her brother Artur Gutmann and his wife Julie, which had to be used as Jews their rented apartment. They all were deported sien city on July 10, 1942 by Theresa and murdered in concentration camps. In the 1950s, Anita Leocádia Prestes was the sole heir to the house and sold it.