Showing posts with label Ulm. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Ulm. Show all posts

Remaining Nazi Sites in Baden-Württemberg (2)

Offenburg
Adolf-Hitler-Strasse in 1942 and today, its name reverted back to Hauptstrasse
 
In 1936 and today
 
The war memorial in 1939 and today
 
The memorial when it was on Platz der SA on Adolf-Hitler-Straße
 
The memorial to Sir Francis Drake by sculptor André Friedrich which, for 80 years graced the centre of Offenburg, was eventually destroyed in 1939 by the Nazis. On 17 July 1853, the monument was unveiled at the Town Hall; 86 years later it was destroyed by Nazi fanatics angered that the rathaus, now on Platz der SA, had a monument to a foreigner (who gave his name to my son).

The rathaus then with the statue and today
 
Hitlerjugend at the Kinzigdamm with the town church in the background

Schwäbisch Hall
Nazi eagle decorating a branch of Sparkasse
 
The Neues Krankenhaus Diakonie-Klinikum with swastikas and today
Some tough nuts suspected of major war crimes were kept in the old penitentiary in the pretty town of Schwäbisch Hall near Stuttgart. Here prisoners were subjected to some particularly nasty forms of interrogation. Old boys included SS commanders Sepp Dietrich, Fritz Kraemer and Hermann Priess, all of whom denied issuing orders to shoot prisoners of war. Seventy-four SS men were finally arraigned for the massacre of American servicemen at Malmédy, but many of their confessions were subsequently withdrawn because they said they had been extracted under torture. One of the last to break was the cigar-chewing SS officer Jochen Peiper, who was suspected of being chiefly responsible for the massacre. The Americans had used methods similar to those employed by the SS in Dachau. ...The screams of the prisoners in Schwäbisch Hall could be heard throughout the little country town. The torturers were not all American: they included vengeful Polish guards like those mentioned by Salomon. The archbishop of Cologne, Cardinal Joseph Frings, kept a tally of reports of American brutality.
 MacDonogh (406) After the Reich
Mannheim
 It was here that Albert Speer was born and where, on December 9, 1945, in a relatively trivial automobile accident near Mannheim, Patton sustained a severe injury. His neck broken, the general was paralysed from the neck down. Pulmonary oedema and congestive heart failure developed, and George S. Patton Jr. died on December 21, 1945. 

March 21, 1943 and today showing the Wasserturm

The Nationaltheater just before its destruction in 1943 and today as it was rebuilt in 1957 at Goethe Place rather than in the same location as the original National Theatre, based on the designs of the architect Gerhard Weber.
 The schloss seen at the end of Kurpfalzstraße in 1943 and today.
 The former Zeughaus (now a museum). 
 The Jesuitenkirche on Schillerplatz, 1943 and today
 
The Rosengarten under construction in 1900 and today. Hitler spoke here in 1928

The railway station then and now
I remember stopping late in the evening in Mannheim [where] there was a stormy jostling all around [Hitler] and shouts of Heil. The masses rushed together around his window and grabbed for his hand. One lot of flowers after another rained down on him through the window, and there was no end to the enthusiastic celebration. He spoke with the people in simple, heart-felt words, always, asking if they were happy with him and his work. And the approval filled with thanks swelled up to the national hymn, which rang far and wide above and beyond the shining railway platform. It was the most genuine contact of a national leader with his nation which anyone can imagine. We experienced it. No one can persuade us otherwise, for we were his dumb eye and ear witnesses who were most deeply moved time and again.
H. Frank (209-11) Im angesicht des Galgens

Grillo Theater in 1941 and its current incarnation. The building was badly damaged in the Second World War and was restored with a much simpler façade and re-opened in 1950 with Wagner's opera Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg


 Kloster Maulbronn
 Hitler visited what has been described as the best-preserved Cistercian Monastery in Europe in 1927. Recorded in his 'Table Talk' on the "5th September 1942, midday", Hitler spoke of the monastery at Maulbronn as
 one of the most beautiful in existence, thanks chiefly to the fact that it ceased to be a monastery in the Middle Ages and has not, like so many others of its kind, been altered or modernised in any way. The rules of the Order, which I have read, were extremely severe. In winter the monks had but one room heated; this common room was built over a cellar, in which fires were lighted and from which pipes led the hot air into the room above. The Romans employed the same system two thousand years ago, and the remains of their heating installations are still visible in the castle at Saalburg.
The site would provide the location for the filming of one of "Hitler's Irish Movies", Mein Leben für Irland, a Nazi propaganda movie from 1941 directed by Max W. Kimmich, covering a story of Irish heroism and martyrdom over two generations under the occupation of the evil British. The movie was produced for Nazi-occupied Europe with the intent of challenging pro-British allegiances; instead audiences identified the Irish struggle with their own resistance against the Nazis.   

Villingen-Schwenningen
 Hitler spoke here to 60,000 people on April 9, 1932
The Friedensschule at Mozartstraße 12 dates from the 1930s and still sports the nazi eagle
 The Burenhaus then and today. After taking power in 1933, the NSDAP used the building as its party headquarters. Given its location at the centre of the marktplatz, it was ideally suited for parades and national celebrations and party events. In common parlance, the building soon became known as the 'Brown House'. Its fuhrer balcony was created and remains today, the Nazi eagle still present in the grill. 
 The Bickentor then and now


Pfullingen
 The rathaus sporting the swastika and today at the Marktplatz    

Heidenheim

Schloss Hellenstein looking over the town from a Nazi-era postcard and today. Erwin Rommel was born November 15, 1891 here in Heidenheim, Wurttemberg to schoolmaster Erwin Rommel, Sr. and his wife, Helene von Luz.


 Langenargen

St. Martin's church then, at a swastika-bedecked marktplatz, and now


Friedrichshafen
The Hafenbahnhof, now the Zeppelin Museum. On 2 July 1900, the people  of Friedrichshafen witnessed a momentous  occasion - the first flight  of LZ 1, Count Ferdinand  von Zeppelin's first airship.  Although deemed a failure,  a succession of better craft (LZ 2 to 10) enabled the Zeppelin to expand into the consumer market of airship travel, whilst also providing military craft for the German Army and Navy.
 
Friedrichshafen Halle and its new incarnation


Weingarten
  The Basilica of St. Martin and Oswald


Donaueschingen

The Rathaus-Sitzungssaal  during the Nazi era and today with its Bürgermeisters, little changed


Göppingen
 
Swastikas in front of the rathaus and today 

Tübingen
The market square with the rathaus in 1936 and today
 The rathaus then and now from the other side

Münzgasse looking towards the Stiftskirche

The Synagogue on Boerneplatz, in flames on Reichskristallnacht 1938, and a memorial on the site today

Next to the museum on Wilhelmstraße 3 lived Hugo Löwenstein, the first Jewish business man in the city to sell is business in the autumn of 1933 after Nazi intimidation. He later emigrated to British Palestine.

 The University 

The barracks gate of the Burgholzkaserne on Reutlinger Straße in 1939 and today.

 The hotel Zum Hanskarle on the corner of Kaiserstraße and Österbergstraße.

 The main railway station then and now. This was the station where 1,000 Württemberger Jews were deported to Stuttgart.
 The Tübinger post office on the corner of Hafengasse and Neuer Straße.
The lower Schlosstor with and without the weather vane
View from the south of Tübingen towards Neckar and Galgenberg

Looking at the old and new Neckar bridge

 The old brewery Waldhörnle on Schweizerstraße and its replacement today

 Grabenstraße has changed completely in the last century
Herrenberger Straße with the Guesthouse König with the university mental hospital where the wife and I stayed in 2007 overlooking the town 

Todtnau

The Michael Fleiner Haus youth hostel in the late 1930s and today.

Ulm
A reichsadler still remains above the doorway of an office building, its removed swastika inviting graffiti.
When Hitler's train stopped here on the way to the front at the start of the Great War, Hitler posted a card to his landlord, Joseph Popp, writing "best wishes from Ulm on my way to Antwerp."
It was at Ulm that, according to Martyn Housden (60) in Hitler: Study of a Revolutionary?, that
[t]he quintessence of Hitler’s deception of respectability became manifest during the trial of the Ulm officers which took place in September 1930. The episode showed that he remained as much of a revolutionary agitator as ever. It was one of the most important political events in the life of the Weimar Republic and a ‘milestone’ in the development of the party. At stake was much more than the actions of the three junior army officers who were accused of treason on account of setting up National Socialist cells within the army. Eventually the three received sentences of 18 months’ imprisonment. But in the midst of weighty accusations, Hitler took the stand. His testimony, made once again in the full glare of the national press, rambled across the history of his party. Its main thrust was as follows: "I have not created an instrument in order to implement a violent revolution. I have organised nothing to implement it. Our party is not the mouthpiece of a German revolutionary movement. The propaganda which we practise, is a mental/spiritual revolutionising of the German Volk, a transformation to a new ideology, which at the very least is as gigantic as the transformation to Marxist thinking or the transformation from feudal state to a democratic–parliamentary system. The NSDAP wants a perfectly new ideas world, to construct a completely new state. It cannot occur to me for one second to fight against a state with a consolidated army and a police force. Violence is not necessary for our movement."

With a total height of 161 metres, the steeple of Ulm Münster is the tallest in the world. Construction began in the late 14th century, was suspended in 1553 and finally completed from 1844 to 1890. The town was reduced to rubble by Allied bombs in 1944, sparing the Münster.
 
The rathaus  with sporting Nazi propaganda on its façade reading Adolf Hitler für Deutschland
 
Münsterplatz in 1935 and today

The city's bomb damage from the cathedral and gargoyle from top of cathedral today.

The synagogue before and after the Reichskristallnacht pogrom and its replacement
 Anti-fascists vs. neo-Nazis in Ulm during May Day 2009

Schloss Lichtenstein 
Lichtenstein Castle is a castle situated on a cliff located near Honau, shown during the Third Reich and today

Steinen

The rathaus before its 1944 fire

Blaubeuren

The public swimming pool, sporting the swastika and today

Dilsberg

The Stadttor Dilsberg then, serving as a youth hostel flying the swastika and now 

Blaustein

The home of Rommel from where, linked to the failed July Plot against Hitler,  he was forced to commit suicide with a cyanide pill in return for assurances that his family would not be persecuted following his death. He was given a state funeral, and it was announced that Rommel had succumbed to his injuries from an earlier strafing of his staff car in Normandy. As he son related after the war,
 Shortly before twelve o'clock, my father went to his room on the first floor and changed from the brown civilian jacket which he usually wore over riding-breeches, to his Africa tunic, which was his favourite uniform on account of its open collar.
At about twelve o'clock a dark-green car with a Berlin number stopped in front of our garden gate. The only men in the house apart from my father, were Captain Aldinger, a badly wounded war-veteran corporal and myself. Two generals- Burgdorf, a powerful florid man, and Maisel, small and slender- alighted from the car and entered the house. They were respectful and courteous and asked my father's permission to speak to him alone. Aldinger and I left the room. "So are not they  are not going to arrest him," I thought with relief, as I went upstairs to find myself a book.
A few minutes later I heard my father come upstairs and go into my mother s room. Anxious to know what was afoot, I got up and followed him. He was in the middle of the room, his face pale. "Come 
outside with me," he said in a tight voice. We went into my room. "I have just had to tell your mother", he began slowly, "that I shall be dead in a quarter of an hour." He was calm as he continued: "To die by the hand of one's own people is hard. But the house is surrounded and Hitler is charging me with high treason. ' In view of my services in Africa'", he quoted sarcastically, 
 "I am to have the chance of poison. The two generals have brought it with them. It's fatal in three seconds. If I accept, none of the usual steps will be taken against my family, that is against you. They will also leave my staff alone."
"Do you believe it?" I interrupted.
"Yes," he replied." "I believe it. It is very much in their interest to see that the affair does not come out into the open. By the way, I have been charged to put you under a promise of the strictest silence. If a single word of this comes out, they will no longer feel themselves bound by the agreement."
I tried again. "Can't we defend ourselves..." He cut me off short. 
 "There's no point,"  he said. "It's better for one to die than for all of us to be killed in a shooting affray. Anyway, we've practically no ammunition." We briefly took leave of each other. "Call Aldinger, please", he said.
Liddell Hart (503) The Rommel Papers

Rommel's grave in the town cemetery