Even before the Anschluß, cities in Austria had attempted to capitalise on their ties to the Führer. Hitler’s plans for Linz are well known. He wanted to transform the city on the Danube into a cultural metropolis, with theatres, museums, art galleries and an enormous stadium. Tourism officials there saw a way to cash in on Hitler’s affection for his boyhood town. Linz styled itself first as the ‘City of the Führer’s Youth’, then as the ‘Hometown of the Führer’, and finally as the ‘City of the Foundation of the Greater German Reich’ (Gründungsstadt des Großdeutschen Reichs). When Hitler announced in March 1938 that he was personally adopting the city, it quickly became the ‘Adopted City of the Führer’. While the entire region of Upper Austria called itself the ‘Führer’s Home District’, individual Austrian towns highlighted their early support for Nazism. Graz was especially gratified when Hitler bestowed the honorary title ‘City of the People’s Uprising (Volkserhebung)’. It used this designation often in its own publicity. A Shell roadmap also referred to Graz as the ‘City of the People’s Uprising’, noting that the town had received this appellation from Hitler in recognition for its ‘self-sacrificing, tenacious perseverance in the fight for Greater Germany’.Semmens (68)
Braunau am Inn
Hitler's birthplace during the Nazi era and today. His birthplace was returned in the early 1950s to the former owners, who had bought the house during the annexation of Austria, as part of a reserve comparison from the Republic of Austria. In 2012, a Russian Duma deputy wanted to buy the house and demolish it. After unsuccessful negotiations, the Ministry of Interior in 2016 considered expropriation of the owner to gain control over the use of the building. In an interview in October 2016, the Austrian Minister of the Interior, Wolfgang Sobotka, declared that the house was to be demolished and a new building built. Sobotka referred to an alleged recommendation by a historian commission. Hannes Waidbacher, the mayor of Braunau, who was sitting in the Historian Commission, however, contradicted the fact that in the Commission's recommendation "nothing was a demolition", but a "profound architectural transformation" was recommended which would be the "recognition and symbolic power of the building Permanently." Cornelia Sulzbacher, the head of the Upper Austrian Provincial Archives, also surprised herself with the statements of the minister and also said that there was only the recommendation to change the appearance so that the house could no longer be used as a symbol.
Hitler returning on March 12, 1938 during the invasion of Austria at 15:50, crossing the Austro-German border at Braunau. The following members of his staff accompanied him: the Chief of the High Command of the Wehrmacht, General Keitel; the Reich Press Chief, Dietrich; Reichsleiters Bormann and Bouhler, and finally Gauleiter Bürckel. As Hitler passed through the streets of his native town, all church bells chimed, and he was greeted with thunderous applause of a gathering numbering in the tens of thousands.
Hitler's visit inspired the stamp commemorating his 50th birthday which was issued on April 13, 1939. It wasn't until April 1989 - a fortnight before Hitler's 100th birthday - that a memorial stone against war and fascism was erected on the public ground in front of the birthplace of Adolf Hitler at the instigation of Mayor Gerhard Skiba. The stone came from the former Mauthausen concentration camp. Since then, several projects have been launched which deal with the Nazi past and which serve as a reminder and remembrance. In 1992, Andreas Maislinger and Erich Marschall celebrated the Braunauer Zeitgeschichte-Tage, organised by the Verein für Zeitgeschichte from 1993 onwards, an initiative dealing with contemporary history and increasingly regional history. In 2006, the park of the hospital was renamed to the name of Franz Jägerstätter, a Nazi conscientious observer, and the German artist Gunter Demnig, in the course of his Europe-wide memorial project, Stolpersteine, laid several memorial stones for victims of the Nazi persecution who had once lived in the village. In 2007, the city community, together with the Verein für Zeitgeschichte, awarded the Egon Ranshofen-Wertheimer Prize for the first time, named after Egon Ranshofen-Wertheimer, the diplomat, state lawyer and emigrant from Ranshofen, near Braunau am Inn, and the US government during the Second World War has been. The prize has since been awarded to Austrians who have been particularly committed to their home country Austria.
The Stadttorturm, Salzburger Tor, adorned with the swastika before the war
This building is notable for being the location of Adolf Hitler's first two years of formal schooling, from 1895-1897, although it no longer serves as one.
The year his father retired from the customs service at the age of fifty-eight, the six-year-old Adolf entered the public school in the village of Fischlham, a short distance southwest of Linz. This was in 1895. For the next four or five years the restless old pensioner moved from one village to another in the vicinity of Linz. By the time the son was fifteen he could remember seven changes of address and five different schools. For two years he attended classes at the Benedictine monastery at Lambach, near which his father had purchased a farm. There he sang in the choir, took singing lessons and, according to his own account,16 dreamed of one day taking holy orders. Finally the retired customs official settled down for good in the village of Leonding, on the southern outskirts of Linz, where the family occupied a modest house and garden.
Hitler revisiting Leonding during the anschluß on March 13, 1938 with St. Michael's church in the background where he proceeded to pay his respects at his parents' grave. The grave has recently been destroyed by the municipal authorities. Robert Eiter, with the Upper Austrian Network Against Racism and Right-Extremism, said the latest incident was on All Saints day, on 1 November last year, when an urn was left with the inscription "Unvergeϟϟlich" – German for "unforgettable" and alluding to the ϟϟ. "A lot of flowers and wreaths were deposited there from people who clearly were admirers," he said. "It had to do with the son and not the parents." Brunner, the mayor, said he was happy with the decision to remove the tombstone and Eiter said most Leonding residents also supported it.
Hitler's house on Michaelsbergstraße 16 remains intact.
The Hitlers had moved house several times within Braunau, and had subsequently been uprooted on a number of occasions. In November 1898, a final move for Alois took place when he bought a house with a small plot of attached land in Leonding, a village on the outskirts of Linz. From now on, the family settled in the Linz area, and Adolf – down to his days in the bunker in 1945 – looked upon Linz as his home town. Linz reminded him of the happy, carefree days of his youth. It held associations with his mother. And it was the most ‘German’ town of the Austrian Empire. It evidently symbolized for him the provincial small-town Germanic idyll – the image he would throughout his life set against the city he would soon come to know, and detest: Vienna.Kershaw (7)
Hitler driving through the hauptplatz where an enormous crowd had gathered at the market place to await Hitler’s arrival. Tremendous enthusiasm was evident in Ward Price’s impressive live radio report. Speaking in German on the Austrian broadcast services, the British journalist congratulated the Austrian people on the advent of this day.
Hitler’s triumphant ride from Braunau to Linz took nearly four hours, since the Mercedes could barely work its way through the jubilant crowds. Fifteen kilometres out of Linz, Seyss-Inquart, Glaise- Horstenau and Himmler, together with other National Socialists, awaited the Führer.
When his car finally reached Linz, it was dark. Hitler stepped out upon the small balcony of the City Hall in Linz and listened to the welcoming address by Seyss-Inquart. Thereupon, Hitler gave a speech that was frequently disrupted by thunders of applause from the audience below:
Germans! German Volksgenossen! Herr Bundeskanzler!I thank you for your words of greeting. But above all I thank you who have assembled here and testified to the fact that it is not the will and desire of only a few to establish this great Reich of the German race, but the wish and the will of the German Volk!May there be those among you this evening, our reputed international truth-seekers, who will not only perceive for themselves this reality, but admit it afterwards, too. When I first set forth from this city, I carried within me exactly the same devout pledge that fills me today. Try to fathom my inner emotion at having finally made this faithful pledge come true after so many long years.The fact that Providence once summoned me forth from this city to the leadership of the Reich, must have meant it was giving me a special assignment, and it can only have been the assignment of restoring my cherished home to the German Reich! I have believed in this assignment, I have lived and fought for it, and I believe I have now fulfilled it! May you all witness and vouch for this!I do not know when you yourselves will be summoned. I hope the time is not far off. Then you shall be asked to stand up to your own pledge, and it is my belief that I will then be able to point to my homeland with pride before the entire German Volk.The outcome must then prove to the world that any further attempt to tear this Volk asunder will be in vain. Just as you will then be under an obligation to make your contribution to this German future, the whole of Germany is likewise willing to make its contribution. And this it is already doing today!May you see in the German soldiers who are marching here this very hour from all the Gaus of the Reich fighters willing and prepared to make sacrifices for the unity of the great German Volk as a whole, and for the power and the glory and the splendour of the Reich, now and forever! Deutschland, Sieg Heil!
Immediately after the German invasion of March 1938, the Viennese began to threaten, torment, and deprive Jewish fellow citizens as the Schutzstaffel (ϟϟ ) began to throw them out of their homes. Of the nearly 200,000 Jewish Viennese, around 120,000 were robbed and emigrated (the most famous refugee was Sigmund Freud), about 60,000 were murdered. The Viennese town administration was reorganised according to the national socialist pattern. On the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the death of the German composer, the Nazi administration celebrated a Mozart year in the framework of the "Mozart Week of the German Reich". From March 17, 1944, more than fifty air raids were carried out on Vienna, which destroyed about one-fifth of the city. Not by fighting, but by plunder, the St. Stephen's Cathedral, which had previously surrendered the air war without a bomb hit, also set fire. In April 1945 came the eight-day battle for Vienna, which ended with the defeat of the Wehrmacht and the occupation by the Red Army, which had advanced from Hungary. Consequences of the time of National Socialism The effect of the capital function of Vienna in the monarchy, effective until 1938, ended with the beginning of the Nazi era. The spiritual and artistic life of Vienna suffered, above all, through the persecution of the Jews, an enormous, not to be compensated, bloodletting. The emergence of the Eastern bloc made Vienna a meeting point for the spies from the East and the West, but slowed down the economic and scientific reconstruction of Vienna. More than 20 per cent of the house stock was completely or partly destroyed, almost 87,000 apartments were uninhabitable. More than 3,000 bombs were counted in the city area, numerous bridges lying in ruins, canals, gas and water pipes had suffered serious damage. At first, the problem was solved, and the city had to be made operational again.
From 1 September 1945 to 27 July 1955 Vienna was divided in its borders before 1938 into four sectors. The brightened areas were integrated into Greater Vienna in 1938 and belonged to the Soviet occupation zone of Lower Austria. A few days after the end of the fighting of the Second World War in the area of Vienna in the middle of April, the Soviet Army created a new city administration. Political parties also formed - even before the war on 8 May had finally come to an end in Europe. It was only in the autumn of 1945 that the Soviets provided other areas of Vienna to be administered by the military contingents of the United States and Great Britain with a sop to France. It remained then until 1955 "Viersektorenstadt." In the first district, which was not assigned to any of the four occupying powers, the crew changed every month. On the Schwarzenbergplatz, the southern part of which was called Stalinplatz in 1946-1956, the Red Army built the monument, the monument of liberty, the monument of the Red Army, or monument to the Red Army in 1945. It was unveiled on 19 August 1945 and has since been maintained by the city administration.
Ecstatic citizens of Vienna were waiting for Hitler until finally at around half past five in the afternoon on March 14, 1938, he entered the city that had once been the capital of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, passing the Schönbrunn Palace. The church bells here also chimed for him, and “the demonstrations of enthusiasm that accompanied Hitler’s entry into the city defied description,” as the Neue Basler Zeitung wrote. Hitler stayed here at the imperial Hotel at the Ring. Since the jubilations and the chorus of the crowd outside of the hotel would not abate, Hitler stepped onto the balcony around 19.00 together with the aged Austrian General Krauss and delivered a short address:
My German Volksgenossen!
What you are feeling now is something I myself have felt to the bottom of my heart in these five days. It is a great, historic change which our German Volk has undergone. What you are witnessing at this moment is something the whole German Volk is experiencing with you; not only two million people in this city, but seventy-five million members of our Volk, in one Reich. They are all deeply stirred and moved by this historic turning point, and they all consecrate themselves with the vow: no matter what may happen, the German Reich as it stands today is something no man will ever again break asunder and no man will ever again tear apart!
There is no crisis, no threat, and no force that might break this vow. Today these are the devout words of all German beings from Königsberg to Cologne, from Hamburg to Vienna!
Hitler's motorcade approaching the rathaus whilst, on March 15 at around 11:00 a.m., hundreds of thousands of people assembled on the Heldenplatz in front of the Hofburg to hear a “proclamation of liberation.” Two little boys greeted Hitler upon his arrival. Between them they carried a banner which bore the slogan: “The Sudeten Germans greet the Führer.”
On the balcony of the Hofburg, Hitler gave the following address:
Germans! Men and Women!
Within a few short days, a radical change has taken place in the German Volksgemeinschaft, whose dimensions we might see today, yet whose significance can only be fully appreciated by coming generations. In the past few years, the rulers of the regime which has now been banished often spoke of the special “mission” which, in their eyes, this country was destined to fulfil. A leader of the legitimists outlined it quite accurately in a memorandum. Accordingly, the so-called self-sufficiency of this Land of Austria, founded in the peace treaties and contingent upon the mercy of foreign countries, was to perform the function of preventing the formation of a genuinely great German Reich and hence block the path of the German Volk to the future.
I hereby declare for this Land its new mission. It corresponds to the precept which once summoned the German settlers of the Altreich to come here. The oldest Ostmark of the German Volk shall from now on constitute the youngest bulwark of the German nation and hence of the German Reich. For centuries, the storms of the East broke on the borders of the Old Mark in the turbulent times of the past. For centuries into the future, it shall now become an iron guarantor of the security and freedom of the German Reich, and hence a safeguard for the happiness and peace of our Great Volk. I know the old Ostmark of the German Reich will do justice to its new task just as it once performed and mastered the old.
I am speaking on behalf of millions of people in this magnificent German Land, on behalf of those in Styria, in Upper and Lower Austria, in Carinthia, in Salzburg, in Tirol, and above all on behalf of the city of Vienna, when I assure the sixty-eight million other German Volksgenossen in our vast Reich
listening this very minute: this Land is German; it has understood its mission, it will fulfil this mission, and it shall never be outdone by anyone as far as loyalty to the great German Volksgemeinschaft is concerned. It will now be our task to devote our labour, diligence, shared dedication, and joint strength to solving the great social, cultural and economic problems; yet first and foremost to make Austria ever grow and expand to become a fortress of National Socialist willpower.
I cannot conclude this address to you without calling to mind those men who, together with me, have made it possible to bring about this great change— with God’s help—in such a short time. I may thank the National Socialist members of the government, with the new Reichsstatthalter Seyss-Inquart at their fore. I may thank the innumerable party functionaries; I may thank above all the countless anonymous idealists, the fighters of our formations who have proven in the long years of persecution that the German, when put under pressure, only becomes tougher.
These years of suffering have served but to strengthen me in my conviction of the value of the German-Austrian being within the framework of our great Volksgemeinschaft. At the same time, however, the splendid order and discipline of this tremendous event is proof of the power of the idea inspiring these people. Hence in this hour, I can report to the German Volk that the greatest orders of my life have been carried out.
As the Führer and Chancellor of the German nation and the Reich, I now report to history that my homeland has joined the German Reich.
The Nazi flag flying at the Austrian chancellery building on March 11, 1938. That afternoon at 17.00, the “adviser of the Reich Chancellor, Engineer Wilhelm Keppler,” who Kershaw describes as "a one-time small businessman," flew into Vienna on a special flight, landed at the Aspern Airport, and from there immediately drove to the Federal Chancellery. Around the same time, a train pulled into the West Train Station in Vienna, bearing aboard the “Reich Chancellor’s Deputy, Reich Minister Rudolf Hess.” He proceeded to the Federal Chancellery for consultations immediately upon arrival. As officially reported, on March 12 at 5.00 a.m., the Reichsführer SS Himmler arrived in Vienna, coming from Munich. Among others he was accompanied by: the Chief of the Security Police, SS Gruppenführer Heydrich; and by the Chief of the Civil Police, SS Obergruppenführer General Daluege.
The Loos Haus during the Anschluß
The Wehrmacht marching past the parliament building
Hitler driving through Vienna with the Burgtheater in the background.
After the war during the Allied Occupation of Austria, Schönbrunn Palace was requisitioned to provide offices for both the British Delegation to the Allied Commission for Austria and for the Headquarters for the British Military Garrison present in Vienna.
[a] boon to the Russians and the looters were the big wine houses in Döbling and Heiligenstadt. The Russians emptied the great tun in Klosterneuburg and then sprayed it with machine- gun fire when it would provide them with no more solace. People were seen carrying off wine from Heiligenstadt in large vessels... (MacDonogh, 30)Salzburg
‘The great provision of wine and schnapps in Vienna, above all in the vineyard areas, possibly provided a foundation for the raping of the women when it took place.’ It is true that some of the most aggravated instances were in the great cellars of Döbling, where Austrian sparkling wine or Sekt is made, and the wine ‘village’ of Grinzing. (33)
Austrians celebrating the German army's entry into Salzburg via the Staatsbrücke on March 12, 1938.
The Mirabellgarten and Mozartdenkmal with the wife today. On August 9, 1939 Hitler attended a performance of Mozart’s opera Don Giovanni at the Salzburg music festival which was the first time he participated in this particular event. To judge by his reported demeanour there could truly not be a large-scale military conflict looming on the horizon.
Nazi flags on the former Adolf-Hitler-Platz (now Hofburgplatz) and Herzog-Friedrich-Straße with its Goldenem Dachl and today.
During the anschluß and on the occasion of Hitler's visit on April 5, 1939. Hitler would return March 18, 1940 when his train stopped over ifor him to to review an honour guard. According to the Party newspaper, he was “very touched by the enthusiasm demonstrated by the Tiroleans.” Significantly, they sang the “Englandlied” to greet him.
Kitzbuehel was fortunate to be spared from destruction in the First and Second World Wars. During the period of National Socialism from 1938 to 1945, Kitzbuhel was a holiday destination among leading national socialists. Albert Speer, Hermann Göring and Leni Riefenstahl were guests; Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop bought a farm in the village of Bichlach. At the same time, a communist resistance group organized in Kitzbühel, with connections to Berlin's Robert Uhrig. Five members of the group, Anton Rausch, Andreas Obernauer, Joseph Pair, Viktor da Pont and Ignaz Zloczower, were arrested and murdered in 1942 after being spied on by the Gestapo.
Adolf-Hitler-Platz, so-named from 1938-1946, and today. Today rathausplatz, it had been renamed Marschallplatz after the war until 1955.
Bad Radkersburg, on the Slovenian border (where it is known as Radgona). In the course of the 19th century language conflict, nationalist struggles in the ethnically mixed area arose between the predominantly German-speaking citizens and the Slovene-speaking peasant population down the Mur River. A garrison town of the Austro-Hungarian Army during the Great War, it was occupied by troops of the newly emerged Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) on 1 December 1918. An armed revolt against the occupation forces, led by Johann Mickl, in order to affiliate the town with German-Austria failed. Nevertheless, by resolution of the 1919 Treaty of Saint-Germain, the area north of the Mur passed to the First Austrian Republic, while Oberradkersburg (Gornja Radgona) and the neighbouring municipality of Apače (Abstall), on the south bank, became part of Yugoslavia. The nationalist conflicts lingered on, on both sides of the border. In World War II many members of the German minority greeted the Wehrmacht invasion of Yugoslavia in 1941 and joined the German combat units, while large parts of Radkersburg were devastated by armed conflicts. After the war, most of the remaining German-speaking population south of the Mur was forcibly expelled.
The town hall on the former Adolf-Hitler-Platz
The Seegrotte in Hinterbrühl bei Mödling has changed besides the flags it flies
Nazi flag on the Römerhofgaße in front of the Auracher Löchl. In 1938 Kufstein became the connection of Austria to the German Reichkreisstadt in the Gau Tirol-Vorarlberg. Shortly before the end of the Second World War, the city was bombed and attacked with artillery, destroying many historic buildings. After the end of the war, Kufstein was occupied by the Americans and the French.
On the Italian-Austrian border during the war and today.
Adolf-Hitler-Platz and today
Adolf Hitler Platz and today; the fountain remains
Schloss Brunnwald, built between 1724-1727 in the midst of a forest as an hunting lodge. A fire in 1898 badly damaged it but by 1905 it had been rebuilt. In 1939 the castle was confiscated by the Nazis to serve as an NSV Müttererholungsheim. After the war services were held for the large number of refugees within.
Nazi flags flying from the Hotel Friesacher Hof and the town today
Adolf-Hitler-Platz with the Altes Rathaus then and now. After the annexation of Austria in 1938, Kapfenberg's industrial facilities were expanded and expanded to meet the requirements of the massive military rearmament. Since the area around the main plant in the valley of the Thörlbach offered too little space, construction of the plant VI in the north-east of the city was begun. Additional underground tunneling systems, some of which are still preserved, were built in order to be able to continue production in an emergency. Böhler also founded the non-profit Mürz-Ybbs-Siedlungs-A.G in 1938. (GEMYSAG), which began with the construction of the Hochschwab settlement. In 1943, with the support of Böhler, the municipality decided to found a trolleybus company, Mürzaler Verkehrsgesellschaft m.b.H. (MVG). Soon after the Anschluss, the Antifascist Front, a resistance movement with about one hundred members, formed in Kapfenberg. One of the most important organizers was Anton Buchalka, who was executed in 1941 in Berlin. For the large number of war prisoners and forced labourers who were employed in war production at Boehler, several barracks camps were erected at the Schirmitzbühel, near the plant VI, in Hafendorf and Winkl. From November 1944 to May 1945, the facilities of Böhler, the station and the freight station were attacked several times by Allied bombers in Kapfenberg. After the end of the war, the city was occupied by Soviet soldiers on 9 May 1945, who were then fortunately replaced by British occupiers on July 24 1945. A DP camp was set up for about 600 Jewish and non-Jewish so-called displaced persons. The destruction of the industrial infrastructure by bombing and dismantling of the facilities by the Victory Powers was considerable. In July 1946, under the federal government of Figl, the nationalisation of, among other things, the Böhler works took place, in order to prevent further confiscation of the industrial plants by the occupying powers.