Showing posts with label Dachau. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Dachau. Show all posts


 Dachau KZ

The Nazis opened their first concentration camp at Dachau, near Munich, in March 1933, only two months after Adolf Hitler came to power. This camp was the model for the many others to follow. It operated continuously until April 1945, when the allies liberated the inmates. Originally intended for the temporary detention of political prisoners, the camps became permanent institutions manned by the Schutzstaffel (ϟϟ) Totenkopfverbande (Death’s Head detachments). In these camps, the more sadistic guards, of whom there was no shortage in the ϟϟ, were more or less free to inflict indescribable cruelties on the inmates without fear of disciplinary action. The camp system gradually evolved from penal camps to the infamous death mills of Auschwitz, Belzec, Chelmno, Maidanek, Sobibor, and Treblinka.
From the Dachauer Volksblatt, 6 April 1933:
In a press conference on 20 March the Police Commissioner of Munich [Heinrich Himmler] made the following announcement: The first concentration camp will be opened on Wednesday near Dachau. It has a capacity of 5,000 people. All of the Communist functionaries and, insofar as necessary, the Reichsbanner and Marxist functionaries who threaten the security of the state will be assembled here. Leaving individual Communist functionaries in the courthouse jails is not possible for the long term without putting too much strain on the apparatus of the state. On the other hand, it is not appropriate, either, to let them go free again. Isolated attempts we have made in this regard resulted in continued efforts by the functionaries to agitate and organize. We have taken these steps regardless of minor misgivings, in the conviction that our actions serve to reassure the national population and are in their interest. Police Commissioner Himmler further asserted that protective custody of individuals would not be continued any longer than necessary. But it is understandable that the unexpectedly large amount of evidence confiscated will take a long time to examine. The police will simply be delayed in this process if they are constantly being asked when this or that person in protective custody will be set free. The inaccuracy of rumours that are frequently spread about the treatment of persons in protective custody is shown by the fact that visits by a priest were freely granted to several persons in protective custody who wished them, such as Dr. Gerlich and Baron von Aretin.
On Wednesday, 22 March, the concentration camp at the former gunpowder factory received its first allocation of 200 inmates. The Dachau camp consists of over 20 one- to two-story stone buildings, each of which can hold 200 to 250 men. At first the occupancy of the camp will gradually increase to 2,500 men and will possibly be expanded to 5,000 men later. A labour service detachment recently prepared the barrack for the first 200 men and secured it for the time being with a barrier of triple barbed-wire. The first job of the camp inmates will be to restore the other stone buildings, which are very run-down. Once that is accomplished, they will be led out in small groups of about 50 men into the countryside, where extensive land cultivation projects wait to be implemented. Perhaps later some of the camp inmates will be offered the possibility of settling here. The guard unit will initially consist of a contingent of one hundred state police (Landespolizei), which is to be further reinforced by SA auxiliary police guards. Meals will be taken in the large dining hall of the former ammunition factory, which can hold up to 1,500 people. But cooking will be done in field kitchens. No visits are allowed at the Concentration Camp in Dachau.
After the Second World War, a kind of 'dark tourism’ emerged in Germany, as the former sites of death and terror in the Third Reich became 'must see’ sights on the tourist trail. Today, Dachau, Buchenwald, Sachsenhausen and other 'fatal attractions’ linked to the Hitler dictatorship draw thousands of visitors each year. The most recent Lonely Planet guide to Germany, for example, lists the former concentration camp at Dachau as one of the key attractions around Munich, alongside the Chiem Lake, the Andechs brewery and the Alpamare water park.
In total, over 200,000 prisoners from more than 30 countries were housed in Dachau of whom two-thirds were political prisoners and nearly one-third were Jews. 25,613 prisoners are believed to have died in the camp and almost another 10,000 in its subcamps, primarily from disease, malnutrition and suicide. In early 1945, there was a typhus epidemic in the camp followed by an evacuation, in which large numbers of the weaker prisoners died.

Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau holds a significant place in public memory because it was the second camp to be liberated by British or American forces. Therefore, it was one of the first places where the West was exposed to the reality of Nazi brutality through firsthand journalist accounts and through newsreels.

In front of the Jourhaus- the main gate to the camp. It was the first building prisoners had to build during the 1936 redevelopment of the camp.
During liberation and today. The tower shown here was one of seven watchtowers making up the guard installations. Richard Evans relates that at Auschwitz,
Over the entrance, (Kommandant Rudolf] Höss placed a wrought-iron archway with the words Arbeit macht frei, 'work liberates', a slogan he had learned in Dachau.
The motto at Dachau, “Arbeit macht frei” (Work Is Liberty), is well known; it was also used elsewhere, a hollow, cynical promise from the tradition of the work society. No prisoner was ever released because of hard work and good performance.
Sofsky (61)
Historic gate at Dachau concentration camp stolen 

 Photos I took November 19, 2014 showing the missing Gate. The gate itself was a reconstruction; the current whereabouts of the original is a mystery. When the US military administration used the site, it removed the gate and dismantled the watchtower. These were not reconstructed until 1972.
American troops outside the gates at the main entrance to Dachau in 1945 and a side entrance today:

The site soon after the war and today

The road I cycle down, showing how the camp was anything but hidden away

Site of roll call and as it appears today
The prisoners marched out by block onto the Appellplatz and waited there for the ϟϟ to appear. The block personnel counted the inmates and reported the results to those on duty in the prisoner orderly room. They in turn passed the total on to the ϟϟ rapport leader. The ϟϟ block leaders double-checked the results, running through another count so that the reporting officer could compare the two totals. In order to make sure the final tally was correct, the prisoners in the sick bay and those who had died during the night also had to be counted. This double bureaucratic procedure should hardly have required more than half an hour, given the experienced and well-rehearsed chain of reporting. But the process was often delayed or interrupted by violence. Despite the fixed time for morning roll call, the ϟϟ was often late. Illuminated by searchlights, the columns had to wait in the first light of dawn in every conceivable type of weather until the camp lords took the stage. Their entrance was a carefully calculated show of power. To leave thousands waiting is always a demonstration of total power. And time was something the camp masters had plenty of. Inmates did not march off to their places of work until it was light. Consequently, morning roll call in the winter months could drag on for more than ninety minutes, until the command was given over the loudspeakers for the prisoners to form up into Kommandos. The accommodation of working hours to daylight was the only concession the camp regime made to natural time.
Sofsky (75)

Entrance to roll call area

 The memorial is now being used to promote other Munich "attractions" on buses
The monument to 'the unknown prisoner at Dachau' in 1950 and today which reads:
To Honour the Dead, To Warn the Living.
 Two other memorials- shown in 1950 and today
Inspection by the Nazi party led by Hess and Himmler, 8 May 1936

Himmler with his daughter Gudrun (shown right in a recent photo) visiting Dachau in 1941 with Reinhard Heydrich (in background) and Karl Wolff (2nd from right). The sign reads "(G)efangenen- (sa)mmelstelle" ("(Co)llection Point for (P)risoners"). In her diary Gudrun wrote:
Today we went to the ϟϟ concentration camp at Dachau. We saw everything we could. We saw the gardening work. We saw the pear trees. We saw all the pictures painted by the prisoners. Marvellous. And afterwards we had a lot to eat ... it was very nice.
She is still alive and has never renounced the Nazi ideology, repeatedly justifying the actions of her father. For decades she has been a prominent leader in Stille Hilfe which provides support for Nazi war criminals as in the case of Anton Malloth who was extradited to Germany in 1988 and sentenced in 2001 to life in prison. She had arranged his stay at an expensive nursing home in Pullach in the south of Munich which had originally served as the property of Rudolf Hess.

Prisoners' barracks

Shortly after liberation and the site today
Inside the reconstructed barracks. During the new construction of the camp in 1937-38 the prisoners had to build 34 barracks. The first two barracks on the left of the camp road were used for a variety of purposes in the course of the years. Located here were, for example, the canteen, the camp clerk office, the library and the SS museum as well as training rooms for the prisoner personnel and workshops serving the armaments industry. Located behind these barracks were those housing the prisoners. Every barrack was divided into four so-called Stuben, comprising of a day room and dormitory. The barracks were fitted to each hold 200 prisoners; towards the end of the war however they were completely overfilled, holding up to 2,000 prisoners. On the right-hand side of the camp road was the infirmary, which expanded continuously in the course of the war. Behind the infirmary were the penal blocks and the quarantine barracks for the prisoners newly arriving at the camp.

The reconstructed baracks at the Buchenwald concentration camp look almost the same as the dimensions used for the barracks used at the Dachau Refugee Camp I take my students to every Tuesday in the town.
Watchtower then and now
The prisoner baths (Häftlingsbad) in 1942 and today. The centre photograph shows the beams for the “pole hanging” used as torture (between the pillars) during the inspection of the Dachau concentration camp by Erhard Milch, General Inspector of the Luftwaffe (front middle). The prisoner baths, located in the maintenance building erected in 1937/38, belonged to the central rooms in the new camp. The admissions procedure for the new prisoners concluded here with the shaving of body hair, disinfection, showering, and putting on the prisoner uniform. At first weekly, later less frequently, the prisoners were taken to bathe – a procedure often accompanied by harassment. From 1941/42 “pole hanging” was carried out on the beams between the pillars in the baths. Corporal punishment was also at times inflicted in the baths.

Bodies lined up outside the barracks upon liberation
Beginning in the summer of 1933, the camp island already resembled a bulwark. In front of the wire fence, charged with high-voltage current at night, there was a low, slatted fence that marked out the “neutral zone.” Whoever entered it was shot down without warning. Directly behind it ran a concrete wall three meters high that surrounded the entire area of the camp. Patrols moved in the area between the wall and the internal fence; these patrols maintained eye contact with the two sentries posted on each of the four watchtowers. Machine guns were pointed at the camp from all directions. Searchlights illuminated the grounds at night. Every corner could be lit up brightly and brought under fire at will. In the beginning, the patrols had to drive away strangers and the curious, but this was a problem that soon took care of itself. After modernization, the entire area was surrounded by a high wall and encircled during the day by the Große Postenkette. Patrols with dogs scoured the areas in between. The prisoner camp was enclosed by a moat; then came the concrete wall with the wire fence and watch- towers, a path for the nightly patrols, and a double row of electrified barbed wire. Finally, there was the death strip, covered with white gravel to make any shadow readily visible at night.
Wolfgang Sofsky (56)

Gustav Hinz, died on February 19, 1941 by hanging from the sink. The top right shows Franz Rabanda, died on May 29, 1940, in the electrified fence and below Josef Stessel, “shot while trying to escape” on August 11, 1940. It occurred that prisoners crossed the guard chain, which meant certain death by shooting, out of despair. Often, however, they were violently forced over the guard line by the guards and then shot “while trying to escape”.
With the mass committal of foreign prisoners from 1940 onwards, the number of deaths in the Dachau concentration camp rose dramatically. Death became an everyday event. Dying took place without any sign of piety and sympathy, the dead were robbed of all dignity. In order to conceal the horrific reality from the public, the SS built a crematorium in the camp in 1940. In June 1941 an independent registry office, Dachau II, was set up to register the deaths in the Dachau concentration camp.

Bodies found in and outside the crematorium after liberation
And how inhumanely the corpses were treated! The last piece of clothing they wore was taken from them. In the barracks there was barely enough room for the living. The naked corpses were therefore carried out onto the road and stacked in piles. There they lay in the dirt in the road. Once or twice a day a wagon pulled by prisoners came along and picked up the dead. They were covered with tarpaulin, taken to the crematorium and unloaded there onto the heaps of corpses which had arrived from other camps. The corpses were stacked one above the other like logs.
 Original crematorium used by the Nazis

The crematorium built 1943 from the front and standing at back
This secretly taken photo by the Belgian prisoner Jean Brichaux from the summer of 1944 is the only surviving shot of the crematorium facility taken during the existence of the concentration camp.  The photo shows the smoking chimney of the crematorium ovens and is thus the obvious proof for an operating crematorium.   
Bodies piled up outside and the view today

Holocaust deniers such as Matt Giwer use the above photograph, taken the day after liberation, to claim that it shows a fraudulent gas chamber at Dachau-
The words on this door are warnings of danger and the lethality of the gas. Even for the iliterate (SIC!), the skull and crossbones a clear warning. No one could be tricked into believing this is a shower.
In fact, the sign above the door actually reveals that the room served as disinfection chambers. It is then shown next to a photo of a completely different site-  the actual shower entrance- to claim that the site has been tampered with. The The Nizkor Project devotes a page to this anti-semite's deplorable statements which shows the purpose behind his lies as well a page concerning him at

 Me in front of the actual shower entrance and the same site in 1950 from a colour photograph taken by Hitler's personal photographer Hugo Jaeger
U.S. Congressmen visiting the showers planned to later be used to exterminate; taking students to expose the deceit
video video
Videos I took on the anniversary of the liberation the camp, April 29, 2011 showing the crematoria and shower/disinfection rooms.

The so-called bunker (camp prison), then and now, showing an inspection of the penal company of the SS penal camp in the Bunker-yard by SS judges in either 1941 or 1942. I'm standing in front of the so-called "death wall"
The mass executions at the “death wall” in the main camp were generally achieved by bullets to the nape of the neck. Thousands of men, women, and children were shot at this site. In Dachau as well, mass executions were carried out in the yard of the bunker or the garden of the crematorium, generally by bullets to the nape of the neck. Groups of fifteen to thirty prisoners were forced first to disrobe completely and then to kneel down in a row. The associates went from person to person, pressing a pistol to the base of each skull and pulling the trigger. This procedure had no military tradition behind it: killing by Genickschuß was a method first used by the secret police. Although the act of killing here was done by an individual, the sequence of slaughter was just as anonymous as in the case of a firing squad. The perpetrator saw the victim only from behind. Direct eye contact was precluded. Soldiers condemned to death stand erect and await a hail of bullets to their faces. Honour demands that they stand directly facing the enemy. By contrast, the concentration camp in- mates were forced to kneel down, bending their necks forward, and were then liquidated in rows, one after the other.
Sofsky (233)
Individual cells inside the so-called bunker used for prisoners such as Georg Elser. Today, these cells provide first-hand accounts from bunker prisoners through audio and visual terminals with biographical information on some of the prisoners that were detained here.
The desk at which new arrivals to Dachau would be processed. The photo on the right shows where prisoners were brought here, strapped down and whipped by two ϟϟ officers whilst having to count the blows, as demonstrated to Patton and Eisenhower at Ohrdruf.

An undated list for internal ϟϟ use prepared during the war mentions no fewer than forty-seven crimes punishable by official flogging. A few examples: ten strokes of the cane were given for “negligence at work and undisciplined behaviour,” twenty for “absence from the work place” and stealing of food, fifteen for “insolence toward a member of the ϟϟ” or “cutting up a woollen blanket”; the “theft of a potato” was punishable by five strokes on the whipping block.
Sofsky (332)
Massacre of Guards during the liberation of Dachau by Allied soldiers
Upon liberation, a coal yard near the ϟϟ hospital was used to contain the ϟϟ POWs from the hospital, NCO school and finance centre.  Lieutenant Sparks, shown above trying to call an halt to the massacre, later described the area as enclosed by an “L-shaped masonry wall, about eight feet high, which had been used as a coal bin. The ground was covered with coal dust, and a narrow gauge railroad track, laid on top of the ground, led into the area.”  The prisoners were placed under the command of Lt. Walsh, the same man who had shot four ϟϟ guards on the so-called Death Train. The number of men present varies enormously between accounts, but according to the investigation carried out by the Assistant Inspector General of the 7th Army, Joseph M. Whitaker (known as the IG report); all estimates were in the range of 50-125, with the majority in the range of 50-75.  From this point, the accounts of what happened to these men diverge wildly. Walsh gave the order to the machine gunner identified in the IG report as “C” and the other soldiers present to shoot the POWs if they moved. An eyewitness, Karl Mann, remembered the I-Company officers deciding to shoot the ϟϟ men when Sparks was no longer in sight, although this also conflicts with the IG report.  According to the IG report, the ϟϟ men thought they were going to be executed when the machine gunner loaded his weapon, and lurched forward, triggering the shooting. However, other eyewitness reports, including the gunman himself, indicate that the trigger had rather been someone shouting “fire”. This incident, which took a matter of moments, was interrupted by an irate Colonel Sparks, who ran from where he had been stationed “about 100 to 200 meters on the other side of the wall”  To stop the shooting, Sparks shot his “.45 in the air while shouting 'Cease Fire!'”, before kicking the shooter away from the gun.

The site today.
After the hospital shooting was stopped, some of the U.S. soldiers allegedly gave a number of handguns to the now-liberated inmates. It has been claimed by eyewitnesses that the freed inmates tortured and killed a number of captured German troops, in retaliation for their treatment in the camp. The same witnesses claim that many of the German soldiers killed by the inmates were beaten to death with shovels and other tools. A number of Kapo prisoner-guards were also killed, torn apart by the inmates.
Watchtowers in 1945, 1950 and today
ϟϟ guards being fished out of the canal, and as it appears today
After entry into the camp, personnel of the 42nd Division discovered the presence of guards, presumed to be SS men, in a tower to the left of the main gate of the inmate stockade. This tower was attacked by Tec 3 Henry J. Wells 39271327, Headquarters Military Intelligence Service, ETO, covered and aided by a party under Lt. Col. Walter J. Fellenz, 0-23055, 222 Infantry. No fire was delivered against them by the guards in the tower. A number of Germans were taken prisoner; after they were taken, and within a few feet of the tower, from which they were taken, they were shot and killed.
from the IG Report of the U.S. Seventh Army
video video video video
A few of my students presenting short biographies of former inmates of Dachau as part of the Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site extensive research project: “The book of remembrance for the victims of the Dachau Concentration Camp”. Names and other biographical information of those who died in the Dachau Concentration Camp were collected for the book. Of the more than 40,000 dead over 33,000 victims coming from nearly forty nations can now be called by their name - far more than originally expected.

Gedenkbuch für NS-Opfer Den zahllosen Toten ihre Geschichte zurückgeben

 Having the honour of welcoming Mr. Bill Glied to my school January 28, 2013. In April 1944, he was deported with his family to Auschwitz-Birkenau from his home in Serbia. In June that year he was transferred to the Dachau concentration camp where he worked as a slave labourer. He was liberated by the Americans on April 29, 1945 and moved to the Dominion of Canada as an orphan in 1947 where he married an Hungarian Holocaust survivor. He gives regular talks to schools; in fact, he recently spoke to his grandson Josh’s Grade 9 class in Ontario. 

Sites Outside the Main Camp
 Located where the current Information centre and in front of the Jourhaus (the Kommandant's HQ in the background), these metal corners mark the exact position of the building of the political department. The chief function of the Political Department was to screen and process all political and other types of criminals, the keeping of their records, the notification of the higher interning authorities of deaths, discharges, or other disposition of the internees. Death sentences of internees were received by this department (from Berlin), and these sentences were referred for execution to Abteilung III (Schutzhaftlager), and upon the execution of the above, this department was responsible for turning in a final report of the carrying out of these orders. Gestapo came from Munich to carry on interrogations at Dachau. It was the responsibility of this department to interrogate and abuse Russian prisoners of war who were brought here for that specific purpose. Orders for the inhumane interrogation of the Russian prisoners of war were carried out by this department. Another function of this department was to recruit internees by intimidation for sabotage and espionage work.

The ϟϟ Wirtschaftsbetriebe or 'business enterprises' that served as the main factory for prisoners. It had been built around the time of the Great War; the period photo dates from 1941.
Although scarcity was ubiquitous, the personnel used the workshops in Dachau, which already employed five hundred artisans in 1933, for its own private orders. This was the origin of the system of graft and corruption in which many members of the commandant office staffs were implicated later on. When the Dachau workshops were transferred from the supervision of the central Inspektion and placed under Pohl’s Administrative Office, that move met with fierce opposition from the clique of commandants. The shift to commercial principles curtailed their private power of control. This line of conflict between the economic administration echelon and the camp ϟϟ also resurfaced in differences over the later deployment of prisoners in arms manufacture.
Sofsky (174)

This is what is left of the former ϟϟ main guardhouse directly across from the ϟϟ Wirtschaftsbetriebe. From 1935, this served as the entrance to the camp. Harassed and beaten prisoners would pass through it from the railway station as well as prisoner transport such as buses and lorries. The ϟϟ members used it too when entering, and most lived further down this road to the ϟϟ residences. The foundations were uncovered as recently as 2008.

Straße der ϟϟ

These buildings on what was the 'Strasse der ss ϟϟ' , now within the Bavarian Riot Police HQ compound, served as residences for members of the ϟϟ.
The centre of power was located in the administrative area. The offices of the camp commandant, the Political Department, and the administrative department were in close proximity to the prisoner camp, but just outside the barbed-wire perimeter. Every office of the KZ-Inspektion had its branch in this administrative zone. It served as the local representative of the central bureaucracy. A leafy, wooded area was set aside for the living quarters of the ϟϟ officers. In Dachau, these were located on the Straße der ϟϟ outside the camp.
Sofsky (49)
In front of the Bavarian Riot Police HQ ( Bayerische Bereitschaftspolizei Abteilung VI. Dachau), then the main entrance to the SS training area. 

This was the Dachau Kommandantur (headquarters) just outside the memorial site. The area of the commandant's headquarters in the ϟϟ concentration camp was located directly next to the prisoner camp. The commandant had almost unrestricted control over the camp. The headquarters staff and the guard units carried out his orders.

 The Plantation (Kräutergarten)
In 1938 concentration camp prisoners were forced to build an herb garden (plantation) on the other side of the Alte Römerstrasse, east of the camp. The cultivation of local herbs was the idea of the 'working group for medicinal plants studies' and Reichsführer ϟϟ Heinrich Himmler showed particular interest in the plan. Germany should have no need to import foreign medicines and herbs. The economic importance of the work done by the prisoners in the herb garden increased as the war progressed. The ϟϟ guards marched the prisoners to work on the large open-air site under abusive threats and blows, and prisoners were arbitrarily shot 'while attempting to escape'. Less brutal working conditions reigned only in the buildings and greenhouses. There a work detail of draughtsmen was supposed to produce a plant collection for Himmler. At the risk of losing their lives, some of the prisoners managed to depict the crimes committed by ϟϟ guards in secret notes.  The ϟϟ set up a shop as part of the herb garden to sell produce from the 'plantation' to residents from Dachau and neighbouring communities. Some prisoners succeeded in establishing secret contact to the civilian population.

Himmler in the Dachau herb garden and the site today.
Beside the plantation buildings on the way to Hebertshausen shooting range one goes past housing used by members of the SS.

Concentration Camp Memorial Cemetery Dachau-Leitenberg

Dachau residents transporting the dead to the cemetery at Dachau-Leitenberg on the left, and depositing the bodies on arrival.

On the right, disinterred bodies at the site.
From February 28 to April 27 1945, eight mass graves were dug on the Leitenberg located in Etzenhausen just outside Dachau although the first mass grave may have already been dug there in October 1944. According to the Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site,
[t]here is demonstrable proof that 4,318 dead concentration camp prisoners were buried there up until liberation on April 29, 1945. A further 1,879 dead prisoners as well as regular German army troops killed in fighting around Dachau were buried in two further mass graves by May 18, 1945 at the latest...
... according to counts made by the responsible authorities, a total of 7,609 dead are buried at the concentration camp cemetery Leitenberg, of whom only 204 are known by name.
Dachau Town
The station immediately during liberation, with clothes scattered all over, and today.

Frühlingstrasse, which leads to the bus and railway stations, was renamed Adolf-Hitler-Strasse on March 24, 1933. The documents on the right made this official after the Dachau town council voted unanimously whilst Lord Mayor Georg Seufert of the Catholic Bavarian People's Party declared Hitler an honorary citizen. Prisoners who arrived at the train station would march down this street to the concentration camp.
Friedenstrasse off Frühlingstrasse was the first residential street set up after the First World War, hence its name- 'Freedom Street'. Here it is shown in April 1945 and today with student, showing Dachau residents forced to haul the enormous number of corpses up to Leitenberg mass grave.
The rathaus in 1903 and, bottom, after it was destroyed and rebuilt in 1936.In the passageway through the new town hall on the right are these two plaques that commemorate the Jews of Dachau who died in the Holocaust. The plaque on top refers to Reichskristallnacht. The one below it lists the names of five of the twelve Jews of Dachau who would die in the death camps: Julius Kohn, Max Wallach, Melly Wallach, Hans Neumeyer, and Vera Neumeyer.

On the left is the Hörhammerbräu Inn where, in November 1922, the Bund Oberland was established which would later become the Dachau Nazi party in 1929 and where it would hold regular meetings; one speaker had been Rudolf Hess. Because the KPD did as well, violent fights would break out.
On the right is the Obere Apotheke, which had been damaged in the fighting on April 30, 1919 between the Freikorps Görlitz, sent by the government from Berlin, and the Red Army which had occupied Dachau since winning "The Battle of Dachau" on April 16, 1919. The Freikorps was also known as the White Guard because they wore white armbands while the Red Army wore red armbands. After a battle that lasted one day, the Freikorps liberated the town of Dachau from the Communists. The white armbands, worn by the Freikorps, were decorated with an ancient emblem called the swastika. The Obere Apotheke supplied the medicine to the prisoners at the camp, delivered St. Jakob church and even provided medication illegally to prisoners working in the town on work details.
Heldengedenktag commemoration conducted by the Nazis next to St. Jakob church at Schrannenplatz; today a large tree has all but obscured the war memorial behind it which was designed by Karl Kroher and dedicated in 1929. It shows the martyrdom of St. Sebastian and reads: "To protect Dachau and you, the heroes went to battle. We offer them our thanksgiving. So great was their sacrifice." Behind there had been an air-raid shelter during the Second World War.
The Stadtkeller shown on the left has had its name since July 1936 when SA man Paul Taut, serving on the town council, leased the building to open a restaurant. Up to then it had been owned by the Dachau Association of Free Trade Unions where the Social Democrats held their party meetings and as a result it became the centre for the trade unions. When the Nazis won the March 5, 1933 elections, union leaders met here to plan their defence against the coming persecution.The Brückenwirt Inn, site of a particular tragedy during the NSDAP era. Its innkeeper and butcher, Ludwig Rosner, was arrested after making anti-Nazi remarks here and sent to the camp. During the time he was incarcerated his wife had suffered an emotional breakdown and had taken their two sons (aged about six and seven) where they were last seen in a shop in Eschenried where she bought them candy. They remained missing when Rosner had been released months later until the bodies were found in Ziegelwald, all dead by the mother using the man's pistol. Past the inn, one arrives at the Mühlbachweg, which was the path women from Dachau used when they accompanied escaped prisoners from the concentration camp during the Dachau Uprising on April 28, 1945.
New Gallery

Further along the street after the Brückenwirt Inn, the New Gallery was once the site of the Dachau Labour Service Camp shown in 1937 and today. In 1935 those between the ages of 18 to 25 as well as the unemployed were made to volunteer for one year of labour service. By the end of the war teenagers and those over the age of 60 were called up into the Volksturm and this was the base.
The Unterbräu Inn

Unterbräu Inn in 1934 and today. It is apparently the oldest brewery in Dachau. On April 16, 1919 this was the headquarters of the Red Army when it controlled Dachau before being overthrown over a week later by Freikorps Görlit. It holds a place in Nazi mythology as the site where the Dachau NSDAP Ortsgruppe was officially founded on February 1, 1930 under the chairmanship of NSDAP Gauleiter for Upper Bavaria, Fritz Reinhardt who, on April 1, 1933 was appointed State Secretary in the Reich Ministry of Finance. In fact, it was to this man that “Aktion Reinhardt” was named whereby the Jews of the Polish General Government became the first large group of Jews to be liquidated by gas in 1942–43. Fritz Reinhardt (1895–1969) had by then become the official in the Finance Ministry responsible for administering the valuables, including dental gold, taken from the victims before or after their deaths.
However, a more infamous event took place here on Sunday, July 17 1932- the so-called Battle of Unterbräu Inn where seven SA men had fled after having antagonised members of the Reichsbanner by stealing a flag from the Jungsozialisten. They were protected by the innkeeper who stood in the doorway with two dogs until they were saved by a Bavarian state police riot squad.

Alter Stadtfriedhof

This chapel in Dachau's oldest cemetery on Gottesacker off Augsburgerstrasse was dedicated to the town's war dead in 1961.


In the foreground in the photo on the right is the Bäckerei Teufelhart which had supplied bread to the camp and to prisoners in the town on labour detail.
Memorial in the town designed by Israeli Abraham Borenstein for the 50th anniversary of the camp's liberation. It is made up of original railway track near where the 45th Thunderbird division discovered the so-called "death train" within which the remains of 2,310 prisoners shipped from Buchenwald three weeks before were left.
The second memorial shown in the next two photographs is one designed by Hubertus von Pilgrim in the town itself, dedicated to the concentration camp inmates who where sent on so-called Todesmärsche (death marches) from Dachau in April 1945 southwards. this is one of 23 such memorials that are along the routes of the marches (apart from the last which is in Jerusalem).

After the Second World War 1,268 KZ-prisoners, who had died after the freeing of the concentration camp Dachau, were laid to rest here. The four-metre high monument shown in these photos overlooking both Jewish and non-Jewish graves, is dedicated to the Jewish prisoners killed on the death march from from the Flossenbürg camp as the war ended. The last photo shows a memorial specifically to Austrian victims.


This tiny hamlet just to the Northwest of Dachau was the site of a massacre the day the camp was liberated. A Waffen-SS unit had arrived to take up defensive positions in trenches dug around the farms by French POW workers in order to delay the advance of American tanks of the 20th Armoured Division and infantry units of the 7th US Army which was approaching Dachau. The farms, mostly run by women (whose husbands were either dead, prisoners of war or still fighting) with the help of French POWs, came under fire on the morning of April 29 forcing all inhabitants to rush for the cellars. One soldier of Company F of the US 222nd Infantry Regiment of the 42nd Rainbow Division was killed upon entering the hamlet under fire from the Waffen-SS unit. This led the first German to emerge from the cellar, the farm's owner Herr Furtmayer, to be immediately shot. The French POWs then informed the Americans that that only civilians were actually hiding in the cellars which led the soldiers to round up the men of the ϟϟ unit. First to surrender was an officer, Freiherr von Truchsess, heading a detachment of seventeen men who was then struck with a trenching tool splitting his head open. The others were lined up in the farmyard and summarily shot. On a slight rise behind the hamlet, another group of eight ϟϟ were shot. Their bodies were found lying in a straight line with their weapons and ammunition belts neatly laid on the ground suggesting that the men were shot after they surrendered. Altogether, one ϟϟ officer and forty one men lay dead as the infantry regiment proceeded on their way towards Dachau. Next day the local people, with the help of the French POWs, buried the bodies in a field to be later exhumed by the German War Graves Commission and returned to their families.
The site today is remembered by a memorial; photos taken on the anniversary of the massacre.

Hebertshausen ϟϟ Range

In Hebertshausen, a municipality adjoining Dachau, is a shooting range that had been built for the ϟϟ in 1937. This is where roughly 4,000 imprisoned Soviet soldiers were executed from November 25 1941 to the final year of the war. The prisoners brought to Dachau for execution were not recorded in the concentration camp files. The former ϟϟ guardhouse shown above is used today as an homeless shelter

Standing at the entrance to the shooting range April 30, 1945 and today; the ϟϟ runes have been removed but their traces remain on the now superfluous posts.
The route to the execution site just after liberation and today.

The victims were killed as they were handcuffed to posts on the left side.

Former Czech political prisoner Karel Kasak's photo of the site immediately after the war, and sketch of the execution site by former ϟϟ member Max Lengfelder from 29.iv.1954. Lengfelder would receive a sentence of life imprisonment after the Anton Stinglwagner trial 12-14.viii.1947.
 Maria Seidenberger took these photos from the second floor window of her family's home whilst her mother stood outside and gave potatoes to the prisoners. Karel Kasak is shown standing with his back to the camera in the first photo, wearing a white shirt. According to Kasak's diary the prisoners were coming from Nuremberg.  Maria Seidenberger is the second child of Georg and Katharina Seidenberger. In 1943 she made the acquaintance of Karel Kasak, a Czech prisoner who was assigned to take photographs of flowers in the gardens right outside the main entrance to Dachau. He took advantage of his position to also photograph other prisoners and needed a safe place to hide his photos. Having learned that Maria worked in a photo lab, he asked if she would hide his clandestine photos. She also secretly stored Dachau prisoner photos and letters in her family's beehive and mailed them to the prisoner's relatives back in Czechoslovakia. Furthermore, she even hid the personal papers and human remains (a heart and death mask) of Masryk's personal archivist, Jaroslav Simsov, who died of typhus in Dachau.  Near her house is a small memorial on the side of the road, a shooting site where many Soviet POWs were shot sometime in 1942-44. Maria explained how she and her mother heard the constant noise of the gun firing in her house during the day and stood frozen over the kitchen sink sobbing, knowing that each bullet meant the death of a person. On a Sunday Maria and Kasak, searched for the site where the Soviet POWs were buried and found the mass grave. Maria went to the mass grave site to establish that mass murder had indeed happened and photographed the site. She gave her negatives to the Czech prisoner, Karel Kasak. During the final weeks of the war, Maria photographed the death march from Buchenwald to Dachau from inside her home in Hebertshausen. One photograph shows her mother distributing potatoes to the prisoners. After the war, Maria accompanied Kasak back to Czechoslovakia before returning to Hebertshausen in 1959.
 Dachau concentration camp American troops guarding the main entrance to Dachau just after liberation, 1945 Dachau concentration camp is located in Germany Dachau concentration camp Location of Dachau in Upper Bavaria Coordinates     48°16′08″N 11°28′07″ECoordinates: 48°16′08″N 11°28′07″E Location     Upper Bavaria, Southern Germany Operated by     German Schutzstaffel (SS), U.S. Army (after World War II) Original use     Political prison Operational     1933–1945 Inmates     Poles, Jews, Russians, Ukrainians, French, Yugoslavs, Czechs, Germans, Austrians, Lithuanians Killed     31,951 (reported) Liberated by     United States, 29 April 1945 Website     Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site  Dachau concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau, IPA: [ˈdaxaʊ]) was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in Germany, intended to hold political prisoners. It is located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory southeast of the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km (10 mi) northwest of Munich in the state of Bavaria, in southern Germany.[1] Opened in 1933 by Heinrich Himmler, its purpose was enlarged to include forced labor, and eventually, the imprisonment of Jews, ordinary German and Austrian criminals, and eventually foreign nationals from countries that Germany occupied or invaded. The Dachau camp system grew to include nearly 100 sub-camps, which were mostly work camps or "Arbeits Kommandos," and were located throughout southern Germany and Austria.[2] The camps were liberated by U.S. forces in the spring of 1945.  Prisoners lived in constant fear of brutal treatment and terror detention including standing cells, floggings, the so-called tree or pole hanging, and standing at attention for extremely long periods.[3] There were 32,000 documented deaths at the camp, and thousands that are undocumented.[4]  On April 14, 1945, Himmler ordered the evacuation of the camp and the extermination of all inmates at Dachau, writing, "No prisoners shall be allowed to fall into the hands of the enemy alive."[5] Approximately 10,000 of the 30,000 prisoners were sick at the time of liberation.[6]  In the postwar years the Dachau facility served to hold SS soldiers awaiting trial. After 1948, it held ethnic Germans who had been expelled from eastern Europe and were awaiting resettlement, and also was used for a time as a United States military base during the occupation. It was finally closed for use in 1960.  There are several religious memorials within the Memorial Site,[7] and there is no charge to visit.[8]  In 2014, the camp's gate, reading Arbeit macht frei, was stolen.[9]  Contents      1 History     2 General overview     3 Main camp         3.1 Purpose         3.2 Organization         3.3 Demographics             3.3.1 Clergy             3.3.2 Staff     4 Satellite camps and sub-camps     5 Liberation         5.1 Main camp         5.2 Satellite camps         5.3 Killing of camp guards         5.4 Post-liberation Easter         5.5 Deportation of persons of Eastern origin     6 After liberation     7 In popular culture         7.1 Literature         7.2 Onscreen         7.3 In music         7.4 In theatre     8 KZ-Gedenkstätte Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site     9 List of personnel         9.1 Commanders         9.2 Other staff         9.3 SS and civilian doctors     10 List of notable prisoners         10.1 Clergy         10.2 Communists         10.3 Jewish         10.4 Politicians         10.5 Resistance fighters         10.6 Royalty         10.7 Scientists         10.8 Writers         10.9 Military         10.10 Others     11 Gallery     12 See also     13 References     14 Bibliography     15 External links  History  After the takeover of Bavaria on 9 March 1933, Heinrich Himmler, then Chief of Police in Munich, began to speak with the administration of an unused gunpowder and munitions factory. He toured the site to see if it could be used for quartering protective-custody prisoners. The Concentration Camp at Dachau was opened 22 March 1933, with the arrival of about 200 prisoners from Stadelheim Prison in Munich and the Landsberg fortress (where Hitler had written Mein Kampf during his imprisonment).[10] Himmler announced in the Münchner Neuesten Nachrichten newspaper that the camp could hold up to 5,000 people, and described it as "the first concentration camp for political prisoners"[1] to be used to restore calm to Germany.[11] It became the first regular concentration camp established by the coalition government of the National Socialist German Worker's Party (Nazi Party) and the German National People's Party (dissolved on 6 July 1933).  Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, and emigrants were sent to Dachau after the 1935 passage of the Nuremberg Laws which institutionalized racial discrimination.[12] In early 1937, the SS, using prisoner labor, initiated construction of a large complex capable of holding 6,000 prisoners. The construction was officially completed in mid-August 1938.[13] More political opponents, and over 11,000 German and Austrian Jews were sent to the camp after the annexation of Austria and the Sudetenland in 1938. Sinti and Roma in the hundreds were sent to the camp in 1939, and over 13,000 prisoners were sent to the camp from Poland in 1940.[12][14] The gate at the Jourhaus building through which the prisoner's camp was entered contains the slogan, Arbeit macht frei, or 'Work will make you free.'  The prisoners of Dachau concentration camp originally were to serve as forced labor for a munition factory, and to expand the camp. It was used as a training center for SS guards and was a model for other concentration camps[15] The camp was about 300 m × 600 m (1,000 ft × 2,000 ft) in rectangular shape. The prisoner's entrance was secured by an iron gate with the motto “Arbeit macht frei” (“Work will make you free”). This reflected Nazi propaganda which trivialized concentration camps as labor and re-education camps, when in fact forced labor was used as a method of torture.[16]  As of 1938, the procedure for new arrivals occurred at the Schubraum, where prisoners were to hand over their clothing and possessions.[17] "There we were stripped of all our clothes. Everything had to be handed over: money, rings, watches. One was now stark naked."[18]  The camp included an administration building that contained offices for the Gestapo trial commissioner, SS authorities, the camp leader and his deputies; administration offices that consisted of large storage rooms for the personal belongings of prisoners; the bunker; roll-call square where guards would also inflict punishment on prisoners, especially those who tried to escape; the canteen, where prisoners served SS men with cigarettes and food; the museum containing plaster images of prisoners who suffered from bodily defects; the camp office; the library; the barracks; and the infirmary, which was staffed by prisoners who had previously held occupations such as physicians or army surgeons.[19]  Over 4,000 Soviet prisoners of war were murdered by the Dachau commandant's guard at the SS shooting range located two kilometers from the main camp in the years 1942/1943.[20][21][22] These murders were a clear violation of the provisions laid down in the Geneva Convention for prisoners of war. The SS used the cynical term "special treatment" for these criminal executions. The first executions of the Soviet prisoners of war at the Hebertshausen shooting range took place on November 25 1941.[23]  After 1942, the number of prisoners regularly held at the camp continued to exceed 12,000.[24] Dachau originally held Communists, leading Socialists and other “enemies of the state” in 1933, but over time the Nazis began to send German Jews to the camp. In the early years of imprisonment, Jews were offered permission to emigrate overseas if they “voluntarily” gave their property to enhance Hitler’s public treasury.[24] Once Austria was annexed and Czechoslovakia was defeated, the citizens of both countries became the next prisoners at Dachau. In 1940, Dachau became filled with Polish prisoners, who constituted the majority of the prisoner population until Dachau was officially liberated.[25]  Prisoners were divided into categories. At first, they were classified by the nature of the crime for which they were accused, but eventually were classified by the specific authority-type under whose command a person was sent to camp.[26] Political prisoners who had been arrested by the Gestapo wore a red badge, "professional" criminals sent by the Criminal Courts wore a green badge, Cri-Po prisoners arrested by the criminal police wore a brown badge, "work-shy and asocial" people sent by the welfare authorities or the Gestapo wore a black badge, Jehovah’s Witnesses arrested by the Gestapo wore a violet badge, homosexuals sent by the criminal courts wore a pink badge, emigrants arrested by the Gestapo wore a blue badge, "race polluters" arrested by the criminal court or Gestapo wore badges with a black outline, second-termers arrested by the Gestapo wore a bar matching the color of their badge, "idiots" wore a white armband with the label Blöd (idiot), and Jews, whose incarceration in the Dachau concentration camp dramatically increased after Kristallnacht, wore a yellow badge, combined with another color.[27]  The prisoner enclosure at the camp was heavily guarded to ensure that no prisoners escaped. A ten-foot-wide (3 m) no-man's land was the first marker of confinement for prisoners; an area which, upon entry would elicit lethal gunfire from guard towers. Guards are known to have tossed inmates' caps into this area, resulting in the death of the prisoners when they attempted to retrieve the caps. Despondent prisoners committed suicide by entering the zone. A four-foot-deep and eight-foot-broad (1.2 × 2.4 m) creek, connected with the river Amper, lay on the west side between the “neutral-zone” and the electrically charged, and barbed wire fence which surrounded the entire prisoner enclosure.[28]  Hundreds of prisoners suffered and died, or were executed in medical experiments conducted at KZ Dachau. Some of these experiments involved exposure to vats of icy water or being strapped down naked outdoors in freezing temperatures. Victims writhed in pain, foamed at the mouth, and lost consciousness. Attempts at reviving the subjects included scalding baths, and forcing naked women to copulate with the unconscious victim. Nearly 100 prisoners died during these experiments.[29] The original records of the experiments were destroyed "in an attempt to conceal the atrocities." Extensive communication between the investigators and Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS, was discovered providing documentation of the experiments.[30] High altitude experiments were conducted during 1942. Victims were subjected to rapid decompression to pressures found at 14,000 feet inducing spasmodic convulsions, agonal breathing, and eventual death.[31]  Prisoners were sent to KZ Dachau as late as April 19, 1945; on that date a freight train from Buchenwald with nearly 4,500 was diverted to Nammering. SS troops and police stole food and water local townspeople tried to give to the prisoners. Nearly three hundred dead bodies were ordered removed from the train and carried to a ravine over a quarter of a mile away. The 524 prisoners who had been forced to carry the dead to this site were then shot by the guards, and buried along with those who had died on the train. Nearly 800 bodies went into this mass grave. The train continued on to KZ Dachau.[32]  As U.S. troops drove deeper into Bavaria during April 1945, the commander of KZ Dachau suggested to Gestapo Chief Heinrich Himmler that the camp be turned over to the Allies. Himmler, in signed correspondence, prohibited such a move, adding that "No prisoners shall be allowed to fall into the hands of the enemy alive."[33] Just days before the U.S. troops arrived at the camp the commandant and a strong guard forced between 6,000 and 7,000 inmates on a death march from Dachau south to Tegernsee. Any prisoners who could not keep up on the six day march were shot. Many others died of exhaustion, hunger and exposure.[34] Months later a mass grave containing 1,071 prisoners was found along the route.[35] General overview  Dachau served as a prototype and model for the other Nazi concentration camps that followed. Almost every community in Germany had members taken away to these camps. Newspapers continually reported "the removal of the enemies of the Reich to concentration camps." As early as 1935, a jingle went around: "Dear God, make me dumb, That I may not to Dachau come" ("Lieber Herr Gott, mach mich stumm, Das ich nicht nach Dachau komm'").[36]  The camp's layout and building plans were developed by Kommandant Theodor Eicke and were applied to all later camps. He had a separate secure camp near the command center, which consisted of living quarters, administration, and army camps. Eicke became the chief inspector for all concentration camps, responsible for organizing others according to his model.[37] Aerial photo of the Dachau complex with the actual concentration camp on the left  The Dachau complex included the prisoners' camp, which occupied approximately 5 acres, and the much larger area of SS training school including barracks, factories, plus other facilities of around 20 acres.[38]  The entrance gate used by prisoners carries the phrase "Arbeit macht frei" (literal English translation: "Work makes free" (or "Work makes [one] free"; Contextual English translation: "Work shall set you free"). This phrase was also used in Terezín, near Prague, and Auschwitz I. The camp commander gives a speech to prisoners about to be released as part of a pardoning action near Christmas 1933.  Dachau was the concentration camp that was in operation the longest from March 1933 to April 1945; nearly all twelve years of the Nazi regime. Dachau's close proximity to Munich, where Hitler came to power and where the Nazi Party had its official headquarters, made Dachau a convenient location. From 1933 to 1938, the prisoners were mainly German nationals detained for political reasons. After the Reichspogromnacht or Kristallnacht, 30,000 male Jewish citizens were deported to concentration camps. More than 10,000 of them were interned in Dachau alone. As the German military occupied other European states, citizens from across Europe were sent to concentration camps. Subsequently, the camp was used for prisoners of all sorts, from every nation occupied by the forces of the Third Reich.[39]  In the postwar years, the camp continued in use. From 1945 through 1948, the camp was used by the Allies as a prison for SS officers awaiting trial. After 1948, when hundreds of thousands of ethnic Germans were expelled from eastern Europe, it held Germans from Czechoslovakia until they could be resettled. It also served as a military base for the United States, which maintained forces in the country. It was closed in 1960. At the insistence of survivors, various memorials have been constructed and installed here.[40]  Demographic statistics vary but they are in the same general range. History will likely never know how many people were interned or died there, due to periods of disruption. One source gives a general estimate of over 200,000 prisoners from more than 30 countries for the Third Reich's years, of whom two-thirds were political prisoners, including many Catholic priests, and nearly one-third were Jews. 25,613 prisoners are believed to have died in the camp and almost another 10,000 in its subcamps,[41] primarily from disease, malnutrition and suicide. In early 1945, a typhus epidemic occurred in the camp caused by poor sanitation and overcrowding, followed by an evacuation, in which large numbers of the prisoners died. Toward the end of the war, death marches to and from the camp caused the deaths of numerous unrecorded prisoners. After liberation, prisoners weakened beyond recovery by the starvation conditions continued to die.[citation needed] Survivors of KZ Dachau demonstrate the operation of the crematorium by pushing a corpse into one of the ovens.[42]  Over the 12 years of use as a concentration camp, the Dachau administration recorded the intake of 206,206 prisoners and deaths of 31,951. Crematoria were constructed to dispose of the deceased. Visitors may now walk through the buildings and view the ovens used to cremate bodies, which hid the evidence of many deaths. It is claimed that in 1942, more than 3,166 prisoners in weakened condition were transported to Hartheim Castle near Linz, and were executed by poison gas because they were unfit.[39] Between January and April 1945 11,560 detainees died at KZ Dachau.[43]  Together with the much larger Auschwitz concentration camp, Dachau has come to symbolize the Nazi concentration camps. Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau lives in public memory as the second camp to be liberated by British or American Allied forces. It was one of the first places that firsthand journalist accounts and newsreels revealed to the rest of the world.[citation needed] Main camp Purpose Roll-call of Jewish prisoners (wearing Star of David badges), 20 July 1938  Dachau was opened in March 1933.[1] The press statement given at the opening stated:      On Wednesday the first concentration camp is to be opened in Dachau with an accommodation for 5000 people. 'All Communists and—where necessary—Reichsbanner and Social Democratic functionaries who endanger state security are to be concentrated here, as in the long run it is not possible to keep individual functionaries in the state prisons without overburdening these prisons, and on the other hand these people cannot be released because attempts have shown that they persist in their efforts to agitate and organize as soon as they are released.[1]  Inspection by the Nazi party and Himmler at Dachau on 8 May 1936.  Between the years 1933 and 1946, more than 3.5 million Germans were imprisoned in such concentration camps or prison for political reasons,[44][45][46] Approximately 77,000 Germans were killed for one or another form of resistance by Special Courts, courts-martial, and the civil justice system. Many of these Germans had served in government, the military, or in civil positions, which were considered to enable them to engage in subversion and conspiracy against the Nazis.[47] Organization Prisoners' barracks in 1945  The camp was divided into two sections: the camp area and the crematorium. The camp area consisted of 32 barracks, including one for clergy imprisoned for opposing the Nazi regime and one reserved for medical experiments. The courtyard between the prison and the central kitchen was used for the summary execution of prisoners. The camp was surrounded by an electrified barbed-wire gate, a ditch, and a wall with seven guard towers.[37]  In early 1937, the SS, using prisoner labor, initiated construction of a large complex of buildings on the grounds of the original camp. The construction was officially completed in mid-August 1938 and the camp remained essentially unchanged and in operation until 1945. A crematorium that was next to, but not directly accessible from within the camp, was erected in 1942. KZ Dachau was therefore the longest running concentration camp of the Third Reich. The Dachau complex included other SS facilities beside the concentration camp—a leader school of the economic and civil service, the medical school of the SS, etc. The camp at that time was called a "protective custody camp," and occupied less than half of the area of the entire complex.[37] Demographics Polish prisoners in Dachau toast their liberation from the camp. Poles constituted the largest ethnic group in the camp during the war, followed by Russians, French, Yugoslavs, Jews, and Czechs.  The camp was originally designed for holding German and Austrian political prisoners and Jews, but in 1935 it began to be used also for ordinary criminals. Inside the camp there was a sharp division between the two groups of prisoners; those who were there for political reasons and therefore wore a red tag, and the criminals, who wore a green tag.[48] The political prisoners who were there because they disagreed with Nazi Party policies, or with Hitler, naturally didn't consider themselves criminals.  Dachau was used as the chief camp for Christian (mainly Catholic) clergy who were imprisoned for not conforming with the Nazi Party line.  During the war, other nationals were transferred to it, including French, in 1940 Poles, in 1941 people from the Balkans, Czechs, Yugoslavs, and in 1942, Russians.[48][48]  The average number of Germans in the camp during the war was 3000. Just before the liberation many German prisoners were evacuated, but 2000 of these Germans died during the evacuation transport. Evacuated prisoners included such prominent political and religious figures as Martin Niemöller, Kurt von Schuschnigg, Édouard Daladier, Léon Blum, Franz Halder and Hjalmar Schacht.[48]  In August 1944 a women's camp opened inside Dachau. In the last months of the war, the conditions at Dachau deteriorated. As Allied forces advanced toward Germany, the Germans began to move prisoners from concentration camps near the front to more centrally located camps. They hoped to prevent the liberation of large numbers of prisoners. Transports from the evacuated camps arrived continuously at Dachau. After days of travel with little or no food or water, the prisoners arrived weak and exhausted, often near death. Typhus epidemics became a serious problem as a result of overcrowding, poor sanitary conditions, insufficient provisions, and the weakened state of the prisoners.  Owing to repeated transports from the front, the camp was constantly overcrowded and the hygiene conditions were beneath human dignity. Starting from the end of 1944 up to the day of liberation, 15,000 people died, about half of all the prisoners held at KZ Dachau. Five hundred Soviet POWs were executed by firing squad. The first shipment of women came from Auschwitz-Birkenau.  Though at the time of liberation the death rate had peaked at 200 per day, after the liberation by U.S. forces the rate eventually fell to between 50 and 80 deaths per day. In addition to the direct abuse of the SS and the harsh conditions, people died from typhus epidemics and starvation. The number of inmates had peaked in 1944 with transports from evacuated camps in the east (such as Auschwitz), and the resulting overcrowding led to an increase in the death rate.[48] Clergy Main article: Priest Barracks of Dachau Concentration Camp Friedrich Hoffman, a Czech priest, testifies at the trial of former camp personnel and prisoners from Dachau. In his hand he holds records showing that hundreds of priests died at the camp after being exposed to malaria during Nazi medical experiments.  In effort to counter the strength and influence of spiritual resistance, Nazi security services monitored clergy very closely.[49] Priests were frequently denounced, arrested and sent to concentration camps, often simply on the basis of being "suspected of activities hostile to the State" or that there was reason to "suppose that his dealings might harm society".[50] Despite SS hostility to religious observance, the Vatican and German bishops successfully lobbied the regime to concentrate clergy at one camp and obtained permission to build a chapel, for the priests to live communally and for time to be allotted to them for the religious and intellectual activity. Priests Barracks at Dachau were established in Blocks 26, 28 and 30, though only temporarily. 26 became the international block and 28 was reserved for Poles – the most numerous group.[51]  Of a total of 2,720 clergy recorded as imprisoned at Dachau, the overwhelming majority, some 2,579 (or 94.88%) were Catholic. Among the other denominations, there were 109 Protestants, 22 Greek Orthodox, 8 Old Catholics and Mariavites and 2 Muslims. In his Dachau: The Official History 1933–1945, Paul Berben noted that R. Schnabel's 1966 investigation, Die Frommen in der Hölle ("The Pious Ones in Hell") found an alternative total of 2,771 and included the fate all the clergy listed, with 692 noted as deceased and 336 sent out on "invalid trainloads" and therefore presumed dead.[52] Over 400 German priests were sent to Dachau.[53] Total numbers incarcerated are nonetheless difficult to assert, for some clergy were not recognised as such by the camp authorities, and some—particularly Poles—did not wish to be identified as such, fearing they would be mistreated.[54]  The Nazis introduced a racial hierarchy—keeping Poles in harsh conditions, while favouring German priests.[55] 697 Poles arrived in December 1941, and a further 500 of mainly elderly clergy were brought in October the following year. Inadequately clothed for the bitter cold, of this group only 82 survived. A large number of Polish priests were chosen for Nazi medical experiments. In November 1942, 20 were given phlegmons. 120 were used by Dr Schilling for malaria experiments between July 1942 and May 1944. Several Poles met their deaths with the "invalid trains" sent out from the camp, others were liquidated in the camp and given bogus death certificates. Some died of cruel punishment for misdemeanors—beaten to death or run to exhaustion.[56] The Clergy Barracks of Dachau : Clergy by nationality[52] Nationality     Total number     Released     Transferred elsewhere     Liberated 29/4/45     Deceased Poland     1780     78     4     830     868 Germany     447     208     100     45     94 France     156     5     4     137     10 Czechoslovakia     109     1     10     74     24 Netherlands     63     10     0     36     17 Yugoslavia     50     2     6     38     4 Belgium     46     1     3     33     9 Italy     28     0     1     26     1 Luxembourg     16     2     0     8     6 Denmark     5     5     0     0     0 Lithuania     3     0     0     3     0 Hungary     3     0     0     3     0 Stateless     3     0     1     2     0 Switzerland     2     1     0     0     1 Greece     2     0     0     2     0 Britain     2     0     1     1     0 Albania     2     0     2     0     0 Norway     1     1     0     0     0 Romania     1     0     0     1     0 Spain     1     0     0     1     0 Total     2,720     314     132     1,240     1,034 Staff  Among the staff, mostly SS males, 19 female guards served at Dachau, most of them until liberation.[57] Sixteen have been identified as Fanny Baur, Leopoldine Bittermann, Ernestine Brenner, Anna Buck, Rosa Dolaschko, Maria Eder, Rosa Grassmann, Betty Hanneschaleger, Ruth Elfriede Hildner, Josefa Keller, Berta Kimplinger, Lieselotte Klaudat, Theresia Kopp, Rosalie Leimboeck, and Thea Miesl.[58] Women guards also were assigned to the Augsburg Michelwerke, Burgau, Kaufering, Mühldorf, and Munich Agfa Camera Werke subcamps. In mid-April 1945, many female subcamps at Kaufering, Augsburg and Munich were closed, and the SS stationed the women at Dachau. It is reported that female SS guards gave prisoners guns before liberation to save them from postwar prosecution.[citation needed] Wilhelm Ruppert was charged with killing several prisoners.  Several Norwegians worked as guards at the Dachau camp.[59] Satellite camps and sub-camps  Satellite camps under the authority of Dachau were established in the summer and fall of 1944 near armaments factories throughout southern Germany to increase war production. Dachau alone had more than 30 large subcamps in which over 30,000 prisoners worked almost exclusively on armaments.[60]  Overall, the Dachau concentration camp system included 123 sub-camps and Kommandos which were set up in 1943 when factories were built near the main camp to make use of forced labor of the Dachau prisoners. The sub-camps were liberated by various divisions of the American army—including at least one ethnically segregated artillery battalion of the U.S. Army, many of whose own relatives were themselves interned during the war on American soil—that unexpectedly came across them during the American advance to capture Munich. American soldiers in the 63rd Infantry Division liberated seven of the eleven Kaufering sub-camps on 29 and 30 April 1945. The 63rd Infantry Division was recognized as a liberating unit by the U.S. Army’s Center of Military History and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2000.[61][unreliable source?]  Out of the 123 sub-camps, eleven of them were called Kaufering, distinguished by a number at the end of each. All Kaufering sub-camps were set up to specifically build three underground factories (Allied bombing raids made it necessary for them to be underground) for a project called Ringeltaube (wood pigeon), which planned to be the location in which the German jet fighter plane, Messerschmitt Me 262, was to be built. In the last days of war, in April 1945, the Kaufering camps were evacuated and around 15,000 prisoners were sent up to the main Dachau camp. Approximately 14,500 prisoners in the eleven Kaufering camps died of hunger, cold weather, overwork, and typhus.[61]  As U.S. Army troops neared the Dachau sub-camp at Landsberg on April 27, 1945, the SS officer in charge ordered that 4,000 prisoners be destroyed. Windows and doors of their huts were nailed shut. The buildings were then doused with gasoline and set afire. Prisoners, who were naked or nearly so, were burned to death, while some managed to crawl out of the buildings before dying. Earlier that day, as Wehrmacht troops withdrew from Lansberg-am-Lech, towns people hung white sheets from their windows. Infuriated SS troops dragged German civilians from their homes and hung them from trees. [62][63] Liberation Main camp Female prisoners at Dachau wave to their liberators.  As the opposition began to advance on Nazi Germany, the SS began to evacuate the first concentration camps in summer 1944.[64] Thousands of prisoners were murdered before the evacuation due to being ill or unable to walk. At the end of 1944, the overcrowding of camps began to take its toll on the prisoners. The hygienic conditions and the supplies of food rations became disastrous. In November a typhus fever epidemic broke out that took thousands of lives.[65]  In the second phase of the evacuation, in April 1945, Himmler gave direct evacuation routes for remaining camps. Prisoners that were from the northern part of Germany were to be directed to the Baltic and North Sea coasts to be drowned. The prisoners from the southern part were to be gathered in the Alps, which was the location in which the SS wanted to resist the Allies (p. 196). On 28 April 1945, an armed revolt took place in the town of Dachau. Both former and escaped concentration camp prisoners, and a renegade Volkssturm (civilian militia) company took part. At about 8:30 AM the rebels occupied the Town Hall. The advanced forces of the SS gruesomely suppressed the revolt within a few hours.[66] Bodies in the Dachau death train  Being fully aware that Germany was about to be defeated in World War II, the SS invested its time in removing evidence of the crimes they committed in the concentration camps. The SS began destroying incriminating evidence in April 1945 and planned on murdering the prisoners using codenames “Wolke A I” (Cloud A I) and “Wolkenbrand” (Cloud fire). However, these plans never ended up being carried out. In mid-April, plans to evacuate the camp started by sending prisoners toward Tyrol. On April 26, over 10,000 prisoners were forced to leave the Dachau concentration camp on foot, in trains, or in trucks. The largest group of some 7,000 prisoners was driven southward on a foot-march lasting several days. More than 1,000 prisoners did not survive this march. The evacuation transports cost many thousands of prisoners their lives.[67] On 26 April 1945 prisoner Karl Riemer fled the Dachau concentration camp to get help from American troops and on April 28 Victor Maurer, a representative of the International Red Cross, negotiated an agreement to surrender the camp to U.S. troops. That night a secretly formed International Prisoners Committee took over the control of the camp. On 29 April 1945, 1st Lt. William Cowling encountered several civilians and two reporters including Marguerite Higgins and Peter Furst who informed Lt. Cowling about the camp and escorted him to the location, where the German camp commander SS 2nd Lt. Heinrich Wicker, waving a white flag, surrendered the camp to him. Lt. Cowling reported the incident to Brigadier General Henning Linden, who then led a detachment of the 42nd (Rainbow) Infantry Division to further secure the camp, generating international headlines by freeing more than 30,000 Jews and political prisoners.[68][69][70][71][72] Satellite camps  During the liberation of the sub-camps surrounding Dachau (which happened on the same day as the main camp's surrender on 29 April) the advance scouts of the US Army's 522nd Field Artillery Battalion, a Nisei-manned segregated Japanese-American Allied military unit, liberated the 3,000 prisoners of the "Kaufering IV Hurlach"[73] slave labor camp.[74] Perisco describes an Office of Strategic Services (OSS) team (code name LUXE) leading Army Intelligence to a "Camp IV" on 29 April. "they found the camp afire and a stack of some four hundred bodies burning... American soldiers then went into Landsberg and rounded up all the male civilians they could find and marched them out to the camp. The former commandant was forced to lie amidst a pile of corpses. The male population of Landsberg was then ordered to walk by, and ordered to spit on the commandant as they passed. The commandant was then turned over to a group of liberated camp survivors."[75] Killing of camp guards Main article: Dachau liberation reprisals Photograph allegedly showing execution of SS troops in a coal yard in the area of the Dachau concentration camp during its liberation. April 29, 1945 (U.S Army photograph)[Note 1]  American troops killed some of the camp guards after they had surrendered. The number is disputed as some were killed in combat, some while attempting to surrender, and others after their surrender was accepted. In 1989 Brigadier General Felix L. Sparks, the Colonel in command of a battalion that captured the camp in 1945, stated:      The total number of German guards killed at Dachau during that day most certainly does not exceed fifty, with thirty probably being a more accurate figure. The regimental records of the 157th Infantry Regiment (United States) for that date indicate that over a thousand German prisoners were brought to the regimental collecting point. Since my task force was leading the regimental attack, almost all the prisoners were taken by the task force, including several hundred from Dachau.[76]  An Inspector General report resulting from a US Army investigation conducted between May 3 and May 8, 1945 and titled, "American Army Investigation of Alleged Mistreatment of German Guards at Dachau," found that 21 plus "a number" of presumed SS men were killed with others being wounded after their surrender had been accepted.[77][78]  As a result of the American Army investigation court-martial, charges were drawn up against Sparks and several other men under his command but, as General George S. Patton (the then recently appointed military governor of Bavaria) chose to dismiss the charges, the witnesses to the killings were never cross-examined in court and no one was found guilty.[76] Many guards were also killed by the liberated prisoners, which made the issue more complex. Lee Miller visited the camp just after liberation, and photographed several guards who died at the prisoners' hands.  Colonel Charles L. Decker, an acting deputy judge advocate, concluded in late 1945 that, while war crimes had been committed at Dachau by Germany, "Certainly, there was no such systematic criminality among United States forces as pervaded the Nazi groups in Germany.[79]  American troops also forced local citizens to the camp to see for themselves the conditions there and to help clean the facilities. Many local residents were shocked about the experience and claimed no knowledge of the activities at the camp.[80] Post-liberation Easter Liberated Dachau camp prisoners cheer U.S. troops  May 6 (23 April on the Orthodox calendar) was the day of Pascha, Orthodox Easter. In a cell block used by Catholic priests to say daily Mass, several Greek, Serbian and Russian priests and one Serbian deacon, wearing makeshift vestments made from towels of the SS guard, gathered with several hundred Greek, Serbian and Russian prisoners to celebrate the Paschal Vigil. A prisoner named Rahr described the scene:[81]      In the entire history of the Orthodox Church there has probably never been an Easter service like the one at Dachau in 1945. Greek and Serbian priests together with a Serbian deacon adorned the make-shift 'vestments' over their blue and gray-striped prisoners' uniforms. Then they began to chant, changing from Greek to Slavic, and then back again to Greek. The Easter Canon, the Easter Sticheras—everything was recited from memory. The Gospel—In the beginning was the Word—also from memory. And finally, the Homily of Saint John—also from memory. A young Greek monk from the Holy Mountain stood up in front of us and recited it with such infectious enthusiasm that we shall never forget him as long as we live. Saint John Chrysostomos himself seemed to speak through him to us and to the rest of the world as well!  Cheering crowds of liberated survivors  There is a Russian Orthodox chapel at the camp today, and it is well known for its icon of Christ leading the prisoners out of the camp gates.  The U.S. 7th Army's version of the events of the Dachau Liberation is available in Report of Operations of the Seventh United States Army, Vol. 3, page 382. Deportation of persons of Eastern origin  In Operation Keelhaul and related programs, persons born in the area under the dominion of the Soviet Union were to be given over to the Soviets for imprisonment or death. The existence of this program had been vehemently denied in Allied propaganda before the end of the war.  As part of the liquidation of Dachau, persons of Eastern origin who had been brought to Germany under the Ostarbeiter program were forcibly deported to the Soviet Union. Despite being handcuffed and beaten by American soldiers, many still managed to resist—whether hanging themselves, smashing window panes and cutting their throats on the shards of glass, or throwing themselves into the flames of their burning barracks. At Dachau, there were 275 cases of suicide or attempted suicide. Many deportees begged American soldiers to shoot them.[82] After liberation  After liberation, the camp was used by the US Army as an internment camp. It was also the site of the Dachau Trials for German war criminals, a site chosen for its symbolism. In 1948 the Bavarian government established housing for refugees on the site, and this remained for many years.[83]  The Kaserne quarters and other buildings used by the guards and trainee guards were converted and served as the Eastman Barracks, an American military post, for many years. It had its own elementary school: Dachau American Elementary School, a part of the Department of Defense dependent school system.  After the closure of the Eastman Barracks, these areas are now occupied by the Bavarian Bereitschaftspolizei (rapid response police unit).[84] In popular culture Literature      In his 2013 autobiography, Moose: Chapters from My Life, in the chapter entitled, "Dachau", author Robert B. Sherman chronicles his experiences as an American Army serviceman during the initial hours of Dachau's liberation.[85]      In "The Book Thief", Max Vandenburg - along with many other Jews - are led through the street toward Dachau in front of all the German onlookers, including the protagonist, Liesel.  In the short novel, "Down the Highway" by Michael Corrigan, two young American men traveling through Europe in 1962 visit Dachau. Onscreen      Dachau is depicted as the setting for The Twilight Zone episode "Deaths-Head Revisited" (1961), in which a former SS captain revisits the place he once worked in and the ghosts of the men who died there.     Frontline: "Memory of the Camps" (May 7, 1985, Season 3, Episode 18), is a 56 minute television documentary that addresses Dachau and other Nazi concentration camps[86][87]     The Dachau Massacre figures prominently in the back story of Teddy Daniels, the protagonist of Dennis Lehane's psychological mystery-thriller Shutter Island, (2003) (later adapted into a 2010 film by Martin Scorsese, starring Leonardo DiCaprio). Among other memories, Daniels is haunted by his own recollections of the massacre and taking part in the executions after seeing piles of prisoners' bodies.  In music      "Dachau Blues", a song by psychedelic blues singer Captain Beefheart from the album Trout Mask Replica (1969), contains several references to the camp and to the Holocaust.     The British band The Style Council released a song called "Ghosts of Dachau" (1984) in memory of those who died at Dachau, after a visit by lead singer Paul Weller to a concentration camp.[citation needed]  In theatre      Dachau is the concentration camp in which two homosexual prisoners desperately try to hold on to their humanity in the play Bent (1979) by Martin Sherman.  KZ-Gedenkstätte Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site Memorial sculpture erected in 1968 Aerial photo of the memorial in 2010  Between 1945 and 1948 when the camp was handed over to the Bavarian authorities, many accused war criminals and members of the SS were imprisoned at the camp.  Owing to the severe refugee crisis mainly caused by the expulsions of ethnic Germans, the camp was from late 1948 used to house 2000 Germans from Czechoslovakia (mainly from the Sudetenland). This settlement was called Dachau-East, and remained until the mid-1960s.[88] During this time, former prisoners banded together to erect a memorial on the site of the camp, finding it unbelievable that there were still people (refugees) living in the former camp.  The display, which was reworked in 2003, takes the visitor through the path of new arrivals to the camp. Special presentations of some of the notable prisoners are also provided. Two of the barracks have been rebuilt and one shows a cross-section of the entire history of the camp, since the original barracks had to be torn down due to their poor condition when the memorial was built. The other 32 barracks are indicated by concrete foundations.  The memorial includes four chapels for the various religions represented among the prisoners. List of personnel Commanders      SS-Standartenführer Hilmar Wäckerle (22 March 1933 – 26 June 1933)     SS-Gruppenführer Theodor Eicke (26 June 1933 – 4 July 1934)     SS-Oberführer Alexander Reiner (de) (4 July 1934 – 22 October 1934)     SS-Brigadeführer Berthold Maack (22 October 1934 – 12 January 1935)     SS-Oberführer Heinrich Deubel (12 January 1935 – 31 March 1936)     SS-Oberführer Hans Loritz (31 March 1936 – 7 January 1939)     SS-Hauptsturmführer Alex Piorkowski (7 January 1939 – 2 January 1942)     SS-Obersturmbannführer Martin Weiß (3 January 1942 – 30 September 1943)     SS-Hauptsturmführer Eduard Weiter (30 September 1943 – 26 April 1945)     SS-Obersturmbannführer Martin Weiß (26 April 1945 – 28 April 1945)     SS-Untersturmführer Johannes Otto (28 April 1945)     SS-Untersturmführer Heinrich Wicker (28 April 1945 – 29 April 1945)  Other staff Adolf Eichmann on trial in 1961      Adolf Eichmann (29 January 1934 – October 1934)[89] (Eichmann claimed that his unit had nothing to do with the concentration camp)[90]     Rudolf Höss (1934–1938)[91]     Max Kögel (1937–1938)     Gerhard Freiherr von Almey, a SS-Obergruppenführer, half-brother of Ludolf von Alvensleben. Executed in 1955, in Moscow.     Johannes Heesters[92] (visited the camp and entertained the SS-officers, was also given/giving tours)[93]  SS and civilian doctors Dr. Hans Eisele in American internment      SS-Untersturmführer – Dr. Hans Eisele – (13 March 1912 – 1967) – Escaped to Egypt     SS-Obersturmführer – Dr. Fritz Hintermayer – (28 Oct 1911 – 29 May 1946) – Executed by the Allies     Dr. Ernst Holzlöhner – (Committed suicide)     SS-Hauptsturmführer – Dr. Fridolin Karl Puhr – (30 April 1913 – ?) – Sentenced to death, later commuted to 10-years imprisonment     SS-Untersturmführer Dr. Sigmund Rascher – (12 February 1909 – 26 April 1945) – Executed by the SS     Dr. Claus Schilling – (25 July 1871 – 28 May 1946) – Executed by the Allies     SS Sturmbannführer – Dr. Horst Schumann – (11 May 1906 – 5 May 1983) – Escaped to Ghana, later extradited to West Germany     SS Obersturmführer – Dr. Helmuth Vetter – (21 March 1910 – 2 February 1949) – Executed by the Allies     SS Sturmbannführer – Dr. Wilhelm Witteler – (20 April 1909 – ?) – Sentenced to death, later commuted to 20-years imprisonment     SS Sturmbannführer – Dr. Waldemar Wolter – (19 May 1908 – 28 May 1947) – Executed by the Allies  List of notable prisoners The commemorative mass grave dedicated to the unknown dead at Dachau Clergy Main article: Priest Barracks of Dachau Concentration Camp  Dachau had a special "priest block." Of the 2720 priests (among them 2579 Catholic) held in Dachau, 1034 did not survive the camp. The majority were Polish (1780), of whom 868 died in Dachau.      Patriarch Gavrilo V of the Serbian Orthodox Church, imprisoned in Dachau from September to December 1944     a number of the Polish 108 Martyrs of World War II:     Father Jean Bernard (1907–1994), Roman Catholic priest from Luxembourg who was imprisoned from May 1941 to August 1942. He wrote the book Pfarrerblock 25487 about his experiences in Dachau     Blessed Titus Brandsma, Dutch Carmelite priest and professor of philosophy, died 26 July 1942     Norbert Čapek (1870–1942) founder of the Unitarian Church in the Czech Republic     Blessed Stefan Wincenty Frelichowski, Polish Roman Catholic priest, died 23 February 1945     August Froehlich, German Roman Catholic priest, he protected the rights of the German Catholics and the maltreatment of Polish forced labourers     Hilary Paweł Januszewski     Ignacy Jeż Catholic Bishop     Joseph Kentenich, founder of the Schoenstatt Movement, spent three and a half years in Dachau     Bishop Jan Maria Michał Kowalski, the first Minister Generalis (Minister General) of the order of the Mariavites. He perished on 18 May 1942, in a gas chamber in Schloss Hartheim.     Adam Kozlowiecki, Polish Cardinal     Max Lackmann, Lutheran pastor and founder of League for Evangelical-Catholic Reunion.     Blessed Karl Leisner, in Dachau since 14 December 1941, freed 4 May 1945, but died on 12 August from tuberculosis contracted in the camp     Josef Lenzel, German Roman Catholic priest, he helped the Polish forced labourers     Bernhard Lichtenberg – German Roman Catholic priest, was sent to Dachau but died on his way there in 1943     Martin Niemöller, imprisoned in 1941, freed 4 May 1945     Nikolai Velimirović, bishop of the Serbian Orthodox Church and an influential theological writer, venerated as saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church.     Lawrence Wnuk     Nanne Zwiep, Pastor of the Dutch Reformed Church in Enschede, spoke out from the pulpit against Nazis and their treatment of Dutch Citizens and anti-Semitism, arrested 20 April 1942, died in Dachau of exhaustion and malnutrition 24 November 1942  More than two dozen members of the Religious Society of Friends (known as Quakers) were interned at Dachau. They may or may not have been considered clergy by the Nazis, as all Quakers perform services which in other Protestant denominations are considered the province of clergy. Over a dozen of them were murdered there. Communists      Alfred Andersch, held 6 months in 1933     Hans Beimler, imprisoned but escaped. Died in the Spanish Civil War.     Emil Carlebach (Jewish), in Dachau since 1937, sent to Buchenwald concentration camp in 1938     Alfred Haag, In Dachau from 1935 to 1939, when moved to Mauthausen     Adolf Maislinger     Oskar Müller, in Dachau from 1939, freed 1945     Walter Vielhauer     Nikolaos Zachariadis (Greek), from November 1941 to May 1945  Jewish      Hinko Bauer, notable Croatian architect     Bruno Bettelheim, imprisoned in 1938, freed in 1939; left Germany     Jakob Ehrlich, Member of Vienna's City Council (Rat der Stadt Wien), died in Dachau 17 May 1938     Viktor Frankl, neurologist and psychiatrist from Vienna, Austria     Henry P. Glass, Austrian Architect and Industrial Designer, transferred to Buchenwald in September 1938.     Zvi Griliches – Notable American economist     Yanek (Jack) Gruener, a Polish boy whose story is told in Prisoner B-3087[94]     Ludwig Kahn, German World War I Veteran and Entrepreneur from 29 Karls Street, Weilheim, Bavaria imprisoned 10 November 1938, freed 19 December 1938     Hans Litten, anti-Nazi lawyer, died in 1938 by apparent suicide     George Maduro, Dutch law student and cavalry officer posthumously awarded the medal of Knight 4th-class of the Military Order of William.     Aaron Miller, rabbi, chazzan, mohel     Henry Morgentaler, also survived the Łódź Ghetto, later emigrated to Canada and became central to the abortion-rights movement there     Alfred Müller, known Croatian entrepreneur from Zagreb     Benzion Miller, born at the camp, son of Aaron Miller     Sol Rosenberg, participated in the Warsaw Ghetto uprising; sent to Dachau; liberated from the camp in 1945; relocated to the United States     Moshe Sanbar, Governor of the Bank of Israel     Vladek Spiegelman, a survivor whose story was portrayed in the book Maus by son Art Spiegelman  Politicians A memorial at the camp with Never again written in several languages      Léon Blum – briefly, having been evacuated from Buchenwald concentration camp     Jan Buzek, murdered in November 1940     Theodor Duesterberg, briefly imprisoned in 1934     Leopold Figl, arrested 1938, released 8 May 1943     Andrej Gosar, Slovenian politician and political theorist, arrested in 1944     Karl Haushofer     Miklós Horthy, Jr.     Alois Hundhammer, arrested 21 June 1933, freed 6 July 1933     Miklós Kállay     Franz Olah, arrested in 1938 and transported on the first train to bring Austrian prisoners to Dachau.[95]     Hjalmar Schacht, arrested 1944, released April 1945     Richard Schmitz     Kurt Schumacher, in Dachau since July 1935, sent to Flossenbürg concentration camp in 1939, returned to Dachau in 1940, released due to extreme illness 16 March 1943     Kurt Schuschnigg, the last fascist chancellor of Austria before the Austrian Nazi Party was installed by Hitler, shortly before the Anschluss     Stefan Starzyński, the Mayor of Warsaw, probably murdered in Dachau in 1943     Petr Zenkl, Czech national socialist politician  Resistance fighters      Yolande Beekman, Special Operations Executive Agent, murdered 13 September 1944     Georges Charpak, who in 1992 received the Nobel Prize in Physics     Madeleine Damerment, Special Operations Executive Agent, murdered 13 September 1944     Charles Delestraint, French General and leader of French resistance; executed by Gestapo in 1945     Georg Elser, who tried to assassinate Hitler in 1939, murdered 9 April 1945     Arthur Haulot     Noor Inayat Khan, the George's Cross awardee of Indian origin who served as a clandestine radio operator for the Special Operations Executive in Paris, murdered 13 September 1944 when she and her SOE colleagues were shot in the back of the head and cremated     Kurt Nehrling, murdered in 1943     Eliane Plewman, Special Operations Executive Agent, murdered 13 September 1944     Enzo Sereni, Jewish, son of King Victor Emmanuele's personal physician. Kibbutz Netzer Sereni in Israel is named after him. Parachuted into Nazi-occupied Italy, captured by the Germans and executed in November 1944     Jean ("Johnny") Voste, the one documented black prisoner, was a Belgian resistance fighter from the Belgian Congo; he was arrested in 1942 for alleged sabotage and was one of the survivors of Dachau[96][97][98]  Royalty      Antonia, Crown Princess of Bavaria     Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria     Princess Irmingard of Bavaria     Franz, Duke of Bavaria     Grand Duchess Kira Kirillovna of Russia     Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia     Prince Max, Duke in Bavaria     Philipp, Landgrave of Hesse     Franz Wittelsbach, Prinz von Bayern     Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg     Prince Ernst von Hohenberg     Princess Sophie of Hohenberg  Scientists  Among many others, 183 professors and lower university staff from Kraków universities, arrested on 6 November 1939 during Sonderaktion Krakau. Writers      Fran Albreht, Slovenian poet     Robert Antelme, French writer     Raoul Auernheimer, writer, in Dachau 4 months     Tadeusz Borowski, writer, survived, but committed suicide in 1951     Adolf Fierla, Polish poet     Viktor Frankl, an Austrian psychiatrist and writer     Fritz Gerlich, a German journalist     Stanisław Grzesiuk, Polish writer, poet and singer, in Dachau from 4 April 1940, later transferred to Mauthausen-Gusen complex     Heinrich Eduard Jacob, German writer, in Dachau 6 months in 1938, transferred to Buchenwald     Stefan Kieniewicz, Polish historian     Juš Kozak, Slovenian playwright     Friedrich Bernhard Marby, German occult writer     Gustaw Morcinek, Polish writer     Boris Pahor, Slovenian writer     Karol Piegza, Polish writer, teacher and folklorist     Gustaw Przeczek, Polish writer and teacher     Friedrich Reck-Malleczewen, German writer[citation needed]     Franz Roh, German art critic and art historian, for a few months in 1933     Jura Soyfer, writer, in Dachau 6 months in 1938, transferred to Buchenwald     Adam Wawrosz, Polish poet and writer     Stanislaw Wygodzki, Polish writer     Stevo Žigon (number: 61185), Serbian actor, theatre director, and writer, in Dachau from December 1943 to May 1945  Military      Konstantinos Bakopoulos, Greek general     Bogislaw von Bonin, Wehrmacht officer, opponent     Panagiotis Dedes, Greek general     Franz Halder, former Chief of German Army General Staff     Georgios Kosmas, Greek general     Alexander Papagos, commander-in-chief of the Greek Army in 1940–41, future Prime Minister of Greece     Ernest Peterlin, Slovenian military officer     Ioannis Pitsikas, Greek general  Others      Titus Brandsma, Dutch priest, philosopher and former rector of Nimwegen University     Jan Ertmański, Polish boxer who competed in the 1924 Summer Olympics     Alexander von Falkenhausen, German general who resisted Hitler     Brother Theodore, comedian     Bruno Franz Kaulbach, Austrian lawyer     Zoran Mušič, Slovenian painter     Ona Šimaitė, Lithuanian librarian     Tullio Tamburini, Italian police chief     Fritz Thyssen, businessman and early supporter of Hitler, later an opponent     Morris Weinrib, father of Rush singer, bassist, keyboardist Geddy Lee     Władysław Dworaczek, Polish educator  Gallery      The camp courtyard      Memorial to the victims of Dachau      The Crematorium      New crematorium      Original crematorium      The sign outside the building Crematorium says in German: "Think about how we died here"      Protestant Church of Reconciliation      Catholic Mortal Agony of Christ chapel      Jewish Memorial      Tower      The Perimeter Fence      View of roll-call area      Prisoner bunks      Prisoner toilets      The entrance and the northern part of the "Bunker"      The east wing of the "Bunker" (camp prison), normally closed to visitors  See also Portal icon     Germany portal Portal icon     World War II portal      Karl von Eberstein     List of Nazi concentration camps     List of subcamps of Dachau  References      The caption for the photograph in the U.S. National Archives reads, "SC208765, Soldiers of the 42nd Infantry Division, U.S. Seventh Army, order SS men to come forward when one of their number tried to escape from the Dachau, Germany, concentration camp after it was captured by U.S. forces. Men on the ground in background feign death by falling as the guards fired a volley at the fleeing SS men. (157th Regt. 4/29/45)."      "Ein Konzentrationslager für politische Gefangene In der Nähe von Dachau". Münchner Neueste Nachrichten ("The Munich Latest News") (in German) (The Holocaust History Project). 21 March 1933. "The Munich Chief of Police, Himmler, has issued the following press announcement: On Wednesday the first concentration camp is to be opened in Dachau with an accommodation for 5000 persons. 'All Communists and—where necessary—Reichsbanner and Social Democratic functionaries who endanger state security are to be concentrated here, as in the long run it is not possible to keep individual functionaries in the state prisons without overburdening these prisons, and on the other hand these people cannot be released because attempts have shown that they persist in their efforts to agitate and organise as soon as they are released.'"[dead link]     Concentration Camp Dachau Entry Registers (Zugangsbuecher) 1933-1945. retrieved 11.13.2014     "Station 7: Courtyard and Bunker – Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site". Retrieved 2013-09-20.     "Station 11: Crematorium – Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site". Retrieved 2013-09-20.     Slaying of All at Dachau Was Ordered by Nazis. New York Times May 7, 1945. pg. 5     investigation of alleged mistreatment of German guards at the Concentration Camp at Dachau, Germany, by elements of the XV Corps retrieved 11.1.2014     "Station 12: Religious Memorials – Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site". Retrieved 2013-09-20.     "How much does it cost to visit the memorial site? – Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site". 2011-10-27. Retrieved 2013-09-20.     Smith-Spark, Laura (4 November 2014). "Gate with 'Arbeit macht frei' slogan stolen from former Nazi camp at Dachau". CNN. Retrieved 4 November 2014.     Marcuse, Harold. Legacies of Dachau: The Uses and Abuses of a Concentration Camp, 1933–2001, Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001. p. 21     Neuhäusler, Johann. What Was It Like in the Concentration Camp at Dachau?: An Attempt to Come Closer to the Truth, Munich: Manz A.G., 1960. p. 7     retrieved 9.2013     name="ushmm1"/     A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust retrieved 9.2013     ="Dachau Liberated." A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 27 March 2013.     "Station 2: Jourhouse – Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site". 1945-04-29. Retrieved 2013-09-20.     The Dachau Concentration Camp, 1933 to 1945: Text and Photo Documents from the Exhibition, with CD. Dachau: Comité International De Dachau, 2005. p. 61     "Station 5: Shunt Room – Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site". Retrieved 2013-09-20.     Neuhäusler (1960), What Was It Like..., pp. 9–11 retrieved 11.1.2014 United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, retrieved 11.12014 retrieved 11.1.2014 retrieved 11.1.2014     Neuhäusler (1960), What Was It like..., p. 13     Neuhäusler (1960), What Was It like..., p. 14     Neurath, Paul Martin, Christian Fleck, and Nico Stehr. The Society of Terror: Inside the Dachau and Buchenwald Concentration Camps, Boulder, CO: Paradigm, 2005. Print. p. 53     Neurath et al. (2005), The Society of Terror, pp. 54-69     name="Neuhäusler, Johann 1960. Page 11"     Nova OnLine. Holocaust on Trial The experiments by Peter Tyson. retrieved 11.7.2014     Nazi Science — The Dachau Hypothermia Experiments. Robert L. Berger, M.D. N Engl J Med 1990; 322:1435-1440May 17, 1990DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199005173222006     The Nazi medical experiments. Andrew Korda. Australian ADF Health April 2006 - vol 7 no. 1 retrieved 11.8.2014     United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. A sign outside of the town of Nammering marks the site of a mass shooting by the SS. retrieved 11.5.2014     Slaying of All at Dachau Was Ordered by Nazis. New York Times May 7, 1945. pg. 5 retrieved 11.2.2014     1,071 More Dachau Dead Found. New York Times Aug 18, 1945. pg . 5     Janowitz, Morris (September 1946). "German Reactions to Nazi Atrocities". The American Journal of Sociology (The University of Chicago Press) 52 (2): 141–146. doi:10.1086/219961. JSTOR 2770938.     "Dachau". Holocaust Encyclopedia. Washington, D.C.: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 2009.     The Liberator : One World War II Soldier's 500-Day Odyssey from the Beaches of Sicily to the Gates of Dachau. Alex Kershaw. 2012. Crown. New York. page 270     Edkins 2003, p. 137     Edkins 2003, p. 138     Zámečník, Stanislav; Paton, Derek B. (Translator) (2004). That Was Dachau 1933–1945. Paris: Fondation internationale de Dachau; Cherche Midi. pp. 377, 379. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. retrieved 11.1.2011     ]ETO, War Crimes and Punishment of War Crimes. page 2 retrieved 11.1.2014     Henry Maitles "NEVER AGAIN!: A review of David Goldhagen, 'Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust'", Socialist Review, further referenced to G. Almond, "The German Resistance Movement", Current History 10 (1946), pp. 409–527.     David Clay, Contending with Hitler: Varieties of German Resistance in the Third Reich, p. 122 (1994) ISBN 0-521-41459-8     Otis C. Mitchell, Hitler's Nazi State: The Years of Dictatorial Rule, 1934-1945 (1988), p. 217     Peter Hoffmann, The History of the German Resistance, 1933–1945, p. xiii     7th Army, U.S. (1945). Dachau. University of Wisconsin Digital Collection.     Paul Berben; Dachau: The Official History 1933–1945; Norfolk Press; London; 1975; ISBN 0-85211-009-X; pp. 141–2     Paul Berben; Dachau: The Official History 1933–1945; Norfolk Press; London; 1975; ISBN 0-85211-009-X; pp. 142     Paul Berben; Dachau: The Official History 1933–1945; Norfolk Press; London; 1975; ISBN 0-85211-009-X; pp. 145–6.     Paul Berben; Dachau: The Official History 1933–1945; Norfolk Press; London; 1975; ISBN 0-85211-009-X; pp. 276–277     Ian Kershaw; The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation; 4th Edn; Oxford University Press; New York; 2000; pp. 210-11     Paul Berben; Dachau: The Official History 1933–1945; Norfolk Press; London; 1975; ISBN 0-85211-009-X; p. 157     Paul Berben; Dachau: The Official History 1933–1945; Norfolk Press; London; 1975; ISBN 0-85211-009-X; p. 148.     Paul Berben; Dachau: The Official History 1933–1945; Norfolk Press; London; 1975; ISBN 0-85211-009-X; pp. 148–9.     Daniel Patrick Brown, THE CAMP WOMEN, The Female Auxiliaries who Assisted the SS in Running the Nazi Concentration Camp System     Brown, THE CAMP WOMEN,     "(translation of title: Norwegian guards worked in Hitler's concentration camps)" – Norske vakter jobbet i Hitlers konsentrasjonsleire"". 2010-01-01. Retrieved 2012-07-06.     "Dachau". Retrieved 2013-07-29.     "Liberation of Kaufering IV Sub-camp of Dachau near Hurlach. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 March 2013". Retrieved 2013-09-20. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum retrieved 11.1.2014     Citizen Soldiers. Stephen Ambrose. 1997. pages 463, 464. ISBN 0-684-81525-7     =The Dachau Concentration Camp, 1933 to 1945: Text and Photo Documents from the Exhibition, with CD. Dachau: Comité International De Dachau, 2005. Print. Page 194     The Dachau Concentration Camp, 1933 to 1945: Text and Photo Documents from the Exhibition, with CD. Dachau: Comité International De Dachau, 2005. Print. Page 197     The Dachau Concentration Camp, 1933 to 1945: Text and Photo Documents from the Exhibition, with CD. Dachau: Comité International De Dachau, 2005. Print. Page 199     The Dachau Concentr's on the Estate, never considered Russians as (Untermenschen) sub-humans, in both cases they taught me their languages, something that was not condoned by the regime. The translations are my own and I apologize if it sounds somewhat "stilted" as I have not done this type of work for over fifty years. Last but not least I dedicate my narrative to two young Indian brothers, Arjun and Varun who will tour Germany as part of their School Curriculum. HKW Stolpmann-Auckland NZ -August 2011  STAMMLAGER DACHAU  The local newspapers reported extensively on the new camp. On 11 April, a new Häftlingstransprt(Transport of Arrested) arrived from Nuremberg, another hut was completed. Cooking was done initially in field kitchens, the food was taken into a large hall outside the fenced part of the camp and consumed there. The allocation of numbers indicates the growth of inmates assigned to the camp population: In March 1933, number 170 was reached, in April 1137 and at the month of May number 2033. Due to some releases from the camp in June 1933 with a slight drop in the total, the number 2375 was assigned. 1953 people had been detained. By the year 1938 the number of prisoners moved constantly between 2000 and 2500. The total capacity intended originally was for 5000 internees, which was meant to be held in "protected custody".      The first detainees were German communists, Social Democrats later came increasingly civic politicians and monarchists. The political police in June1933 conducted a raid on the Bavarian People's Party which led to the detention of their Functionaries. The police behaved properly in this first phase towards the detainees in general. The initially tolerable condition within the the camp were not of a long duration. On 1 April 1933 Himmler rose to the command of the political police in Bavaria and assumed all rights in this area of responsibility as leader of the SS. On April 10th an SS unit took control of the camp and murdered few days later four Jewish inmates, under the pretext of an alleged attempted escape.Camp commander was SS Captain(Hauptsturmbannführer) Hilmar Wäckerle. To run the Camp on a legal basis, rules and regulations as used in civil prisons was applied. Dachau was established as a State-owned concentration camp, although Himmler did everything to have it entirely under the domain of the SS, a comprehensive 18 point Sonderbefehl (Special Orders) was implemented which exposed prisoners to brutal treatment, imposing punishments as well as death. Wäckerle on Himmlers order had details worked out as far back as May 1933. These regulations divided the prisoners into three categories: one privileged, one basic and one punishment. A permanent state of emergency prevailed in the camp with draconian application of the death penalty.The guards had the right to use their weapon for any attempted escapes which was often an excuse for just a killing. For minor infringement this could result into a re-classification of a prisoner into a lower category or a death penalty. The Camp Commandant appointed a four-member Court of the SS with him as its chairman who decided  penalties over life and limb. The verdict was final the victim had no defense or appeal against the outcome. It makes it clear looking at the background of the events in Dachau that the motive for the creation of these special provisions of Heinrich Himmler's was an attempt  to gain complete control over the inmates and to avoid any interference from the Justice System . Himmler's idea was a state within a state with its own Laws, with its own Leader and to commit violence. Only the funding would be the responsibility of the state of Bavaria and that of the Reich. Even in those days Himmlers plans could not be realized . The arbitrary declaration of a permanent state of emergency and the entitlement to their own rules, including the right to impose the death penalty presented, even at that time unheard of measures. The document of implementation  met with resistance in the Bavarian government and Justice Department. Himmler was forced to replace the camp commandant Wäckerle. The new camp commander was appointed on June 26, 1933 by the name of SS-Oberführer Theodor Eicke .He made immediately a revision of the collected writings of Wäckerle of the camps running operations. From 1 October 1933 the Disciplinary and Criminal Procedure entered into force for the prison camp.A prisoner could be shot as a revolutionary and hanged later as a deterrent. Guards had the right to open fire and use their weapon without warning to shoot anyone who made an alleged attempt to escape. Any SS-man killing in line within his duty could not be brought to answer for his actions. Only to quote two of his regulations, which reads: Article 11. The following offenders, considered as agitators, will be hanged: Anyone who politicizes, holds inciting speeches and meetings, forms cliques, loiters around with others, who for the purpose of supplying the propaganda of the opposition with atrocity stories, collects true or false information about the concentration camp, receives such information,buries it, talks about it to others, smuggles it out of the camp into the hands of foreign visitors..... etc Article12. The following offenders, considered as mutineers, will be shot on the spot or later hanged. Anyone attacking physically a guard or SS-man, refusing to obey or to work while on detail or bawling, shouting, inciting or holding speeches while marching or at work..... identical Orders were introduced in all other Concentration Camps based on these guide lines. Eicke taught his sub ordinates to hate inmates as criminals and enemies of the state and a number of these indoctrinated SS-men at the "Dachauer Schule" became later leading functionaries of other camps.     THE ORGANIZATION OF THE CAMP  Eicke shaped in Dachau an organizational structure which later found its application in all other concentration camps. The camp was divided into Headquarters, Chief of Staff of the Commander or Adjutant, SS-Guard Units, Prison Camps (later the Protective Custody Camp(Schutzhaftlager), Physician, Political Department and the Department of Economic Affairs (Administration). The guards formed the SS Unit D (Dachau), under the command of SS Major and his deputy leader Michael Lippert and Max Koegel. The guards (prisoner escort in supervisory capacity) managed and controlled the barracks on a daily basis. The Political Department was the department which was run by an arm of the police. They interrogated prisoners and prepared inmates eventually for their release back into the community The Department of Economic Affairs managed the workshops and factories that were established within the camp. The responsibility to administrate these facilities was not entirely clear at first. To a certain extent it was the responsibility of the workshop manager. Since May 1934, the function of a Protective Custody Camp was established and administered by Günter Tamascke. He controlled the SS personnel at the camp as well as that of the inmates. Later there were two to three protective custody camp leaders, who served as the first step for all activities, reporting to the camp commander. The organizational structure of the camp resulted in the the placement of prisoners in ten huts, each of which had five rooms. Each room at full occupancy totaled 54 prisoners, which was called a"Platoon", with a "Corporal" at the top. The prisoners of a whole barracks was designated as a "Company". It stood under the guidance of a "sergeant" appointed from the ranks of inmates. The seventh company was the penal company, which consisted mainly of Jews and political figures (Bonzen) and worked at the gravel pit and road constructions. The highest function, which could be exercised by prisoners was that of a "Working Sergeant." This position was held by the communist Josef Zauner. In the fall of 1933 Karl Kapp became the"Working Sergeant". The most popular personalities among the inmates next to a communist Georg Zauner was Gröner, due to their tolerant attitude towards other political-minded fellow prisoners which was appreciated by them.[Theodor Eicke commanded his Totenkopf Division in Russia from 1940 which fought with unmatched ferocity and ruthlessness. He was shot down during an aerial observation and killed Feb.1943 over Russian lines. I had an SS-Instructor who participated in the assault group (Stoßtrup) to retrieve his body 1 km into Russian territory. Sic]  LIVING CONDITIONS  The barracks of the camp were one story, built partly of stone and the roof covered with tar paper. The floor was made of concrete.Only the three-tier bunk beds provided a place of some privacy. The room had long tables and benches. On its head of the bed was a small closet for the few items of daily use and eating utensils. A towel and an enameled bowl for the daily meal was kept on the other end of the bed. On the wall next to it and in other accessible places the prisoner could hang photographs of his next of kin. At six o'clock in the morning a trumpet signal was given to get up. After the washing and making beds to military standards, the prisoners received a cup of thin ersatz coffee. At 6:30 am the whole camp was assembled at the roll call square. There was a wooden stage, from here orders were issued and the names of prisoners to be released were read out, as well as those required for interrogation. By the command of:"Form work details" the prisoners then lined up into the labor gangs, headed by the "capos". In the company of the guards they marched to their jobs. At 11 clock they returned to the camp and entered a half-hour rest period.     The needs and requirements of the Garrison as well as those SS-Units stationed within the vicinity of Dachau were catered for from their own operated enterprises, which included a slaughterhouse and a large bakery worked and run by inmates. Other prisoners were used in the general maintenance of the facilities, repairs, renovations and extensive new building projects. With the vision of national-socialist autarky(i.e.independent from imports)of Germany which included the establishment of a Heilkräuterplantage (herb garden plantation) but also the cultivation of indigenous spices were the focus of this project from spring 1938 on the east side of the camp. Due to the low labor costs the camp developed an economic base for the SS, with their affiliated farms the cost effectiveness of these projects gained them a substantial profit unheard of in the nineteen thirties.[making profit for one-selfs was frowned upon by the NS Regime as profit was associated with Jews sic] A formidable and hated workplace was the gravel pit, (Die Kiesgrube) which employed mainly Jews and and Communists, but also prisoners whose personal files were marked by the police with the words "Release of prisoner is not desirable." (later: RU =Return Unwanted), or prisoners who were selected by Headquarters to physical annihilation. In the gravel pit, they rushed them to death, shot them for alleged "Fluchtversuch"( trying to escape) or drove them to commit suicide. In the fall of 1933 the first transport of prisoners at Dachau from the workhouse of Rebdorf arrived, in January 1934  more shipments of this kind followed which was motivated primarily by the need for additional labor, and presented unfair competition  to local businesses, the relationship with SS Administration deteriorated. On 28 November 1933 the Chamber of Trade wrote to the Bavarian Ministry of Economics expressing concerns that the Dachau concentration camp is setting up a "work house", which presented the local craft to an intolerable disadvantage as competitors. In May 1934,  the police requested additional political detainees about 300-500 from these workhouses, citing specific needs. They showed interest mainly in tailors, shoemakers,saddlers and construction workers.  From July 1933 on Sunday afternoons there was a church service, first on the parade ground, where a temporary altar was erected, and later in a small room next to the post office. On the average about 20 people participated  during these services. The Priest of the congregation appeared regularly at the Camp, although the SS tried to hold him back from these visits by provocations and insults.[He was the Priest Pfanzelt and I have met him sic] The detainees wore initially their own clothes. Later, they were gradually issued with second hand Drill-uniforms and boots. The civil suit they originally had in the first months were kept in their closet. As food the prisoners received  soldier's bread(1.5 kilos) for three days. Breakfast was coffee substitute (Ersatz Kaffee). [The civilian population right through the war did not have anything else either sic].Dinner was usually a piece of sausage or cheese, or meat-jelly, occasionally salted herrings. With this tea or coffee was consumed.Stew for lunch was prepared in the kitchen On October 16, 1934 the Bavarian Interior Ministry ordered Beggars, Drunkards and men who had rejected the work assigned to them for a period of three months or up to three years to the Dachau concentration camp. In a sweeping action of this kind from 7 to July 16, 1936  a total of 1306 beggars, work-shy individuals, vagrants and wandering journeymen were arrested, 736 of them came to Dachau. On 1 August 1936, the Bavarian police introduced policies to the imposition of "Schutzhaft"(Protected Custody) towards "the enemies of the people". The term used were for beggars, vagrants, gypsies, work-shies, loafers, prostitutes, habitual drunkards, brawlers, summarized traffic offenders, psychopaths and the mentally ill. In protective custody also fell members of Jehovah's Witnesses, an initial group was already in Dachau internment since December 1933, because the persons concerned had not attended the election of Hitler. SS members shot on July 4th 1935 near the Bavarian-Czech border in the vicinity Altenberg-Geising two communists who attempted to smuggle publications across the border.m the public the SS established their own Office where Death Certificate were issued.[ I do not know if the Totenbuch was ever shown as  evidence during any War Crimes Tribunals sic]During 1941 this oven did not have the capacity to handle over 2500 dead bodies in addition to the more than thousand Russian POW's that had been shot.[ If you inspect the oven now you will notice that the sidewalls have buckled under the intense heat and are almost convex sic].The building of a new Crematorium commenced early in 1942 and was commissioned spring 1943, its design and efficiency of the so called Baracke X was mainly based due to the high influx of Russian prisoners which was a factor in its final completion. The Gas-chamber, like in all other Concentration Camps was built to use Zyklon B pellets, next to the crematorium was the place of execution where victims were shot through the back of the neck(Genickschuss). Execution by hanging or shooting was the most used method towards the end of the war to eliminate prisoners, while the Gas-chamber if ever used, never for mass homicides. There are reports from survivors that talk of "Trial Gassing".[I did comment on this subject before sic]  SATELLITE CAMPS  The first sub-camp of the Dachau concentration camp was built before the war at Gröbenried. Between 1940 and 1941 fourteen additional satellite camps were added, where prisoners were doing mainly construction and craft work for the SS. In addition, there were numerous clearing and demolition squads as work details. The largest of these with 180 men was located in May 1940 and worked for the SS Junker School in Bad Tölz. The Administration in Dachau, created in 1942,  twenty-three new and compact sub camps throughout the region. The prisoners worked in construction and agriculture, and performed manual labor and support services for various SS-departments as well. In 1943 two large complexes were erected at Munich-Allach (BMW) and Augsburg Haunstetten which held several thousand prisoners in the aerospace industry as forced labor. In 1944, under the under the auspices of the Jet Fighter Program(Jägerprogamm) the shift of important weapons facilities went underground. For this purpose four satellite camps in the area of Mühldorf and eleven in the immediate vicinity of Kaufering, were erected. The prisoners were to build six large bunkers, in which fighter planes would be assembled. From the summer of 1944 a total of approximately 30,000 Jewish prisoners from different European countries were deported there. Almost half of them lost their lives. In the final phase of the war, living conditions deteriorated not only in the main camp, but also in the satellite camps with catastrophic results.  SOLIDARITY AND RESISTANCE.  Solidarity and resistance was primarily  based on the affiliation of the same nationality. For instance, if a new transport arrived at Dachau prisoners the first contact you were trying to make was with your own Landsleute(countryman). The German or German-speaking Communists formed the most influential Solidargemeinschaft. The cohesion of German Communists as teams remained so right through the war years, but increasingly formed groups within higher and an influential members of the camp personnel. A substantial strengthening of the bond was the arrival of the Communist International Brigades (Spanish Civil War) in 1941. The German Communists established contacts with other higher foreign Party Functionaries. With the approaching end of the war the SS grew nervous because of the strong concentration of German Communists in Dachau, and in this context  the increased fear of a planned revolt. In early May1944 they  tortured six of the best-known Communists in the bunker in order to extract information which failed and nothing was obtained. However forty prisoners were suspect and were spread out to other concentration camps as a preventive measure. The largest concentration of solidarity and resistance was centered in the infirmities which encompassed a number of nationalities not only in Dachau but in other camps as well.  DEATH MARCH  Foreign officials as well as thirty six "Sippenäftlinge(Detained Blood Relations)where in the camp who had been arrested after the assassination attempt on Hitler on the 20th July 1944, under them relatives of Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg and Carl Goerdeler. On the 8th April 1945 special prisoner Georg Elser, who committed in November 1939 an assassination attempt on Hitler had been killed. Ten days later the French general Charles Deletraint was shot. During  the night on the 27th April the remaining prisoners were sent to the Special Innsbruck transit camp of the Gestapo, on May 4th  they were liberated there by the U.S. Army. On April 23rd all 2,000 Jewish prisoners werelined up during a roll call and then  herded  into Railway Wagons after a three-day waiting period also to bring into the Innsbruck camp as well. The train took the direction towards Munich,Wolfratshausen and Penzburg after Staltach where the survivors were liberated on April 30th by the Americans On April 26th after the morning roll call only a few smaller detachments left the camp. After 9 clock the camp administration gave orders that all who are able to march to be ready by 12 noon assembled on the Appelplatz with the exception of the infirmary inmates. Around the evening the administration decided that only Germans, Russians and Jews should remain on the parade ground. A total of 6887prisoners were placed in three columns to march south. Behind the gate they were joined by heavily armed SS men with dogs. Among them were also armed German prisoners from Kaufering in SS uniform. A total of 8646 prisoners were evacuated on April 26 from Dachau. The column stretched out  for several kilometers. After about 30 kilometers the prisoners arrived on the morning of the 27th of April in a forest near Starnberg where they rested. There they were joined by other columns from various satellite camps. During the night the march was resumed. However, those that were weakened  were left behind at this point  and a large number of them lined the route  further on. After the columns the murder squad moved in, consisting of SS-men and dogs. The population of the communities which led through them reacted with shock, fright and anxiety. Women in particular were affected by the plight of the prisoners and tried in vain to hand out food or water, yet SS-men would threaten them and pushed them away. On May 1st this wretched lot arrived at Bad Tölz and entered  the forest near Waalkirchen which is on the western border of present day district of Miesbach. On the morning of May 2nd the prisoners noticed that the SS-men had gone overnight only about thirty older German guards and some Latvian where on post.They were only hours away from the advancing American troops.[I did see about 600 women prisoners April 1945  near the Czechoslovakian border marching in a westerly direction which was a misery of humanity with their dead lying on the road side sic]  THE CAMP DURING AMERICAN OCCUPATION.  Order and authority did lay  with the US Army  in conjunction with the established International Camp Committee which was quickly put into force. It had elected Patrick O'Leary as President and the well known camp elder Oskar Müller and scribe Jan Domagala. To maintain the issues of medical care Dr. Frantisek Blaha, the nutritional needs that of Jan Marcikowski and disciplinary issues with Oskar Juranic. After and during the liberation of Dachau another 3,000 people had died. The Americans let typhus infected patients out of the isolation wards thus the epidemic spread sic. Among the 200,000 prisoners who were deported in the years 1933 to 1945 into the Dachau concentration camp and its satellite camps, there were nearly 6,000 women for the most part in the sub camps that worked in armament factories. According  to the report of the Tracing Service in Arolsen, and  the International Red Cross dated June 20th 2002 a total of 32099 had been certified as having perished  in Dachau. Through documents or the determination of the number of human remains in mass graves an additional 9467 dead have been found so that a total of 41566  people were killed there. Included in this number are at least 4,000 Soviet POWs that were shot during 1941/42 and 4851 prisoners that were no longer capable of working who had been murdered in Auschwitz or Schloss Hartheim. Not included in this number are the victims which the Gestapo treated as "Sonderbehandlung" (Special Treatment) delivered into the camp and executed.  THE CONCENTRATION CAMP AFTER THE LIBERATION.  In July 1945  the former prison camp and the area used by the SS was converted by the  American military administration into an interment camp. Initially about 25,000 German alleged supporters of the regime were detained and housed in different parts of the the camp. These fell into the following groups: SS members and functionaries of the NSDAP and its organizations were automatically arrested and initially formed the largest group. In early 1946  the first releases of these   prisoners took place.      Members of the Wehrmacht who were held in a separate compound as prisoners of war within the SS facilities and some releases took place during 1946/47.  From   these two groups a number of individuals were held back who had participated in war crimes and crimes against humanity. The American War Crimes Tribunal Dachau imposed 426 death sentences (but not all were executed) and 256 acquittals. Due to changes as early as 1950 in the wake of the East-West conflict  the policies was reviewed and some sentences were reduced or waived.  SS Obersturmbannführer Martin Gottfried Weiss preparing to be hanged at Landsberg prison after being convicted of war crimes by the Allies. He was the 7th Commandant of Dachau. EPILOGUE  The U.S. general commanding the Units during the liberation was mistaken in his view that the town of Dachau with its inhabitants have a heavy responsibility to bear for all the horrors he had seen and prepared to raze the whole town with its 25 000 inhabitants to the ground. At that time the Priest Friedrich Pfanzelt went to the U.S. General. Friedrich Pfanzelt fell down before him on his knees and prayed with folded hands for mercy of his people with tears in his eyes. The general was shouting at him and cursed the regime. If he had not been a Priest he would have been perhaps shot or thrown out with kicks. So he knelt down in tears for two full hours in desperation intent that Dachau should not be razed to the ground. Finally the face of General broke and became friendly and spoke the words: "Good, then we look for the culprits, the city itself should be spared." [The above was written by one of his acolyte's Paul Brandt and is published in an Auto Biography page 32 of the Priest Pfanzelt who did not speak English although he had an interpreter with him. He himself has never spoken publicly of the meeting with the US General who's name is not mentioned in the book for verification sic].  TO SUMMARIZE:  The response of the German people after fifteen years of frustration and resentment against the consequences of a lost war 1918, was almost unanimous. Some 96 percent of registered voters cast their ballots and 95 percent of these approved Germany's withdrawal from the vindictive Versailles Treaty and Geneva. [Adenauer and the Bundesrepublic in 1948 had to accept and pay the balance of the original $55 billion in Gold including adjustments plus interest in retrospect for the Treaty and was fulfilled Mid 2011 sic].The vote for a single Nazi list for the Reichstag which included half a dozen non-Nazis was 92 percent. Even at the Dachau concentration camp 2154 out of 2242 inmates voted for the government which had incarcerated them! It is true that in many communities threats were made against those who failed to vote or who voted the wrong way, and in some cases there was fear that anyone who cast his vote against the regime might be detected and punished. Yet  even with these reservations the election, whose count was at least honest, was a staggering victory for Adolf Hitler. There was no doubt that  in defying the outside world as he had done, he had the overwhelming support of the German people and the stage was set for WWII.   --Additional post 10 October 2012---   THE AMERICAN MASSACRE AT DACHAU 29.4.1945  All the watchtowers of the camp had hoisted white flags. The Americans still shot onto tower B, and the Germans returned the fire. After a short exchange of fire, the Americans stormed the tower and threw down the corpses of 10 SS guards. At the tower B, the bodies lay for days afterwards, some in the moat surrounding the camp. Most of them barefoot as the inmates had taken not only their boots, (Stiefel) but the socks as well. A brief skirmish inside the camp killed some 20 SS-men. These thirty dead are the only ones who can be described as having fallen during the fighting, Buechner writes (p. 97). Almost simultaneously with the 45th Infantry Division also part of the 42nd U.S. Inf. Division ("Rainbow") reached the camp, with them was Brig. General Linden. General Linden saw wounded SS-men lying on the ground, and ordered the Jewish army doctor accompanying him to care for the wounded. The doctor, however, refused on the grounds that he would not touch the Germans. The General threatened to court-martial him, but the Jewish doctor was unimpressed. Meanwhile Lt. Col. Sparks ordered the members of the 42nd Infantry Division should be leaving the camp and General Linden was forcibly escorted out (pp. 65 -66).  Watchtower B On the German side, the commander of the SS troops, Lieutenant Henry Skodzensky, accompanied by a representative of the Swiss Red Cross tried to hand over the camp properly to the Americans. Buechner will not elaborate. The description of this scene, however, we find in the English magazine "After the Battle" (No. 27, 1980, p 13). There the Belgian inmate of Dachau, Albert Guerisse (aka Patrick O'Leary), describes the course of events as follows: "I was certain in my own mind that the Americans were now masters of the situation. I went to an American who just climbed out of a tank, introduced myself, and he hugged me. It's a Major. His uniform is dusty, his shirt open to the waist, with sweat and dirt, he is unshaven, a dented helmet on his head, a cigarette in his mouth. At that moment the young German Lieutenant Henry Skodzensky leaves his guards and endeavours to report to the American major.The German is blond, handsome, well groomed, his boots polished his uniform well tailored . He clicks his heels together as if he were on an exercise at a parade on Unter den Linden, he raises his arm properly and respectfully salutes: "Heil Hitler! I herewith hand over the Dachau concentration camp with 30,000 inmates, including 2,340 sick, 27,000, on outposts, and 560 garrison troops' ...The American major has not returned the salute. He hesitates for a moment, as if to reflect first on the right words. Then he spits into the German's face. 'You bastard!' [Du Schweinehund] Then he commands the German : 'Sit down there "He points to the back seat of one of the Jeeps, which had now arrived. The Major turns to me and gives me a sub-machine gun. ' Come with me'! But I have no will or power to move. 'No, I'm staying here'. The Major orders, that the Jeep with the young German officer is taken out of the camp. A few minutes pass. My fellow prisoners have not yet dared to leave their barracks. from a distance, they could not have seen how the negotiations between the American and the SS man were developing. Then I heard several shots. 'The bastard [Der Schweinehund] is dead, 'the American major tells me. " Thus began the "liberation" of Dachau concentration camp. The unknown major only gave the start signal.  Waffen-SS soldiers were lined up against a wall and shot by American troops The Americans GI's went in all directions and shot every German SS-man they encountered in the camp, and shot them on the spot. Buechner tells us the number of 122 victims (p. 98). The inmates raged off and brutally murdered another 40 soldiers. A headline in the "New York Herald Tribune" dated 2nd May reads: "Dachau prisoners revenge on Nazi torturers - SS men found murdered, beaten to a pulp, cut off their middle finger," Only after half an hour was Lt. Col. Sparks able to restore discipline and ordered to have the surviving SS men, 358 in total, guarded. But no sooner had he turned his back as the machine gunner deployed as guard, nicknamed "Birdeye" let loose and fired on the group of prisoners. Sparks flew at him and tore him away from the machine gun. Twelve victims were lying lifeless (p. 98/99). Buechner was on the morning of 29 April with the medical unit of the 157th Infantry Regiment on the way to Munich, as the news of the capture of the Dachau camp reached him. In the early afternoon, he could stand it no longer, he wanted to see for myself what was going on in Dachau and went on his way there. Arriving at the camp, he was denied access, since Lt. Col. Sparks had blocked the area. The situation, however, seemed to be quiet, there were no shots to be heard. Buechner asked if he could enter the outer complex, the SS camp. Perhaps there would be wounded, which he could help. The request was granted. He had only gone a short distance into the SS camp, when suddenly machine gunfire was very close to be heard to his left.It seemed to come from an area where several buildings stood, bearing the sign of the Red Cross on the roof. Buechner was surprised that that there should be fighting in the vicinity of a hospital. His curiosity was aroused, however, he got out of the Jeep and walked toward the building. "I peeked around the corner of a wall in the direction from which the shots came, and I witnessed an incredible scene. Lt. Bushyhead stood on the roof of a low building, perhaps a bicycle shed. Beside him, served one or more soldiers a 30-caliber machine gun. Opposite this building was a long, high wall of cement and bricks. At the foot of this wall were the dozen of German soldiers, some dead, some just dying, some may have pretended to be dead. Three or four inmates in striped clothes, each armed with a 45-caliber pistol, given to them by the Americans, went through the ranks of about 350 killed soldiers. Then they fired at each soldier one shot through the head who seemed still to be alive. Behind the prisoners who had become executioners, was a row of foot soldiers, rifles at the ready and another soldier served a second machine gun, which was on the ground. At the end of the row of the dead or dying soldiers, there happened a small miracle. The prisoners, who had given the coup de grace, had not yet arrived at them, and a few of the only wounded soldiers were taken by the German medical personnel on stretchers under supervision of a German doctor into the nearby hospital. "(P. 86, 87) . [There were a number of young German nurses attending the wounded, yet neither Buechner mentioned this or any pictures of them have ever been published, some , according to private conversations with Linberger confirm that in fact a number of the wounded begged for razor blades to cut their own wrists, as the raking with the Browning cal.30 MG on the ground could not aim higher and inflicted partly stomach wounds (Bauchschüsse) which created longer and more agonising deaths. sic] Buechner has made a sketch of this horrible scene (p. 94). Amongst others on this sketch he noted two prisoners who are in the process killing a German soldiers with a shovel, he is lying on the ground, shot in the leg, so he could not run, Buechner states. The inclusion of this scene, known from the Book of Nerin Gun, "The hour of the Americans', is also in Buechner book (p. 114). Drawing of the execution site by Lt. Buechner. Dead German soldiers are represented by "Xs," black dots are American soldiers, machine guns are shown as circles, shown with approximate lines of fire. A BAR man stands behind and to the right of the machine gun on left. "A" shows the path of Lt. Buechner. The other is Sgt. Rosa's path. "25" indicates the location of the two inmates beating the German guard with a shovel below. (Buechner) Drawing of the execution site by Lt. Buechner. Dead German soldiers are represented by "Xs," black dots are American soldiers, machine guns are shown as circles, shown with approximate lines of fire. A BAR man stands behind and to the right of the machine gun on left. "A" shows the path of Lt. Buechner. The other is Sgt. Rosa's path. "25" indicates the location of the two inmates beating the German guard with a shovel below". (Buechner)  THE VICTIMS According to a table (p. 99) he puts the victims of that day as follows: Shot on the spot: 122 by inmates killed: 40 shot by "Birdeye": 12 shot by Lt. Bushyhead: 346 Total killed: 520 fell during the fighting: 10 TOTAL: 560 [It is unknown how and where the bodies were disposed off, Linberger privately believes that they were buried at the adjacent future golf course, which I personally doubt, this is a sloping grass area with natural springs and two small ponds, furthermore the overflow from the swimming pools dissects this part and flows into the river Amper which is the boundary of the complex on the north-western side. The ground water level would be approximately at 1.5 meters. Although I did find about three small overgrown mounds, which may have been part of (20*) buried children that took cyanide capsules from their mothers after their fathers were shot during another incident.sic] Those of SS guards, who initially escaped, Buechner writes, they would have tried to mingle with the inmates. But they were soon discovered and were either beaten to death by inmates or shot (p. 97). You are therefore expected to include these figures among the victims. To support his description Buechner quotes a number of witnesses who have seen the details of what happened. He calls their names and published their statements and photos. More photos of Buechner show the capture of the German guards, the entire murder scene described by him and details of individuals or small groups of slain soldiers. To the accuracy of his account, there can not be the slightest doubt. In a footnote on page 87 Buechner writes: "As I learned later, when the first members of Company 1 stormed the German hospital (in the SS camp) and physically kicked all patients outside. Only one German physician and a small group of medics were allowed to stay behind". This fits to another account of what some of the SS men were apparently observing because they were walking on crutches and slow to move, and were probably people who had been thrown out of the hospital. " Furthermore Buechner's remark coincides with that of a German eyewitness account, by Erich Kern for the first time published 1960 in his book "Meineid gegen Deutschland" (Perjury against Germany) and his pamphlet "Das große Kesseltreiben" (was published by Oldendorf, 1971, pp. 224 - 247, 313 - 315). »Hans Linberger was during the battle at the bridgehead east of Kiev in Russia seriously wounded. His left arm was torn, his body covered with shrapnel. He was transferred after a long hospital stay as a troop leader of the Waffen-SS on the 9th March 1945 to a Reserve Company to Dachau. On 29 April 1945 all those in the Reserve Company laid down their weapons and reported to the leading physician Dr. Schröder and were taken into a barrack. The medical personnel prepared themselves for the the surrender. Doctors were visible by their white coats, pharmacist and the medical staff and the international Red Cross by their armbands. Linberger then took a Red Cross flag in hand and walked to the entrance of the military hospital. He was by his empty left sleeve widely seen as a Schwerversehrter (heavy limbless person) to the advancing American shock troops, he declared at once that this part consisted of a hospital, which will pass naturally over to them unarmed. An American put his sub-machine gun to his chest and slapped his face. [He also uttered some explicits,'You fight Ruskie, you no f..... good", sic] Still they left Linberger and stormed now the hospital. The first American Linberger had threatened shot in the hallway of a hospital barrack an unknown invalid who lay there motionless on the floor apparently dead. All the doctors were forced out of the treatment rooms, as well as the pharmacist and the medical staff. Dr. Schröder, who as the hospital chief physician endeavoured to hand over the occupation to the Americans in its proper form, was so beaten by one of them that he suffered a skull fracture. The Americans drove all who could walk together with the women and children out of the hospital building and into the street in front of the heating plant, which is right next to it. There they sorted out everything that smacked of the Waffen-SS, having first plundered at gunpoint and took their watches, rings, mechanical pencils, pens and money from the Germans and then the prisoners were driven into the horseshoe type courtyard of the heating plant [which was an empty coal yard with an approximately 3 metre high concrete walls, sic] The Americans set up a machine gun in front of the crowd. Then the American war correspondent arrived, photographed and filmed the group. Midst of it, a machine gunner opened fire. With a burst of fire from left to right and back to the centre he shot into the mass of about forty SS-men who were lined up on the wall". Hans Linberger gave for the German Red Cross under oath following description of this mass murder: "The comrade right behind me dropped with the last cry, - Au, the pigs shoot at the belly - (Au, die Schweine schießen auf den Bauch) , out of inexplicably reason I just dropped. It was the same to me whether I was standing or caught lying down. So I only got the blood of the dead, who were bleeding heavily from the chest, head and face that I looked badly hit (angeschlagen). During a pause in the firing that had occurred, drunken prisoners who had armed themselves with shovels explained to me to kill a man by the name of Weiß. It was possible to me and the other comrades, to survey the situation. Various soldiers crawled towards the Americans and wanted to identify themselves as foreigners - others tried to explain that they had nothing to do with the concentration camp. Weiß said this, however: >Relax and quieten down, we die for Germany <! [Weiß was shot by an American soldiers through the foot, lying on the ground and was killed with shovels by two inmates,sic]  Inmates preparing to kill Weiß with shovels  During the liberation of Dachau camp, many German soldiers from the surrounding area surrendered under the protection of a medic with a Red Cross flag.  Photos also show members of the Volksturm, mountain troops, Luftwaffe personnel, Wehrmacht, SS soldiers in camouflage, soldiers in civilian clothing, etc…. Inmates inciting American troops to murder the German prisoners Lt. Walsh placed his division under the command of Lt. Bushyhead (nickname Bird’s Eye) of Native American Indian origin, to guard the prisoners. Lt. Bushyhead placed the prisoners against the wall of the empty coal bunker and shot them with a few salvos of machine gun fire, giving inmates pistols in order to finish off the survivors. The bodies were looted. No action was taken by the Americans to prevent the inmates from taking revenge upon German personnel. The middle- aged man shown here was killed by inmates with a shovel, this is the same man seen lying dead along the wall holding a crucifix in his hand. General Patton was informed of this massacre, but ordered the evidence destroyed and prohibited any further investigation. No one ever prosecuted for the murder of  German soldiers interned at Dachau, who were entitled to protection under the Hague convention. Dachau was surrendered in full accordance with the terms of international law. That the murder victims were members of the camp guard personnel is simply a lie,  photographs show soldiers from all German units. Even the camp personnel were not all criminals per se. Source:‘Dachau: The Hour of the Avenger’ (Col. Howard A. Buechner), Thunderbird Press, Metairie, LA. USA, 1986.  Oberscharführer Jäger asked me while lying down, if I had been hit, I gave him a negative answer (das mußte ich verneinen). He had gotten one shot into the right forearm. I shared quickly one last rib of chocolate with him, as we waited for the bullet through the neck. A man with a Red Cross armband threw us razor blades and said. >There, make yourselves ready<. Jäger cut himself the pulse area of his wounded arm, and I cut his left. And as an amputee he was ready to do the same for me, at this stage an American officer arrives together with the defeated Dr. Schroeder, who could hardly stand on his feet, and stopped the shooing and offered to help. But the doctor only replied: No, no, no! This way we were able to drag out our wounded comrades". Maybe it was Buechner, Linberger saw standing with Dr. Schroeder. Lt. Bushyhead had meanwhile given orders to stop firing. The dead lay on the next day at the foot of the wall. Buechner left the camp on the same day and moved on with his unit to Munich.  Lt. Jack Bushyhead relaxing in Augsburg, Germany PREVENTED COURT MARTIAL That same afternoon, 29 April 1945, a number of senior American officers visited the Dachau camp. They discovered the bodies of the Germans and the team was horrified. Someone suggested to distribute the bodies over the entire surface, then take pictures and to say that the Germans had resisted arrest and tried to flee, while they had been shot. But for this version, it was too late, as there were already photos of the grisly scene. There was nothing left but to initiate a formal investigation.  US Soldiers inspect the bodies of 12 dead SS soldiers in the coal yard  After intensive consultations charges against four officers and five soldier had been prepared for the court-martial. Undoubtedly, many more people were involved in the events, but it was difficult to locate them. They had now been transferred to other units, thereby "taken out of circulation." The indictment read: disobedience, failure to prevent the killings, denial of medical assistance and violation of the Geneva Convention. Buechner was still at the headquarters of the 45th Infantry Division during his stay in Munich when he was told that against him, Lt. Col. Sparks, Lt.. Bushyhead and other members of the U.S. Army a court martial was being prepared. When asked why he had done nothing personally to stop the killings, and why he had not cared for the wounded, he said, as he appeared on the scene, almost all Germans were already dead or the few that were still alive had been so badly wounded that any help would have come too late. Moreover, a German doctor had appeared, and the three or four casualties that had been carried into the hospital, no longer needed his help. In the camp itself, at the ravages of the prisoners, he also could not do anything because he was unarmed as member of the Medical Corps, and therefore would have had no chance to keep the prisoners from their hateful murders. THE WEBLING ATROCITY On the same day that the Dachau Concentration Camp was discovered, a massacre took place in the little hamlet of Webling, about ten kilometres from the camp. A Waffen-SS unit had arrived at the hamlet, which consisted of about half a dozen farm houses, barns and the Chapel of St. Leonhard, to take up defensive positions in trenches dug around the farms by French POW workers. Their orders were to delay the advance of American tanks of the 20th Armoured Division and infantry units of the 7th. US Army which was approaching Dachau. The farms, mostly run by women (whose husbands were either dead, prisoners of war or still fighting) with the help of French POWs, came under fire on the morning of 29th.April causing all inhabitants to rush for the cellars. One soldier of Company F of the US 222nd Infantry Regiment of the 42nd Rainbow Division, was killed as they entered the hamlet under fire from the Waffen-SS unit.  Dead German soldiers at Dachau. Exact location unknown. They are wearing Tarnjacke, camouflage uniforms, of Waffen-SS combat troops. The head wound on the man in foreground appears to have been made by a US .45 caliber pistol. It looks as if he saw the bullet coming and shielded his eyes. According to Edwin F. Gorak, who took this photo on April 30, 1945, "the way the bodies were piled up seems to indicate they were slain simultaneously, as by machine gun fire." (Courtesy of Edwin F. Gorak, 158th Field Artillery) The first German to emerge from the cellar was the owner of the farm, Herr Furtmayer. He was promptly shot dead. Informed by the French POWs that only civilians, not SS, were in hiding in the cellers, the GIs proceeded to round up the men of the SS unit. First to surrender was an officer, Freiherr von Truchsess, heading a detachment of seventeen men. The officer was immediately struck with a trenching tool splitting his head open. The other seventeen were lined up in the farmyard and shot. On a slight rise behind the hamlet, another group of eight SS were shot. Their bodies were found lying in a straight line with their weapons and ammunition belts neatly laid on the ground. This would suggest that the men were shot after they surrendered. Altogether, one SS officer and forty one men lay dead as the infantry regiment proceeded on their way towards Dachau. Next day the local people, with the help of the French POWs, buried the bodies in a field to be later exhumed by the German War Graves Commission and returned to their families.   Picture taken from the Jura House, as it appeared on 29.4.1945, the walk    future prisoners took to the Concentration Camp "Arbeit Macht Frei" had   to pass via the "Street of the SS" (Straße der SS) , past the 'Eicke   Platz' as shown. The building in the centre was the SS-Canteen, Mess  Hall and Club for the Elite, the villa type town houses, on the left,  were occupied by SS-Staff and their families and not necessarily  associated with the concentration camp. Through the lengthy centre,  about half a mile, (not shown) was a Horse Trail (Reitweg), where they  exercised their horses during morning greetings, but the welcoming  "Liberators" destroyed the entire complex later on, no traces can be  found now. One can only assume it was done out of sheer wanton and  hateful disdain for all that was German. The general local attitude at  that time towards the "Liberators", was "If this is what Democracy will  teach us, then help us God". It is now the Bus Stop to the Memorial  site. The Street has been renamed: "Straße der KZ Opfer" (Street of the  KZ Victims) and goes in an easterly direction away from the Military  Entry, where the Massacre took place, who were blissfully unaware of a  concentration camp.The first American "Liberators" missed this entrance  completely, and went straight towards the Main Military Entrance showing   the Eagle-Swastika. Only after an American Troop Commander in the city   of Dachau was made aware that there was a camp in an other direction  i.e. (Dachau-Ost) did this Unit enter the actual KZ as "Liberators".  This was after the Massacre had taken place.  This shows the Swimming Pool of the SS which was located at the far  northern point of the Military Installation and was during the American  occupation destroyed. It now constitutes a triangular small lake, and  was used as a testing facility of REO M62 Trucks repaired at the  Ordnance Field Maintenance Shop for water proofing and engine air intakes.                               Source Acknowledgements: Metapedia Wikipedia Scrapbook Pages Blog H.Linberger Der Ort des Terrors Vol 5                Posted by Dachau KZ at 2:24 AM Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to FacebookShare to Pinterest 4 comments:      Marc David BonaguraDecember 29, 2011 at 7:27 AM      Hello, Can you tell me where you got those maps? I would like to include them in a book I am writing, and I was wondering if there are any copyrights on them? You do have a link or reference as to where they came from?     Thank you so much. Feel free to e-mail me at     Marc     Reply     Roma JusticeJuly 2, 2013 at 10:41 PM      "Inmates kill Weiss with shovels." is not correct. Weiss was not killed with shovels, he was hanged after a trial. The inmates standing over the SS guard in the photo were "insulting" the SS guard -- not killing him. This is per Nerin E. Gun (Prisoner / Journalist)      One of the men in that photo was deputized and armed by the American forces for the duration of the liberation. He was multilingual in 8 languages, and was ordered to assist with translating for the Americans. Obviously he was a credit during the liberation of Dachau.      I have seen this same photo altered many times over the Internet. Thank goodness I have an original copy. Weiss is a common German name, and if you will check the death lists of all the concentration camps you will find countless victims with the surname of Weiss. The prisoners in this photo could have been named Weiss. ;)      Reply     Replies         Dachau KZJuly 3, 2013 at 5:45 PM          Roma Justice         Col. Buechner, who wrote that the guard in the photo was probably wounded in the leg by an American soldier and then turned over to the inmates to be beaten to death with a shovel. Irrespective of the name, (Weiss, Weis or Weiß) the fact remains that the SS-man was murdered, although I do not believe that he was a guard, his trousers are creased and ironed. All those that lived in the hospital buildings 2B 3B (I lived in 3B) and 4B were on temporary guard duty during their recuperation until they were fit enough and returned to their field units. In my opinion the so called inmates were functionaries that had the freedom of movements and worked most likely at the heating plant next to it, which is never shown nor mentioned. At the time of the massacre the American Liberators were blissfully unaware of the actual location of Concentration Camp. All they had seen was he Death Train on the railway shunting which had been strafed by American fighter planes with devastating effect and they took revenge on the hated SS.         Dachau KZJuly 3, 2013 at 6:28 PM          Rona Jusice         Please note for your information: The normal force of 1,473 SS guards at Dachau had left earlier and as matter of fact they were evacuated to Tyrol (Austria) with their families and some returned to Dachau and lived at the Würmmühle just north outside the Concentration Camp.         Reply  Load more...  Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.  Newer Post Older Post Home Subscribe to: Post Comments (Atom) Blog Archive      ►  2014 (26)      ►  2013 (34)      ►  2012 (58)      ▼  2011 (21)         ►  December (4)         ►  November (3)         ►  September (1)         ▼  August (1)             DACHAU KZ: SUFFERING AND DEATH         ►  April (1)         ►  March (8)         ►  January (3)      ►  2010 (1)  About Me  Dachau KZ     Dachau-Ost, Bavaria=Bayern, Germany     It is well known that Dachau is located just North of Munich, Germany. I lived in the old SS-Hospital Haus.No 52B for 10 years. I did publish my German ID but had to delete certain entries due to Identity Theft. I am now living in New Zealand since 1956 my country of adoption, still married at the age of 85 with three great grand children,have three sons and a number of relations in America, Australia, Switzerland and Germany. Otherwise of reasonable heath, although slow in my movements. My hobbies: Travelling to other countries meeting and trying to understand other cultures, supporting a school of street kids in India for the last 25 years.  View my complete profile      Awesome Inc. template. Powered by Blogger. iệt     中文