Showing posts with label Oberpfalz. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Oberpfalz. Show all posts

Remaining Nazi Sites in the Upper Palatinate

Regensburg
The city, one of the oldest in Germany, had survived seventeen sieges and had suffered a long and bloody history of violence. A Roman fortress, a bishopric since the eighth century, a way-station for Crusaders on their way to the Holy Land and a prosperous medieval port city, it had served as seat of the diet of the Holy Roman Empire until it was abolished by Napoleon. It was also the site of one of his victories during his advance on Vienna in 1809, and here too the French Emperor had been slightly wounded during the fight to breach its ancient walls. It had been home for the medieval astronomer Johann Kepler, and much later for the industrialist Oskar Schindler, who saved hundreds of Jews from the Holocaust.  When Patton's men entered the city they found it mostly intact, although allied bombers had flattened its railway stations, freight yards and Messerschmitt aircraft factory. Its twelfth-century bridge, the Steinerne Brücke, had been all but destroyed by SS troops trying to halt the American advance. And there was another example of Nazi disregard for cultural heritage. Hidden in the vaults of the city's Reichsbank, the Americans found a vast collection of art stolen from all over Europe: paintings, precious stones, bracelets and watches taken from extermination camp victims, silver bars formed from melted-down jewellery, and solid gold items removed from churches in Czechoslovakia, including a solid gold tabernacle from a Russian Orthodox church in Prague. Most valuable of all, however, were three billion dollars' worth of Austrian securities, as well as the major part of Bavaria's paper assets.   
Stafford (144) Endgame 1945
 
Hitler Youth crossing the Stone Bridge on October 1, 1933. One of the perpetrators in the murders of Johann Maier and retired policeman Michael Lottner among others was Rupert Miiller, the leader of the Hitler Youth- he had personally shot Lottner. After the war in 1954 Müller was condemned to four years for manslaughter. A few days before the end of the war on April 23, 1945 the Germans bombed the second and eleventh pillars of the bridge in an attempt to delay the American advance. This damage was only repaired in 1967. 
The Salzstadl from the 1940 book Regensburg: Eine Stadt des Reiches published by Gauverlag Bayerische Ostmark in Bayreuth and looking at the Brückentor from the other side. It was here in Regensburg that former Chancellor Franz von Papen, who more than anyone else jobbed Hitler into office, was held after having been sentenced to eight years’ hard labour at the Nuremberg trials.
While he was in Regensburg he was set upon by an SS man in the washhouse who beat him bloody, fracturing his nose and cheekbone and splitting his lips and eyelids. He was sewn up by another prisoner, a surgeon. Papen says he was singled out for special treatment. Meanwhile he was convinced that the right way to get out was to appeal for a shorter sentence rather than a retrial, which might have taken years to bring about. 
Giles MacDonogh (403) After the Reich: The Brutal History of the Allied Occupation

Regensburg was the home to both a Messerschmitt Bf 109 aircraft factory and an oil refinery, both of which were bombed by the Allies on August 17 1943 by the Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission, and on February 5, 1945, during the so-called Oil Campaign. Although both targets were badly damaged, Regensburg itself suffered little damage from the Allied strategic bombing campaign, and the nearly intact medieval city centre is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The city's most important cultural loss was that of the Romanesque church of Obermünster, which was destroyed in a March 1945 air raid and was not rebuilt (the belfry survived). Also, Regensburg's slow economic recovery after the war ensured that historic buildings were not torn down to be replaced by newer ones. Between 1945 and 1949, Regensburg was the site of the largest Displaced persons (DP) camp in Germany. At its peak in 1946–1947, the workers' district of Ganghofersiedlung housed almost 5,000 Ukrainian and 1,000 non-Ukrainian refugees and displaced persons. With the approval of the American Military Government in the American Allied Occupation Zone, Regensburg and other DP camps organised their own camp postal service. In Regensburg, the camp postal service began operation on December 11, 1946.
The southern portal of one of the finest Gothic cathedrals in Europe which is still allowed to prominently have on its façade the judensau (Jews' Sow), an example of antisemitic propaganda used by the authorities to ostracise the Jewish minority. There is a plaque that reads euphemistically:
The sculpture should be regarded as a witness in stone to a bygone era and should be seen in connection to its time; It is repugnant for the viewer of today in its anti-Jewish expression.
My bike in front of the relief with historical examples of the judensau which was erected in front of the Jewish quarter.

Hitler exiting the rathaus on October 22, 1933 and shown during the war in 1942. It was here on June 6, 1937 that Hitler spoke, referring to the nearby Walhalla:
For us there was the hard choice: either-or! Either relinquishing claim to the remnants of a bad past, remnants that had become as ridiculous as they were harmful-or relinquishing claim to the future of Germany. We would rather relinquish claim to the past and fight for a future! You are standing here in an ancient German city in which a King once erected the Walhalla with the bequest to unite in it all great German men of our history and hence lend expression to the German Volk’s indissoluble bond of blood. We believe that today we have practically accomplished our primary task of creating one Volk; before us stands a goal, and this goal has hypnotised us. It is under the spell of this goal that we march on! Let he who stands in our way not complain if, sooner or later, the march of a nation sweeps over him.  We have not practised a policy of using cheap popular phrases. We have divested money of its phantom-like traits and assigned to it the role it deserves: neither gold nor foreign exchange funds, but work alone is the foundation for money! There is no such thing as an increase in wages if it does not go hand in hand with an increase in production. This economic insight has enabled us to decimate seven million unemployed to approximately 800,000 and to keep prices almost completely stable for all essential vital goods. Today there is work going on everywhere. The peasant is tilling his fields, the worker is supplying him with manufactured products, an entire nation is working.  Things are looking up!
Adolf Hitler Brücke was inaugurated on December 21, 1935, by the Bavarian Minister for the Interior, Adolf Wagner, who dedicated it "to the glory of the state, the glory of the Bavarian Ostmark and the glory of National Socialist Germany". Work began with the north span, between the Lower Wöhrd and Weichs; work on the south span, between Weißenburgstraße and the Lower Wöhrd, began in summer 1936. In 1937 the north span opened to traffic and repairs immediately began on the Stone Bridge. On 18 June 1938, the south span and the Frankenbrücke both opened, and on July 16 Minister Wagner ceremonially christened the bridge. Several thousand people attended the festivities and the fireworks that evening. The bridge was designed by Roderich Fick, with engineering work by Gerhart & Zenns. Fick wanted the new concrete bridge to appear as slender and serene as possible to contrast with the Stone Bridge.  On April 23 1945, the bridge was blown up to slow the Allied advance, and largely destroyed. It has since been replaced by the Nibelungenbrücke.
Albert Allmann's reichsadler that had graced the Nibelungenbrücke until it had been removed after the bridge's restoration. For the 1938 Adolf Hitler Bridge, Munich sculptor Allman was commissioned to carve a group of maidens and a monumental Nazi eagle. Allman had little experience as a monumental sculptor; he was known for art deco nudes. He requested porphyry, an extremely durable stone, for the eagle but was required to use granite. He began work over a year late; when the bridge was dedicated, the eagle was not yet ready and was ineptly added to the official photographs by retouching. When completed in 1939, the 9-metre eagle weighed 12 tonnes and had cost RM18,000. In March 1940 it was installed at a semicircular lookout between the two parts of the bridge.  The eagle was mounted on the 1950 Nibelungen Bridge as a federal eagle, facing east, with the swastika omitted from the oak garland in its claws. It was frequently defaced with graffiti and painted various colours. The maidens were also placed on the new bridge.  On July 11 2001, as part of the preparations for moving the 1950 bridge before its demolition, the eagle and the maidens were moved into storage. It was announced at the time that the city would find an appropriate use for the eagle, but as of 2008 it was still in storage, despite a 2003 invitation for proposals from well known artists and an exhibit of the suggestions, which included wrapping it in the manner of Christo and permitting nature to reclaim it by letting grass grow over it. Other ideas have included smashing it and reassembling it randomly, and a local entrepreneur once offered to buy it and put it in his garden.
History of the Brückenadler
The Goliathhaus, built in 1260, in 1946 and today. The name is derived from the Goliards, a group of theology students whose guardian angel was Golias. It is believed that the present Goliath house was built on the location of the quarters in which these students would stay during the 12th century. The monumental mural itself was painted in 1573 by Melchior Bocksberger. It was here, off Goliathstrasse, that Oskar Schindler briefly lived after the war, all but penniless.
The morning after Reichskristallnacht in Regensburg: Jews led Maximilianstraße (shown before the war and today) to the railway station
On the night of November 9, Sebastian Platzer, head of the NSKK driver training school in Regensburg, was ordered by his superior, Wilhelm Müller-Seyfferth, to set fire to the local synagogue together with the NSKK men under his command. In characteristic fashion, the NSKK, the SA, and the ϟϟ fought over who would get to carry out the arson attack. Arrests of Jewish families began directly thereafter, and the next morning – under the supervision of Müller-Seyfferth – the SA and the NSKK forced the Jewish men to do degrading drills. Finally, all of the Jewish men in Regensburg were led to the train station on a “march of shame” [Schandmarsch] under a poster that read “Exodus of Jews” [Auszug der Juden]. Some were deported to the Dachau concentration camp; others were taken to the Regensburg prison. A total of 224 Jewish men from the entire administrative district of Lower Bavaria and Upper Palatinate were sent to Dachau. In the end, only eleven survived the camps and could be released in May 1945 by the Allies.
The Nazis’ use of the phrase “Exodus of Jews” was particularly cynical since it alluded to the exodus of Jews from Egypt, a central liberation theme in Jewish tradition. This phrase was used in later waves of persecution and killings. At the train station a reminder of Reichskristallnacht appears on a mural on the wall at the entrance shown on the left.
 
However, the persecution of the Jews took place much earlier in Regensburg's history. The original Synagogue was erected between 1210 and 1227 on the site of the former Jewish hospital in the centre of the ghetto. In 1519 following the death of Emperor Maxmilian who had long been a protector of the Jews in the imperial cities, the town, which blamed its economic troubles on its prosperous Jewish community, expelled the 500 Jews. The Jews themselves had demolished the interior of their venerable synagogue, on the site of which seen behind me a chapel was built in honour of the Virgin. Two etchings made by Albrecht Altdorfer just before it was destroyed on February 22, 1519 provide the first prints of an actual architectural monument. Just in front is a memorial created by Dani Karavan in 2005 that depicts the foundation of the Synagogue. Dani Karavan website   
The synagogue alight during Reichskristallnacht, November 8-9 1938...  
 ... and the current synagogue today, with memorial plaque to the events of the past. On November 9, 1938, during the Reichspogromnacht, the synagogue was burned down at the Brixner Hof, the remaining Jewish shops were looted and the Jewish population of Regensburg terrorised. On April 2, 1942, 106 Jews from Regensburg were transported from the square of the destroyed synagogue to Piaski and murdered at the Belzec extermination camp. Further transports, including those to the Theresienstadt concentration camp, followed until 1943. In the Stadtamhof district there was an external camp at the Flossenbürg concentration camp. Another subcamp was located at the Regensburg-Obertraubling airfield. In total, 200-250 victims of the Holocaust fell victim; 233 Regensburgers had earlier managed to escape through emigration. In the autumn of 1942, the Gestapo smashed the so-called Neupfarrplatz-Gruppe, a resistance movement consisting of about fifty people; nine were poisoned with the remainder sentenced to imprisonment. Starting in 1940, a total of 638 women, men and young people were deported from the district hospital on Ludwig-Thoma-Strasse and sent to the Hartheim homicide facility through the so-called euthanasia programme; over 500 other people were sterilised against their will.
The early-Gothic church of St. Ulrich, built between 1220 and 1230 and on the right the Schottenportal during the Nazi era and today, protected within a glass structure. Founded in the 11th century by Irish missionaries and for most of its history in the hands of first Irish, followed by Scottish monks, in Middle Latin Scotti meant Gaels, not differentiating Ireland from Scotland.

The house on the right of the photograph showing Regensburg in flames after allied bombing remains at Donaustaufer Straße, although it's uncertain for how much longer.
The Americans were only a short distance away, and few people were prepared to go down in flames as the enemy took the town. Next morning some women started going round shops, spreading the word that there was to be another meeting that evening in Moltkeplatz, in the city centre, to demand that Regensburg be handed over to the Allies without a fight. Nearly a thousand people, many of them women with children, turned out. As the crowd started to become restless, it was addressed by a prominent member of the cathedral chapter, Domprediger Dr. Johann Maier, who, however, was able to say only a few words before he and several others were arrested.
When [Gauleiter] Rucksdeckel heard what had happened, he ordered that Maier and the other 'ringleaders' be hanged. A rapidly summoned drumhead court lost no time in pronouncing the death sentence on Maier and a seventy-year-old warehouse worker, Joseph Zirkl. They were hanged in the early hours of 24 April. The terror apparatus had still functioned. But with the Americans on the doorstep, the town's military commandant, its head of regional government, the Kreisleiter and the head of police suddenly vanished into the night. Gauleiter Rucksdeckel had also disappeared. The way was all at once clear for emissaries to hand over the city on 27 April, still largely undamaged by the war.
Kershaw (342-3) The End
 For a personal account of the American entry into Regensburg May 1, 1945:
Chapter 22: Regensburg, Germany
      
Porta Praetoria- Germany’s most ancient stone building, a gateway dating from 179 C.E. under Emperor Marcus Aurelius for the new Roman fort Castra Regina ("fortress by the river Regen"). It was built for Legio III Italica and was an important camp on the most northerly point of the Danube corresponding to what is today the core of Regensburg's Old City or Altstadt east of the Obere and Untere Bachgasse and West of the Schwanenplatz.  Giant blocks of stone were used to construct this gate in the northern wall of the Roman military camp. It survives as a reminder of Castra Regina, the Roman settlement.
The Römerturm (also called the "Heidenturm") at the former Moltkeplatz and today. During the war a two metre-thick reinforced concrete ceiling of the tower was reinforced.  On the right is Haidplatz during the Nazi-era and today.

Hellenenbrücke and Ostentor
 

 The Historische Wurstküche zu Regensburg which claims to be the oldest continuously open public restaurant in the world.  In 1135 CE a building was erected as the construction office for the Regensburg stone bridge which, when completed 1146, the building became a restaurant named "Garkueche auf dem Kranchen" ('cookshop near the crane') as it was sited alongside the river port. The present building dates from the 17th century although archaeological evidence has confirmed the existence of a previous building from the 12th century with about the same dimensions.  
By the beginning of the Second World War several camps were built in and around Regensburg for Soviet prisoners of war. About 700 of them were victims of Nazi forced labour, or fell victim to plagues and wretched living conditions.During the war Regensburg suffered from air raids, especially as the Messerschmitt aircraft works were located in the west of the city. Compared to the destruction of other German inner cities however, the old town was less affected, although one of the most important architectural features of the town was completely lost with the Stiftskirche Obermünster and other historical buildings such as the Old Chapel or the Neue Waag am Haidplatz seriously damaged. The aircraft factory, the largest such factory in Europe, was attacked and hit. In a total of twenty bomb attacks by the Royal Air Force and the 8th US Air Force between 1943-1945 about 3,000 people died, including many prisoners of war. In 1945 a partial explosion of the Donaubruck took place. The city itself was, however, finally handed over without a fight, not least because of a demonstration by Regensburg women and the Domprediger Johann Maier on April 23, 1945. Maier demanded the surrender to ensure the city was not damaged. The following day he was publicly deported for "sabotage" together with another Regensburger, Josef Zirkl and the retired gendarmerie officer Michael Lottner. A memorial was erected on the site of their execution at the Dachauplatz, and Maier's bones were transferred to Regensburg Cathedral in 2005.
    
The Regensburg Walhalla
Conceived in 1807 by Crown Prince Ludwig for the purpose of supporting the drive for the unification of the German states, it was not until after his accession to the throne of Bavaria in 1825 that construction took place between 1830 and 1842 under the supervision of the architect Leo von Klenze, modelled after the Parthenon in Athens at a cost of cost £666,666. The southern pediment frieze features the 1815 creation of the German Confederation whilst the northern displays scenes from the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest of 9 CE. The memorial displays some 65 plaques and 130 busts covering 2,000 years of history, beginning with Arminius, victor at Teutoburg Forest. According to the guide booklet, it serves to honour "politicians, sovereigns, scientists and artists of the German tongue"   Beginning in 1933, the Kraft durch Freude and other Nazi organisations promoted trips to Walhalla, visitor numbers increased exponentially. In 1937 when Hitler unveiled the Bruckner bust described below, 131,520 were counted. In April 1945, General George Patton stood there, as men of his 3rd Army were crossing the Danube River.
Looking down over the Danube. Among the busts of renowned speakers of Germanic languages is this of Sophie Scholl which was inaugurated on February 22, 2003- the 60th anniversary of her execution- and is intended to represent the supposed German Resistance against the Nazis even though her own involvement was detrimental to the White Rose itself.


On June 7 1937, Hitler installed the bust of Anton Bruckner, (who was one of his favourite composers); Wagner, of course, had already been honoured in the Walhalla. Here he silently paid his respects to the composer, standing in mute homage before his bust as Siegmund von Hausegger and the Munich Philharmonic played the magnificent Adagio of the Seventh Symphony.
Why Hitler staged that event is not known. Speculation has ranged from the theory that it was intended as a cultural precursor of the annexation of Austria the following year, to the notion that it was out of nostalgia for his ‘beautiful time as a choirboy’ and Lembach Abbey - with its Bruckner associations.

 On the night of January 13th-14th, 1942 after a hearing of Bruckner''s Seventh Symphony, Hitler remarked:
This work is based on popular airs of upper Austria. They're not textually reproduced, but repeatedly I recognise in passing Tyrolean dances of my youth. It's wonderful what he managed to get out of that folklore. As it happened, it's a priest to whom we must give the credit for having protected this great master. The Bishop of Linz used to sit in his cathedral for hours at a time, listening to Bruckner play the organ. He was the greatest organist of his day.
In fact, during most of his life,Bruckner held little appeal.  Hoffmann did not so much as mention the composer’s name when once identifying Hitler’s favourites. Even after becoming chancellor, Speer noted, his interest ‘never seemed very marked’. However, he had symbolic importance to him both as a ‘home town boy’ and rival to Brahms, so beloved in Vienna. It was a fixed part of the Nuremberg rallies for the cultural session to open with a movement of one of his symphonies. Undoubtedly the Hitler felt a personal kinship. Both had come from small Austrian towns, grew up in modest circumstances, had fathers who died at an early age, were autodidacts, and made their way in life despite great obstacles. On a number of occasions he contrasted the Austrian Catholic Bruckner, whom the Viennese shunned, to the north German Protestant Brahms, whom they idolised. Then, suddenly in 1940 he developed a passion for Bruckner’s symphonies.  He even began mentioning him in the same breath with Wagner. ‘He told me,’ Goebbels noted in his diary, ‘... that it was only now during the war, that he had learned to like him at all.’ By 1942 he placed Bruckner on a level with Beethoven, and categorised the former’s Seventh Symphony as ‘one of the most splendid manifestations of German musical creativity, the equivalent of Beethoven’s Ninth’. His feelings about Bruckner, man and composer, are best conveyed by remarks he made after listening to a recording of the first movement of the Seventh at his military headquarters in January 1942:
'Those are pure popular melodies from Upper Austria, nothing taken over literally but ländler and so on that I know from my youth. What the man made out of this primitive material ! In this case it was a priest who deserves well for having supported a great master.' 'The bishop of Linz sat for hours alone in the cathedral when Bruckner, the greatest organist of his time, played the organ. One can imagine how difficult it was for a small peasant lad when he went to Vienna, that urbanised, debauched society. A remark by him about Brahms, which a newspaper recently carried, brought him closer to me: Brahms’s music is quite lovely, but he preferred his own. That is the healthy self-confidence of a peasant who is modest but when it came down to it knew how to promote a cause when it was his own. That critic Hanslick made his life in Vienna hell. But when he could no longer be ignored, he was given honours and awards. But what could he do with those? It was his creative activity that should have been made easier.
Brahms was praised to the heavens by Jewry, a creature of salons, a theatrical figure with his flowing beard and hair and his hands raised above the keyboard. Bruckner on the other hand, a shrunken little man, would perhaps have been too shy even to play in such society.'
Spotts (230-233) Hitler and the Power of Aesthetics
Kelheim
 Kelheim, decorated for the visit of Chancellor Adolf Hitler
On the left is the certificate of honorary citizenship granted to Hitler by the town council. It reads:
The Kelheim town council  has unanimously adopted on 21 October 1933  
The Chancellor of the German Reich   
Adolf Hitler   
As the liberator of the German people  
From night and turmoil in grateful fidelity  
The right to honorary citizenship.   
Kelheim, October 21, 1933   
It wasn't until November 24, 2008 that the Kelheim city council revoked the award. The right shows Hitler that day in front of the public gallery which cost 5 marks a seat

SA saluting and marching in front of Hitler; 18,000 marched past
Drake Winston in front of a walled Jewish grave stone located on the façade of the town chemist's at Donaustraße 16. Translated, it reads "This is the grave stone of Mrs. Orgea, daughter of R. Yehuda, who died on 6th of the month of Tammuz on Friday in (5) 009 [July 9, 1249]." On the right is the same spot during the Nazi era with an anti-Semitic bas relief, "the Jewish Pig," placed above which a new plaque has replaced. It had been made in 1519 to commemorate the expulsion of Jews from the town. 
A pamphlet published during the Nazi period showing the relief and grave stone.
  
Hitler and Roehm leaving the rathaus which hasn't changed after all these years. 
 Wife and son on the High Street in front of the rathaus.  In the postcard in the background can be seen the Befreiungshalle

The Befreiungshalle ("Hall of Liberation") is an historical classical monument upon Mount Michelsberg above the city of Kelheim upstream of Regensburg on the Danube. It was built through the initiative of King Ludwig I of Bavaria to commemorate the liberation war  against Napoleon and the Volkerschlacht near Leipzig on October 18, 1813. Planned by Friedrich von Gärtner and after its death 1847 by Leo von Klenze with sculptures by Ludwig von Schwanthaler, the foundation stone was lain on October 19, 1842, the solemn opening taking place on October 18, 1863 in time for the 50th anniversary. With a height of 45 metres and diameter of 29 metres, the domed hall of the Liberation Hall is larger than the Pantheon. On October 22, 1933 Hitler gave two speeches in front of the Befreiungshalle on the occasion of a parade by the SA declaring that "[t]his monument of unification is a symbol for us of that to which we aspire in our struggle: ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Wille." This "liberation ceremony" was accompanied by SA staff chief Ernst Rohm, Reichsführer ϟϟ Heinrich Himmler and the Reichsstatthalter in Bavaria, Franz Ritter von Epp.
The swastika that had been imposed upon the façade above the portal as shown in the GIFs below:
   


Standing inside
Himmler, Roehm and Hitler in front with as it appears today.
Abusina
Excavations at the beginning of the 20th century of the principia and me during the 2016 Römerfest at Kastell Eining, a Roman auxiliary fort on the Danube about twenty miles from Regensburg (Castra Regina). The name Abusina was derived from the Abens, a tributary of the Danube. The site was chosen where the Danube crossing branches off from the Roman road and running parallel to the Raetian limes. The stone fort at 1.8 hectares is rather small for the requirements of a fort and probably accommodated only one vexillation.     
The fort provides a remarkable aspect of British history as it was occupied by the cohors III Britannorum equitata, or part of it. This is seen in the so-called Caracalla altar, a replica of which I am standing beside. The inset shows a depiction of it from the 16th century Aventini adversariorum tomus by Bavarian scholar Johannes Turmair (1477-1534), known as AventinusThe inscription reads: [Pro salute dd(ominorum) nn(ostrorum)] // Imp(eratoris) [Caes(aris) M(arci) A]ur(eli) Antonini Pii / [Aug(usti) [[et Imp(eratoris) Caes(aris) P(ubli) Sept(imi) Getae Aug(usti)]]] et Iul[iae] // Aug(ustae) matri(s) Aug[[[g(ustorum)]]] et kast(rorum) I(ovi) O(ptimo) [M(aximo)] / et Iun(oni) Re(ginae) et Miner(vae) sac(rum) Genio / coh(ortis) III Brit(annorum) aram T(itus) Fl(avius) Felix / praef(ectus) ex voto posuit l(ibens) m(erito) / dedicavit Kal(endis) Dec(embribus) / Gentiano et Basso co(n)s(ulibus) which can be translated as:
 T. Flavius Felix dedicated this altar to Iuppiter Optimus Maximus, Iuno Regina, Minerva and the genius of the cohors III Britannorum as the praefectus of the unit, for the well-being of the imperial family, Emperors Caracalla and Geta and their mother Iulia Domna. Hedius Lollianus Terentius Gentianus and Pomponius Bassus  held their consulship in 211.
The cohors III Britannorum was probably raised shortly after Roman rule was established on the British Isles, in order to pacify the region by drawing the local youth into the Roman army. During the Year of the Four Emperors, several troops recruited amongst Britons sided with Emperor Galba and subsequently with Emperor Vitellius under command of A. Caecina Alienus. Upon Vespasian's eventual victory, the cohors III Britannorum was transferred to Raetia. Here in Eining two military diplomas issued to soldiers of the cohors III Britannorum were recovered. It's possible that the cohors III Britannorum was transferred to the fort of Eining under the reign of Emperor Hadrian. During the military reorganization of Emperor Antoninus Pius in the years around 160, the fort at Eining was reconstructed, probably by soldiers of the cohors III Britannorum.
Another Roman fort nearby is that at Weltenburg-Frauenberg on the Danube outside Kelheim and the Weltenburg monastery. More a fortlet also known as Weltenburg-Galget, this had been constructed on the low hill overlooking the bend of Danube near present-day Weltenburg offering an advantageous location, as the Danube takes a sharp bend here, which allowed viewing a wide section of the area north of the riverbank. Remains of prehistoric and late Roman settlement are both present on the 'Wolfgangswall hill, along with Roman finds of the 1st century such as coins, militaria, glass and ceramics. It was constructed either under the reign of Emperor Claudius or in Flavian times in order to guard traffic on the Roman road in the Am Galget valley.
At the Weltenburg monastery, founded by monks of the Hiberno-Scottish mission in about 620, and which claims to be the oldest monastery in Bavaria.





Between the abbey and the parking lot along the Danube is this memorial commemorating three American soldiers who drowned here in 1975 in a training accident whilst  attempting to cross the Danube in a rubber dingy with twelve other soldiers in a manœuver using a rope by pulling the boat across hand over hand.  The current plunged the boat into the rope, flipping it over.  The surviving soldiers were rescued by fellow soldiers and Kelheim citizens. The memorial reads:   


In Memory of Three Soldiers of the U.S. Army who Lost their Lives at this spot in the Danube on September 16th, 1975 They met their Deaths on Active Service for our Freedom.  Dennis M. Reihan * 5.2.1940 Robert S. Adams * 3.1.1954 Lucky J. Cordle * 16.8.1954
Flossenbürg

The execution site in the Flossenbürg concentration camp, seen here after liberation of the camp by US armed forces and today, now a memorial to the resistance. When the Nazis came to power the first steps to concentration camps were taken. After the Reichstag fire such great numbers of people were arrested that the existing prisons were soon overcrowded and alternative places were prisoners could be held needed to be established. On March 21 1933 the first concentration camp was set up in an old gunpowder factory in Dachau. In the beginning of 1938 in Flossenbürg, close to the present Czech border, a similar camp was set up built by prisoners from Dachau. Flossenbürg had been chosen as a site due to the presence of large quantities of granite in this area and the availability of a railroad providing use for the transport of granite, prisoners, troops and equipment. By the end of 1944 there were 8, 000 prisoners housed in the camp whereas the camp was intended in fact for only 5,000. Many were executed in the camp, among them some prominent people- on April 9, 1945 Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Wilhelm Canaris, Ludwig Gehre, Hans Oster, Karl Sack, Theodor Strünck and Friedrich von Rabenau were murdered here. In May 1945 the camp was liberated by the Americans who decided to use it as a hospital for the surviving prisoners before being decided that Flossenbürg should be preserved as a monument (Gedenkstätte) and a museum. Today what remains is the cemetery, Kommandatur, chapel, three guard towers, and a monument consisting of the ashes of the prisoners that died in the concentration camp.  
Three guard watch towers remain
The “Kommandantur” of concentration camp Flossenbürg was used by the administration of the camp for registration of the inmates and assignment to work either in the Flossenbürg quarry, the nearby Messerschmitt factory or one of the several sub camps. All inmates had to pass through the central portal of the Kommandantur and where lead to the prisoner camp lying behind the building.
On April 8, 1945 Dietrich Bonhoeffer was transferred as one of the last of over 100.000 prisoners to the camp. As a member of the “Bekennende Kirche” and of the wider circle of organizers of the failed plot to kill Hitler on July 20, 1944 he was brought to Flossenbürg together with other members of this circle on personal order of Hitler and Kaltenbrunner. 
After escape attempts or alleged acts of sabotage, inmates were hanged to serve as examples on the roll-call square which was visible from almost everywhere in the camp.
Pastor Bonhoeffer together with Admiral Canaris, Generalmajor Oster, Heeresrichter Dr. Sack and Hauptmann Gehre where sentenced to death on the day of their arrival by Lagerkommandant Kögel in a setup show trial due to “Hoch- und Landesverrat”.
The sole crematorium oven examined by a US Army officer April 30, 1945 and today. Many Flossenbürg inmates died of starvation, exhaustion or random violence. Certain ethic, especially jewish people and other groups of inmates became target of planned mass killings by the ϟϟ starting 1941.
The victims were led out of sight of the other prisoners but always watched by the watchtowers to a closed section of the camp - called valley of death - where they were killed and their bodies burned. Over 30, 000 lost their lives at Flossenbürg between 1938 and 1945.
In the morning of the 9th of April Bonnhoefer, Canaris, Oster, Dr. Sack and Gehre were murdered one after the other after having to completely undress in front of the detention barracks.
On April 23 the US Army reached the Flossenbürg concentration camp, where they found 1,500 critically ill inmates. The majority of surviving prisoners had departed on death marches. The last death march prisoners were finally liberated by Allied troops on May 8th.
After freeing the camp the US Army ordered all inhabitants of Flossenbürg to exhume the dead bodies found within the camp and to bury the remains in a newly create cemeteries in the middle of the village of Flossenbürg. The cemetery still exists in the same place today.
 The 'Square of Nations' memorial to the nationalities of the prisioners that were interned and died in Flossenbürg.
At the entrance, the original gate posts emblazoned with the standard legend 'Arbeit Macht Frei' have been placed.
In Flossenbürg, members of the punishment company were compelled to load heavy stones on their backs at the foot of the slag heap and run around with them in the morass until they finally collapsed. There was also the “moor hole,” a swamp one hundred meters long and forty meters wide in a small hollow; at its deepest point, a grown man could stand with his head barely protruding above the surface. Granite blocks were loaded on the backs of prisoners, and they were then forced to run at double time down the slope. Those who collapsed under the heavy load while still on dry ground were beaten and forced to rush further down into the moor hole. They were supposed to “rest” down there for a while, with the stone slabs supported on their shoulders. If they still had some strength, they survived; if they were too weak, the stones pressed them down into the swampy morass. 

Grafenwöhr
The rathaus in period photos bears the sign "Grafenwöhr grüßt die siegreichen Truppen"- Grafenwöhr greets its greatly-honoured troops.

On June 25 1938, Hitler attended manoeuvres on the training grounds at Grafenwöhr, close to the Czechoslovakian border, where American paratroopers assigned to Destined Company, 2nd Battalion, 503rd Infantry Regiment, 173rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Airborne) took part in a military exercise on February 1, 2014. The military training centre had been founded in 1908 during a time of economic upsurge. In 1944 the new Italian division "San Marco" also trained in Grafenwöhr where it was visited by Benito Mussolini on July 18, 1944. In addition, there was a Belarussian officers' school in Grafenwöhr under the command of Barys Rahulja, serving with the Biełaruskaja Krajovaja Abarona (BKA) which was the military arm of the pro-Nazi Belarusian Central Rada. After the war he studied medicine and became a Canadian doctor; after the Chernobyl disaster Rahula organised fund raising to support victims of the catastrophe before dying in 2005.
The water tower on Truppenübungsplatz in 1935 and today.  Grafenwöhr and the practice ground were heavily bombed at around 11 am on April 5, in a bombardment lasting about 15 minutes, during which the army service centre and the military station were completely destroyed- 74 people were killed. On April 8, 1945 at 11:30 am, Grafenwoehr was once more bombed by 203 American B17 bombers leaving the Ostlager Grafenwohr completely destroyed. The bombardment lasted two hours, dropping 427.5 tonnes of explosive bombs and 178.5 tonnes of firebombs. 210 buildings were destroyed leaving over 3,000 homeless. On April 19, 1945, the 11th US Panzer Division entered Grafenwoehr. A day later the Americans in Grafenwoehr discovered three million chemical artillery shells - the largest poison gas depot of the Wehrmacht. On April 21, 1945, the 11th Panzer Division at the military training centre discovered whole carloads of ammunition and other war equipment. The US Army and the Bundeswehr are currently using the military training centre.

Kemnath
 24 kilometres southeast of Bayreuth is this town, shown when its high street was Adolf-Hitler-Straße and today.


Neumarkt

Bird's-eye-view then and now

A Nazi memorial to Dietrich Eckart, one of the important early members of the NSDAP and a participant of the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch. It was to him that Hitler had dedicated the second volume of Mein Kampf in which he is described as a martyr and is referred to in the last sentence of the book:
And among them I could also reckon that man who as no one else has devoted his life to the awakening of his, of our nation in writing, poetry, thought and finally in the deed.
Incredibly, it still remains in his hometown. Hitler was here on October 29, 1933 where he spoke at its unveiling. Eckart's 1925 unfinished essay Hitler-Eckart: Der Bolschewismus von Moses bis Lenin: Zwiegespräch zwischen Hitler und mir ( Bolshevism from Moses to Lenin: Dialogues Between Hitler and Me") was published posthumously, although it has been shown that the dialogues were an invention.
Hitler in Neumarkt
Hitler visiting the town
Nazi propaganda over Untere Marktstraße and today. In September 1923, the first local group of the NSDAP was founded in Neumarkt, although the departure of active parties from Neumarkt led to the collapse of the Nazi movement. It was not until 1928 that the party was reestablished. From 1933 the NSDAP took over the power in Neumarkt. As the birthplace of Dietrich Eckart, it bore the official name "Dietrich-Eckart-Stadt". For the numerous forced labourers in the industry, the Nazis set up an internment camp in 1942 in today's district of Wolfenstein. As in the rest of the country, extensive Jewish persecutions took place- the synagogue in Hallertorstrasse was destroyed in November 1938. On Good Friday 1942 Neumarkt became "judenfrei", when the last fifteen Jews were sent to concentration camps. Shortly before the war, Neumarkt was largely destroyed by two air raids on February 23, 1945 (Operation Clarion) and on April 11, 1945. Attempts by the population to hand over the city without a fight to the American troops failed through the actions of ϟϟ troops stationed in Neumarkt, which were also reinforced by an Hungarian ϟϟ division. It was only when, on April 22, 1945, the resistance of the ϟϟ was broken that the American troops could occupy the city.

March by the Reichsarbeitsdienst, looking the other way on Obere Marktstraße
Gasthaus Zum Hechten
The Gasthaus Zum Hechten at Untere Marktstraße 3; today the building appears to have been completed replaced. Not surprising given the damage the town received during the war:

 
The Unteres Tor during the war with Nazi fresco and as it appears today

Obere Marktstraße-Klostergasse with the church still in the background

The rathaus in 1935, after the war and as it appears today.  The reconstruction following the Second World War led to a loss of the traditional  architecture in the cityscape. However, it managed to preserve much of the historical character of the old town. 

The railway station during the Third Reich and now
 
The Sparkasse then and now
Waldmünchen
Adolf-Hitler-Platz then and now. The population suffered in 1917 during the Great War. The town's endemic bankruptcy lasted until 1934 after the loss trillions of money through the 1923 hRuhr crisis ended up cancelling the planned millennial celebration. In 1940, the district was enlarged by eleven Czechoslovakian municipalities (partly Sudeten-German, partly Czech-speaking).
When the US Army approached the Gau capital of the Bavarian Ostmark in Bayreuth in April 1945, Gauleiter Fritz Wächtler fled to the Grenzlandhotel Herzogau near Waldmünchen on April 13, 1945, where he had been living luxuriously. Wachtler was then shot there six days later at the instigation of his deputy, Ludwig Ruckdeschel, and on the orders of Hitler. Under the auspices of ϟϟ city commander Siegfried Stöhr and mayor and district leader Max Seidel (1900-1945) intensive preparations for defence were made involving the Waldmünchner Volkssturm. After several hours of fire, 30% of the city was destroyed. Units of the 90th US Infantry Division ("Tough Ombres") on April 26 succeeded against violent opposition of the "30th. Waffen-Grenadier Division of the ϟϟ (White Ruthenian No. 1) as well as units of the 11th Panzerdivision („Gespensterdivision“, or"Ghost Division "). In the surrounding area, in particular on the other side of the border with today's Czech Republic in the vicinity of today's partner town Waldmünchen Klenčí pod Čerchovem (Klentsch), heavy fighting was carried out against the 11th Panzerdivision with several dozen deaths until May 1. First elections under American supervision took place in 1946. The former Waldmünchener "Hinterland" in the area of ​​the municipalities of Haselbach, Watersuppen (Nemanice) and Grafenried was completely cut off for 45 years by the Iron Curtain; In 1945/46 almost all inhabitants of German nationality were expelled from the villages of the former Sudetenland on the basis of the Beneš decrees; the villages Haselbach, Mauthaus, Anger, Seeg, Haselberg and Grafenried (where the parish church of St. Georg was demolished completely.


Auerbach 

Another former Adolf-Hitler-Platz then and now. At the end of the war Auerbach on the far side of Deggendorf had 10,488 prisoners and 238 foreigners, as well as a women’s section. In terms of its urban landscape, the main effect the Nazi regime had on the town was the expansion of the Grafenwöhr military training centre from 1936; Auerbach lost part of his eastern hinterland, including twenty-four houses.