Showing posts with label Schweinfurt. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Schweinfurt. Show all posts

More Remaining Nazi Sites in Franconia (2)


Schweinfurt

1938 city map showing Nazi-era street names such as  Adolf-Hitler-Straße and Horst-Wessel-Straße
 
The rathaus 
 
Westend Apotheke at Luitpoldstraße 20 in 1933 with Nazi flags and slogans reading "Mit Hitler gegen Rüstungswahnsinn der Welt" (With Hitler against the world's armament mania). 


The same chemist's after the war
 
In front of the town walls
Comparison views from a 1934 local flyer and today:
  Salvatorkirche and Johanniskirche 
 
The Schrotturm the alte Gymnasium

 The Zeughaus
 Adolf-Hitler-Straße and the same shot today, now on the renamed Spitalstraße. The Zeughaus is at the end of the road.

On October 16 1932 during his campaign for the Presidency, Hitler spoke in a tent on the Schützenplatz
 Marktplatz then and now

The former Hitlerjugend schule still has its Nazi eagle above the door...

... as does the former entrance to the Willy-sachs-Stadions

Keßlergasse 22 with the original Jewish-owned establishment, after its 'aryanisation', and today

The former Schrannengebäude, now used by the Sparkasse bank, after the war and today- its entrance still graced with the eagle dating from 1935

Meanwhile a memorial to the destroyed synagogue is hidden away in the rear.
Maxbrücke, blown up on April 11 1945, before the arrival of the Americans, and the same scene today.
 Clearing up the debris on the Marktplatz April 1945 and today
Keßlergasse now reconstructed
Johanniskirche from an engraving by Johann Herman dating from 1646, after the war, and today.
The main railway station 
The Fichtel & Sachs factory on Ernst-Sachs-Straße after heavy bombing, and today, now the ZF-Sachs factory.
[P]recision attacks could go wrong precisely because the Germans could work out where to expect them - as the Americans discovered to their cost when they attacked Schweinfurt, a centre of ball-bearing production in northern Bavaria, on August 17 and October 14, 1943. In the first raid, thirty-six B-17S were shot down out of an initial strike force of 230; twenty-four were lost the same day in a similar attack on Regensburg. In the October attack -the 8th Air Force's 'Black Thursday' - sixty out of 291 B-17S were shot down and 138 badly damaged. 
Ferguson (566) War of the World
On the Schweinfurt raids, see Thomas M. Coffey, Decision over Schweinfurt: The U.S. 8th Air Force Battle for Daylight Bombing (New York: McKay, 1977); Friedhelm Golücke, Schweinfurt und der strategische Luftkrieg 1943: der Angriff der U.S. Air Force vom 14. Oktober 1943 gegen die Schweinfurter Kugellagerindustrie (Paderborn: Schöningh, 1988); Martin Middlebrook, The Schweinfurt-RegensburgMission (New York: Scribner, 1983). See also Hinsley, British Intelligence, 3/1: 293-96, 308-16; Murray, Lufiwaffe, pp. 164-68. 
 
The military barracks during the Third Reich and July 15, 2011, when the US army finally relinquished control
 Nevertheless a Nazi eagle remains on the façade of a barracks building


Hof Saale 
 Theresienstein 


Burg Hohenberg (Hohenberg an der Eger)

From 1936, the castle belonged to the National Socialist Teachers' Association and was a school camp- NSLB Schulungsburg. At the end of World War II in April 1945, some towers, and one-third of the village fell victim to the attack American troops, as SS troops defended the town. 1951 began a gradual reconstruction by the Bavarian state.

Naila 

Adolf Hitler Straße in 1939, now Bergstrasse


Bamberg
 
Bamberg during the Third Reich in 1936 and the wife in front of the altes rathaus today. It was at the party conference held in Bamberg in 1926 that Hitler set about reunifying a party left fragmented by his time in gaol and organising personal meetings with senior party members from around the country.
[Hitler] summoned about sixty party leaders to a meeting on 14 February 1926 at Bamberg, in Upper Franconia. There was no agenda. Hitler, it was stated, simply wanted to discuss some ‘important questions’.

He spoke for two hours. He addressed in the main the issue of foreign policy and future alliances. His position was wholly opposed to that of the Working Community. Alliances were never ideal, he said, but always ‘purely a matter of political business’. Britain and Italy, both distancing themselves from Germany’s arch-enemy France, offered the best potential. Any thought of an alliance with Russia could be ruled out. It would mean ‘the immediate political bolshevization of Germany’, and with it ‘national suicide’. Germany’s future could be secured solely by acquiring land, by eastern colonization as in the Middle Ages, by a colonial policy not overseas but in Europe. On the question of the expropriation of German princes without compensation (a proposal by the Left, but supported by north German Nazi leaders), Hitler again ruled out the position of the Working Community. ‘For us there are today no princes, only Germans,’ he declared. ‘We stand on the basis of the law, and will not give a Jewish system of exploitation a legal pretext for the complete plundering of our people.’ Such a rhetorical slant could not conceal the outright rejection of the views of the northern leaders. Finally, Hitler repeated his insistence that religious problems had no part to play in the National Socialist Movement.

Goebbels was appalled. ‘I feel devastated. What sort of Hitler? A reactionary? Amazingly clumsy and uncertain ... Probably one of the greatest disappointments of my life. I no longer believe fully in Hitler. That’s the terrible thing: my inner support has been taken away.’

Hitler had reasserted his authority. The potential threat from the Working Community had evaporated. Despite some initial signs of defiance, the fate of the Community had been sealed at Bamberg. Gregor Strasser promised Hitler to collect all copies of the draft programme he had distributed, and wrote to members of the Community on 5 March asking for them to be returned. The Community now petered out into non-existence. On 1 July 1926, Hitler signed a directive stating that ‘since the NSDAP represents a large working community, there is no justification for smaller working communities as a combination of individual Gaue’. By that time, Strasser’s Working Community of northern and western Gauleiter was finished. With it went the last obstacle to the complete establishment of Hitler’s supreme mastery over the party.

Hitler was shrewd enough to be generous after his Bamberg triumph. By September, Strasser himself had been called to the Reich Leadership as Propaganda Leader of the party, while Franz Pfeffer von Salomon (Gauleiter of Westphalia, a former army officer who had subsequently joined the Freikorps, participated in the Kapp Putsch, and been active in opposition to the French in the Ruhr) was appointed head of the SA. Most important of all, the impressionable Goebbels was openly courted by Hitler and completely won over....
The Bamberg meeting had been a milestone in the development of the NSDAP. The Working Community had neither wanted nor attempted a rebellion against Hitler’s leadership. But once Strasser had composed his draft programme, a clash was inevitable. Was the party to be subordinated to a programme, or to its leader? The Bamberg meeting decided what National Socialism was to mean. It was not to mean a party torn, as the völkisch movement had been in 1924, over points of dogma. The Twenty-Five-Point Programme of 1920 was therefore regarded as sufficient. ‘It stays as it is,’ Hitler was reported as saying. ‘The New Testament is also full of contradictions, but that hasn’t prevented the spread of Christianity.’ Its symbolic significance, not any practical feasibility was what mattered. Any more precise policy statement would not merely have produced continuing inner dissension. It would have bound Hitler himself to the programme, subordinated him to abstract tenets of doctrine that were open to dispute and alteration. As it was, his position as Leader over the movement was now inviolable.
At Bamberg, too, an important ideological issue – the anti-Russian thrust of foreign policy – had been reaffirmed. The alternative approach of the northern group had been rejected. The ‘idea’ and the Leader were coming to be inseparable. But the ‘idea’ amounted to a set of distant goals, a mission for the future. The only way to it was through the attainment of power. For that, maximum flexibility was needed. No ideological or organizational disputes should in future be allowed to divert from the path. Fanatical willpower, converted into organized mass force, was what was required. That demanded freedom of action for the Leader; and total obedience from the following. What emerged in the aftermath of Bamberg was, therefore, the growth of a new type of political organization: one subjected to the will of the Leader, who stood over and above the party, the embodiment in his own person of the ‘idea’ of National Socialism.

Kershaw (169-171) Hitler

The wife in front of the Portal des Böttingerhauses and as it appeared during the Third Reich

Lichtenfels
The Altes Volksschulgebäude on Adolf-Hitler-Strasse then and now


Pegnitz
 Local district assembly of the NSDAP in 1939 in the marketsquare.


Gunzenhausen
Nazis demonstrating their support in the 1920s. On October 13 1932, Hitler spoke here, in Nuremberg (Luitpoldhain), and in Weiden.

 Hammelburg
 
The swastika-bedecked townhall and today, with the fountain in the background. During World War II, Hammelburg was the site of the POW Camps OFLAG XIII-B and Stalag XIII-C, as well as the attempted rescue of POW's from these camps by Task Force Baum in 1945. The American television sitcom Hogan's Heroes (which ran on CBS from 1965 to 1971), featured a fictional Luft-Stalag 13, said to be near Hammelburg. The German Army's Infantry School (Infanterieschule) is located in this town.

施韦因富特(Schweinfurt)是德国巴伐利亚州的一个直辖市,同时也是施韦因富特县的首府,外弗兰肯行政区的第三大城市,仅次于维尔茨堡和阿沙芬堡,是德国人口密度最大的城市之一。 華語譯名  由於兩岸翻譯的不同,台灣稱為「什文福」或「士文福」;中國大陸稱為「施韦因富特」。Швайнфурт (нем. Schweinfurt) — город в Германии, город земельного подчинения, расположен в земле Бавария.  Подчинён административному округу Нижняя Франкония. Население составляет 53 415 человек (на 31 декабря 2010 года).[1] Занимает площадь 35,71 км². Официальный код — 09 6 62 000.  Город подразделяется на 15 городских районов.  Швайнфурт издавна славился своим металлообрабатывающим производством. Сейчас здесь, в числе прочих, расположены предприятия по производству подшипников и велосипедных компонентов, в том числе таких компаний как SKF, ZF Sachs[2]. Ранее город также был центром выпуска парижской зелени, одно из названий которой — швайнфуртская зелень[3][4][5].  В Швайфурте расположена крупнейшая американская военная база и атомная электростанция.