Showing posts with label Verwaltungsbau. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Verwaltungsbau. Show all posts

Königsplatz

 Königlicher Platz by Josef Eglseder (1938), showing the Führerbau, Braunes Haus, Ehrentempel, and Verwaltungsbau der NSDAP with Albert Speer's lampposts in the foreground.
 No other place in Munich is so closely connected with the Nazi movement and its public shows of power as Königsplatz. Its grand classicist ambience made the square the ideal backdrop for staging Nazi spectacles. In 1935 the square’s appearance was modified considerably: it was turned into a parade ground and two Temples of Honour were built, along with other new buildings, on its eastern perimeter. By virtue of its size and central location, Königsplatz had already become a gathering point for political meetings during the 1920s, and even before 1933 the NSDAP showed an interest in this public space so close to its “Brown House”. The distinctive classical architecture of Königsplatz fitted perfectly the Nazi leadership’s need for a grand setting for its activities. The NSDAP had already bought the Palais Barlow building near Königsplatz in 1930 and subsequently had it refurbished as the party headquarters (the “Brown House”). After 1933 a number of other key offices of the Nazi bureaucracy were housed in the area around Königsplatz. Making society conform with Nazi ideals and achieving the bureaucratic centralisation, documentation and control of all areas of life by means of a powerful and all-pervasive state and party apparatus – these were the goals of the Nazi leadership’s domestic policy. Although after 1933 the Nazi centre of power was moved to Berlin, key offices of the NSDAP and its associated organisations remained in Munich. The area around Königsplatz became the central party quarter, where many party offices and Nazi organisations were housed in more than fifty buildings – from national offices responsible for the whole Reich down to regional branches. At times as many as six thousand people were employed here. Alongside the party administration itself – such as, for example, the Reich Leadership of the NSDAP in Brienner Straße (the “Brown House”) – the head offices of many Nazi organisations were located here, including the Reich Youth Leadership, the Reich Treasury Department of the National Socialist Women’s Organisation, the Reich Leadership of the National Socialist German Students’ Association, the Reich Leadership of the SS (administrative offices and the SS court), the Supreme SA Leadership and central party institutions, such as the Reich Central Propaganda Office or the Reich Press Office. These institutions and authorities were tightly organised and centrally controlled. They were generally structured along the same lines as the regional and district organisations of the NSDAP. The party used them to penetrate society and as highly effective instruments for bringing people into line ideologically and for keeping them under surveillance and controlling their private lives.
ThemenGeschichtsPfad National Socialism in Munich
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Footage of Nazi march through Königsplatz

Hitler's painting of the Propyläen taken from N. S. Frauenwarte, 1937 and little Drake Winston, March 2013
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Original footage of the area

Königsplatz is the most significant square in Munich and is known as the Athens on the Isar with the Propyläen, Glyptothek and Antikensammlung on its three sides built in classical style, conceived by Ludwig I and built in 1817 by Klenze. Troost designed the square to make it a colossal parade ground with 22,000 slabs of concrete, the temples of honour, Führer building and the NSDAP central office. Unlike Berlin with its Topography of Terror, Munich has managed to avoid building a memorial to the past. Today, the only thing that signifies the role of the Königsplatz square during the Third Reich is a paltry plaque displayed on the stone foundation of one of the former “Temples of Honour.” The former “capital of the Nazi movement” now claims itself the “Weltstadt mit Herz” (world city with a heart).
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Königsplatz in Munich was the centre of the Nazi-government. The whole area was occupied by various NS-organisations. This is recent footage of the area which was the site of the May 10 1933 book burning by the German Students’ Association. In 1933 Königsplatz was the venue for one of the first major public demonstrations of power. During the nationally organised book-burning on 10 May 1933, works by Erich Kästner, Heinrich Mann, Karl Marx, Erich Maria Remarque, Kurt Tucholsky, Theodor Wolff and many others were burned here. In 1935 twenty thousand granite paving slabs were laid on the square like Tiananmen Square after the 1989 massacre to better run over people with tanks, and had 18 street lamps and two flag poles and it was equipped with a modern electrical system capable of providing theatrical lighting for public events. In Arcisstraße two Temples of Honour and two monumental party buildings flanked the whole ensemble. The square was thus turned into the central parade ground for mass rallies in Munich. The granite was removed in 1988 and grassed over.  Every year since 1995 the artist Wolfram P. Kastner has singed a patch of grass in front of the Antikensammlung as a token of remembrance of the public book-burning. Kastner’s symbolic action is accompanied each year by public readings from the “burnt books”. The first reading – staged by Brecht’s daughter, the actress Hanne Hiob, and pupils of the Luisengymnasium grammar school – took place in 1995 and is now a regular fixture in the city’s culture of remembrance.
Königsplatz in 1933 and 1937
Panorama made from frames of "Amateur Film European Trip 1930s" and from the same position today. http://www.archive.org/details/EuropeanTrip_2

The photo on the right is from Mussolini's visit of April 25, 1937
With both 'temples of honour' in the foreground on the left and background on right. Albert Speer's lampposts, are gone, but can be found along Strasse des 17. Juni in Berlin:

During the annual commemorative march and today

 The swastika motif alongside the entrance to the Staatliche Antikensammlungen remains.

The commemorative beer hall putsch march past the Glyptothek in 1938.

Seen from the Propylaea in 1937 and today

 
For Hitler, Greek sculpture had never been surpassed and one of his most prized possessions was the best surviving copy of Myron's Discobolus; Discus Thrower. In 1937 Hitler negotiated to buy it, and eventually succeeded in 1938 when Galeazzo Ciano, Minister of Foreign Affairs, sold it to him for five million lire, over the protests of Giuseppe Bottai, Minister of Education, and the scholarly community.  It was shipped by rail to Munich and displayed here in the Glyptothek where it was placed on exhibition with Hitler publicly praising it as an aesthetic model for all time. ‘May you all then realise how glorious man already was back then in his physical beauty,’ he told his audience. ‘We can speak of progress only if we have attained like perfection or if we manage to surpass it.’
It was eventually returned in 1948 and is now in the National Museum of Rome, displayed at the Baths of Diocletian.


Remains of the 'Temples of Honour' (Ehrentempel)
The day after Hitler made his annual speech to the party’s old guard at the Bürgerbräukeller on November 8, 1933 to mark the anniversary of the failed putsch, he unveiled a small memorial with a plaque underneath at the south side of the Feldherrnhalle. Two policemen or the ϟϟ stood guard on either side of the memorial’s base and passers-by were required to give the Hitler salute.

According to Peter H. Koepf in "Swept Under the Carpet. How Munich quietly disposed of its Nazi 'martyrs’ in 1945, Hitler commemorated the sixteen dead as “Heroes of the Movement” as soon as he took power by having twin Temples of Honour built on Königsplatz between the two main Nazi Party buildings. Twenty fluted columns towering 23 feet above the ground were arranged on two 70-foot-wide limestone pedestals and which supported an open roof of steel and concrete with etched glass mosaics decorating the underside. In a two-day ceremony, Hitler brought the dead to their final resting place. On Nov. 7, 1935, 12 years after the attempted putsch, the bodies of Ehrlich and others were exhumed and taken to the Feldherrnhalle, escorted by SA storm troops. After the pallbearers ceremoniously carried the caskets up the massive steps, the crowd sang the Horst Wessel song. Soon after, Hitler appeared and individually saluted the dead men before pausing in front of each casket.
The next morning began with a 16-gun salute. The old comrades assembled around the “Bürgerbräukeller” and, commemorating the infamous march of 1923, silently retraced their steps to the Feldherrnhalle led by Julius Streicher behind whom were three men bearing the Blutfahne. Hitler was flanked by veteran fighters followed by members of the “Blutorden”, SA and ϟϟ troops, Hitler Youth, and paramilitary troops. A crowd of tens of thousands stood along the parade route lined by a cordon of SA soldiers. Accompanied by marching drummers, the Horst Wessel song blared from gigantic loudspeakers. Black smoke wafted from 400 blazing pylons along the route, each bearing the name of one of the “martyrs” of the movement in gold letters. Flag-bearing delegations from the Nazi administrative districts stood nearby. As Hitler passed each pylon, the immortalised name of each “martyr” was announced over the loudspeakers.
The caskets were then taken on carriages to Königsplatz square. The moment the first carriage arrived on the square, a shot was fired and the flags of the movement and of the Wehrmacht were lowered. Veteran fighters placed the caskets on the podium. Two large swastika banners were then raised in unison. The Völkischer Beobachter reported that Königsplatz had thus been transformed into “a mighty forum for the movement.” The heroes were now resting in the Nazi Party’s “holy sanctuary.” Hitler proclaimed: “Just as they marched fearlessly, so too shall they lie in the wind and weather, in the storms and rain, in the snow and ice, and in the sun, under the heavens. They will lie here in open as an eternal symbol of the German nation. For us they are not dead.” 
From Hans Weberstedt and Kurt Langner's Gedenkhalle für die Gefallenen des Dritten Reiches Unter Mitarbeit der Gauleitung der NSDAP und Angehöriger der Gefallenen (1939)



It was in 1935 that the remains of the sixteen putschists were brought here on the anniversary. This had followed the purge of the SA during the Night of the Long Knives the year before. The bodies were exhumed from their graves and taken to the Feldherrnhalle where they were placed beneath sixteen large pylons bearing their names. The next day, after Hitler had solemnly walked from one to the next, they were taken down the monument’s steps and taken on carts, draped in flags to Paul Ludwig Troost’s new Ehrentempel monuments at the Konigsplatz, through streets lined with spectators bustling between 400 columns with eternal flames atop. Flags were lowered as veterans slowly and orderly placed the heavy sarcophagi into place. In each of the structures eight of the martyrs were interred in a sarcophagus bearing their name.
Each temple held the sarcophagi of eight 'martyrs' with two ϟϟ honour guards keeping vigil.
The martyrs of the movement were in heavy black sarcophagi in such a way as to be exposed to the elements from the open roof. When Gauleiter Adolf Wagner died from a stroke in 1944 he was interred metres away from the north temple in the adjacent grass mound in between the two temples.


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Rare footage of the Changing of the Guard at the Ehrentempel in 1938
At the temples visitors were required to be silent, not wear hats and keep children from running over the centre of the temples. The Ehrentempel was made of limestone except for its roof which was made of steel and concrete with etched glass mosaics. The pedestals of the temples, which are the only parts remaining, are seventy feet wide. The columns of the structures each extended twenty-three feet. The combined weight of the sarcophagi was over 2,900 pounds.
Hitler and Mussolini beside one temple with the braune haus behind
Standing in front of the ruins of the Ehrentempels in 2007 and 2010. Only the foundations are visible today after the temples had been blown up in January 1947; trees and bushes are growing on top.

The sunken area for the sarcophagi became a pool of water after the war
In a thread on Axis History Forum, pionier44 provided several photos of the area around Konigsplatz, including a few on top the Ehrentempels. In a couple are shown small holes which he suggests could have been used for drainage; indeed, he later asks "the only visible thing up top is some open stand pipes. Were these for the eternal flames?"
I had my picture taken next to one for perspective as another poster inquired as to their size.

According to the Munich tourist board, the “Ehrentempeln” – or Temples of Honour – on Munich’s Königsplatz were “National shrines of the German people.” Millions of Hitler Youth and Nazi party members regarded the men buried there as role models of self-sacrifice. Ehrlich and the others had become National Socialist heroes. In 1945, Munich officials decided to eradicate this former Nazi shrine. Even Karl Meitinger, head of the city planning department under the Nazis, was busy thinking about the future. Speaking at the city council’s first postwar meeting in August 1945, he said: “We must strive to salvage the form and appearance of the old city centre at all costs.” He expressed the hope that, within a few decades, “our beloved Munich” would be restored to what it once was. The city would then be the focus of a new era of tourism, and its reputation as Germany’s city of the arts could once again flourish. To this end, he said that the Königsplatz would be “de-Nazified,” the Temples of Honour torn down. The bodies of Ehrlich and the other Nazi “martyrs” would have to be removed as discreetly as possible.
http://www.atlantic-times.com/archive_detail.php?recordID=359
I had revisited the site on March 11, 2011 and found a glass candle holder and a bone (!) placed on top a stone:
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From atop the other ehrentempel remains beside the Fuehrerbau, January 2012

On the night of July 5, 1945, the 16 “martyrs” from the Temples of Honour were removed and quickly buried elsewhere. The remains of Johann Rickmers were sent to the city crematorium but, as domestic mail services had been suspended by the Allies forces, his ashes couldn't be sent to their final resting place in Westphalia. All these burials were lonely affairs. On June 27, 1945, Mayor Karl Scharnagl, appointed by the American occupying forces, published the following decree: “Any public participation during the burials, or any kind of outward display whatsoever, must be avoided.” On July 12, the director of Munich’s municipal cemeteries submitted his report to the mayor: “On July 5, 1945, the bodies, or the remains thereof, were removed from the temples on Königsplatz square without incident. The bodies were placed in family gravesites or buried in common graves. This was carried out at a time of day when the cemetery was closed to the public.”
On January 9, 1947 the upper parts of the structures were blown up. The central portion was subsequently partially filled in but often filled with rain water which created a natural memorial. When Germany was finally reunited plans were made for a biergarten, restaurant or café on the site of the Ehrentempel but these were derailed by the growth of rare biotope vegetation on the site. As a result of this the temples were spared complete destruction and the foundation bases of the monuments remain intersecting on the corner of Briennerstrasse and Arcisstrasse. In the intermittent period of the 1947 destruction and 1990 handover basements (hitherto unknown to the Americans) were uncovered beneath the structures. A small plaque added in 2007 explains their function. Designed by Professor Heinlein, the sarcophagi originally cast at the Wasseralfingen steel works in Baden-Württemberg and the eight columns weighing over 21 tonnes were recycled to make brake shoes for municipal buses. Weighing nearly 2,900 pounds, the metal caskets were converted to repair rail ties and electrical lines. Munich had discreetly rid itself of its former Nazi “heroes.” The bronze eagles designed by party member Kurt Schmidt-Ehmen were removed and the former Nazi buildings on Königsplatz are now used by music students and cultural institutions.
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From the bizarre Nazi film Ewige Wache, showing the procession from the Feldherrnhalle to the Temples of Honour where the 'martyrs' are shown taken from their graves to be re-interred here. The film on the right shows footage of the site.

Führerbau (site of Munich Agreement)
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My Grade 10 students debating the merits of Munich
Before and after the war
The Führerbau had been constructed for the Nazi party by Paul Troost and was where Neville Chamberlain and Adolf Hitler signed the Munich Agreement in 1938. Hitler's office, on the second floor above the entryway, is now a rehearsal room, but has been changed little since it was built.
You can see the Führerbau behind one of the "temples of honour" on the right.

Welcoming Chamberlain and Daladier September 29, 1938



Romanian leader Ion Antonescu and Hitler at the Führerbau in June 1941 with Ribbentrop and Generalfeldmarschall Wilhelm Keitel in the background. 

Here the Nazi Eagle is seen on a plinth which still remains today




Hitler and Mussolini walking past from stills captured from archival footage of the conference where I later stood.

Standing at the foot of the staircase with period photo taken from Geoff Walden's Third Reich Ruins.
The side rooms have since been divided into smaller corridors

Shortly before midnight, the Four-Power Agreement was signed in the Führerbau, crushing any hopes Hitler may have still entertained that an international agreement could be avoided. The contractual settlement was similar to the resolution applied to the Saar. Again international commissions were set up and plebiscites held under international supervision. The Saar experience, which had infuriated Hitler, showed that he despised such measures. His dilemma was that he had no option other than to sign. He had ventured too far by playing along with the conference to retreat now.

Hitler's office where the Munich agreement was signed, then and now.
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Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini and Count Ciano just before the agreement was signed in Hitler's office as shown above with a short background video about the Munich agreement. Click to watch a Nazi propaganda film from 1939 made after the eventual invasion and betrayal of the agreement: Sudeten-Deutschland kehrt heim - Sonderdienst der Tobis-Wochenschau.
Hitler, Mussolini, Chamberlain, and Édouard Daladier, the small, quiet, dapper premier of France, together with Ribbentrop, Weizsäcker, Ciano, Wilson, and Alexis Léger, State Secretary in the French Foreign Office, took their seats around a table in the newly constructed Führerbau amid the complex of party buildings centred around the Brown House – the large and imposing party headquarters – in Munich. There they proceeded to carve up Czechoslovakia. 
Kershaw Hitler
While others thought of the Munich agreement of 1938 as a sign of German triumph and as a symbol of weak-kneed acquiescence in aggression, Hitler looked on it as a terrible disappointment then and as the greatest error of his career later.22 He had been cheated of war and, after destroying what was left of Czechoslovakia anyway, he would move toward war in a manner calculated to preclude what he considered the disappointing outcome of 1938.
Weinberg (28) A World at Arms
The Nazi eagle was later replaced by the American bald eagle as members of the US military pay their respects as they enter the building.
 
Führerbau bleibt Führerbau: Shockingly, on September 29, 2012 a rented room in the Musikhochschule was allowed to be decorated in slightly-defaced Nazi flags as part of an event entitled "Klassenkampf statt Weltkrieg" (Class Warfare instead of World War)

Verwaltungsbau (NSDAP Central Office)
 On Meiserstrasse 10 (across from the offices of the Fuehrer's deputy) is the NSDAP Central Office; the photo on the right shows the remains of a 'temple of honour' overgrown with vegetation. Identical to the Fuehrerbau to which it is linked by a 105 metre tunnel, this was the office of the Reich treasurer and where filing cabinets held the information for 8.5 million party members which would later prove crucial for the Americans' denazification process. It later held much of the stolen art eventually recovered.

The reichsadler being removed and dismantled after the war
The Central Collecting Point in Munich was designated to primarily hold ERR loot, Hitler and Goering’s collections, and other works found in the Altaussee salt mine. The photos above from Robert Edsel's blog show the Munich Collecting Point before repairs were made in June 1945 and how it appeared during this period. Fittingly today it is a museum for classical replicas:

The Karteisaal in 1935 with cabinets containing the Nazi member card index. The photo on the right shows me in the basement which has a tunnel linking the building to the Führerbau. According to Bürokratie un Kult
there was a Verbindungsgang (service tunnel) running between the Führerbau and Verwaltungsbau, several metres beneath the ground surface. There was also a parallel tunnel for heating pipes running beneath both buildings and on to the main heating system beneath the building just to the south of the Verwaltungsbau.

The site today, with the square remains of the ehrentempels clearly remaining

Zentrale


In 1934 the Nazis bought this property on Meiserstraße 6-8 and erected new buildings which served as the „Zentraleinlaufamt und Zentralauslaufamt der Reichsleitung der NSDAP.“
According to Geoff Walden,
That building was a combination of new construction and remodelling done in 1934, and housed some of the main Nazi administration offices for the Party, that were not in either the Braunes Haus or the Verwaltungsbau. These offices included the Materialamt der Reichsleitung der NSDAP, Amtsartz der Reischsleitung der NSDAP, Hausinspektion der Reichsleitung der NSDAP, Postamt der NSDAP, and the Dienstwohngebäude der NSDAP - offices and living areas for the the sort of hands-on bureaucrats that actually got all the work done. The building also housed (and still does) the heating system for the surrounding complex, and associated things like tool rooms. There was a large air raid shelter beneath the front wing of the building.
It served as the eizkraftwerk, Pumpenhaus, Telefonzentrale, Kantine, Garage, Büroräume and Postamt. The bust above the vehicle entrance is very similar to those found in the rear of the Park Cafe, designed at the same time in 1934.

Reichzentrale für die Durchführung des Vierjahresplanes bei der NSDAP
Next to it at 9 Meiserstrasse (since renamed Katharina-von-Bora-Straße given Bishop Hans Meiser's alleged anti-Semitism) is what had been the Reich Central Office for the Implementation of the Four Year Plan. The white building beside it was the headquarters of the Bavarian Protestant Church; Meiser is shown saluting from the balcony in 1933. In the Protestant Church Hans Meiser, the Bishop of Bavaria, who came to office in May 1933, was initially close to the regime. Not only did the Protestant Church “bring itself into line” and agree to follow the Führer, Meiser also showed sympathy for the “German Christians” (Deutsche Christen), a group with ties to the regime. Although Meiser distanced himself from this position in 1933–34 and went over to supporting the “Confessing Church”, which was critical of the Nazis, he professed to Hitler that he belonged to his “most loyal opposition”. Moreover, there was no official protest by the Protestant Church against the injustices of the Nazi regime.

Offices of the Fuehrer's Deputy (Kanzlei des Stellvertreters des Führers)
Formerly Palais Moy directly across from the Verwaltungsbau, this building on 11 Meiserstrasse was bought in 1936 to serve as the offices of Rudolf Hess, in charge of security for the Braune Haus. The Führer’s deputy (from 1941 onwards the Party Chancellery) was in charge of control and leadership functions vis-à-vis the party and the state – for instance, in racial and personnel policy. The huge bureaucracy headed by the Reich Treasurer (which at times employed more than 3,200 people) was not only responsible for managing and increasing the NSDAP’s enormous assets, but also supervised the party’s membership, which at the end of the war numbered around eight million. Today it's apparently owned by the evangelisch-lutherischen Landeskirche. The photo on the right shows the interior.

The Brown House (Das Braunes Haus)
Das Braune Haus behind the Temples of Honour shown on the left with part of the Führerbau.

The Nazi Party Reich Office: Braunes Haus, Briennerstrasse 45, Munchen 33. It was named for the colour of the party uniforms. On the ground floor was displayed the Blutfahne ('Blood Flag') of the failed Munich beer Hall putsch of November 9, 1923. Hitler, then leader of the SA Ernst Rohm, and the party treasurer had offices on the top floor. After becoming Chancellor Hitler gave the building to Rudolf Hess. Also maintaining offices here were Hans Frank, Heinrich Himmler, Hermann Goering, Philipp Bouhler, and Franz Xaver Schwarz. The former three-story, neo-classical Barlow Palace dated from 1828 in the plain Biedermeier style common in those times, and it was renamed the Brown House (for the colour of the SA uniforms) in 1931. It had once been the former Italian legation, and the Nazis converted the attics into another story.
Architect Dr. Paul Ludwig Troost did the renovation. Sepp Dietrich had a room there, and sometimes the Führer stayed overnight. From the Brown House, Hitler executed his plans for the political conquest of Germany during 1929–33.
During 1933–35, a tunnel reportedly was built connecting the Brown House with the nearby Fuhrerbau (Leader Building), and it was from the Brown House that Hitler went by car to arrest Rohm and the other dissident SA leaders on “The Night of the Long Knives,” June 30, 1934.
Inside the Führer’s second floor office, there was a bust of Mussolini, red-brown walls, and high windows (a future typical room feature) looking out onto the Konigsplatz. Peter Adam in Art of the Third Reich noted, “The standard for future Party buildings was set here . . . Much earnest wood panelling on walls and ceiling . . . A vast staircase led to Hitler’s office, with its portrait of Frederick the Great over a large desk. There were also pictures of Prussian battles . . . a Senate chamber was constructed . . . 60 chairs in red leather, with swastikas on their backs for 60 Senators around a vast conference table.”
A Nazi Senate never met, however, as the Führer feared being voted out of Party office by such a body- something that happened to Mussolini in 1943 by the Fascist Grand Council in Rome. Dr. Otto Dietrich recalled in his memoir, Hitler, “The Party Senate—which Hitler had promised to form and for which the Senate Hall in the Brown House at Munich had been completely furnished—never came into existence. Decisions were made by Hitler alone, then passed on to the government and the Party as accomplished facts. Having announced his decrees, Hitler declared that they were essential to the welfare of the nation.”
[Hitler] took over the Barlow Palace, an old mansion on the Briennerstrasse in Munich, and had it remodelled as the Brown House. A grand staircase led up to a conference chamber, furnished in red leather, and a large comer room in which Hitler received his visitors beneath a portrait of Frederick the Great. The Brown House was opened at the beginning of 1931, a very different setting from the dingy rooms in the Corneliusstrasse or the Schellingstrasse.
Bullock (149-150) Hitler: A Study in Tyranny

With supporters inside. Hitler often ate his meals in the Brown House canteen with brown-shirted SA men seated on rustic Bavarian chairs. Besides Hitler’s own office on the second floor, there were also those of the SA chief of staff, the Party treasurer, and the Party administration. Hitler spent little time there, though, preferring instead to carry on Party business at his usual cafe and eatery haunts. The photo on the right shows Hitler leaving the Brown House after the 1930 election results.
At the right time, fate led to his meeting with his architect, Paul Ludwig Troost, with whom he soon formed a friendship based on an affinity of minds. What Dietrich Eckart was to The Leader as far as the exchange of ideas of a philosophical nature was concerned, Professor Troost soon became for him as far as architecture was concerned.
The first building to arise through the unique combination of these two men, and also the first small construction of the Movement, was the Brown House in the Briennerstraße in München. It was only a renovation, but for that time, as The Leader sometimes related later, a massive undertaking. Here one can already see everything that was to be expressed even more distinctly in the buildings which were to be constructed after he came to power: severe and austere, but never monotonous. Simple and clear, and without false decoration. Ornamentation used sparingly, but in the right place, so that it could never be considered as superfluous. Material, form and lines combine to create an impression of nobility.
From Adolf Hitler- The Life Of The Leader


The Brown House was greatly damaged by Royal Air Force bombs on March 9–10, 1943, and in October later that year and by the time of its fall to the US Army in 1945, it was a mere shell of its former self. The rubble was cleared away in 1947, leaving an empty lot. It was eventually razed to the ground in 1947 and as can be seen in my photo, the plot remains empty. Apparently the Bavarian government will make this site the home of the future NS-Dokumentationszentrum
UPDATE: This notice board has been erected at the site this week confirming the proposed centre (August 2010):
The site from atop the remains of an ehrentempel January 2012
Hitler's office and the "Hall of Flags" at the entrance.
The Brown House at that time was a pompous villa kitted out in a not unpleasant way in something approaching imperial style; but it was quite useless for the purpose it was meant to serve. It did not have the right office rooms. Hitler’s work room was on the first floor, in the corner. The entrance led through a little room in which Hess worked. I don’t know if this word ‘worked’ is actually suitable here. The first impression which I . . . had was of boundless disorder. Letters, newspapers, magazines, everything lay strewn around the room. . . .
At once I noticed that Hitler was notable in the Brown House by his absence. He ignored his colleagues and advisers completely and let them do whatever they wanted. He was only there to talk by chance about anything substantial, and only then about what interested him or about what he wanted to discuss. Already he had a special circle around him which was in no way identical with the office holders in the party.
H. Nicolai, Mein Kampf ums Recht.
Other Munich Pages
Odeonsplatz
Various sites in central Munich (1)
Sites around central Munich (2)
Sites around Munich (3)
Sites around Munich (4)
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国王广场(德语:Königsplatz)是德国慕尼黑的一个广场,与卡洛林广场一起,构成布林纳街的一部分,是该市4条皇家大道之一。  国王广场是根据路德维希一世的命令, 建造了多利安柱式的Propyläen(纪念奥托一世登基成为近代希腊开国君主)和爱奥尼亚柱式的古代雕塑展览馆。科林斯柱式的州立文物博物馆由Georg Friedich Ziebland设计,在其后面有圣玻尼法修道院。  纳粹德国时期,国王广场成为纳粹党集会场所,东部建起2座光荣庙,安放1923年啤酒馆政变中丧生的16名纳粹遗体,这2座庙在第二次世界大战以后都被摧毁。Paul Troost在庙旁建造的2座纳粹党建筑至今尚存,1938年在其中一座建筑内签订了慕尼黑协定。  今天,国王广场附近区域形成艺术区,是慕尼黑美术馆与博物馆集中的区域。  慕尼黑地铁设有国王广场站。 Кёнигсплац (Королевская площадь, нем. Königsplatz) — площадь в Мюнхене на улице Бриеннерштрассе в городском округе Максфорштадт.  Площадь Кёнигсплац возведена по указанию кронпринца Людвига 1815 года архитектором Лео фон Кленце[1] по подобию античного форума по проектам Карла фон Фишера. Строительство продолжалось в 1816—1830 гг. По желанию будущего короля Баварии, Кёнигсплац должен был стать площадью культуры в «Новых Афинах на Изаре»[2].  В северной части располагается Глиптотека с богатейшей коллекцией древнегреческой и древнеримской скульптуры. В западной части находятся Пропилеи, «ворота площади» (копия входа в храм на Акрополе). На южной стороне площади расположено Государственное античное собрание работы архитектора Георга Фридриха Цибланда.  Глиптотека представляет собой ионический ордер, Пропилеи — дорический, а Античное собрание — коринфский.  В конце площади расположено аббатство Святого Бонифация, построенное в византийском стиле.  В 1933—1936 гг. по проекту Пауля Людвига Трооста в восточной части площади были построены Административное здание НСДАП и Фюрербау (сохранились до настоящего времени). Между ними были построены два (северный и южный) Храма почёта (нем. Ehrentempel) в которые 9 ноября 1935 года были перенесены саркофаги с прахом 16 нацистов, погибших во время пивного путча 1923 года.  Во времена Третьего рейха площадь использовалась для проведения массовых митингов.  После Второй мировой войны американская оккупационная администрация расположилась в Фюрербау, а Храмы почёта были взорваны (в настоящее время сохранились их цоколи, заросшие плющом). Примечания      ↑ Лео фон Кленце     ↑ Площадь Кенигсплац и её достопримечательности Der Königsplatz ist ein Platz im Münchner Stadtteil Maxvorstadt, der zum Gesamtensemble der Brienner Straße gehört, der ersten Prachtstraße Münchens. Der Platz im Stil des europäischen Klassizismus ist ein Zentrum kulturellen Lebens und gilt als eines der Hauptwerke des ludovizianischen „Isar-Athen“.  Inhaltsverzeichnis      1 Lage     2 Verkehr     3 Geschichte         3.1 Die Konzeption Karl von Fischers         3.2 Weiterentwicklung durch Leo von Klenze         3.3 Umbau während der NS-Herrschaft         3.4 Nachkriegszeit     4 Der Königsplatz als Ausdruck des „Griechenlandabenteuers“     5 Sehenswürdigkeiten         5.1 Gebäude         5.2 Museen         5.3 Nähere Umgebung         5.4 Panorama des Königsplatzes     6 Regelmäßige Veranstaltungen     7 Sonstiges     8 Literatur     9 Weblinks     10 Einzelnachweise  Lage  Der Königsplatz liegt im dritten Viertel der Brienner Straße im Süden der Maxvorstadt. Er ist der dritte und letzte Platz im Gesamtensemble Brienner Straße. Im Osten trennt er die Katharina-von-Bora-Straße von der Arcisstraße, im Westen wird der Königsplatz von der Luisenstraße begrenzt. Verkehr Der Verlauf der Brienner Straße über den Königsplatz  Im Individualverkehr besitzt der Königsplatz keine andere Funktion als die einer Verlängerung der Brienner Straße. Gleichzeitig wird der Verkehr zur Luisenstraße geführt, mit der eine Verbindung zum Hauptbahnhof entsteht.  Im öffentlichen Verkehr ist der Königsplatz durch den U-Bahnhof Königsplatz der Linie U2 angeschlossen. Geschichte  Die Geschichte des Königsplatzes ist eng mit der der Brienner Straße verknüpft. Karl von Fischer, der im Auftrag des damaligen Kronprinzen und späteren Königs Ludwig I. zusammen mit Friedrich Ludwig Sckell den ehemaligen Fürstenweg von der Münchner Residenz zum Schloss Nymphenburg zur Pracht- und Hauptstraße Brienner Straße ausbaute, versuchte den starren Rasterplan der Maxvorstadt durch Plätze aufzubrechen, die er an Stellen, an denen quer einfallende Straßen auf den Fürstenweg zuliefen, projektierte. Die Konzeption Karl von Fischers Blick auf das Ensemble in Richtung Osten  Den Königsplatz konzipierte Karl von Fischer nach dem Vorbild der Akropolis in Athen. Klassische Strenge sollte in lebendiges Grün eingebettet werden und so den städtebaulichen Vorstellungen Ludwigs I. entsprechen, der kulturelles Leben, bürgerliche Ideale, katholisches Christentum, königliche Verwaltung und Militär gemeinsam in Grün eingebettet sehen wollte. Insofern gehört der Königsplatz zu einem Ensemble, das mit der Abtei St. Bonifaz beginnt und über den Königsplatz zu den Pinakotheken läuft, wo sein Leibregiment in der Türkenkaserne zu einer Einheit wuchs.  Um einen mit Tempeln umstandenen Platz zu schaffen, erweiterte Karl von Fischer die Brienner Straße. Dabei war kein Straßenkreuz die Grundlage für den Platz; die sich kreuzenden Straßen verlegte Fischer an die Ränder des Platzes, die ihn dadurch begrenzten und den Raum eigenständig machten. Fischers Konzept sah an den Längsseiten zwei etwa 200 Meter lange Tempelbauten unmittelbar an den Platzkanten der Wohnbebauung vor. Die starre Symmetrie sollten Rasen und Bäume aufheben. Dieses Konzept wurde aber nur teilweise realisiert. Weiterentwicklung durch Leo von Klenze Dorische Propyläen  Nachdem Leo von Klenze den Auftrag zur Ausführung des Königsplatzes erhalten hatte, behielt er die Grundkonzeption Karl von Fischers bei. Seine Glyptothek korrespondiert mit der Antikensammlung, die Georg Friedrich Ziebland entwarf. An der Kreuzung Brienner Straße mit der damaligen Arcisstraße hatte Karl von Fischer bereits kleine Wohnbauten, die architektonisch der palaisorientierten Bebauung der Brienner Straße mit freistehenden, im Grundriss quadratisch wirkenden Gebäuden, entsprachen, den östlichen Abschluss des Königsplatzes verwirklicht.  Als Abschluss wurden durch Leo von Klenze im Westen die Propyläen errichtet, die in der Thematik dem Propylon, dem Torbau der Athener Akropolis folgen. Das Denkmal ist dem griechischen Freiheitskampf gewidmet. Klenze hat an den Münchener Propyläen im Rahmen des Klassizismus auch einen eigenen Formenkanon verwirklicht, der auch ägyptische Einflüsse hat. Der Giebelschmuck thematisiert den griechischen Freiheitskampf (1821–1829), im Gebäude tragen Tafeln die Namen griechischer Freiheitskämpfer. Die Propyläen nehmen der Brienner Straße ihren durchgehenden Charakter, ähnlich dem Karolinenplatz. Da zum Realisierungszeitpunkt die Umgebung noch freies Gelände war, übernahmen die Propyläen zugleich die (symbolische) Funktion eines Stadttores. Somit wurde der Königplatz eine Oase städtebaulicher Ruhe. Wesentlich für die Wirkung der Bauwerke und ihr Zusammenspiel ist die Neigung des Platzes. Er fällt von den Gebäuden über die Rasenflächen zur zentralen Straße leicht ab. Diese geringe Neigung genügt, um den Eindruck von antiken Tempelanlagen, die stets auf Anhöhen und Hügeln errichtet wurden, zu erzeugen. Der Königsplatz sollte keinen bestimmten Sachzweck erfüllen oder einer Herrschaftsinszenierung dienen, sondern einzig der Antike mit ihrer Ästhetik und ihren Idealen, wie sie Ludwig I. verstand, nacheifern. Umbau während der NS-Herrschaft Einer der beiden Ehrentempel auf dem Königsplatz im Jahr 1936 bei den Feierlichkeiten zum 9. November Blick Richtung Glyptothek und Führerbau, 1937  Nach der Machtübernahme der NSDAP begann 1934 die Umgestaltung Münchens zur Hauptstadt der Bewegung. Der von den NS-Machthabern in Königlicher Platz umbenannte Königsplatz wurde durch Paul Ludwig Troost so umgestaltet, dass die Konzeption Karl von Fischers umgekehrt wurde. Sämtliches Grün wurde entfernt. Am östlichen Ende wurden nördlich der Brienner Straße der Führerbau und dazu symmetrisch südlich der Verwaltungsbau der NSDAP errichtet. Anstelle von Fischers Wohnhäusern wurden zwei „Ehrentempel“ als gemeinsame Grabanlage für die während des Hitler-Ludendorff-Putsches 1923 ums Leben gekommenen Nationalsozialisten errichtet. Ihre Leichen wurden dorthin überführt und in bronzenen Sarkophagen erneut beigesetzt. Um diese als „Blutzeugen der Bewegung“ bezeichneten Toten wurde ein Kult inszeniert, der sie als Märtyrer darstellen sollte.  Der Umbau erweiterte den Königsplatz in seiner Breite erheblich. Durch die Entfernung des Grüns konnte der Königsplatz sich in Richtung der „Führerbauten“ erweitern und wie ein Trichter auf die Ehrentempel hin fokussieren. Damit wurde die Blickrichtung mit 180° umgekehrt. Gleichzeitig wurde der Platz mit Granitplatten, die bewusst aus allen Teilen des Deutschen Reiches stammten, gepflastert. Die vollkommen eben verlegten, einen Quadratmeter großen Platten ließen die Tempelbauten wie die Propyläen sehr deplatziert wirken. Das lag in der Absicht Troosts. Die historischen Bauwerke sollten den Platz nicht mehr dominieren, sondern den Neubauten gleich- oder untergeordnet erscheinen. Gleichzeitig sollte das neue Deutschland im insbesondere von Troost entwickelten NS-Architekturstil zeigen, dass es sich von der alten Ordnung, architektonisch vom klassizistischen Stil Ludwigs I., ableitet, jedoch eine eigene neue Ordnung darstellt, die alles relativiert und hinter sich einordnet. Seitdem wurde der Königsplatz für Aufmärsche und Kundgebungen der NSDAP genutzt. Am 10. Mai 1933 fand auf dem Königsplatz eine maßgeblich vom Nationalsozialistischen Deutschen Studentenbund organisierte Bücherverbrennung statt.[1] Nachkriegszeit  Während des Zweiten Weltkrieges wurden insbesondere die klassizistischen Bauten schwer zerstört. Die Troostschen Ehrentempel waren nach Kriegsende noch erhalten und es gab den Vorschlag, einen in eine Ausstellungshalle und den anderen in ein Café umzubauen.[2] Die amerikanische Militärregierung befahl jedoch im Rahmen der Entnazifizierung den Abriss des nationalsozialistischen Denkmals: 1947 wurden die Ehrentempel von der US-Armee gesprengt. Erst 1987/1988 wurden die den Königsplatz bedeckenden Platten entfernt und der Originalzustand vom Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts so weit wie möglich wiederhergestellt. Im Vergleich wurde noch einmal der Unterschied zwischen dem nationalsozialistischen Städtebaukonzept und dem Ludwigs I. deutlich. Lediglich die Wohnbauten Karl von Fischers fehlen noch, um den ursprünglichen Eindruck wiederherzustellen. An ihrer Stelle stehen noch die überwachsenen Sockel der Troostschen Ehrentempel. Eine Rekonstruktion der Fischerschen Bauten wird periodisch gefordert, bisher aber nicht ernstlich diskutiert.  Ende der 1990er Jahre wurden die Bauten generalsaniert. Die Giebelfigurengruppen wurden durch Kopien ersetzt, ein Teil wurde auf dem Bahnsteig des U-Bahnhofs Königsplatz ausgestellt. Der Königsplatz als Ausdruck des „Griechenlandabenteuers“ Ionische Glyptothek  Mit der Thronbesteigung seines Sohnes Otto im neuen griechischen Königreich 1832 erhoffte sich Ludwig I. die Gründung einer dauerhaften wittelsbachischen Dynastie in Griechenland. Bereits zuvor und verstärkt durch diese geschichtliche Entwicklung kam Ludwigs Philhellenismus auch in Bauaufträgen zum Ausdruck. Der Königsplatz sollte ein Zeichen der Verbundenheit zwischen Bayern und Griechenland sein, mit dem Haus Wittelsbach als Brücke zwischen den Ländern. Die dorischen Propyläen sollten diese Verbindung darstellen und zugleich das Eingangstor zur Zukunft sein. Die ionische Glyptothek sollte Höhepunkt des kulturellen Schaffens in Form eines Tempelbaus sein. Das nach der korinthischen Ordnung gestaltete Gebäude im Süden des Platzes, das heute die Staatliche Antikensammlung beherbergt, hieß zu Ludwigs Zeit Kunst- und Industrie-Ausstellungsgebäude der Förderung der Kunst und des Gewerbes und sollte diese Entwicklung in die Gegenwart mit den Fischerschen Bauten in der Ausfahrt zeigen.  Als Ludwig I. 1862 die fertigen Propyläen durchschritt, war diese politische Programmatik bereits Vergangenheit: Ludwig verzichtete 1848 zugunsten seines Sohnes Maximilian II. auf den Thron; Otto war 1862 bereits kurz zuvor vom griechischen Thron vertrieben worden. Sehenswürdigkeiten Korinthische Staatliche Antikensammlung Gebäude      Propyläen, entworfen durch Leo von Klenze, erbaut 1848–1862, mit Giebelfiguren von Ludwig von Schwanthaler, 1862.     Glyptothek, Entwurf Leo von Klenze, erbaut 1816–1830, mit Giebelfiguren von Johann Martin von Wagner, 1818.     Kunst- und Industrie-Ausstellungsgebäude der Förderung der Kunst und des Gewerbes (heute Staatliche Antikensammlungen) von Georg Friedrich Ziebland, 1838–1845. Die Giebelfigur Bavaria als Beschützerin und Lenkerin aller bildenden Künste wurde von Ludwig von Schwanthaler entworfen.  Museen      Glyptothek (Königsplatz 3)     Staatliche Antikensammlungen (Königsplatz 1)     Kunstbau der Städtischen Galerie im Lenbachhaus (U-Bahnhof Königsplatz, Zwischengeschoss)  Nähere Umgebung  Forschung und Bildung      Technische Universität München     Hochschule für Musik und Theater München (Arcisstraße 12)     verschiedene Institute der LMU München im Haus der Kulturinstitute (Katharina-von-Bora-Straße 10)  Museen      Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus     Staatliche Graphische Sammlung im Münchner Haus der Kulturinstitute (Katharina-von-Bora-Straße 10).     Paläontologisches Museum München (Richard-Wagner-Str. 10)  Panorama des Königsplatzes Panorama-Rundblick am Königsplatz mit dem Ensemble aus Staatlicher Antikensammlung, Propyläen und Glyptothek (2011) Regelmäßige Veranstaltungen Die deutsche Sonderbriefmarke zum 225. Geburtstag des Architekten Leo von Klenze zeigt die Propyläen.      TUNIX (Open-Air-Festival des TU-AStA, seit 1981)     Oben Ohne Open Air des Kreisjugendrings München-Stadt (im Juli, 1998–2006)     Königsplatz Open Air (Klassik-Open-Air seit 1993, seit 2000 unregelmäßig)     Kino Open Air     München liest – aus verbrannten Büchern zur Erinnerung an die Bücherverbrennung vom 10. Mai 1933  Sonstiges      Der Königsplatz bekam von den Münchnern nach der massiven NS-Umgestaltung mit Granitplatten, die das Regenwasser nicht gut abfließen ließen, den Spitznamen „Plattensee“.     Nach Kriegsende wurden einige der Granitplatten in der Gemeinde Gräfelfing als Bodenbelag für Fußgängerwege verwendet.     Die Fernsehserie Raumpatrouille nutzte den Königsplatz als Kulisse für den Landeplatz der Orion in der Raumschiffbasis 104.     1995 legte der Künstler Wolfram Kastner auf dem Königsplatz einen kreisrunden Brandfleck zur Erinnerung an die Bücherverbrennung durch die Nationalsozialisten an, damit „kein Gras über die Geschichte wächst.“ Die Aktion war vom Stadtrat nach anfänglichem Widerstand genehmigt worden. Eine von Kastner geforderte Erneuerung des Brandflecks wurde in der Folgezeit abgelehnt. Erst 2013, zum 80. Jahrestag der Bücherverbrennung, gestattete der Stadtrat dem Künstler, den Brandfleck wieder anzulegen. La Königsplatz (que en español significa, la «plaza del rey») es una destacada plaza de la ciudad alemana de Múnich, capital de Baviera, dentro del Kunstareal ("Barrio del Arte").  A la plaza se abren un grupo de edificios neoclásicos, cada uno muestra de uno de los órdenes clásicos y con una función diferente: la Gliptoteca del jónico y para albergar una gran colección de esculturas clásicas, los Propíleos del dórico y como memorial por el ascenso al trono de Otón I de Grecia, y la Staatliche Antikensammlungen del corintio y como colección estatal de antigüedades.  En las cercanías se encuentran la Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus (que fue residencia del pintor Franz von Lenbach) y la Abadía de San Bonifacio.  Hay una estación de metro con ese nombre.  Existió una plaza con el mismo nombre en Berlín, rebautizada más tarde como Platz der Republik ("Plaza de la República").  Índice      1 Historia     2 Edificios importantes         2.1 Edificios en las inmediaciones     3 Notas     4 Bibliografia     5 Enlaces externos  Historia  En el año 1807 el rey Maximiliano I de Baviera convocó un concurso para el embellecimiento de la zona que se articulaba por la carretera (denominada posteriormente Brienner Straße, por la batalla de Brienne de 1814) que llevaba de la Residenz ("Residencia", el Palacio Real muniqués) al castillo de Nymphenburg. El concurso fue ganado por el proyecto propuesto por los arquitectos Friedrich Ludwig von Sckell y Karl von Fischer, que posteriormente fue modificado por Leo von Klenze. El príncipe heredero (futuro Luis I de Baviera) se responsabilizó de las obras, que se iniciaron en 1815. Tras el trazado de la plaza, se fueron levantando sucesivamente todos los edificios que la circundan.  En la Alemania nazi la Königsplatz fue uno de los espacios más utilizados para desfiles y celebraciones, para lo cual se erigieron en el lado este dos "Templos de Honor" (Ehrentempel) que rendían culto permanente a los dieciseis nazis muertos durante el Putsch de la Cervecería de 1923. Ambos fueron demolidos por el Ejército de Estados Unidos en 1947, durante la ocupación aliada de Alemania. Aún se conservan los podios.1  Todavía existen dos edificios construidos para el partido nazi por Paul Troost cerca de los templos; en uno de ellos, el Führerbau ("Construcción del Führer"), se firmaron los Acuerdos de Múnich de 1938, y en la actualidad aloja una prestigiosa una escuela de música y teatro (Hochschule für Musik und Theater München, cuyo edificio fue destruido en 1944 —su fundación se remonta a 1844, y fue convertida en escuela estatal por Luis II de Baviera a sugerencia de Wagner, en 1867—). En las cercanías (45 Brienner Straße) se encontraba la Braunes Haus ("Casa Parda", llamada así por el color de las camisas de las SA o "camisas pardas"), cuartel general nacional del Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei ("Partido Nacional-socialista Alemán de los Trabajadores").  Se prevé la construcción de un "Centro de Documentación sobre el Nazismo" en Königsplatz (2008) Edificios importantes      Propyläen de Leo von Klenze, 1848–1862     Glyptothek de Leo von Klenze, 1816–1830     Kunst- und Industrie-Ausstellungsgebäude der Förderung der Kunst und des Gewerbes (hoy Staatliche Antikensammlungen) de Georg Friedrich Ziebland, 1838–1845.     Glyptothek (Königsplatz 3)     Staatliche Antikensammlungen (Königsplatz 1)     Kunstbau der Städtischen Galerie im Lenbachhaus  Edificios en las inmediaciones      Technische Universität München     Hochschule für Musik und Theater München im Führerbau (Haus der Kulturinstitute)     Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus     Paläontologisches Museum München (Richard-Wagner-Str. 10)